The boundaries between the continents of
Earth are generally a matter
of geographical convention. Several slightly different conventions are
in use. The number of continents is most commonly considered seven but
may range as low as four when the
Afro-Eurasia are each
considered a single continent. According to the definition of a
continent in the strict sense, an island cannot be part of any
continent, but by convention and in practice most major islands are
associated with a continent.
There are three overland boundaries subject to definition:
Asia (dividing Eurasia): along the Turkish Straits,
Caucasus and the
Urals (historically also north of the Caucasus,
Kuma–Manych Depression or along the Don River)
Eurasia): at the
Isthmus of Suez
North America and
South America (dividing the Americas): the
Isthmus of Panama
While the isthmus between
Africa and that between North and
South America are today navigable, via the Suez and Panama canals,
respectively, diversions and canals of human origin generally are not
accepted on their own accord as continent-defining boundaries; the
Suez Canal happens to traverse the isthmus between the Mediterranean
Sea and Red Sea, dividing
Asia and Africa. The remaining boundaries
concern the association of islands and archipelagos with specific
the delineation of Southeast
Asia from Australasia
the delineation between Africa,
Asia in the Mediterranean
the delineation between
Europe in the Arctic Ocean
the delineation between
North America in the Atlantic Ocean
the delineation between North and
South America in the Caribbean Sea
the delineation of
North America in the North Pacific Ocean
Europe and Africa
Europe and Asia
2.2 Modern definition
Europe and North America
Africa and Asia
5 North and South America
Asia and North America
Americas and Oceania
Asia and Oceania
10 See also
Europe and Africa
Atlantic Ocean around the boundary
The European and African mainlands are non-contiguous, and the
delineation between these continents is thus merely a question of
which islands are to be associated with which continent. At its
Morocco and the European portion of
Spain are separated
by only 13 kilometres (8.1 miles).
The Portuguese Atlantic island possession of the
1,368 km (850 mi) from
Europe and 1,507 km
(936 mi) from Africa, and is usually grouped with
grouped with any continent. By contrast, the Canary and Madeira
islands off the Atlantic coast of
Morocco are much closer to, and
usually grouped with,
Canary Islands are only 100 km
(62 mi) from the African coast at their closest point, while
Madeira is 520 km (320 mi) from
Africa and 1,000 km
(620 mi) from Europe).
Mediterranean island nation of
Malta is approximately 81 km
(50 mi) from the coast of Sicily in
Europe - much closer than the
288 km (179 mi) distance to the closest African coast. The
nearby Italian island of
Lampedusa is 207 km (129 mi) from
Sicily while just 127 km (79 mi) from the African coast;
Pantelleria is 100 km (62 mi) from Sicily and
just 71 km (44 mi) from the African coast. All of these
Mediterranean islands are actually located on the African plate, and
may be considered part of the continent of Africa. However, for
political and historical reasons, maps generally display them as part
Europe and Asia
The boundary between
Asia is unusual among continental
boundaries because of its largely mountain-and-river-based
characteristics north and east of the Black Sea. The reason is
historical, the division of
Asia going back to the early
Greek geographers. In the modern sense of the term "continent",
Eurasia is more readily identifiable as a "continent", and
occasionally been described as a subcontinent of Eurasia.
Conventions used for the boundary between
Asia during the
18th and 19th centuries. The red line shows the most common modern
convention, in use since c. 1850 (see below).
historically placed in either continent
The threefold division of the
Old World into Europe,
Asia and Africa
has been in use since the 6th century BC, due to Greek geographers
Anaximander and Hecataeus.
Anaximander placed the boundary between
Europe along the
Phasis River (the modern Rioni) in the
Caucasus (from its mouth by
Poti on the
Black Sea coast, through the
Surami Pass and along the
Kura River to the Caspian Sea), a convention still followed by
Herodotus in the 5th century BC. As geographic knowledge of the
Greeks increased during the Hellenistic period, this archaic
convention was revised, and the boundary between
now considered to be the Tanais (the modern Don River). This is the
convention used by Roman era authors such as Posidonius, Strabo
Throughout the Middle Ages and into the 18th century, the traditional
division of the landmass of
Eurasia into two continents,
Asia, followed Ptolemy, with the boundary following the Turkish
Straits, the Black Sea, the Kerch Strait, the
Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov and the Don
(known in antiquity as the Tanais). But maps produced during the 16th
to 18th centuries tended to differ in how to continue the boundary
beyond the Don bend at
Kalach-na-Donu (where it is closest to the
Volga, now joined with it by the Volga–Don Canal), into territory
not described in any detail by the ancient geographers.
