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The Brothers Grimm
Brothers Grimm
(die Brüder Grimm or die Gebrüder Grimm), Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, were German academics, philologists, cultural researchers, lexicographers and authors who together collected and published folklore during the 19th century. They were among the first and best-known collectors of folk tales, and popularized traditional oral tale types such as "Cinderella" ("Aschenputtel"), "The Frog Prince" ("Der Froschkönig"), "The Goose-Girl" ("Die Gänsemagd"), "Hansel and Gretel" ("Hänsel und Gretel"), "Rapunzel", "Rumpelstiltskin" ("Rumpelstilzchen"), "Sleeping Beauty" ("Dornröschen"), and "Snow White" ("Schneewittchen"). Their classic collection Children's and Household Tales (Kinder- und Hausmärchen), was published in two volumes, in 1812 and in 1815. The brothers were born in the town of Hanau
Hanau
in Hesse-Cassel
Hesse-Cassel
(now Germany) and spent most of their childhood in the nearby town of Steinau. Their father's death in 1796 impoverished the family and affected the brothers for many years after. They attended the University of Marburg
University of Marburg
where they began a lifelong dedication to researching the early history of German language and literature, including German folktales. The rise of Romanticism
Romanticism
during the 18th century had revived interest in traditional folk stories, which to the Grimms and their colleagues represented a pure form of national literature and culture. The Brothers Grimm
Brothers Grimm
established a methodology for collecting and recording folk stories that became the basis for folklore studies. Between the first edition of 1812-15, and the seventh and final edition of 1857, they revised their collection many times, so that it grew from 156 stories to more than 200.[1] In addition to collecting and editing folk tales, the brothers compiled German legends. Individually, they published a large body of linguistic and literary scholarship. Together, in 1838 they began work on a massive historical German dictionary (Deutsches Wörterbuch), which, in their lifetimes, they completed only as far as the word Frucht, 'fruit'. Many of Grimms' folk tales have enjoyed enduring popularity. The tales are available in more than 100 languages and have been adapted by filmmakers including Lotte Reiniger
Lotte Reiniger
and Walt Disney, with films such as Snow White
Snow White
and the Seven Dwarfs
Seven Dwarfs
and Sleeping Beauty. During the 1930s and 40s, the tales were used as propaganda by the Third Reich; later in the 20th century psychologists such as Bruno Bettelheim reaffirmed the value of the work, in spite of the cruelty and violence in original versions of some of the tales, which the Grimms eventually sanitized.

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early life 1.2 Kassel 1.3 Göttingen 1.4 Berlin
Berlin
and later years

2 Collaborations

2.1 Children's and Household Tales

2.1.1 Background 2.1.2 Methodology 2.1.3 Writing 2.1.4 Themes and analysis 2.1.5 Editions

2.2 Philology

3 Reception and legacy 4 Collaborative works 5 See also 6 References 7 Sources 8 Further reading 9 External links

Biography[edit] Early life[edit]

Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm
Wilhelm Grimm
lived in this house in Steinau from 1791 to 1796.

Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm was born on 4 January 1785, and his brother Wilhelm Carl Grimm was born on 24 February 1786. Both were born in Hanau, in the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel
Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel
within the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(present-day Germany), to Philipp Wilhelm Grimm, a jurist, and Dorothea Grimm née Zimmer, daughter of a Kassel
Kassel
city councilman.[2] They were the second- and third-eldest surviving siblings in a family of nine children, three of whom died in infancy.[3][4][5] In 1791, the family moved to the countryside town of Steinau, when Philipp was employed there as district magistrate (Amtmann). The family became prominent members of the community, residing in a large home surrounded by fields. Biographer Jack Zipes writes that the brothers were happy in Steinau and "clearly fond of country life".[2] The children were educated at home by private tutors, receiving strict instruction as Lutherans
Lutherans
that instilled in both a lifelong religious faith.[6] Later, they attended local schools.[2] In 1796, Philipp Grimm died of pneumonia, plunging his family into poverty, and they were forced to relinquish their servants and large house. Dorothea depended on financial support from her father and sister, first lady-in-waiting at the court of William I, Elector of Hesse. Jacob was the eldest living son, and he was forced at age 11 to assume adult responsibilities (shared with Wilhelm) for the next two years. The two boys adhered to the advice of their grandfather, who continually exhorted them to be industrious.[2] The brothers left Steinau and their family in 1798 to attend the Friedrichsgymnasium in Kassel, which had been arranged and paid for by their aunt. By then, they were without a male provider (their grandfather died that year), forcing them to rely entirely on each other, and they became exceptionally close. The two brothers differed in temperament; Jacob was introspective and Wilhelm was outgoing (although he often suffered from ill-health). Sharing a strong work ethic, they excelled in their studies. In Kassel, they became acutely aware of their inferior social status relative to "high-born" students who received more attention. Still, each brother graduated at the head of his class: Jacob in 1803 and Wilhelm in 1804.[2][7] Kassel[edit] After graduation from the Friedrichsgymnasium, the brothers attended the University of Marburg. The university was small with about 200 students and there they became painfully aware that students of lower social status were not treated equally. They were disqualified from admission because of their social standing and had to request dispensation to study law. Wealthier students received stipends, but the brothers were excluded even from tuition aid. Their poverty kept them from student activities or university social life; ironically, however, their outsider status worked in their favor, and they pursued their studies with extra vigor.[7]

Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm
Wilhelm Grimm
in an 1843 drawing by their younger brother Ludwig Emil Grimm

The brothers were inspired by their law professor Friedrich von Savigny, who awakened in them an interest in history and philology, and they turned to studying medieval German literature.[8] They shared Savigny's desire to see unification of the 200 German principalities into a single state. Through Savigny and his circle of friends—German romantics such as Clemens Brentano
Clemens Brentano
and Ludwig Achim von Arnim—the Grimms were introduced to the ideas of Johann Gottfried Herder, who thought that German literature should revert to simpler forms, which he defined as Volkspoesie (natural poetry) as opposed to Kunstpoesie (artistic poetry).[9] The brothers dedicated themselves with great enthusiasm to their studies, about which Wilhelm wrote in his autobiography, "the ardor with which we studied Old German helped us overcome the spiritual depression of those days."[10] Jacob was still financially responsible for his mother, brother, and younger siblings in 1805, so he accepted a post in Paris as research assistant to von Savigny. On his return to Marburg, he was forced to abandon his studies to support the family, whose poverty was so extreme that food was often scarce. He took a job with the Hessian War Commission. In a letter written to his aunt at this time, Wilhelm wrote of their circumstances, "We five people eat only three portions and only once a day".[8] Jacob found full-time employment in 1808 when he was appointed court librarian to the King of Westphalia
Westphalia
and went on to become librarian in Kassel.[3] After their mother's death that year, he became fully responsible for his younger siblings. He arranged and paid for his brother Ludwig's studies at art school and for Wilhelm's extended visit to Halle to seek treatment for heart and respiratory ailments, following which Wilhelm joined Jacob as librarian in Kassel.[2] The brothers also began collecting folk tales at about this time, in a cursory manner and on Brentano's request. According to Jack Zipes, at this point "the Grimms were unable to devote all their energies to their research and did not have a clear idea about the significance of collecting folk tales in this initial phase."[2] During their employment as librarians—which paid little but afforded them ample time for research—the brothers experienced a productive period of scholarship, publishing a number of books between 1812 and 1830.[11] In 1812, they published their first volume of 86 folk tales, Kinder- und Hausmärchen, followed quickly by two volumes of German legends and a volume of early literary history.[3] They went on to publish works about Danish and Irish folk tales and Norse mythology, while continuing to edit the German folk tale collection. These works became so widely recognized that the brothers received honorary doctorates from universities in Marburg, Berlin, and Breslau (now Wrocław).[11] Göttingen[edit] In 1825, Wilhelm married Henriette Dorothea (Dortchen) Wild, a long-time family friend and one of a group who supplied them with stories. Jacob never married but continued to live in the household with Wilhelm and Dortchen.[12] In 1830, both brothers were overlooked when the post of chief librarian came available, which disappointed them greatly.[11] They moved the household to Göttingen
Göttingen
in the Kingdom of Hanover
Kingdom of Hanover
where they took employment at the University of Göttingen, Jacob as a professor and head librarian and Wilhelm as professor.[3]

