HOME
The Info List - Boundaries Between Continents



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

The BOUNDARIES BETWEEN THE CONTINENTS of Earth
Earth
are generally a matter of geographical convention. Several slightly different conventions are in use. The number of continents is most commonly considered seven but may range as low as four when the Americas
Americas
and Afro-Eurasia are each considered a single continent. According to the definition of a continent in the strict sense, an island cannot be part of any continent, but by convention and in practice most major islands are associated with a continent.

There are three overland boundaries subject to definition:

* between Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
(dividing Eurasia
Eurasia
): along the Turkish Straits , the Caucasus
Caucasus
and the Urals
Urals
(historically also north of the Caucasus, along the Kuma–Manych Depression or along the Don River ) * between Asia
Asia
and Africa
Africa
(dividing Afro-Eurasia into Africa
Africa
and Eurasia
Eurasia
): at the Isthmus of Suez * between North America
North America
and South America
South America
(dividing the Americas
Americas
): the Isthmus of Panama
Isthmus of Panama

While the isthmus between Asia
Asia
and Africa
Africa
and that between North and South America
South America
are today navigable, via the Suez and Panama canals, respectively, diversions and canals of human origin generally are not accepted on their own accord as continent-defining boundaries; the Suez Canal happens to traverse the isthmus between the Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea
Red Sea
, dividing Asia
Asia
and Africa. The remaining boundaries concern the association of islands and archipelagos with specific continents, notably:

* the delineation of Southeast Asia
Asia
from Australasia * the delineation between Africa, Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
in the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
* the delineation between Asia
Asia
and Europe
Europe
in the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
* the delineation between Europe
Europe
and North America
North America
in the Atlantic Ocean * the delineation between North and South America
South America
in the Caribbean Sea * the delineation of Asia
Asia
from North America
North America
in the North Pacific Ocean

CONTENTS

* 1 Europe
Europe
and Africa
Africa

* 2 Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia

* 2.1 History * 2.2 Modern definition * 2.3 Islands

* 3 Europe
Europe
and North America
North America

* 3.1 Islands

* 4 Africa
Africa
and Asia
Asia

* 5 North and South America
South America

* 5.1 Mainland * 5.2 Islands

* 6 Asia
Asia
and North America
North America
* 7 The Americas
Americas
and Oceania
Oceania
* 8 Asia
Asia
and Oceania
Oceania
* 9 Antarctica
Antarctica
* 10 See also * 11 References

EUROPE AND AFRICA

This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (April 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

The Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
The Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
around the boundary

The European and African mainlands are non-contiguous, and the delineation between these continents is thus merely a question of which islands are to be associated with which continent. At its nearest point, Spain
Spain
and Morocco
Morocco
are separated by only 13 kilometres (8.1 miles).

The Portuguese Atlantic island possession of the Azores
Azores
is 1,368 km (850 mi) from Europe
Europe
and 1,507 km (936 mi) from Africa, and is usually grouped with Europe
Europe
if grouped with any continent. By contrast, the Canary and Madeira islands off the Atlantic coast of Morocco
Morocco
are much closer to, and usually grouped with, Africa
Africa
(the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
are only 100 km (62 mi) from the African coast at their closest point, while Madeira is 520 km (320 mi) from Africa
Africa
and 1,000 km (620 mi) from Europe).

The island nation of Malta
Malta
is approximately 81 km (50 mi) from the coast of Sicily in Europe
Europe
- much closer than the 288 km (179 mi) distance to the closest African coast. The nearby Italian island of Lampedusa is 207 km (129 mi) from Sicily while just 127 km (79 mi) from the African coast; similarly, Pantelleria is 100 km (62 mi) from Sicily and just 71 km (44 mi) from the African coast. All of these islands are actually located on the African plate , and may be considered part of the continent of Africa. However, for political and historical reasons, maps generally display them as part of Europe.