Philip Johan von Strahlenberg in 1725 was the first to depart from the
classical Don boundary by drawing the line along the Volga, following
the Volga north until the Samara Bend, along
Obshchy Syrt (the
drainage divide between Volga and Ural) and then north along Ural
Mountains. The mapmakers continued to differ on the boundary
between the lower Don and Samara well into the 19th century. The 1745
atlas published by the
Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Academy of Sciences has the boundary
follow the Don beyond Kalach as far as Serafimovich before cutting
north towards Arkhangelsk, while other 18th- to 19th-century mapmakers
John Cary followed Strahlenberg's prescription. To the south,
Kuma–Manych Depression was identified circa 1773 by a German
naturalist, Peter Simon Pallas, as a valley that, once upon a time,
Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, and subsequently
was proposed as a natural boundary between continents.
By the mid-19th century, there were three main conventions, one
following the Don, the
Volga–Don Canal and the Volga, the other
Kuma–Manych Depression to the Caspian and then the
Ural River, and the third abandoning the Don altogether, following the
Caucasus watershed to the Caspian. The question was still
treated as a "controversy" in geographical literature of the 1860s,
Douglas Freshfield advocating the
Caucasus crest boundary as the
"best possible", citing support from various "modern geographers".
Russia and the Soviet Union, the boundary along the Kuma–Manych
Depression was the most commonly used as early as 1906. In 1958,
the Soviet Geographical Society formally recommended that the boundary
Asia be drawn in textbooks from Baydaratskaya
Bay, on the Kara Sea, along the eastern foot of Ural Mountains, then
Ural River until the Mugodzhar Hills, and then the Emba
River; and Kuma–Manych Depression, thus placing the Caucasus
Asia and the
Urals entirely in Europe. However, most
geographers in the
Soviet Union favoured the boundary along the
Caucasus crest and this became the standard convention in the
latter 20th century, although the Kuma–Manych boundary remained in
use in some 20th-century maps.
Map of the world according to
Anaximander (6th century BC). Only the
parts of Europe,
Africa directly adjacent to the
Mediterranean and the
Black Sea are known. The
Phasis River of the
Caucasus is imagined as separating
Europe from Asia, while the Nile
In this 1570 map of
Asia (Asiae Nova Descriptio), the Tanais is used
as continental boundary. Moscovia is represented as
"transcontinental", having an Asiatic and a European part (labelled
This 1719 map of "ancient Asia" (
Asia Vetus) divides
Sarmatia Asiatica. The continental boundary is
drawn along the Tanais (Don), the Volga and the Northern Dvina.
Herman Moll (c. 1715) draws the boundary along the Don, the Volga,
cutting across land from Samara to the Tobol River, following the
lower Irtysh and finally the Ob River, placing
Novaya Zemlya in
A German map of 1730 by Johann Christoph Homann has a similar boundary
to the one shown by Moll, but following the full length of the Samara
bend and then cutting across to the Irtysh directly, placing the Tobol
and Tobolsk in Asia.
The "Academy Atlas" of the Russian Empire, published by The Saint
Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1745, draws the boundary along the
Don, but then west of the Volga to Arkhangelsk
Cedid Atlas (Ottoman Empire), draws the boundary along the Don,
River Kama and then cuts northwards to Khaypudyr Bay. Novaya
Zemlya is in Europe.
1806 map of
Asia by John Cary, boundary along the Don and then the
Volga until Samara, and north of
Perm following the Urals, placing
Novaya Zemlya in Asia.
1827 map by Anthony Finley, showing the boundary as running along the
Don, the Volga, passing between
Perm and Ufa, and running north over
land to the Sea of Kara, placing
Novaya Zemlya in Europe.
1861 map by A. J. Johnson, illustrating the modern convention,
Caucasus crest, Ural River, Urals.
1914 map showing the boundary along the Manych River, placing
Stavropol Krai in Asia
Miles Clark in his 1992 "circumnavigation of Europe" followed the
White Sea – Baltic Canal
White Sea – Baltic Canal until
Lake Onega and the Volga–Baltic
Waterway to the
Rybinsk Reservoir before joining the classical
boundary along the Volga and Don rivers.