Jacob Grimm
Jacob Grimm
lecturing (illustration by Ludwig Emil Grimm, c. 1830)

During the next seven years, the brothers continued to research, write, and publish. In 1835, Jacob published the well-regarded German Mythology (Deutsche Mythologie); Wilhelm continued to edit and prepare the third edition of Kinder- und Hausmärchen for publication. The two brothers taught German studies at the university, becoming well-respected in the newly established discipline.[12] In 1837, they lost their university posts after joining in protest with the Göttingen
Göttingen
Seven. The 1830s were a period of political upheaval and peasant revolt in Germany, leading to the movement for democratic reform known as Young Germany. The Grimm brothers were not directly aligned with the Young Germans, but five of their colleagues reacted against the demands of King Ernest Augustus I, who dissolved the parliament of Hanover
Hanover
in 1837 and demanded oaths of allegiance from civil servants—including professors at the University of Göttingen. For refusing to sign the oath, the seven professors were dismissed and three were deported from Hanover, including Jacob who went to Kassel. He was later joined there by Wilhelm, Dortchen, and their four children.[12] The brothers were without income in 1838 and again in extreme financial difficulty, so they began what became a lifelong project: the writing of a definitive dictionary. The first volume of their German Dictionary (Deutsches Wörterbuch) was not published until 1854. The brothers again depended on friends and supporters for financial assistance and influence in finding employment.[12] Berlin
Berlin
and later years[edit]

The graves of the Brothers Grimm
Brothers Grimm
in Schöneberg, Berlin
Berlin
(St. Matthäus Kirchhof Cemetery)

In 1840, von Savigny and Bettina von Arnim
Bettina von Arnim
appealed successfully to Frederick William IV of Prussia
Frederick William IV of Prussia
on behalf of the brothers who were offered posts at the University of Berlin. In addition to teaching posts, the Academy of Sciences offered them stipends to continue their research. Once they had established their household in Berlin, they directed their efforts towards the work on the German dictionary and continued to publish their research. Jacob turned his attention to researching German legal traditions and the history of the German language, which was published in the late 1840s and early 1850s; meanwhile, Wilhelm began researching medieval literature while editing new editions of Hausmärchen.[11] After the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states, the brothers were elected to the civil parliament. Jacob became a prominent member of the National Assembly at Mainz.[12] Their political activities were short-lived, as their hope dwindled for a unified Germany and their disenchantment grew. In the late 1840s, Jacob resigned his university position and saw the publication of The History of the German Language (Geschichte der deutschen Sprache). Wilhelm continued at his university post until 1852. After retiring from teaching, the brothers devoted themselves to the German Dictionary for the rest of their lives.[12] Wilhelm died of an infection in Berlin
Berlin
in 1859,[13] and Jacob became increasingly reclusive, deeply upset at his brother's death. He continued work on the dictionary until his own death in 1863. Zipes writes of the Grimm brothers' dictionary and of their very large body of work: "Symbolically the last word was Frucht (fruit)."[12] Collaborations[edit] Children's and Household Tales[edit] Main article: Grimms' Fairy
Fairy
Tales Background[edit] The rise of romanticism, Romantic nationalism, and trends in valuing popular culture in the early 19th century revived interest in fairy tales, which had declined since their late-17th-century peak.[14] Johann Karl August Musäus
Johann Karl August Musäus
published a popular collection of tales between 1782 and 1787;[15] the Grimms aided the revival with their folklore collection, built on the conviction that a national identity could be found in popular culture and with the common folk (Volk). They collected and published tales as a reflection of German cultural identity. In the first collection, though, they included Charles Perrault's tales, published in Paris in 1697 and written for the literary salons of an aristocratic French audience. Scholar Lydie Jean explains that a myth was created that Perrault's tales came from the common people and reflected existing folklore in order to justify their inclusion—even though many of them were original.[14]

The Grimms defined "Little Red Riding Hood", shown here in an illustration by Arthur Rackham, as representative of a uniquely German tale although it existed in various versions and regions.[16]

The brothers were directly influenced by Brentano and von Arnim, who edited and adapted the folk songs of Des Knaben Wunderhorn
Des Knaben Wunderhorn
(The Boy's Magic Horn or cornucopia).[15] They began the collection with the purpose of creating a scholarly treatise of traditional stories and of preserving the stories as they had been handed from generation to generation—a practice that was threatened by increased industrialization.[17] Maria Tatar, professor of German studies at Harvard University, explains that it is precisely the handing from generation to generation and the genesis in the oral tradition that gives folk tales an important mutability. Versions of tales differ from region to region, "picking up bits and pieces of local culture and lore, drawing a turn of phrase from a song or another story and fleshing out characters with features taken from the audience witnessing their performance."[18] However, as Tatar explains, the Grimms appropriated stories as being uniquely German, such as "Little Red Riding Hood", which had existed in many versions and regions throughout Europe, because they believed that such stories were reflections of Germanic culture.[16] Furthermore, the brothers saw fragments of old religions and faiths reflected in the stories which they thought continued to exist and survive through the telling of stories.[19] Methodology[edit] When Jacob returned to Marburg
Marburg
from Paris in 1806, their friend Brentano sought the brothers' help in adding to his collection of folk tales, at which time the brothers began to gather tales in an organized fashion.[2] By 1810, they had produced a manuscript collection of several dozen tales, written after inviting storytellers to their home and transcribing what they heard. These tales were heavily modified in transcription, and many had roots in previously written sources.[20] At Brentano's request, they printed and sent him copies of the 53 tales that they collected for inclusion in his third volume of Des Knaben Wunderhorn.[3] Brentano either ignored or forgot about the tales, leaving the copies in a church in Alsace
Alsace
where they were found in 1920 and became known as the Ölenberg manuscript. It is the earliest extant version of the Grimms' collection and has become a valuable source to scholars studying the development of the Grimms' collection from the time of its inception. The manuscript was published in 1927 and again in 1975.[21] The brothers gained a reputation for collecting tales from peasants, although many tales came from middle-class or aristocratic acquaintances. Wilhelm's wife Dortchen Wild and her family, with their nursery maid, told the brothers some of the more well-known tales, such as "Hansel and Gretel" and "Sleeping Beauty".[22] Wilhelm collected a number of tales after befriending August von Haxthausen, whom he visited in 1811 in Westphalia
Westphalia
where he heard stories from von Haxthausen's circle of friends.[23] Several of the storytellers were of Huguenot
Huguenot
ancestry, telling tales of French origin such as those told to the Grimms by Marie Hassenpflug, an educated woman of French Huguenot
Huguenot
ancestry,[20] and it is probable that these informants were familiar with Perrault's Histoires ou contes du temps passé
Histoires ou contes du temps passé
(Stories from Past Times).[14] Other tales were collected from Dorothea Viehmann, the wife of a middle-class tailor and also of French descent. Despite her middle-class background, in the first English translation she was characterized as a peasant and given the name Gammer Gretel.[17]

Stories such as "Sleeping Beauty", shown here in a Walter Crane illustration, had been previously published and were rewritten by the Brothers Grimm.[14]

According to scholars such as Ruth Bottigheimer and Maria Tatar, some of the tales probably originated in written form during the medieval period with writers such as Straparola and Boccaccio, but were modified in the 17th century and again rewritten by the Grimms. Moreover, Tatar writes that the brothers' goal of preserving and shaping the tales as something uniquely German at a time of French occupation was a form of "intellectual resistance" and, in so doing, they established a methodology for collecting and preserving folklore that set the model to be followed later by writers throughout Europe during periods of occupation.[17][24] Writing[edit] From 1807 onward, the brothers added to the collection. Jacob established the framework, maintained through many iterations; from 1815 until his death, Wilhelm assumed sole responsibility for editing and rewriting the tales. He made the tales stylistically similar, added dialogue, removed pieces "that might detract from a rustic tone", improved the plots, and incorporated psychological motifs.[23] Ronald Murphy writes in The Owl, the Raven and the Dove that the brothers—and in particular Wilhelm—also added religious and spiritual motifs to the tales. He believes that Wilhelm "gleaned" bits from old Germanic faiths, Norse mythology, Roman and Greek mythology, and biblical stories that he reshaped.[19] Over the years, Wilhelm worked extensively on the prose, expanded and added detail to the stories to the point that many grew to be twice the length of those in the earliest published editions.[25] In the later editions, Wilhelm polished the language to make it more enticing to a bourgeois audience, eliminated sexual elements, and added Christian elements. After 1819, he began writing for children (children were not initially considered the primary audience), adding entirely new tales or adding new elements to existing tales, elements that were often strongly didactic.[23] Some changes were made in light of unfavorable reviews, particularly from those who objected that not all the tales were suitable for children because of scenes of violence and sexuality.[26] He worked to modify plots for many stories; for example, "Rapunzel" in the first edition of Kinder- und Hausmärchen clearly shows a sexual relationship between the prince and the girl in the tower, which he edited out in subsequent editions.[25] Tatar writes that morals were added (in the second edition, a king's regret was added to the scene in which his wife is to be burned at the stake) and often the characters in the tale were amended to appear more German: "every fairy (Fee), prince (Prinz) and princess (Prinzessin)—all words of French origin—was transformed into a more Teutonic-sounding enchantress (Zauberin) or wise woman (weise Frau), king's son (Königssohn), king's daughter (Königstochter)."[27] Themes and analysis[edit] The Grimms' legacy contains legends, novellas, and folk stories, the vast majority of which were not intended as children's tales. Von Armin was deeply concerned about the content of some of the tales, such as those which showed children being eaten, and suggested that they be removed. Instead, the brothers added an introduction with cautionary advice that parents steer children toward age-appropriate stories. Despite von Armin's unease, none of the tales were eliminated from the collection, in the brothers' belief that all the tales were of value and reflected inherent cultural qualities. Furthermore, the stories were didactic in nature at a time when discipline relied on fear, according to scholar Linda Dégh, who explains that tales such as "Little Red Riding Hood" and "Hansel and Gretel" were written to be "warning tales" for children.[28]

"Hansel and Gretel", illustrated by Arthur Rackham, was a "warning tale" for children.[28]

The stories in Kinder- und Hausmärchen include scenes of violence that have since been sanitized. For example, in the Grimms' original version of "Snow White", the Queen is Little Snow White's mother, not her stepmother, yet even so she orders her Huntsman to kill Snow White (her biological daughter) and bring home the child's lungs and liver so that she can eat them. The story ends with the Queen mother dancing at Snow White's wedding wearing a pair of red-hot iron shoes that kill her.[29] Another story ("The Goose Girl") has a servant being stripped naked and pushed into a barrel "studded with sharp nails" pointing inwards and then rolled down the street.[13] The Grimms' version of "The Frog Prince" describes the princess throwing the frog against a wall instead of kissing him. To some extent, the cruelty and violence may have been a reflection of medieval culture from which the tales originated, such as scenes of witches burning, as described in "The Six Swans".[13] Tales with a spinning motif are broadly represented in the collection. In her essay "Tale Spinners: Submerged Voices in Grimms' Fairy
Fairy
Tales", children's literature scholar Bottigheimer explains that these stories reflect the degree to which spinning was crucial in the life of women in the 19th century and earlier. Spinning, and particularly the spinning of flax, was commonly performed in the home by women. Many stories begin by describing the occupation of a main character, as in "There once was a miller", yet spinning is never mentioned as an occupation, probably because the brothers did not consider it an occupation. Instead, spinning was a communal activity, frequently performed in a Spinnstube (spinning room), a place where women most likely kept the oral traditions alive by telling stories while engaged in tedious work.[30] In the stories, a woman's personality is often represented by her attitude toward spinning; a wise woman might be a spinster and Bottigheimer explains that the spindle was the symbol of a "diligent, well-ordered womanhood."[31] In some stories, such as "Rumpelstiltskin", spinning is associated with a threat; in others, spinning might be avoided by a character who is either too lazy or not accustomed to spinning because of her high social status.[30] The tales were also criticized for being insufficiently German, which influenced the tales that the brothers included as well as their use of language. Scholars such as Heinz Rölleke say that the stories are an accurate depiction of German culture, showing "rustic simplicity [and] sexual modesty".[13] German culture is deeply rooted in the forest (wald), a dark dangerous place to be avoided, most particularly the old forests with large oak trees and yet a place to which Little Red Riding Hood's mother sent her daughter to deliver food to grandmother's house.[13]

"Rumpelstiltskin", shown here in an illustrated border by Walter Crane, is an example of a "spinning tale".

Some critics such as Alistair Hauke use Jungian analysis to say that the deaths of the brothers' father and grandfather are the reason for the Grimms' tendency to idealize and excuse fathers, as well as the predominance of female villains in the tales, such as the wicked stepmother and stepsisters in "Cinderella", but this disregards the fact that they were collectors, not authors of the tales.[32] Another possible influence is found in stories such as "The Twelve Brothers", which mirrors the brothers' family structure of several brothers facing and overcoming opposition.[33] Autobiographical elements exist in some of the tales, and according to Zipes the work may have been a "quest" to replace the family life lost after their father died. The collection includes 41 tales about siblings, which Zipes says are representative of Jacob and Wilhelm. Many of the sibling stories follow a simple plot where the characters lose a home, work industriously at a specific task and, in the end, find a new home.[34] Editions[edit] Between 1812 and 1864, Kinder- und Hausmärchen was published 17 times: seven of the "Large edition" (Große Ausgabe) and ten of the "Small edition" (Kleine Ausgabe). The Large editions contained all the tales collected to date, extensive annotations, and scholarly notes written by the brothers; the Small editions had only 50 tales and were intended for children. Jacob and Wilhelm's younger brother Emil Grimm illustrated the Small editions, adding Christian symbolism to the drawings, such as depicting Cinderella's mother as an angel, and adding a Bible to the bedside table of Little Red Riding Hood's grandmother.[11]

Frontispiece and title-page, illustrated by Ludwig Emil Grimm
Ludwig Emil Grimm
of the 1819 edition of Kinder- und Hausmärchen

The first volume was published in 1812 with 86 folk tales,[22] and a second volume with 70 additional tales was published late in 1814 (dated 1815 on the title page); together, the two volumes and their 156 tales are considered the first of the Large (annotated) editions.[35][36] A second expanded edition with 170 tales was published in 1819, followed in 1822 by a volume of scholarly commentary and annotations.[3][26] Five more Large editions were published in 1837, 1840, 1843, 1850, and 1857. The seventh and final edition of 1857 contained 211 tales—200 numbered folk tales and eleven legends.[3][26][36] In Germany, Kinder- und Hausmärchen was also released in a "popular poster-sized Bilderbogen (broadsides)"[36] format and in single story formats for the more popular tales, such as "Hansel and Gretel". The stories were often added to collections by other authors without respect to copyright as the tales became a focus of interest for children's book illustrators,[36] with well-known artists such as Arthur Rackham, Walter Crane, and Edmund Dulac
Edmund Dulac
illustrating the tales. A popular edition that sold well was released in the mid-19th century and included elaborate etchings by George Cruikshank.[37] At the deaths of the brothers, the copyright went to Hermann Grimm (Wilhelm's son) who continued the practice of printing the volumes in expensive and complete editions; however, the copyright lapsed after 1893 and the stories began to be published in many formats and editions.[36] In the 21st century, Kinder- und Hausmärchen is a universally recognized text, commonly called Grimms' Fairy Tales
Grimms' Fairy Tales
in English. Jacob and Wilhelm's collection of stories has been translated to more than 160 languages with 120 different editions of the text available for sale in the US alone.[13] Philology[edit]

Deutsche Sagen
Deutsche Sagen
(German Legends) included stories such as "Pied Piper of Hamelin", shown here in an illustration by Kate Greenaway.

