Proposals for fixed sea links to improve transportation between areas
British Isles include undersea tunnel , bridge , causeway , or
combination of these elements.
* 1 Proposed fixed sea links between Great Britain & Ireland
* 1.1 North Channel (Kintyre) route
* 1.2 North Channel (Galloway) route
* 1.3 Irish Mail route
* 1.4 Tuskar route
* 2 Proposed & existing fixed sea links between Great Britain &
* 2.2 Second
Channel Islands Tunnel
* 3 Development history of Great Britain/Ireland proposed
* 4 Other proposed fixed sea links within or to the
British Isles &
* 5 See also
* 6 References
PROPOSED FIXED SEA LINKS BETWEEN GREAT BRITAIN "> that such a project
was considered by railway engineer
Luke Livingston Macassey in the
1890s as "a rail link using either a tunnel, a submerged "tubular
bridge" or a solid causeway".
IRISH MAIL ROUTE
This route (from
Holyhead in Anglesey, Wales) would be
about 100 km (62 mi) long.
Institute of Engineers of Ireland 's 2004 Vision of Transport in
Ireland in 2050 imagines a tunnel to be built between the ports of
Fishguard and Rosslare along with a new container port on the Shannon
Estuary , linking a freight line to Europe. This report also includes
ideas for a
Dublin -Cork high-speed train, and for a new
freight line from Rosslare to Shannon. This route would be
approximately twice the distance of the English
Channel Tunnel at over
100 km (roughly 60 miles long).
PROPOSED & EXISTING FIXED SEA LINKS BETWEEN GREAT BRITAIN ">
Channel Tunnel operates between Great Britain "> that the
Jersey were considering the feasibility of building a 14
miles (23 km) long tunnel to connect the island with
Lower Normandy in
France; the tunnel would be a concrete tube sunk in the seabed and
then covered over. Talks would be held in September 2009 to ascertain
whether it would be of local benefit. The proposition included a road
and rail link. The plans were not developed, and the then Assistant
Minister for Planning and Environment Deputy
Rob Duhamel who had
suggested the idea lost his seat in the 2014 elections.
DEVELOPMENT HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN/IRELAND PROPOSED CONNECTIONS
A 1799 description of a failed proposal for a bridge from Howth to
Holyhead is a mocking metaphor for the failure of the Union Bill 1799,
which succeeded next year as the
Act of Union 1800
Act of Union 1800 .
Between 1886 and 1900, proposals for a link to Scotland were
"seriously explored by engineers, industrialists, and Unionist
politicians". In 1885, Irish Builder and Engineer said a tunnel under
the Irish Sea had been discussed "for some time back". In 1890,
Luke Livingston Macassey outlined a Stranraer–
by tunnel, submerged "tubular bridge", or solid causeway. In 1897 a
British firm applied for £15,000 towards the cost of carrying out
borings and soundings in the North Channel to see if a tunnel between
Ireland and Scotland was viable. The link would have been of immense
commercial benefit, was significant strategically and would have meant
faster transatlantic travel from Britain, via Galway and other Irish
ports. When Hugh Arnold-Foster asked in the Commons in 1897 about a
North Channel tunnel,
Arthur Balfour said "the financial aspects ...
are not of a very promising character".
In 1915, a tunnel was proposed by
Gershom Stewart as a defence
against a German U-boat blockade of Ireland but dismissed by H. H.
Asquith as "hardly practicable in the present circumstances". In
1918, Stewart proposed that German prisoners of war might dig the
Bonar Law said the
Select Committee on Transport could
consider the matter.
Senate of Northern Ireland
Senate of Northern Ireland debated a North
Channel Tunnel on 25
May 1954. In 1956
Harford Hyde , Unionist Westminster MP for North
Belfast , raised a motion in the
UK House of Commons for a tunnel
across the North Channel. In 1980,
John Biggs-Davison suggested
European Economic Community
European Economic Community involvement in a North Channel tunnel;
Philip Goodhart said no tunnel was planned. In 1988,
John P. Wilson
John P. Wilson ,
Minister for Tourism and Transport said his department
estimated an Irish Sea tunnel would cost twice as much as the English
Channel Tunnel and generate one fifth of the revenue, thus being
economically unviable. In 1997–8, the Department of Public
Enterprise refused to fund a feasibility study requested by Symonds
engineering to build an immersed tube tunnel. Symonds revived the
plan in 2000, with an £8m feasibility study and a £14b construction
cost estimate. In 2005, the Minister for Transport said he had not
studied A Vision of Transport in Ireland in 2050, published in
September 2004 by the Irish Academy of Engineering, a report which
included a Wexford–Pembroke tunnel.
The proposal of building a bridge between Northern Ireland and
Scotland is supported by the
Democratic Unionist Party
Democratic Unionist Party . DUP MP
Sammy Wilson compared the idea to the approved
Channel Tunnel and HS2
projects. The party made a feasibility study into a tunnel or enclosed
bridge a precondition to coalition support in the event of a hung
parliament in the 2015 election .
OTHER PROPOSED FIXED SEA LINKS WITHIN OR TO THE BRITISH ISLES
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* ^ A B Castella, Tom de (14 August 2013). "A bridge across the
Irish Sea and four other amazing plans" – via www.bbc.co.uk.
* ^ "Could a bridge or tunnel one day link Scotland with Ireland?".
* ^ "
Bridge to Northern Ireland mooted". BBC News. 22 August 2007.
* ^ McKenzie, Steven (9 October 2011). "Scotland-Ireland undersea
rail link plan \'a surprise\'". BBC News – Highlands & Islands.
Retrieved 5 February 2012.
* ^ A Vision of Transport in Ireland in 2050, IEI report (pdf), The
Irish Academy of Engineers, 21 December 2004.
* ^ Millar, Stuart (6 January 2000). "Tunnel chiefs unveil road
link to France" – via The Guardian.
* ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/jersey/8149314.stm
* ^ "Plans for a
Bridge from Holy-Head to the Hill of Howth" (PDF).
The Anti-Union (20): 80. 9 February 1799.
JSTOR 30059887 .
* ^ Hughes, Kyle (2013-12-01). The Scots in Victorian and Edwardian
Belfast: A Study in Elite Migration. Edinburgh University Press. pp.
128, fn.39. ISBN 9780748679935 . Retrieved 25 September 2015.
* ^ "Tunnel Under the Irish Sea". Irish Builder and Engineer.
Howard MacGarvey & Sons. 27: 197. 15 July 1885.
* ^ "Scotland-Ireland undersea rail link plan \'a surprise\'". BBC
News. 9 October 2011.
* ^ "Tunnel Under the Sea", The Washington Post, 2 May 1897
* ^ "TUNNEL (IRELAND AND SCOTLAND)". Hansard. 22 March 1897. pp. HC
Deb vol 47 cc1125–6. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
* ^ "IRISH CHANNEL TUNNEL". Hansard. 23 February 1915. pp. HC Deb
vol 70 c168. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
* ^ "TUNNEL TO IRELAND". HC Deb vol 110 c594. 22 October 1918. p.
Hansard. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
* ^ "North