Transcontinental states, European territory
Transcontinental states, Asian territory
The modern border between
Europe remains a historical and
cultural construct, defined only by convention. The modern border
follows the Aegean Sea, the Dardanelles-Sea of Marmara-Bosphorus
(together known as the Turkish Straits), the Black Sea, along the
watershed of the Greater Caucasus, the northwestern portion of the
Caspian Sea and along the
Ural River and
Ural Mountains to the Kara
Sea, as mapped and listed in most atlases including that of the
National Geographic Society
National Geographic Society and as described in the World
Factbook. According to this definition, Georgia and Azerbaijan
both have most of their territory in Asia, although each has small
parts of their northern borderlands north of the Greater Caucasus
watershed and thus in Europe.
Though most geographic sources assign the area south of the Caucasus
Mountain crest to Southwest or West Asia, no definition is
entirely satisfactory, with it often becoming a matter of
self-identification. Cultural influences in the area originate from
Asia and Europe. While geographers rarely define continents
primarily politically, Georgia and to a lesser extent
Azerbaijan are increasingly in the 21st century politically oriented
towards Europe, but
Armenia has a great cultural diaspora to the
Azerbaijan shares a cultural affinity with Iranian
Azerbaijan as well as with the Turkic countries of Central Asia.
The Turkish city
Istanbul lies in on both sides of the Bosporus (one
of the Turkish Straits), making it a transcontinental city.
Turkey are transcontinental countries with territory in both Europe
Asia by any definition except that of
Eurasia as a single
Russia is historically a European country with a
history of imperial conquests in Asia, the situation for
inverse, as that of an Asian country with imperial conquests in
Kazakhstan is also a transcontinental country by this
definition, its West
Kazakhstan and Atyrau provinces extending on
either side of the Ural River.
Road sign on the continental border between
Magnitogorsk, Ural Mountains, Russia. It reads "Europe", above a
crossed-out "Asia", as one enters
Europe and leaves Asia.
Ural River delineation is the only segment not to follow a major
mountain range or wide water body, both of which often truly separate
populations. However, the
Ural River is the most common division used
by authorities, is the most prominent natural feature in
the region, and is the "most satisfactory of those (options)
proposed" which include the Emba River, a much smaller stream
cutting further into Central Asian Kazakhstan. The
Ural River bridge
Orenburg is even labeled with permanent monuments carved with the
word "Europe" on one side, "Asia" on the other.
Kuma–Manych Depression (more precisely, the Manych River, the
Kuma–Manych Canal and the Kuma River) remains cited less commonly as
one possible natural boundary in contemporary sources. This
definition peaked in prominence in the 19th century, however it has
declined in usage since then, as it places traditionally European
Russia such as Stavropol, Krasnodar, and even areas just
Rostov-on-Don in Asia.
A lesser known definition for country grouping, is the definition used
for statistical purposes by the
United Nations Statistics Division
listed as part of Eastern Europe: Russian Federation
listed as part of Central Asia: Kazakhstan
listed as part of Western Asia: Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Turkey
According to UNSD, the aforementioned "assignment of countries or
areas to specific groupings is for statistical convenience and does
not imply any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of
countries or territories". Furthermore, the UNSD classification
often differs from those of other
United Nations organizations. For
instance, while UNSD includes Georgia and
Cyprus in Western Asia, the
United Nations Industrial Development Organization and
both countries in Europe.
The Council of
Europe includes the Eurasian countries of Armenia,
Azerbaijan, Cyprus, Georgia,
Russia and Turkey. It notes that "two
Europe member States,
Turkey and Russia, belong
geographically to both
Asia and are therefore Eurasian.
Strictly speaking, the three South
Caucasus States, Armenia,
Azerbaijan and Georgia are located in Asia, yet their membership of
Europe is no longer in doubt." 
Cyprus is an island of the
Mediterranean located close to
so that it is usually associated with
Asia and/or the Middle East, as
World Factbook and the
United Nations geoscheme, but the
Cyprus was nevertheless admitted to the Council of Europe
in 1961 and joined the EU in 2004. The northern part of the island
functions as the unrecognized (except by Turkey) Turkish Republic of
The Greek North
Aegean Islands and the
Dodecanese lie on the coast of
the Asian part of
Turkey (on the Asian continental shelf).
Europe and North America
North America are separated by the North Atlantic. In terms
of associating islands with either continent, the boundary is usually
Greenland and Iceland. The Norwegian islands of Jan
Svalbard in the
Arctic Ocean are usually associated with
Iceland and the
Azores are protrusions of the Mid-Atlantic
Ridge and are associated with and peopled from Europe, even though
they have areas on the North American Plate. (Definitions of
"continents" are a physical and cultural construct dating back
centuries, long before the advent or even knowledge of plate
tectonics; thus, defining a "continent" falls into the realm of
physical and cultural geography, while continental plate definitions
fall under plate tectonics in the realm of geology.)
The geographical notion of a continent stands in opposition to islands
and archipelagos. Nevertheless, there are some islands that are
considered part of
Europe in a political sense. This most notably
British Isles (part of the European continental shelf and
during the Ice Age of the continent itself), besides the islands of
the North Sea, the
Baltic Sea and the
Mediterranean which are part of
the territory of a country situated on the European mainland, and
usually also the island states of
Iceland and Malta.
Novaya Zemlya extend northward from the
northern end of the
Ural Mountains and are a continuation of that
chain into the Arctic Ocean. While
Novaya Zemlya was variously grouped
Europe or with
Asia in 19th-century maps it is now usually
grouped with Europe, the continental boundary considered to join the
Arctic Ocean along the southern shore of the Kara Sea. The Russian
Arctic archipelago of
Franz Josef Land
Franz Josef Land farther north is also
associated with Europe.
Europe ends in the west at the Atlantic Ocean, although
Azores archipelago (in the Atlantic, between
Europe and North
America) are usually considered European, as is the Norwegian Svalbard
archipelago in the Arctic Ocean.
Greenland is geographically part of
North America, but politically associated with
Europe as it is part of
the Kingdom of Denmark, although it has extensive home rule and EU law
no longer applies there.
Africa and Asia
African part of Egypt
Asian part of Egypt
Rest of Asia
Rest of Africa
Historically, in Greco-Roman geography,
Africa (Libya) was taken to
begin in Marmarica, at the Catabathmus Magnus, placing
Egypt in Asia
entirely. The idea of
Egypt being an "African" country seems to
develop in around the mid-19th century; the term
Africa was classically reserved for what is now known as the Maghreb,
to the explicit exclusion of Egypt, but with the exploration of Africa
the shape of the African landmass (and Egypt's "natural" inclusion in
that landmass) became apparent. In 1806,
William George Browne still
titled his travelogue Travels in Africa, Egypt, and Syria. Similarly,
James Bruce in 1835 published Travels through part of Africa, Syria,
Egypt, and Arabia. On the other hand, as early as 1670 John Ogilby
under the title
Africa published "an accurate Description of the
Regions of Egypt, Barbary, Libya, and Billedulgerid, the Land of
Negroes, Guinea, Æthiopia, and the Abyssines, with all the adjacent
Islands, either in the Mediterranean, Atlantic, Southern, or Oriental
Seas, belonging thereunto".
The usual line taken to divide
Asia today is at the
Isthmus of Suez, the narrowest gap between the
Mediterranean and Gulf
of Suez, the route today followed by the Suez Canal. This makes the
Sinai Peninsula geographically Asian, and
Egypt a transcontinental
Less than 2% of Egyptian population live in the Sinai, and hence Egypt
even though technically transcontinental is usually considered an
African country, as well as an Arab country. But when discussing the
geopolitical region of the
Middle East and North Africa,
usually grouped with the Western Asian countries as part of the Middle
East, while Egypt's western neighbor
Libya is grouped with the
remaining North African countries as the Maghreb. However, they are
both members of the
Arab League as well as the African Union.
The Seychelles, Mauritius, and
Comoros are island nations in the
Indian Ocean associated with Africa. The island of
Socotra may be
considered African as it lies on this continent's shelf, but is part
of Yemen, an Asian country.
North and South America
Panama with the Panama Canal.
Americas and Central America
The border between
North America and
South America is at some point on
Isthmus of Panama. The most common demarcation in atlases and
other sources follows the Darién Mountains watershed divide along the
Colombia-Panama border where the isthmus meets the South American
continent. Virtually all atlases list Panama as a state falling
North America and/or Central America.
Often most of the
Caribbean islands are considered part of North
America, but Aruba, Bonaire,
Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago lie on
the continental shelf of South America. On the other hand, the
Isla Aves and the Colombian
San Andrés and Providencia
San Andrés and Providencia lie
on the North American shelf.
Asia and North America
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Bering Strait and
Bering Sea separate the landmasses of
North America, as well as forming the international boundary between
Russia and the United States. This national and continental boundary
Diomede Islands in the Bering Strait, with Big Diomede
Russia and Little Diomede in the US. The
Aleutian Islands are an
island chain extending westward from the
Alaska Peninsula toward
Komandorski Islands and Kamchatka Peninsula. Most of them are
always associated with North America, except for the westernmost Near
Islands group, which is on Asia's continental shelf beyond the North
Aleutians Basin and on rare occasions could be associated with Asia,
which could then allow the U.S. state of
Alaska to be considered a
Island in the northern
Bering Sea belongs to
may be associated with either continent but is almost always
considered part of North America, as with the
Rat Islands in the
Aleutian chain. At their nearest points,
separated by only 4 kilometres (2.5 miles).
Americas and Oceania
Galápagos Islands and Malpelo
Island in the eastern Pacific Ocean
are possessions of
Ecuador and Colombia, respectively, and associated
with South America. The uninhabited French possession of Clipperton
Island 1,000 kilometres (600 miles) off the Mexican coast is
associated with North America.
Easter Island, a territory of Chile, is considered to be in Oceania,
though politically it is associated with South America.
The United States of America controls numerous territories in Oceania,
including the state of
Hawaii and the territories of Guam, the
Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands and American Samoa.
Asia and Oceania
Wallace, Lydekker and Weber Lines, the principals on Melanesia
Archipelago is sometimes divided between
Australasia, usually along the anthropologic Melanesian line or
Weber's Line. Indonesia controls the western half of New Guinea,
geographically part of Australasia. The eastern half of the island is
part of Papua
New Guinea which is considered to be part of the
Oceania. Indonesia is commonly referred to as one of the Southeast
Asian countries. East Timor, an independent state that was formerly a
territory of Indonesia, which is geographically part of Asia, is
classified by the
United Nations as part of the "South-Eastern Asia"
block. It is expected to join the Association of Southeast Asian
Nations, having been involved as an ASEAN Regional Forum member
since independence, and has participated in the Southeast Asian Games
since 2003. Occasionally, all of the Malay
Archipelago is included in
Oceania, although this is extremely rare, especially as most of the
archipelago lies on the Asian continental shelf.
Commonwealth of Australia
Commonwealth of Australia includes island possessions in Oceania
and islands closer to Indonesia than the Australian mainland.
Antarctica along with its outlying islands have no permanent
population. All land claims south of 60°S latitude are held in
abeyance by the Antarctic Treaty System.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands are closer to
Antarctica than to any other continent. However, they are politically
associated with the inhabited
Falkland Islands which are closer to
South America. Furthermore, Argentina, a South American country,
maintains its irredentist claims on the islands. The continental shelf
boundary separates the two island groups.
Prince Edward Islands
Prince Edward Islands are located between
Africa and Antarctica,
and are the territory of South Africa, an African country. The
Island and the New Zealand Antipodes Islands,
Auckland Islands, and Campbell Islands, are all located between the
Oceanian countries of Australia and New Zealand and Antarctica.
Island and McDonald Islands and the French Kerguelen
Islands are located on the Kerguelen Plateau, on the Antarctic
continental plate. The French Crozet Islands, Île Amsterdam, Île
Saint-Paul, and the Norwegian Bouvet
Island are also located on the
Antarctic continental plate, and are not often associated with other
List of countries bordering on two or more oceans
List of transcontinental countries
List of former transcontinental countries
The empire on which the sun never sets
List of sovereign states and dependent territories by continent
Borders of the oceans
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 December 2012.
Retrieved 15 October 2012. ; "Countries of Africa". Retrieved 14
^ "African/Arabian Tectonic Plates". African/Arabian Tectonic Plates.
^ "African Plate". www.uwgb.edu. Retrieved 2016-10-06.
^ Hans Slomp (2011). Europe: A Political Profile. Retrieved
^ Histories 4.38. C.f. James Rennell, The Geographical System of
Herodotus Examined and Explained, Volume 1, Rivington 1830, p. 244
^ according to
Geographica 11.7.4) even at the time of
Alexander, "it was agreed by all that the Tanais river separated Asia
from Europe" (ὡμολόγητο ἐκ πάντων ὅτι
διείργει τὴν Ἀσίαν ἀπὸ τῆς Εὐρώπης
ὁ Τάναϊς ποταμός; c.f. Duane W. Roller, Eratosthenes'
Geography, Princeton University Press, 2010,
ISBN 978-0-691-14267-8, p. 57)
^ W. Theiler, Posidonios. Die Fragmente, vol. 1. Berlin: De Gruyter,
1982, fragm. 47a.
^ I. G. Kidd (ed.), Posidonius: The commentary, Cambridge University
Press, 2004, ISBN 978-0-521-60443-7, p. 738.
^ Geographia 7.5.6 (ed. Nobbe 1845, vol. 2, p. 178)) Καὶ τῇ
Εὐρώπῃ δὲ συνάπτει διὰ τοῦ μεταξὺ
αὐχένος τῆς τε Μαιώτιδος λίμνης καὶ
τοῦ Σαρματικοῦ Ὠκεανοῦ ἐπὶ τῆς
διαβάσεως τοῦ Τανάϊδος ποταμοῦ. "And
[Asia] is connected to
Europe by the land-strait between Lake Maiotis
and the Sarmatian Ocean where the river Tanais crosses through."
^ Philipp Johann von Strahlenberg (1730). Das Nord-und Ostliche Theil
von Europa und
Asia (in German). p. 106.
^ a b "Boundary of
Asia along Urals" (in Russian). Archived
from the original on 17 April 2013.
^ Peter Simon Pallas, Journey through various provinces of the Russian
Empire, vol. 3 (1773)
^ Douglas W. Freshfield, "Journey in the Caucasus", Proceedings of the
Royal Geographical Society, Volumes 13-14, 1869. Cited as de facto
convention by Baron von Haxthausen, Transcaucasia (1854); review
Dublin University Magazine
^ "Europe"[dead link], Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary,
^ "Do we live in
Europe or in Asia?" (in Russian).
^ Orlenok V. (1998). "Physical Geography" (in Russian). Archived from
the original on 16 October 2011.
^ E. M. Moores, R. W. Fairbridge, Encyclopedia of European and Asian
regional geology, Springer, 1997, ISBN 978-0-412-74040-4, p. 34:
"most Soviet geographers took the watershed of the Main Range of the
Caucasus as the boundary between
Europe and Asia."
^ Clark, Miles. Russian Voyage. National Geographic Magazine, June
1994. p. 114 a 138.
^ Purves, Libby (1993-04-30). "Obituary: Miles Clark". The
^ a b National Geographic Atlas of the World (9th ed.). Washington,
DC: National Geographic. 2011. ISBN 978-1-4262-0634-4.
"Europe" (plate 59); "Asia" (plate 74): "A commonly accepted division
Europe ... is formed by the Ural Mountains, Ural
River, Caspian Sea,
Caucasus Mountains, and the
Black Sea with its
outlets, the Bosporus and Dardanelles."
^ World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency.
^ World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency.
Geography and Georgia: Geography
^ "Caucasus". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2012.
^ Thomas De Waal. The Caucasus: An Introduction. Oxford University
Press, 2010. ISBN 0195399765, 9780195399769. p. 10
^ a b World Factbook. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence
Agency. Kazakhstan: Geography
^ Klement Tockner; Urs Uehlinger; Christopher T. Robinson (2009).
"18". Rivers of
Europe (Illustrated ed.). Academic Press.
^ Glanville Price (2000). Encyclopedia of the Languages of Europe.
Oxford, UK: Blackwell. p. xii.
Orenburg bridge monument photos".
Encyclopædia Britannica Online (2011) s.v. "Kuma-Manych
Depression": "It is often regarded as the natural boundary between
Europe and Asia."
^ "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions,
geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings".
United Nations Statistics Division.
^ Standard country or area codes and geographical regions for
United Nations Industrial Organisation p. 14
Europe and North America, Retrieved: 10 May 2016
^ II General information, point 62 on Council of
Europe document 11007
dated 7 July 2006 at "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8
March 2013. Retrieved 2015-02-12.
^ See continent on Wiktionary. "from Latin continent-, continens
'continuous mass of land, mainland'"
^ "National Geographic Education". National Geographic Society.
National Geographic Atlas (list). National Geographic Society. 2010.
Webster's New Geographical Dictionary (list and map). Merriam-Webster
Inc. 1984. pp. 856, 859.
"Americas" Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49),
United Nations Statistics Division
"North America" Archived 3 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Atlas of
North America Atlas National Geographic
East Timor ASEAN bid". The Sydney Morning Herald. 23 July
Continents of the world
Possible future supercontinents
Mythical and hypothesised continents
See also Regions of the world