While at the University of Marburg, the brothers came to see culture as tied to language and regarded the purest cultural expression in the grammar of a language. They moved away from Brentano's practice—and that of the other romanticists—who frequently changed original oral styles of folk tale to a more literary style, which the brothers considered artificial. They thought that the style of the people (the volk) reflected a natural and divinely inspired poetry (naturpoesie) as opposed to the kunstpoesie (art poetry), which they saw as artificially constructed.[38][39] As literary historians and scholars, they delved into the origins of stories and attempted to retrieve them from the oral tradition without loss of the original traits of oral language.[38]

Frontispiece of 1854 edition of German Dictionary (Deutsches Wörterbuch)

The brothers strongly believed that the dream of national unity and independence relied on a full knowledge of the cultural past that was reflected in folklore.[39] They worked to discover and crystallize a kind of Germanness in the stories that they collected because they believed that folklore contained kernels of ancient mythologies and beliefs which were crucial to understanding the essence of German culture.[17] By examining culture from a philological point of view, they sought to establish connections between German law and culture and local beliefs.[38] The Grimms considered the tales to have origins in traditional Germanic folklore, which they thought had been "contaminated" by later literary tradition.[17] In the shift from the oral tradition to the printed book, tales were translated from regional dialects to Standard German (Hochdeutsch or High German).[40] Over the course of the many modifications and revisions, however, the Grimms sought to reintroduce regionalisms, dialects, and Low German
Low German
to the tales—to re-introduce the language of the original form of the oral tale.[41] As early as 1812, they published Die beiden ältesten deutschen Gedichte aus dem achten Jahrhundert: Das Lied von Hildebrand und Hadubrand und das Weißenbrunner Gebet (The Two Oldest German Poems of the Eighth Century: The Song of Hildebrand and Hadubrand and the Wessobrunn Prayer). The Song of Hildebrand and Hadubrand is a 9th-century German heroic song, while the Wessobrunn Prayer
Wessobrunn Prayer
is the earliest known German heroic song.[42] Between 1816 and 1818, the brothers published a two-volume work titled Deutsche Sagen
Deutsche Sagen
(German Legends) consisting of 585 German legends.[35] Jacob undertook most of the work of collecting and editing the legends that he organized according to region and historical (ancient) legends,[43] and which were about real people or events.[42] It was meant to be a scholarly work, yet the historical legends were often taken from secondary sources, interpreted, modified, and rewritten, resulting in works "that were regarded as trademarks".[43] Some scholars criticized the Grimm's methodology in collecting and rewriting the legends, yet conceptually they set an example for legend collections that was to be followed by others throughout Europe. Unlike the collection of folk tales, Deutsche Sagen
Deutsche Sagen
sold poorly,[43] but Zipes says that the collection is a "vital source for folklorists and critics alike".[44] Less well known in the English-speaking world is the brothers' pioneering scholarly work on a German dictionary, the Deutsches Wörterbuch, which they began in 1838. Not until 1852 did they begin publishing the dictionary in installments.[43] The work on the dictionary could not be finished in their lifetime because in it they gave a history and analysis of each word.[42] Reception and legacy[edit]

Berlin
Berlin
memorial plaque, Brüder Grimm, Alte Potsdamer Straße 5, Berlin-Tiergarten, Germany

Design of the front of the 1992 1000 Deutsche Mark
Deutsche Mark
showing the Brothers Grimm[45]

Kinder- und Hausmärchen was not an immediate bestseller, but its popularity grew with each edition.[46] The early editions attracted lukewarm critical reviews, generally on the basis that the stories were unappealing to children. The brothers responded with modifications and rewrites in order to increase the book's market appeal to that demographic.[17] By the 1870s, the tales had increased greatly in popularity, to the point that they were added to the teaching curriculum in Prussia. In the 20th century, the work has maintained status as second only to the Bible as the most popular book in Germany. Its sales generated a mini-industry of criticism which analyzed the tales' folkloric content in the context of literary history, socialism, and psychological elements often along Freudian and Jungian lines.[46] In their research, the brothers made a science of the study of folklore (see folkloristics), generating a model of research that "launched general fieldwork in most European countries",[47] and setting standards for research and analysis of stories and legends that made them pioneers in the field of folklore in the 19th century.[48] During the Third Reich, the Grimms' stories were used to foster nationalism, and the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
decreed that Kinder- und Hausmärchen was a book which each household should own; later, in Allied-occupied Germany, the book was banned for a period.[49] In the US, the 1937 release of Walt Disney's Snow White
Snow White
and the Seven Dwarfs
Seven Dwarfs
shows the triumph of good over evil, innocence over oppression, according to Zipes—a popular theme that Disney repeated in 1959 during the Cold War with the production of Sleeping Beauty.[50] The Grimms' tales have provided much of the early foundation on which the Disney empire was built.[13] In film, the Cinderella
Cinderella
motif, the story of a poor girl finding love and success, continues to be repeated in movies such as Pretty Woman, The Princess Diaries, The Princess Diaries
The Princess Diaries
II, Ever After, Maid in Manhattan, and Ella Enchanted. In 1962, the lives of both brothers were the subject of the film The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm
Brothers Grimm
featuring an all star cast, including Laurence Harvey and Karlheinz Böhm
Karlheinz Böhm
in the title roles. Twentieth-century educators debated the value and influence of teaching stories that include brutality and violence, causing some of the more gruesome details to be sanitized.[46] Dégh writes that some educators believe that children should be shielded from cruelty of any form; that stories with a happy ending are fine to teach, whereas those that are darker, particularly the legends, might pose more harm. On the other hand, some educators and psychologists believe that children easily discern the difference between what is a story and what is not and that the tales continue to have value for children.[51] The publication of Bruno Bettelheim's 1976 The Uses of Enchantment brought a new wave of interest in the stories as children's literature, with an emphasis on the "therapeutic value for children".[52] More popular stories such as "Hansel and Gretel" and "Little Red Riding Hood" have become staples of modern childhood, presented in coloring books, puppet shows, and cartoons. Other stories, however, have been considered too gruesome and have not made a popular transition.[49] Regardless of the debate, the Grimms' stories have continued to be resilient and popular around the world,[51] although a recent study in England appears to suggest that parents consider the stories to be overly violent and inappropriate for young children, writes Libby Copeland for Slate.[53] Nevertheless, children remain enamored with the Grim fairy tales with the brothers themselves embraced as the creators of the stories and even as part of the stories themselves. The film Brothers Grimm imagines them as con-artists exploiting superstitious German peasants until they are asked to confront a genuine fairy tale curse that calls them to finally be heroes. Grimm follows a detective who discovers he is a Grimm, the latest in a line of guardians who are sworn to keep the balance between humanity and mythological creatures. Ever After High imagines the Grimm Brothers (here called Milton and Giles) as headmasters of Ever After
Ever After
High boarding school where they train the children of the previous generation of fairy tales to follow in their parents' footsteps. The 10th Kingdom
The 10th Kingdom
mini series states that the brothers were trapped in the fairy tale world for years where they witnessed the events of their stories before finally making it back to the real world. The Sisters Grimm
The Sisters Grimm
book series follows their descendants, Sabrina and Daphne, as they adapt to life in Ferryport Landing, a town in upstate New York populated by fairy tale people. Separate from the previous series are The Land of Stories
The Land of Stories
and its Sisters Grimm, a self described coven determined to track down and document creatures from the fairy tale world that cross over into the real world. Their ancestors were in fact chosen by Mother Goose and others to tell fairy tales so that they might give hope to the human race. The university library at the Humboldt University of Berlin
Berlin
is housed in the Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm
Wilhelm Grimm
Center (Jakob-und-Wilhelm-Grimm-Zentrum).[54] Among its collections is a large portion of the Grimm Brothers' private library.[55] Collaborative works[edit]

