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Bolton
Bolton
(/ˈbɒltən/ ( listen) or locally [ˈbɜʏtn̩][2]) is a town in Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
in North West England. A former mill town, Bolton
Bolton
has been a production centre for textiles since Flemish weavers settled in the area in the 14th century, introducing a wool and cotton-weaving tradition. The urbanisation and development of the town largely coincided with the introduction of textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution. Bolton
Bolton
was a 19th-century boomtown, and at its zenith in 1929 its 216 cotton mills and 26 bleaching and dyeing works made it one of the largest and most productive centres of cotton spinning in the world. The British cotton industry declined sharply after the First World War, and by the 1980s cotton manufacture had virtually ceased in Bolton. Close to the West Pennine Moors, Bolton
Bolton
is 10 miles (16 km) northwest of Manchester. It is surrounded by several smaller towns and villages that together form the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton, of which Bolton
Bolton
is the administrative centre. The town of Bolton
Bolton
has a population of 139,403, whilst the wider metropolitan borough has a population of 262,400. Historically part of Lancashire, Bolton originated as a small settlement in the moorland known as Bolton
Bolton
le Moors. In the English Civil War, the town was a Parliamentarian outpost in a staunchly Royalist
Royalist
region, and as a result was stormed by 3,000  Royalist
Royalist
troops led by Prince Rupert of the Rhine
Prince Rupert of the Rhine
in 1644. In what became known as the Bolton
Bolton
Massacre, 1,600 residents were killed and 700 were taken prisoner. Bolton
Bolton
Wanderers football club play home games at the Macron Stadium and the WBA World light-welterweight champion Amir Khan was born in the town. Cultural interests include the Octagon Theatre
Octagon Theatre
and the Bolton Museum
Bolton Museum
and Art Gallery, as well as one of the earliest public libraries established after the Public Libraries Act 1850.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Toponymy 1.2 Early history to the Civil War 1.3 Industrial revolution onward 1.4 Lord Leverhulme

2 Governance 3 Geography 4 Demography

4.1 Population change

5 Economy 6 Landmarks 7 Transport 8 Education 9 Religion 10 Sport 11 Culture and society 12 Public services 13 Notable people 14 See also 15 References

15.1 Citations 15.2 Bibliography

16 Further reading 17 External links

History Toponymy Bolton
Bolton
is a common Northern English name derived from the Old English bothl-tun, meaning a settlement with a dwelling.[3][4] The first recorded use of the name, in the form Boelton, dates from 1185 to describe Bolton
Bolton
le Moors, though this may not be in relation to a dwelling.[5] It was recorded as Bothelton in 1212, Botelton in 1257, Boulton in 1288, and Bolton
Bolton
after 1307.[6] Later forms of Botheltun were Bodeltown, Botheltun-le-Moors, Bowelton, Boltune, Bolton-super-Moras, Bolton-in-ye-Moors, Bolton-le-Moors.[7] The town's motto of Supera Moras means "overcome difficulties" (or "delays"), and is a pun on the Bolton-super-Moras version of the name meaning literally, " Bolton
Bolton
on the moors".[8] Early history to the Civil War There is evidence of human existence on the moors around Bolton
Bolton
since the early part of the Bronze Age, including a stone circle on Cheetham Close above Egerton,[9] and Bronze Age burial mounds on Winter Hill.[10] A Bronze Age mound was excavated in Victorian times outside Haulgh Hall. The Romans built roads from Manchester
Manchester
to Ribchester
Ribchester
to the east and a road along what is now the A6 to the west. It is claimed that Agricola built a fort at Blackrod
Blackrod
by clearing land above the forest. