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The Info List - British Isles Fixed Sea Link Connections



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Proposals for fixed sea links to improve transportation between areas of the British Isles
British Isles
include undersea tunnel , bridge , causeway , or combination of these elements.

CONTENTS

* 1 Proposed fixed sea links between Great Britain & Ireland

* 1.1 North Channel (Kintyre) route * 1.2 North Channel (Galloway) route * 1.3 Irish Mail route * 1.4 Tuskar route

* 2 Proposed & existing fixed sea links between Great Britain & France

* 2.1 Channel Tunnel
Channel Tunnel
* 2.2 Second Channel Tunnel
Channel Tunnel
* 2.3 Channel Islands Tunnel

* 3 Development history of Great Britain/Ireland proposed connections * 4 Other proposed fixed sea links within or to the British Isles
British Isles
& associated areas * 5 See also * 6 References

PROPOSED FIXED SEA LINKS BETWEEN GREAT BRITAIN "> that such a project was considered by railway engineer Luke Livingston Macassey in the 1890s as "a rail link using either a tunnel, a submerged "tubular bridge" or a solid causeway".

IRISH MAIL ROUTE

This route (from Dublin
Dublin
to Holyhead
Holyhead
in Anglesey, Wales) would be about 100 km (62 mi) long.

TUSKAR ROUTE

The Institute of Engineers of Ireland 's 2004 Vision of Transport in Ireland in 2050 imagines a tunnel to be built between the ports of Fishguard and Rosslare along with a new container port on the Shannon Estuary , linking a freight line to Europe. This report also includes ideas for a Belfast
Belfast
- Dublin
Dublin
-Cork high-speed train, and for a new freight line from Rosslare to Shannon. This route would be approximately twice the distance of the English Channel Tunnel
Channel Tunnel
at over 100 km (roughly 60 miles long).

PROPOSED & EXISTING FIXED SEA LINKS BETWEEN GREAT BRITAIN "> Existing Channel Tunnel
Channel Tunnel

* The Channel Tunnel
Channel Tunnel
operates between Great Britain "> that the States of Jersey
Jersey
were considering the feasibility of building a 14 miles (23 km) long tunnel to connect the island with Lower Normandy
Lower Normandy
in France; the tunnel would be a concrete tube sunk in the seabed and then covered over. Talks would be held in September 2009 to ascertain whether it would be of local benefit. The proposition included a road and rail link. The plans were not developed, and the then Assistant Minister for Planning and Environment Deputy Rob Duhamel who had suggested the idea lost his seat in the 2014 elections.

DEVELOPMENT HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN/IRELAND PROPOSED CONNECTIONS

A 1799 description of a failed proposal for a bridge from Howth to Holyhead
Holyhead
is a mocking metaphor for the failure of the Union Bill 1799, which succeeded next year as the Act of Union 1800
Act of Union 1800
.

Between 1886 and 1900, proposals for a link to Scotland were "seriously explored by engineers, industrialists, and Unionist politicians". In 1885, Irish Builder and Engineer said a tunnel under the Irish Sea had been discussed "for some time back". In 1890, engineer Luke Livingston Macassey outlined a Stranraer– Belfast
Belfast
link by tunnel, submerged "tubular bridge", or solid causeway. In 1897 a British firm applied for £15,000 towards the cost of carrying out borings and soundings in the North Channel to see if a tunnel between Ireland and Scotland was viable. The link would have been of immense commercial benefit, was significant strategically and would have meant faster transatlantic travel from Britain, via Galway and other Irish ports. When Hugh Arnold-Foster asked in the Commons in 1897 about a North Channel tunnel, Arthur Balfour
Arthur Balfour
said "the financial aspects ... are not of a very promising character".

In 1915, a tunnel was proposed by Gershom Stewart as a defence against a German U-boat blockade of Ireland but dismissed by H. H. Asquith as "hardly practicable in the present circumstances". In 1918, Stewart proposed that German prisoners of war might dig the tunnel; Bonar Law
Bonar Law
said the Select Committee on Transport could consider the matter.

The Senate of Northern Ireland
Senate of Northern Ireland
debated a North Channel Tunnel
Channel Tunnel
on 25 May 1954. In 1956 Harford Hyde , Unionist Westminster MP for North Belfast
Belfast
, raised a motion in the UK House of Commons for a tunnel across the North Channel. In 1980, John Biggs-Davison suggested European Economic Community
European Economic Community
involvement in a North Channel tunnel; Philip Goodhart said no tunnel was planned. In 1988, John P. Wilson
John P. Wilson
, the Irish Minister for Tourism and Transport said his department estimated an Irish Sea tunnel would cost twice as much as the English Channel Tunnel
Channel Tunnel
and generate one fifth of the revenue, thus being economically unviable. In 1997–8, the Department of Public Enterprise refused to fund a feasibility study requested by Symonds engineering to build an immersed tube tunnel. Symonds revived the plan in 2000, with an £8m feasibility study and a £14b construction cost estimate. In 2005, the Minister for Transport said he had not studied A Vision of Transport in Ireland in 2050, published in September 2004 by the Irish Academy of Engineering, a report which included a Wexford–Pembroke tunnel.

The proposal of building a bridge between Northern Ireland and Scotland is supported by the Democratic Unionist Party
Democratic Unionist Party
. DUP MP Sammy Wilson compared the idea to the approved Channel Tunnel
Channel Tunnel
and HS2 projects. The party made a feasibility study into a tunnel or enclosed bridge a precondition to coalition support in the event of a hung parliament in the 2015 election .

OTHER PROPOSED FIXED SEA LINKS WITHIN OR TO THE BRITISH ISLES -webkit-column-width: 35em; column-width: 35em; list-style-type: decimal;">

* ^ A B Castella, Tom de (14 August 2013). "A bridge across the Irish Sea and four other amazing plans" – via www.bbc.co.uk. * ^ "Could a bridge or tunnel one day link Scotland with Ireland?".

* ^ " Bridge
Bridge
to Northern Ireland mooted". BBC News. 22 August 2007. * ^ http://www.scotsman.com/business/companies/could-a-bridge-or-tunnel-one-day-link-scotland-with-ireland-1-4130353 * ^ http://www.eveningtimes.co.uk/news/13307549.Building_bridges___literally__Unionists_plan_for_link_between_Scotland_and_Ulster/ * ^ http://www.scotsman.com/business/companies/could-a-bridge-or-tunnel-one-day-link-scotland-with-ireland-1-4130353 * ^ http://www.eveningtimes.co.uk/news/13307549.Building_bridges___literally__Unionists_plan_for_link_between_Scotland_and_Ulster/ * ^ McKenzie, Steven (9 October 2011). "Scotland-Ireland undersea rail link plan \'a surprise\'". BBC News – Highlands & Islands. Retrieved 5 February 2012. * ^ A Vision of Transport in Ireland in 2050, IEI report (pdf), The Irish Academy of Engineers, 21 December 2004. * ^ http://www.eurotunnelgroup.com/uk/the-channel-tunnel/infrastructure/ * ^ Millar, Stuart (6 January 2000). "Tunnel chiefs unveil road link to France" – via The Guardian. * ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/jersey/8149314.stm * ^ http://jerseyeveningpost.com/news/2008/10/18/bridge-to-france-study-next-year/ * ^ http://www.ouest-france.fr/un-projet-de-tunnel-pour-relier-jersey-la-manche-524626 * ^ "Plans for a Bridge
Bridge
from Holy-Head to the Hill of Howth" (PDF). The Anti-Union (20): 80. 9 February 1799. JSTOR
JSTOR
30059887 . * ^ Hughes, Kyle (2013-12-01). The Scots in Victorian and Edwardian Belfast: A Study in Elite Migration. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 128, fn.39. ISBN 9780748679935 . Retrieved 25 September 2015. * ^ "Tunnel Under the Irish Sea". Irish Builder and Engineer. Howard MacGarvey & Sons. 27: 197. 15 July 1885. * ^ "Scotland-Ireland undersea rail link plan \'a surprise\'". BBC News. 9 October 2011. * ^ "Tunnel Under the Sea", The Washington Post, 2 May 1897 (Archive link) * ^ "TUNNEL (IRELAND AND SCOTLAND)". Hansard. 22 March 1897. pp. HC Deb vol 47 cc1125–6. Retrieved 25 September 2015. * ^ "IRISH CHANNEL TUNNEL". Hansard. 23 February 1915. pp. HC Deb vol 70 c168. Retrieved 25 September 2015. * ^ "TUNNEL TO IRELAND". HC Deb vol 110 c594. 22 October 1918. p. Hansard. Retrieved 25 September 2015. * ^ "North