Die beiden ältesten deutschen Gedichte aus dem achten Jahrhundert: Das Lied von Hildebrand und Hadubrand und das Weißenbrunner Gebet, (The Two Oldest German Poems of the Eighth Century: The Song of Hildebrand and Hadubrand and the Wessobrunn Prayer)—9th century heroic song, published 1812 Kinder- und Hausmärchen (Children's and Household Tales)—seven editions, between 1812 and 1857 Altdeutsche Wälder (Old German Forests)—three volumes between 1813 and 1816 Der arme Heinrich von Hartmann von der Aue (Poor Heinrich by Hartmann von der Aue)—1815 Lieder der alten Edda (Songs from the Elder Edda)—1815 Deutsche Sagen
Deutsche Sagen
(German Sagas)—published in two parts between 1816 and 1818 Irische Elfenmärchen—Grimms' translation of Thomas Crofton Croker's Fairy
Fairy
Legends and Traditions of the South of Ireland, 1826 Deutsches Wörterbuch
Deutsches Wörterbuch
(German Dictionary)—32 volumes published between 1852 and 1960.[42]

See also[edit]

Norwegian Folktales The Brothers Grimm
Brothers Grimm
– A 2005 film about the brothers where they are played by Matt Damon and Heath Ledger Grimm – A series about the descendant of one of the brothers Grimm

References[edit]

^ The original folk & fairy tales of the Brothers Grimm : the complete first edition. Grimm, Wilhelm, 1786-1859,, Grimm, Jacob, 1785-1863,, Zipes, Jack, 1937-, Dezsö, Andrea,. Princeton [New Jersey]. ISBN 9780691160597. OCLC 879662315.  ^ a b c d e f g h Zipes 1988, pp. 2–5 ^ a b c d e f g Ashliman, D.L. "Grimm Brothers Home Page". University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved 11 March 2012.  ^ Frederick Herman George (Friedrich Hermann Georg; 12 December 1783 – 16 March 1784), Jacob, Wilhelm, Carl Frederick (Carl Friedrich; 24 April 1787 – 25 May 1852), Ferdinand Philip (Ferdinand Philipp; 18 December 1788 – 6 January 1845), Louis Emil (Ludwig Emil; 14 March 1790 – 4 April 1863), Frederick (Friedrich; 15 June 1791 – 20 August 1792), Charlotte "Lotte" Amalie (10 May 1793 – 15 June 1833) and George Edward (Georg Eduard; 26 July 1794 – 19 April 1795). ^ Michaelis-Jena 1970, p. 9 ^ Herbert Scurla: Die Brüder Grimm, Berlin
Berlin
1985, pp. 14–16 ^ a b Zipes 1988, p. 31 ^ a b qtd. in Zipes 1988, p. 35 ^ Zipes 2002, pp. 7–8 ^ qtd. in Zipes 2002, p. 7 ^ a b c d e Zipes 2000, pp. 218–219 ^ a b c d e f g Zipes 1988, pp. 7–9 ^ a b c d e f g O'Neill, Thomas. "Guardians of the Fairy
Fairy
Tale: The Brothers Grimm". National Geographic. National Geographic Society. Retrieved March 18, 2012.  ^ a b c d Jean 2007, pp. 280–282 ^ a b Haase 2008, p. 138 ^ a b Tatar 2004, pp. xxxviii ^ a b c d e f Tatar 2004, pp. xxxiv–xxxviii ^ Tatar 2004, pp. xxxvi ^ a b Murphy 2000, pp. 3–4 ^ a b Haase 2008, p. 579 ^ Zipes 2000, p. 62 ^ a b Joosen 2006, pp. 177–179 ^ a b c Zipes 1988, pp. 11–14 ^ Bottigheimer 1982, pp. 175 ^ a b Tatar 2004, pp. xi–xiii ^ a b c Tatar 1987, pp. 15–17 ^ Tatar 1987, p. 31 ^ a b Dégh 1979, pp. 91–93 ^ Jack Zipes's translation of the 1812 original edition of "Folk and Fairy
Fairy
Tales" ^ a b Bottigheimer 1982, pp. 142–146 ^ Bottigheimer 1982, p. 143 ^ Alister & Hauke 1998, pp. 216–219 ^ Tatar 2004, p. 37 ^ Zipes 1988, pp. 39–42 ^ a b Michaelis-Jena 1970, p. 84 ^ a b c d e Zipes 2000, pp. 276–278 ^ Haase 2008, p. 73 ^ a b c Zipes 1988, pp. 32–35 ^ a b Dégh 1979, pp. 84–85 ^ Zipes 1994, p. 14 ^ Robinson 2004, pp. 47–49 ^ a b c d Hettinga 2001, pp. 154–155 ^ a b c d Haase 2008, pp. 429–431 ^ Zipes 1984, p. 162 ^ Deutsche Bundesbank (Hrsg.): Von der Baumwolle zum Geldschein. Eine neue Banknotenserie entsteht. 2. Auflage. Verlag Fritz Knapp GmbH, Frankfurt am Main 1996, ISBN 3-611-00222-4, S. 103. ^ a b c Zipes 1988, pp. 15–17 ^ Dégh 1979, p. 87 ^ Zipes 1984, p. 163 ^ a b Dégh 1979, pp. 94–96 ^ Zipes 1988, p. 25 ^ a b Dégh 1979, pp. 99–101 ^ Tatar 2010 ^ Copeland, Libby. "Tales Out of Fashion?". Slate. Retrieved March 28, 2012.  ^ "Jacob-und-Wilhelm-Grimm-Zentrum". Humboldt University of Berlin. Retrieved 2012-12-20.  ^ "The Grimm Library". Humboldt University of Berlin. Archived from the original on 2012-01-04. Retrieved 2012-12-20. 

Sources[edit]

Alister, Ian; Hauke, Christopher, eds. (1998). Contemporary Jungian Analysis. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-14166-6.  Bottigheimer, Ruth (1982). "Tale Spinners: Submerged Voices in Grimms' Fairy
Fairy
Tales". New German Critique. 27 (27): 141–150. doi:10.2307/487989. JSTOR 487989.  Dégh, Linda (1979). "Grimm's Household Tales and its Place in the Household". Western Folklore. 38 (2): 85–103.  Haase, Donald (2008). "Literary Fairy
Fairy
Tales". In Donald Haase. The Greenwood encyclopedia of folktales and fairy tales. 2. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-33441-2. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) Hettinga, Donald (2001). The Brothers Grimm. New York: Clarion. ISBN 978-0-618-05599-9.  Jean, Lydie (2007). "Charles Perrault's Paradox: How Aristocratic Fairy
Fairy
Tales became Synonymous with Folklore
Folklore
Conservation" (PDF). Trames. 11 (61): 276–283.  Joosen, Vanessa (2006). The Oxford Encyclopaedia of Children's Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-514656-1.  Michaelis-Jena, Ruth (1970). The Brothers Grimm. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 978-0-7100-6449-3.  Murphy, Ronald G. (2000). The Owl, the Raven and the Dove. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-515169-5.  Robinson, Orrin W. (2004). "Rhymes and Reasons in the Grimms' Kinder- und Hausmärchen". The German Quarterly. 77 (1): 47–58.  Tatar, Maria (2004). The Annotated Brothers Grimm. W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 978-0-393-05848-2.  Tatar, Maria (1987). The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy
Fairy
Tales. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-06722-3.  Tatar, Maria (2010). "Why Fairy
Fairy
Tales Matter: The Performative and the Transformative". Western Folklore. 69 (1): 55–64.  Zipes, Jack (1994). Myth as Fairy
Fairy
Tale. Kentucky University Press. ISBN 978-0-8131-1890-1.  Zipes, Jack (1988). The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World (1st ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-90081-2.  Zipes, Jack (2002). The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World (2nd ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-312-29380-2.  Zipes, Jack (1984). "The Grimm German Legends in English". Children's Literature. 12: 162–166. doi:10.1353/chl.0.0073.  Zipes, Jack (2000). The Oxford Companion to Fairy
Fairy
Tales. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-860115-9. 

Further reading[edit]

Carpenter, Humphrey; Prichard, Mari (1984). The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-211582-0.  Ihms, Schmidt M. (1975). "The Brothers Grimm
Brothers Grimm
and their collection of 'Kinder und Hausmärchen". Theoria: A Journal of Social and Political Theory. 45: 41–54.  Pullman, Philip (2012). "Introduction". In Pullman, Philip. Fairy Tales from the Brothers Grimm. New York: Viking. ISBN 978-0-670-02497-1.  Simpson, Jacqueline; Roud, Steve (2000). A Dictionary of English Folklore. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-210019-1. 

External links[edit]

Media related to the Brothers Grimm
Brothers Grimm
at Wikimedia Commons Quotations related to the Brothers Grimm
Brothers Grimm
at Wikiquote Works related to the Brothers Grimm
Brothers Grimm
at Wikisource

Grimms' Fairy Tales
Grimms' Fairy Tales
at Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
Translated by Edgar Taylor and Marian Edwardes.

Grimms' household tales at Project Gutenberg. Translated by Margaret Raine Hunt. Works by or about Brothers Grimm
Brothers Grimm
at Internet Archive Works by Brothers Grimm
Brothers Grimm
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks)

v t e

The Brothers Grimm

Key articles

Jacob Grimm Wilhelm Grimm Grimms' Fairy
Fairy
Tales Deutsche Sagen Deutsche Mythologie

Notable tales

"The Frog Prince" "Cat and Mouse in Partnership" "Mary's Child" "The Story of the Youth Who Went Forth to Learn What Fear Was" "The Wolf and the Seven Young Goats" "Trusty John" "The Wonderful Musician" "The Twelve Brothers" "Brother and Sister" "Rapunzel" "The Three Little Men in the Wood" "The Three Spinners" "Hansel and Gretel" The White Snake "The Fisherman and His Wife" "The Brave Little Tailor" "Cinderella" "The Riddle" "Little Red Riding Hood" "Town Musicians of Bremen" "Snow White" Rumpelstiltskin "Sleeping Beauty"

Other

Grimm's law Göttingen
Göttingen
Seven Grim Tales The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm Grimm's Fairy
Fairy
Tale Classics The Brothers Grimm Grimm Tales The Sisters Grimm Fairy
Fairy
tale American McGee's Grimm German Fairy
Fairy
Tale Route Grimm Once Upon a Time

Associated subjects

v t e

"Little Red Riding Hood" by Charles Perrault
Charles Perrault
and the Brothers Grimm

Film

Red Riding Hood (1901) Little Red Riding Hood
Little Red Riding Hood
(1920) Little Red Riding Hood
Little Red Riding Hood
(1954) Rotkäppchen (1962) About the Little Red Riding Hood
Little Red Riding Hood
(1977) Red Riding Hood (1989) Little Red Riding Hood
Little Red Riding Hood
(1997) Red Riding Hood (2003) Red Riding Hood (2006) Red Riding Hood (2011)

Animation

Little Red Riding Hood
Little Red Riding Hood
(1922 cartoon) Dizzy Red Riding Hood (1931 film) Little Red Walking Hood
Little Red Walking Hood
(1937 cartoon) The Big Bad Wolf
Big Bad Wolf
(1934 cartoon) Red Hot Riding Hood
Red Hot Riding Hood
(1943 cartoon) Little Red Riding Rabbit
Little Red Riding Rabbit
(1944 cartoon) Little Rural Riding Hood
Little Rural Riding Hood
(1949 cartoon) Little Red Rodent Hood (1952 cartoon) Red Riding Hoodwinked (1955 cartoon) Red Riding Hoodlum
Red Riding Hoodlum
(1957 cartoon) Little Red Riding Hood
Little Red Riding Hood
(1995 film) Redux Riding Hood (1997 film) Hoodwinked!
Hoodwinked!
(2005 film) Hoodwinked Too! Hood vs. Evil
Hoodwinked Too! Hood vs. Evil
(2011 film)

Video games

Little Red Riding Hood's Zombie BBQ
Little Red Riding Hood's Zombie BBQ
(2008) The Path (2009) Overlord: Dark Legend (2009) Dragon Fin Soup
Dragon Fin Soup
(2015)

Stage adaptations

Little Red Riding Hood
Little Red Riding Hood
(1911 opera) Grimm (2014 musical)

Literary adaptations

The Tale of Jemima Puddle-Duck
The Tale of Jemima Puddle-Duck
(1908) Anguish Languish (1956) Flossie & the Fox (1986) Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China (1989) Wolf (1990) Little Red Cap (1999) Scarlet (2013)

Other adaptations

Li'l Red Riding Hood (1966) The Company of Wolves
The Company of Wolves
(1984) The Red Spectacles
The Red Spectacles
(1987) Freeway (1996) Black XXX-Mas (1999) Jin-Roh: The Wolf Brigade (1999) Tokyo Red Hood
Tokyo Red Hood
(2003) A Wicked Tale
A Wicked Tale
(2005) "Red-Handed" (2012) "Child of the Moon" (2012)

Related

Once Upon a Time (TV series) Akazukin Chacha
Akazukin Chacha
(1994 anime series) Goldilocks and the Jivin' Bears Now Hare This Deadtime Stories Baby Bear and the Big, Bad Wolf Big Bad Wolf
Big Bad Wolf
(character) Red (character)

v t e

Cinderella
Cinderella
by Charles Perrault
Charles Perrault
and the Brothers Grimm

Characters

Buttons Cinderella Ugly sisters Fairy
Fairy
godmother Wicked stepmother Prince Charming

Films

Cinderella
Cinderella
(1899) Cinderella
Cinderella
or the Glass Slipper (1912) Cinderella
Cinderella
(1914) A Lowland Cinderella
Cinderella
(1921) A Kiss for Cinderella
Cinderella
(1925 film) Ella Cinders (1926) The Cookie Carnival (1935) The Magic Shoes (1935) First Love (1939) Cinderella
Cinderella
(1947) Cinderella
Cinderella
(1950) The Glass Slipper
The Glass Slipper
(1955) Cinderfella
Cinderfella
(1960) Stop! Look! and Laugh
Stop! Look! and Laugh
(1960) More Than a Miracle
More Than a Miracle
(1967) Tři oříšky pro Popelku
Tři oříšky pro Popelku
(1973) The Slipper and the Rose
The Slipper and the Rose
(1976) Cinderella
Cinderella
(1979) Cinderella
Cinderella
'80 (1984) Maid to Order
Maid to Order
(1987) If the Shoe Fits (1990) Ever After
Ever After
(1998) Ella Enchanted
Ella Enchanted
(2004) Cinderella
Cinderella
(2006) Elle: A Modern Cinderella
Cinderella
Tale (2010) Cinderella
Cinderella
(2015)

A Cinderella
Cinderella
Story series

A Cinderella
Cinderella
Story (2004) Another Cinderella
Cinderella
Story (2008) Once Upon a Song (2011) If the Shoe Fits (2016)

Animation

Cinderella
Cinderella
Blues (1931) Poor Cinderella
Cinderella
(1934) Cinderella
Cinderella
Meets Fella (1938) Swing Shift Cinderella
Cinderella
(1945) Cinderella
Cinderella
(1950) Señorella and the Glass Huarache
Señorella and the Glass Huarache
(1964) Cinderella
Cinderella
(1979) The Tender Tale of Cinderella
Cinderella
Penguin (1981) The Magic Riddle (1991) Cinderella
Cinderella
(1994) Happily N' Ever After
Ever After
(2007) Year of the Fish
Year of the Fish
(2008) Cinderella
Cinderella
the Cat (2017) Charming (2018)

Sequels

Princess Cinderella
Cinderella
(1941) Cinderella
Cinderella
II: Dreams Come True (2002) Cinderella
Cinderella
III: A Twist in Time (2007)

Television

Hey, Cinderella! (1968) Cindy (1978) Cinderella
Cinderella
Monogatari (1996) Cinderella
Cinderella
(1997) CinderElmo
CinderElmo
(1999) Cinderella
Cinderella
(2000) La Cenicienta (2003) Bawang Merah Bawang Putih (2004) Floricienta (2004) Floribella (2005 Brazil) Floribella (2006 Portugal) Grazilda
Grazilda
(2010) Rags (2012) Aik Nayee Cinderella
Cinderella
(2012)

Literary adaptations

Celestina (1791) Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper
Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper
(1954) Nine Coaches Waiting
Nine Coaches Waiting
(1958) Carrie (1974) The Coachman Rat (1989) Witches Abroad (1991) Ella Enchanted
Ella Enchanted
(1997) I Was a Rat! or The Scarlet Slippers
I Was a Rat! or The Scarlet Slippers
(1999) Just Ella (1999) Confessions of an Ugly Stepsister
Confessions of an Ugly Stepsister
(1999) Chinese Cinderella
Cinderella
(1999) The Fairy
Fairy
Godmother (2004) Phoenix and Ashes
Phoenix and Ashes
(2004) Bella at Midnight
Bella at Midnight
(2006) Ash (2009) Princess of Glass (2010) Cinder (2012)

Opera

Cendrillon
Cendrillon
(1810 Isouard) La Cenerentola
La Cenerentola
(1817 Rossini) Cendrillon
Cendrillon
(1899 Massenet) Cendrillon
Cendrillon
(1904 Viardot) La Cenicienta (1966 Hen)

Ballet

Cinderella
Cinderella
(1893 Fitinhof-Schell) Aschenbrödel (1900 Strauss-Bayer) Cinderella
Cinderella
(1945 Prokofiev) Cinderella
Cinderella
(1948 Ashton)

Musicals

Cinderella
Cinderella
and the Prince, or The Castle of Heart's Desire (1904) Stubborn Cinderella
Cinderella
(1909) Mr. Cinders (1929) Cinderella
Cinderella
(1957) Cindy (1964) The Penny Friend (1966) The Slipper and the Rose
The Slipper and the Rose
(1984) Soho Cinders
Soho Cinders
(2008) Cinderella
Cinderella
(2013)

Other

Plays

A Kiss for Cinderella
Cinderella
(1916)

Comics

Cinderella: From Fabletown with Love Cinderalla

Games

Cinders

Songs

"Spread a Little Happiness" (1929) "Bibbidi-Bobbidi-Boo" (1949) "A Dream Is a Wish Your Heart Makes" (1950) "Cinderella" (1987) "Hey Cinderella" (1993) "It's Midnight Cinderella" (1996) "Cinderella" (2001) "Cinderella" (2002) "Cinderella" (2003) "Stealing Cinderella" (2007) "Cinderella" (2007) "CC (CinderellaComplex)" (2008)

Albums

A Cinderella
Cinderella
Story (2004 soundtrack) Disney's Princess Favorites
Disney's Princess Favorites
(2002)

Sociology

Cinderella
Cinderella
complex Cinderella
Cinderella
effect The Cinderella
Cinderella
Movement

Commercials

A Coach for Cinderella A Ride for Cinderella

Adult

Cinder Ellen up too Late Cinderella
Cinderella
(1977) Naughty Cinderella

National variation

Bawang Merah Bawang Putih (Malay and Indonesian) Beauty and Pock Face (Chinese) Chūjō-hime
Chūjō-hime
(Japanese) Fair, Brown and Trembling (Irish) Finette Cendron (French) The Green Knight (Danish) Katie Woodencloak
Katie Woodencloak
(Norwegian) Kongji and Patzzi (Korean) Ochikubo Monogatari (Japanese) "Rhodopis" (Greek) Rushen Coatie
Rushen Coatie
(Scottish) The Sharp Grey Sheep (Scottish) The Story of Tam and Cam (Vietnamese) Sumiyoshi Monogatari (Japanese) The True Bride (German) The Wonderful Birch (Russian) Ye Xian (Chinese)

Related

Catskin Into the Woods Into the Woods
Into the Woods
(2014 film)

Politically Correct Bedtime Stories Disney's characters Stop! Look! and Laugh Waltz Suite Black Cinderella
Cinderella
Two Goes East Cinderella
Cinderella
Monogatari Cinderella's Sister Cinderella
Cinderella
(sports) Lying to Be Perfect Cinderella's Eyes
Cinderella's Eyes
(2011)

v t e

"Sleeping Beauty"/"Little Briar Rose" by Charles Perrault
Charles Perrault
and the Brothers Grimm

Theatre

La Belle au Bois Dormant (opera) The Sleeping Beauty
Sleeping Beauty
(ballet)

Variants

Sun, Moon, and Talia The Young Slave The Glass Coffin

Retellings

Alinda of the Loch Enchantment The Light Princess "Little Daylight" The Ordinary Princess The Sleeping Beauty
Sleeping Beauty
Quartet Spindle's End The Gates of Sleep

Films

Sleeping Beauty
Sleeping Beauty
(1959) Some Call It Loving
Some Call It Loving
(1973) Sleeping Beauty
Sleeping Beauty
(1987) Sleeping Beauty
Sleeping Beauty
(1995) Keys to the Kingdom (2007) Sleeping Betty
Sleeping Betty
(2008) Maleficent
Maleficent
(2014) Descendants (2015) Charming (2018)

Disney

"Once Upon a Dream" (song) Sleeping Beauty
Sleeping Beauty
Castle Le Château de la Belle au Bois Dormant "Evil Like Me" (song) Kingdom Hearts series

Characters

Prince Charming Wicked fairy godmother Disney's Sleeping Beauty
Sleeping Beauty
characters

Princess Aurora Flora, Fauna, and Merryweather Maleficent

v t e

Snow White
Snow White
by the Brothers Grimm

Disney franchise Gold-Tree and Silver-Tree Snow-White-Fire-Red The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Knights

Standalone films

Snow White
Snow White
(1902) Snow White
Snow White
(1916) Betty Boop in Snow-White (1933) Snow White
Snow White
and the Seven Dwarfs
Seven Dwarfs
(1937) Coal Black and de Sebben Dwarfs
Coal Black and de Sebben Dwarfs
(1943) The Seven Dwarfs to the Rescue
The Seven Dwarfs to the Rescue
(1951) Snow White
Snow White
and the Seven Dwarfs
Seven Dwarfs
(1955) Snow White
Snow White
and the Three Stooges (1961) Snow White
Snow White
(1962) The New Adventures of Snow White
Snow White
(1969) A Snow White
Snow White
Christmas (1980) Neberte nám princeznú
Neberte nám princeznú
(1981) Snow White
Snow White
(1987) Happily Ever After
Ever After
(1990) Snow White
Snow White
(1995) Snow White: A Tale of Terror (1997) Snow White: The Fairest of Them All (2001) 7 Dwarves – Men Alone in the Wood
7 Dwarves – Men Alone in the Wood
(2004) Snow White: The Sequel (2007) Sydney White
Sydney White
(2007) Happily N' Ever After
Ever After
2: Snow White
Snow White
Another Bite @ the Apple (2009) Blanche Neige (2009) Grimm's Snow White
Snow White
(2012) Mirror Mirror (2012) Blancanieves (2012) Snow White: A Deadly Summer (2012) The Seventh Dwarf
The Seventh Dwarf
(2014) Charming (2018)

The Huntsman film series

Snow White
Snow White
and the Huntsman (2012) The Huntsman: Winter's War (2016)

Television series

The 10th Kingdom
The 10th Kingdom
(miniseries) The Charmings (sitcom) The Legend of Snow White
Snow White
(anime series) Prétear (anime series) Once Upon a Time (drama series) Sofia the First
Sofia the First
(TV series) ("The Enchanted Feast") (Season 2, Episode 27) The 7D (TV series)

Stage

Snow White
Snow White
and the Seven Dwarfs
Seven Dwarfs
(1912 play) Snow White
Snow White
and the Seven Dwarfs
Seven Dwarfs
(musical) A Snow White
Snow White
Christmas (musical)