EUROPE AND ASIA

HISTORY

Conventions used for the boundary between Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
during the 18th and 19th centuries. The red line shows the most common modern convention, in use since c. 1850 (see below ). Europe
Europe
Asia
Asia
historically placed in either continent

The threefold division of the Old World
Old World
into Europe, Asia
Asia
and Africa has been in use since the 6th century BC, due to Greek geographers such as Anaximander and Hecataeus . The boundary between Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
is very unusual among continental boundaries because of its largely mountain-and-river-based characteristics north and east of the Black Sea. Europe
Europe
is more of a subcontinent within Eurasia
Eurasia
in geological terms, and it has sometimes been referred to as such.

Anaximander placed the boundary between Asia
Asia
and Europe
Europe
along the Phasis River
Phasis River
(the modern Rioni) in the Caucasus
Caucasus
(from its mouth by Poti
Poti
on the Black Sea
Black Sea
coast, through the Surami Pass and along the Kura River to the Caspian Sea), a convention still followed by Herodotus
Herodotus
in the 5th century BC. As geographic knowledge of the Greeks increased during the Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
, this archaic convention was revised, and the boundary between Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
was now considered to be the Tanais (the modern Don River). This is the convention used by Roman era authors such as Posidonius , Strabo
Strabo
and Ptolemy
Ptolemy
.

Throughout the Middle Ages and into the 18th century, the traditional division of the landmass of Eurasia
Eurasia
into two continents, Europe
Europe
and Asia, followed Ptolemy, with the boundary following the Turkish Straits , the Black Sea
Black Sea
, the Kerch Strait , the Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
and the Don (ancient Tanais ). But maps produced during the 16th to 18th centuries tended to differ in how to continue the boundary beyond the Don bend at Kalach-na-Donu (where it is closest to the Volga, now joined with it by the Volga–Don Canal
Volga–Don Canal
), into territory not described in any detail by the ancient geographers.

Philip Johan von Strahlenberg in 1725 was the first to depart from the classical Don boundary by drawing the line along the Volga , following the Volga north until the Samara Bend , along Obshchy Syrt (the drainage divide between Volga and Ural ) and then north along Ural Mountains . The mapmakers continued to differ on the boundary between the lower Don and Samara well into the 19th century. The 1745 atlas published by the Russian Academy of Sciences has the boundary follow the Don beyond Kalach as far as Serafimovich before cutting north towards Arkhangelsk
Arkhangelsk
, while other 18th- to 19th-century mapmakers such as John Cary followed Strahlenberg's prescription. To the south, the Kuma–Manych Depression was identified circa 1773 by a German naturalist, Peter Simon Pallas , as a valley that, once upon a time, connected the Black Sea
Black Sea
and the Caspian Sea, and subsequently was proposed as a natural boundary between continents.

By the mid-19th century, there were three main conventions, one following the Don, the Volga–Don Canal
Volga–Don Canal
and the Volga, the other following the Kuma–Manych Depression to the Caspian and then the Ural River, and the third abandoning the Don altogether, following the Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
watershed to the Caspian. The question was still treated as a "controversy" in geographical literature of the 1860s, with Douglas Freshfield advocating the Caucasus
Caucasus
crest boundary as the "best possible", citing support from various "modern geographers".

In Russia
Russia
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, the boundary along the Kuma–Manych Depression was the most commonly used as early as 1906. In 1958, the Soviet Geographical Society formally recommended that the boundary between the Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
be drawn in textbooks from Baydaratskaya Bay , on the Kara Sea
Kara Sea
, along the eastern foot of Ural Mountains, then following the Ural River
Ural River
until the Mugodzhar Hills , and then the Emba River ; and Kuma–Manych Depression, thus placing the Caucasus entirely in Asia
Asia
and the Urals
Urals
entirely in Europe. However, most geographers in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
favoured the boundary along the Caucasus
Caucasus
crest and this became the standard convention in the latter 20th century, although the Kuma–Manych boundary remained in use in some 20th-century maps.