Other media

Fables (comics) Mira, Mirror (novel) Mirror Mirror (novel) Red as Blood (short story) Schneewittchen (opera) Seven Dwarfs Mine Train
Seven Dwarfs Mine Train
(attraction) Snow White
Snow White
(comic strip) Snow White's Scary Adventures
Snow White's Scary Adventures
(attraction) Snow White
Snow White
Grotto (attraction) Snow White: Happily Ever After
Ever After
(video game) "Snow, Glass, Apples" (short story) The Serpent's Shadow (novel) Fairest (novel) Politically Correct Bedtime Stories (short story collection) Amada Anime Series: Super Mario Bros. (OVA) The Wolf Among Us
The Wolf Among Us
(video game)

Ballet

The Magic Mirror (1903)

Characters

Snow White

Snow White
Snow White
(Disney) Mary Margaret Blanchard

The Queen

Evil Queen (Disney) Regina Mills Queen of Fables

The Seven Dwarfs The Magic Mirror The King The Huntsman Prince Charming

David Nolan

Category

v t e

"Hansel and Gretel" by the Brothers Grimm

Film

Hansel and Gretel: An Opera Fantasy (1954) Hansel and Gretel
Hansel and Gretel
(1954) Hansel and Gretel
Hansel and Gretel
(1982) Hansel and Gretel
Hansel and Gretel
(2002) Hansel and Gretel
Hansel and Gretel
(2007) Hansel & Gretel: Witch Hunters (2013) Hansel & Gretel (2013) Hansel & Gretel Get Baked (2013)

Animation

Babes in the Woods
Babes in the Woods
(1932) The Candy House
The Candy House
(1934) Bewitched Bunny
Bewitched Bunny
(1954) Get Lost (1956) "Treehouse of Horror XI" (2000)

TV

Hansel and Gretel
Hansel and Gretel
(1958)

Opera

Hansel and Gretel

Other

Freeway II: Confessions of a Trickbaby (1999) Terror Toons 2: The Sick and Silly Show (2007)

v t e

"Rapunzel" by the Brothers Grimm

Literature

Grimms' Fairy Tales
Grimms' Fairy Tales
(1812) Rapunzel
Rapunzel
(1998)

Related myths and tales

Danaë Rudaba Petrosinella

Adaptations

Film

Barbie as Rapunzel
Rapunzel
(2002) Tangled
Tangled
(2010) Tangled
Tangled
Ever After
Ever After
(2012) Tangled: Before Ever After
Ever After
(2017)

Literary adaptations

Rapunzel
Rapunzel
(1998) Cress (2014)

Television

The Mind Robber
The Mind Robber
(1968) "The Tower" (2014) Tangled: The Series (2017)

Video games

Tangled: The Video Game Kingdom Hearts III

See also

Märchenbilder Golem in the Gears Rapunzel
Rapunzel
(Disney) Rapunzel
Rapunzel
syndrome Into the Woods
Into the Woods
(stage) Into the Woods
Into the Woods
(film)

v t e

Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
by the Brothers Grimm

Film

Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
(1940) Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
(1955) Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
(1985) Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
(1987) Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
(1995) 7 Zwerge – Der Wald ist nicht genug (2006)

Music

Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
(musical) Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
(album)

Story within a story

"If Wishes Were Horses" Sleeping in Flame

Related

Mr. Gold Märchenbilder

v t e

"Town Musicians of Bremen" by the Brothers Grimm

Film

The Bremen Town Musicians (1969) The Fearless Four (1997)

TV

The Muppet Musicians of Bremen
The Muppet Musicians of Bremen
(1972) Los Trotamúsicos (1989)

Sequel

On the Trail of the Bremen Town Musicians The New Bremen Town Musicians

Art

Turn Back

v t e

"The Frog Prince" by the Brothers Grimm

Film

The Frog Prince
The Frog Prince
(1971) The Frog Prince
The Frog Prince
(1986) Prince Charming
Prince Charming
(2001) The Princess and the Frog
The Princess and the Frog
(2009)

Other

The Frog Prince
The Frog Prince
(play) The Frog Prince, Continued (picture book) Flycatcher (comics) Conrad (comic strip) "Yeojin" (song)

Related

The Frog Princess
The Frog Princess
(fairy tale) Superfrog
Superfrog
(game) Once Upon a Time (“Greenbacks”)

v t e

"The Twelve Dancing Princesses" by the Brothers Grimm

Film

Barbie in the 12 Dancing Princesses
Barbie in the 12 Dancing Princesses
(2006)

Literature

Wildwood Dancing (2008) Princess of the Midnight Ball
Princess of the Midnight Ball
(2009) Entwined (2011)

v t e

Romanticism

Countries

Denmark England (literature) France (literature) Germany Norway Poland Russia (literature) Scotland

Movements

Bohemianism Counter-Enlightenment Dark romanticism Düsseldorf School Gesamtkunstwerk Gothic fiction Gothic Revival (architecture) Hudson River School Indianism Nazarene movement Ossian Romantic hero Romanticism
Romanticism
in science Romantic nationalism Opium and Romanticism Transcendentalism Ultra-Romanticism Wallenrodism

Writers

Abovian Alencar Alfieri Andersen A. v. Arnim B. v. Arnim Azevedo Baratashvili Baratynsky Barbauld (Aikin) Batyushkov Baudelaire Beer Bertrand Blake Botev Brentano Bryant Burns Byron Castelo Branco Castilho Cazotte Chateaubriand Chavchavadze Clare Coleridge Cooper De Quincey Dias Dumas Eichendorff Emerson Eminescu Espronceda Fouqué Foscolo Garrett Gautier Goethe Grimm Brothers Gutzkow Hauff Hawthorne Heine Heliade Herculano Hoffmann Hölderlin Hugo Ilić Irving Jakšić Jean Paul Karamzin Keats Kleist Krasiński Lamartine Larra Leopardi Lermontov Lowell Macedonski Mácha Magalhães Malczewski Manzoni Maturin Mérimée Mickiewicz Musset Nalbandian Nerval Nodier Norwid Novalis Oehlenschläger Orbeliani Poe Polidori Potocki Prešeren Pushkin Raffi Schiller Schwab Scott Seward M. Shelley P. B. Shelley Shevchenko Słowacki De Staël Stendhal Tieck Tyutchev Uhland Vörösmarty Vyazemsky Wordsworth Zhukovsky Zorrilla

Music

Adam Alkan Auber Beethoven Bellini Bennett Berlioz Bertin Berwald Brahms Bruckner Cherubini Chopin Dargomyzhsky Félicien David Ferdinand David Donizetti Fauré Field Franck Franz Glinka Gomis Halévy Kalkbrenner Liszt Loewe Marschner Masarnau Méhul Fanny Mendelssohn Felix Mendelssohn Méreaux Meyerbeer Moniuszko Moscheles Mussorgsky Niedermeyer Onslow Paganini Prudent Reicha Rimsky-Korsakov Rossini Rubinstein Schubert Clara Schumann Robert Schumann Smetana Sor Spohr Spontini Thalberg Verdi Voříšek Wagner Weber

Theologians and philosophers

Chaadayev Coleridge Feuerbach Fichte Goethe Hegel Khomyakov Müller Ritschl Rousseau Schiller A. Schlegel F. Schlegel Schopenhauer Schleiermacher Tieck Wackenroder

Visual artists

Aivazovsky Bierstadt Blake Bonington Bryullov Chassériau Church Constable Cole Corot Dahl David d'Angers Delacroix Friedrich Fuseli Géricault Girodet Głowacki Goya Gude Hayez Janmot Jones Kiprensky Koch Lampi Leutze Loutherbourg Maison Martin Michałowski Palmer Porto-Alegre Préault Révoil Richard Rude Runge Saleh Scheffer Stattler Stroj Tidemand Tropinin Turner Veit Ward Wiertz

 « Age of Enlightenment Realism » 

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 6286151353538752720003 GND: 1083009273 SUDOC: 034491503 BNF: cb125242634 (data) MusicBrainz: a0be83cd-c958-4734-a3c2-db35607ac

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