Maps MAP DESCRIPTION

Map of the world according to Anaximander (6th century BC). Only the parts of Europe, Asia
Asia
and Africa
Africa
directly adjacent to the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and the Black Sea
Black Sea
are known. The Phasis River
Phasis River
of the Caucasus
Caucasus
is imagined as separating Europe
Europe
from Asia, while the Nile separates Asia
Asia
from Africa
Africa
(Libya).

In this 1570 map of Asia
Asia
(Asiae Nova Descriptio), the Tanais is used as continental boundary. Moscovia is represented as "transcontinental", having an Asiatic and a European part (labelled Europae pars).

This 1719 map of "ancient Asia" ( Asia
Asia
Vetus) divides Sarmatia
Sarmatia
into Sarmatia
Sarmatia
Europea and Sarmatia
Sarmatia
Asiatica. The continental boundary is drawn along the Tanais (Don), the Volga and the Northern Dvina .

Herman Moll (c. 1715) draws the boundary along the Don, the Volga, cutting across land from Samara to the Tobol River , following the lower Irtysh and finally the Ob River , placing Novaya Zemlya
Novaya Zemlya
in Europe.

A German map of 1730 by Johann Christoph Homann has a similar boundary to the one shown by Moll, but following the full length of the Samara bend and then cutting across to the Irtysh directly, placing the Tobol and Tobolsk in Asia.

The "Academy Atlas" of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
, published by The Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1745, draws the boundary along the Don, but then west of the Volga to Arkhangelsk
Arkhangelsk

1806 map of Asia
Asia
by John Cary , boundary along the Don and then the Volga until Samara , and north of Perm
Perm
following the Urals
Urals
, placing Novaya Zemlya
Novaya Zemlya
in Asia.

1827 map by Anthony Finley, showing the boundary as running along the Don, the Volga, passing between Perm
Perm
and Ufa
Ufa
, and running north over land to the Sea of Kara , placing Novaya Zemlya
Novaya Zemlya
in Europe.

1861 map by A. J. Johnson, illustrating the modern convention, Caucasus
Caucasus
crest , Ural River
Ural River
, Urals
Urals
.

1914 map showing the boundary along the Manych River , placing Stavropol Krai in Asia

Miles Clark in his 1992 "circumnavigation of Europe" followed the White Sea – Baltic Canal until Lake Onega
Lake Onega
and the Volga–Baltic Waterway to the Rybinsk Reservoir before joining the classical boundary along the Volga and Don rivers.

MODERN DEFINITION

Transcontinental states, European territory Transcontinental states, Asian territory

The modern border between Asia
Asia
and Europe
Europe
remains a historical and cultural construct, defined only by convention. The modern border follows the Aegean Sea , the Dardanelles
Dardanelles
- Sea of Marmara -Bosphorus (together known as the Turkish Straits ), the Black Sea
Black Sea
, along the watershed of the Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
, the northwestern portion of the Caspian Sea and along the Ural River
Ural River
and Ural Mountains to the Kara Sea , as mapped and listed in most atlases including that of the National Geographic Society
National Geographic Society
and as described in the World Factbook . According to this definition, Georgia and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
both have most of their territory in Asia, although each has small parts of their northern borderlands north of the Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
watershed and thus in Europe.

Though most geographic sources assign the area south of the Caucasus Mountain crest to Southwest or West Asia
Asia
, no definition is entirely satisfactory, with it often becoming a matter of self-identification. Cultural influences in the area originate from both Asia
Asia
and Europe. While geographers rarely define continents primarily politically, Georgia and to a lesser extent Armenia
Armenia
and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
are increasingly in the 21st century politically oriented towards Europe, but Armenia has a great cultural diaspora to the south, and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
shares a cultural affinity with Iranian Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
as well as with the Turkic countries of Central Asia
Asia
.

The Turkish city Istanbul
Istanbul
lies in on both sides of the Bosporus (one of the Turkish Straits), making it a transcontinental city. Russia
Russia
and Turkey
Turkey
are transcontinental countries with territory in both Europe and Asia
Asia
by any definition except that of Eurasia
Eurasia
as a single continent. While Russia
Russia
is historically a European country with a history of imperial conquests in Asia, the situation for Turkey
Turkey
is inverse, as that of an Asian country with imperial conquests in Europe. Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
is also a transcontinental country by this definition, its West Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Atyrau provinces extending on either side of the Ural River. Road sign on the continental border between Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
near Magnitogorsk , Ural Mountains, Russia. It reads "Europe", above a crossed-out "Asia", as one enters Europe
Europe
and leaves Asia.

This Ural River
Ural River
delineation is the only segment not to follow a major mountain range or wide water body, both of which often truly separate populations. However, the Ural River
Ural River
is the most common division used by authorities, is the most prominent natural feature in the region, and is the "most satisfactory of those (options) proposed" which include the Emba River , a much smaller stream cutting further into Central Asian Kazakhstan. The Ural River
Ural River
bridge in Orenburg
Orenburg
is even labeled with permanent monuments carved with the word "Europe" on one side, "Asia" on the other.

The Kuma–Manych Depression (more precisely, the Manych River , the Kuma–Manych Canal and the Kuma River ) remains cited less commonly as one possible natural boundary in contemporary sources. This definition peaked in prominence in the 1800s, however it has declined in usage since then, as it places traditionally European areas of Russia
Russia
such as Stavropol , Krasnodar
Krasnodar
, and even areas just south of Rostov-on-Don
Rostov-on-Don
in Asia.

A lesser known definition for country grouping, is the definition used for statistical purposes by the United Nations
United Nations
Statistics Division (UNSD):

* listed as part of Eastern Europe
Europe
: Russian Federation
Russian Federation
* listed as part of Central Asia
Asia
: Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
* listed as part of Western Asia
Asia
: Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, Georgia , and Turkey

According to UNSD, the aforementioned "assignment of countries or areas to specific groupings is for statistical convenience and does not imply any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories". Furthermore, the UNSD classification often differs from those of other United Nations
United Nations
organizations. For instance, while UNSD includes Georgia and Cyprus
Cyprus
in Western Asia, the United Nations
United Nations
Industrial Development Organization and UNESCO
UNESCO
include both countries in Europe.

The Council of Europe
Europe
includes the Eurasian countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Cyprus
Cyprus
, Georgia, Russia
Russia
and Turkey. It notes that "two Council of Europe
Europe
member States, Turkey
Turkey
and Russia, belong geographically to both Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
and are therefore Eurasian. Strictly speaking, the three South Caucasus
Caucasus
States, Armenia, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Georgia are located in Asia, yet their membership (in) political Europe
Europe
is no longer in doubt." Although not a member, Eurasian Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
is granted the right to request membership.

ISLANDS

Cyprus
Cyprus
is an island of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
located close to Asia
Asia
Minor , so that it is usually associated with Asia
Asia
and/or the Middle East
Middle East
, as in the World Factbook and the United Nations
United Nations
geoscheme , but the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
was nevertheless admitted to the Council of Europe in 1961 and joined the EU in 2004. The northern part of the island functions as the unrecognized (except by Turkey) Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
.

The Greek North Aegean Islands
Aegean Islands
and the Dodecanese
Dodecanese
lie on the coast of the Asian part of Turkey
Turkey
(on the Asian continental shelf).

EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA

Europe
Europe
and North America
North America
are separated by the North Atlantic
North Atlantic
. In terms of associating islands with either continent, the boundary is usually drawn between Greenland
Greenland
and Iceland
Iceland
. The Norwegian islands of Jan Mayen
Jan Mayen
and Svalbard in the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
are usually associated with Europe. Iceland
Iceland
and the Azores
Azores
are protrusions of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and are associated with and peopled from Europe, even though they have areas on the North American Plate . (Definitions of "continents" are a physical and cultural construct dating back centuries, long before the advent or even knowledge of plate tectonics ; thus, defining a "continent" falls into the realm of physical and cultural geography, while continental plate definitions fall under plate tectonics in the realm of geology .)

ISLANDS

The geographical notion of a continent stands in opposition to islands and archipelagos. Nevertheless, there are some islands that are considered part of Europe
Europe
in a political sense. This most notably includes the British Isles
British Isles
(part of the European continental shelf and during the Ice Age of the continent itself), besides the islands of the North Sea
North Sea
, the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
and the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
which are part of the territory of a country situated on the European mainland, and usually also the island states of Iceland
Iceland
and Malta
Malta
.

Russia's Vaygach Island
Island
and Novaya Zemlya
Novaya Zemlya
extend northward from the northern end of the Ural Mountains and are a continuation of that chain into the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
. While Novaya Zemlya
Novaya Zemlya
was variously grouped with Europe
Europe
or with Asia
Asia
in 19th-century maps it is now usually grouped with Europe, the continental boundary considered to join the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
along the southern shore of the Kara Sea
Kara Sea
. The Russian Arctic archipelago of Franz Josef Land farther north is also associated with Europe.

Europe
Europe
ends in the west at the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, although Iceland
Iceland
and the Azores
Azores
archipelago (in the Atlantic, between Europe
Europe
and North America) are usually considered European, as is the Norwegian Svalbard archipelago in the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
. Greenland
Greenland
is geographically part of North America, but politically associated with Europe
Europe
as it is part of the Kingdom of Denmark , although it has extensive home rule and EU law no longer applies there.

AFRICA AND ASIA

African part of Egypt
Egypt
Asian part of Egypt
Egypt
Rest of Asia
Asia
Rest of Africa
Africa

Historically, in Greco-Roman geography , Africa
Africa
(Libya) was taken to begin in Marmarica , at the Catabathmus Magnus , placing Egypt
Egypt
in Asia entirely. The idea of Egypt
Egypt
being an "African" country seems to develop in around the mid-19th century; the term Africa
Africa
was classically reserved for what is now known as the Maghreb
Maghreb
, to the explicit exclusion of Egypt, but with the exploration of Africa
Africa
the shape of the African landmass (and Egypt's "natural" inclusion in that landmass) became apparent. In 1806, William George Browne still titled his travelogue Travels in Africa, Egypt, and Syria. Similarly, James Bruce in 1835 published Travels through part of Africa, Syria, Egypt, and Arabia. On the other hand, as early as 1670 John Ogilby under the title Africa
Africa
published "an accurate Description of the Regions of Egypt, Barbary, Libya, and Billedulgerid, the Land of Negroes, Guinea, Æthiopia, and the Abyssines, with all the adjacent Islands, either in the Mediterranean, Atlantic, Southern, or Oriental Seas, belonging thereunto".

The usual line taken to divide Africa
Africa
from Asia
Asia
today is at the Isthmus of Suez , the narrowest gap between the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and Gulf of Suez , the route today followed by the Suez Canal . This makes the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
geographically Asian, and Egypt
Egypt
a transcontinental country.

Less than 2% of Egyptian population live in the Sinai, and hence Egypt
Egypt
even though technically transcontinental is usually considered an African country . But when discussing the geopolitical region of the Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa
Africa
, Egypt
Egypt
is usually grouped with the Asian countries as part of the Middle East
Middle East
, while Egypt's western neighbor Libya
Libya
is grouped with the remaining North African countries as the Maghreb
Maghreb
.

The Seychelles , Mauritius
Mauritius
, and Comoros
Comoros
are island nations in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
associated with Africa. The island of Socotra
Socotra
may be considered African as it lies on this continent's shelf, but is part of Yemen
Yemen
, an Asian country.

NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA

Panama with the Panama Canal. Further information: Americas and Central America
Central America

MAINLAND

The border between North America
North America
and South America
South America
is at some point on the Isthmus of Panama
Isthmus of Panama
. The most common demarcation in atlases and other sources follows the Darién Mountains watershed divide along the Colombia
Colombia
-Panama border where the isthmus meets the South American continent. Virtually all atlases list Panama as a state falling entirely within North America
North America
and/or Central America
Central America
.

ISLANDS

Often most of the Caribbean islands are considered part of North America, but Aruba
Aruba
, Bonaire
Bonaire
, Curaçao
Curaçao
and Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
lie on the continental shelf of South America. On the other hand, the Venezuelan Isla Aves and the Colombian San Andrés and Providencia lie on the North American shelf.

ASIA AND NORTH AMERICA

This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (April 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

The Bering Strait
Bering Strait
and Bering Sea
Bering Sea
separate the landmasses of Asia
Asia
and North America, as well as forming the international boundary between Russia
Russia
and the United States. This national and continental boundary separates the Diomede Islands
Diomede Islands
in the Bering Strait, with Big Diomede in Russia
Russia
and Little Diomede in the US. The Aleutian Islands
Aleutian Islands
are an island chain extending westward from the Alaska Peninsula
Alaska Peninsula
toward Russia's Komandorski Islands and Kamchatka Peninsula
Kamchatka Peninsula
. Most of them are always associated with North America, except for the westernmost Near Islands group, which is on Asia's continental shelf beyond the North Aleutians Basin and on rare occasions could be associated with Asia, which could then allow the U.S. state of Alaska
Alaska
to be considered a transcontinental state.

St. Lawrence Island
Island
in the northern Bering Sea
Bering Sea
belongs to Alaska
Alaska
and may be associated with either continent but is almost always considered part of North America, as with the Rat Islands in the Aleutian chain. At their nearest points, Alaska
Alaska
and Russia
Russia
are separated by only 4 kilometres (2.5 miles).

THE AMERICAS AND OCEANIA

The Galápagos Islands
Galápagos Islands
and Malpelo Island
Island
in the eastern Pacific Ocean are possessions of Ecuador
Ecuador
and Colombia
Colombia
, respectively, and associated with South America. The uninhabited French possession of Clipperton Island
Island
1,000 kilometres (600 miles) off the Mexican coast is associated with North America.

Easter Island
Island
, a territory of Chile
Chile
, is considered to be in Oceania, though politically it is associated with South America.

The United States controls numerous territories in Oceania, including the state of Hawaii
Hawaii
.

ASIA AND OCEANIA

Wallace , Lydekker and Weber Lines, the principals on Melanesia

The Malay Archipelago is sometimes divided between Asia
Asia
and Australasia , usually along the anthropologic Melanesian line or Weber\'s Line . Indonesia controls the western half of New Guinea
New Guinea
, geographically part of Australasia. The eastern half of the island is part of Papua New Guinea
New Guinea
which is considered to be part of the Oceania. Indonesia is commonly referred to as one of the Southeast Asian countries. East Timor
East Timor
, an independent state that was formerly a territory of Indonesia, which is geographically part of Asia, is classified by the United Nations
United Nations
as part of the "South-Eastern Asia" block. It is expected to join the Association of Southeast Asian Nations , having been involved as an ASEAN Regional Forum member since independence, and has participated in the Southeast Asian Games since 2003 . Occasionally, all of the Malay Archipelago is included in Oceania, although this is extremely rare, especially as most of the archipelago lies on the Asian continental shelf.

The Commonwealth of Australia includes island possessions in Oceania and islands closer to Indonesia than the Australian mainland.

ANTARCTICA

Antarctica
Antarctica
along with its outlying islands have no permanent population. All land claims south of 60°S latitude are held in abeyance by the Antarctic Treaty System .

The South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands are closer to Antarctica
Antarctica
than to any other continent. However, they are politically associated with the inhabited Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
which are closer to South America. Furthermore, Argentina, a South American country, maintains its irredentist claims on the islands. The continental shelf boundary separates the two island groups.

The Prince Edward Islands are located between Africa
Africa
and Antarctica, and are the territory of South Africa, an African country. The Australian Macquarie Island
Island
and the New Zealand Antipodes Islands , Auckland Islands , and Campbell Islands , are all located between the Oceanian countries of Australia and New Zealand and Antarctica.

Australia's Heard Island
Island
and McDonald Islands and the French Kerguelen Islands are located on the Kerguelen Plateau , on the Antarctic continental plate. The French Crozet Islands
Crozet Islands
, Île Amsterdam , Île Saint-Paul
Île Saint-Paul
, and the Norwegian Bouvet Island
Island
are also located on the Antarctic continental plate, and are not often associated with other continents.

SEE ALSO

* Geography
Geography
portal

* List of countries bordering on two or more oceans * List of transcontinental countries * List of sovereign states and dependent territories by continent * Continental divide * Borders of the oceans
Borders of the oceans

REFERENCES

* ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 December 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012. ; "Countries of Africa". Retrieved 14 June 2016. * ^ "African/Arabian Tectonic Plates". African/Arabian Tectonic Plates. Retrieved 2016-10-06. * ^ "African Plate". www.uwgb.edu. Retrieved 2016-10-06. * ^ Hans Slomp (2011). Europe: A Political Profile. Retrieved 2014-09-10. * ^ Histories 4.38. C.f. James Rennell, The Geographical System of Herodotus
Herodotus
Examined and Explained, Volume 1, Rivington 1830, p. 244 * ^ according to Strabo
Strabo
( Geographica
Geographica
11.7.4) even at the time of Alexander , "it was agreed by all that the Tanais river separated Asia from Europe" (ὡμολόγητο ἐκ πάντων ὅτι διείργει τὴν Ἀσίαν ἀπὸ τῆς Εὐρώπης ὁ Τάναϊς ποταμός; c.f. Duane W. Roller, Eratosthenes' Geography, Princeton University Press, 2010, ISBN 978-0-691-14267-8 , p. 57) * ^ W. Theiler, Posidonios. Die Fragmente, vol. 1. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1982, fragm. 47a. * ^ I. G. Kidd (ed.), Posidonius: The commentary, Cambridge University Press, 2004, ISBN 978-0-521-60443-7 , p. 738. * ^ Geographia 7.5.6 (ed. Nobbe 1845, vol. 2, p. 178)) Καὶ τῇ Εὐρώπῃ δὲ συνάπτει διὰ τοῦ μεταξὺ αὐχένος τῆς τε Μαιώτιδος λίμνης καὶ τοῦ Σαρματικοῦ Ὠκεανοῦ ἐπὶ τῆς διαβάσεως τοῦ Τανάϊδος ποταμοῦ. "And is connected to Europe
Europe
by the land-strait between Lake Maiotis and the Sarmatian Ocean where the river Tanais crosses through." * ^ Philipp Johann von Strahlenberg (1730). Das Nord-und Ostliche Theil von Europa und Asia
Asia
(in German). p. 106. * ^ A B "Boundary of Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
along Urals" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 17 April 2013. * ^ Peter Simon Pallas, Journey through various provinces of the Russian Empire, vol. 3 (1773) * ^ Douglas W. Freshfield, "Journey in the Caucasus", Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, Volumes 13-14, 1869. Cited as de facto convention by Baron von Haxthausen, Transcaucasia (1854); review Dublin University Magazine * ^ "Europe", Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary , 1906 * ^ "Do we live in Europe
Europe
or in Asia?" (in Russian). * ^ Orlenok V. (1998). "Physical Geography" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 16 October 2011. * ^ E. M. Moores, R. W. Fairbridge, Encyclopedia of European and Asian regional geology, Springer, 1997, ISBN 978-0-412-74040-4 , p. 34: "most Soviet geographers took the watershed of the Main Range of the Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
as the boundary between Europe
Europe
and Asia." * ^ Clark, Miles. Russian Voyage. National Geographic Magazine, June 1994. p. 114 a 138. * ^ Purves, Libby (1993-04-30). "Obituary: Miles Clark". The Independent. London. * ^ A B National Geographic Atlas of the World (9th ed.). Washington, DC: National Geographic . 2011. ISBN 978-1-4262-0634-4 . "Europe" (plate 59); "Asia" (plate 74): "A commonly accepted division between Asia
Asia
and Europe
Europe
... is formed by the Ural Mountains, Ural River, Caspian Sea, Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, and the Black Sea
Black Sea
with its outlets, the Bosporus and Dardanelles." * ^ World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
. * ^ World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency. Azerbaijan: Geography
Geography
and Georgia: Geography * ^ "Caucasus". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2012. * ^ Thomas De Waal. The Caucasus: An Introduction. Oxford University Press, 2010. ISBN 0195399765 , 9780195399769. p. 10 * ^ A B World Factbook. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency . Kazakhstan: Geography * ^ Klement Tockner; Urs Uehlinger; Christopher T. Robinson (2009). "18". Rivers of Europe
Europe
(Illustrated ed.). Academic Press. ISBN 9780123694492 . * ^ Glanville Price (2000). Encyclopedia of the Languages of Europe. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. p. xii. * ^ " Orenburg
Orenburg
bridge monument photos". * ^ e.g. Encyclopædia Britannica Online (2011) s.v. "Kuma-Manych Depression": "It is often regarded as the natural boundary between Europe
Europe
and Asia." * ^ "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". United Nations
United Nations
Statistics Division. * ^ Standard country or area codes and geographical regions for statistical use * ^ United Nations
United Nations
Industrial Organisation p. 14 * ^ UNESCO, Europe
Europe
and North America, Retrieved: 10 May 2016 * ^ II General information, point 62 on Council of Europe
Europe
document 11007 dated 7 July 2006 at "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 March 2013. Retrieved 2015-02-12. * ^ II General information, Council of Europe
Europe
document 11007 dated 7 July 2006 at "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 March 2013. Retrieved 2015-02-12. * ^ See continent on Wiktionary
Wiktionary
. "from Latin continent-, continens 'continuous mass of land, mainland'" (http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/continent?show=1&t=1301917145 merriam-webster.com])

* ^ "National Geographic Education". National Geographic Society
National Geographic Society
. Retrieved 2011-05-12. National Geographic Atlas (list). National Geographic Society. 2010. p. 4. Webster's New Geographical Dictionary (list and map). Merriam-Webster Inc. 1984. pp. 856, 859. "Americas" Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49), United Nations
United Nations
Statistics Division "North America" Archived 3 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. Atlas of Canada North America
North America
Atlas National Geographic * ^ " East Timor
East Timor
ASEAN bid". The Sydney Morning Herald. 23 July 2006.

* v * t * e

Continents of the world

Africa
Africa

Antarctica
Antarctica

Asia
Asia

Australia

Europe
Europe

North America
North America

South America
South America

Afro-Eurasia

Americas
Americas

Eurasia
Eurasia

Oceania
Oceania

* FORMER SUPERCONTINENTS Gondwana * Laurasia
Laurasia
* Pangaea
Pangaea
* Pannotia * Rodinia * Columbia * Kenorland * Nena * Sclavia * Ur * Vaalbara

* HISTORICAL CONTINENTS Amazonia * Arctica * Asiamerica * Atlantica * Avalonia * Baltica * Cimmeria * Congo craton * Euramerica * Kalaharia * Kazakhstania * Laurentia
Laurentia
* North China * Siberia * South China * East Antarctica
Antarctica
* India

* SUBMERGED CONTINENTS Kerguelen Plateau * Zealandia
Zealandia

* POSSIBLE FUTURE SUPERCONTINENTS Pangaea
Pangaea
Ultima * Amasia * Novopangaea
Novopangaea

* MYTHICAL AND HYPOTHESISED CONTINENTS Atlantis
Atlantis
* Kumari Kandam * Lemuria * Meropis * Mu * Hyperborea * Terra Australis

* See also Regions of the world * Continental fragment

* BOOK * CATEGORY

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Boundaries_between_the_continents_of_Earth additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.

* Privacy policy * About * Disclaimers * Contact * Developers * Cookie statement * Mobile view

* *

Links: ------ /wiki/Earth /wiki/Geo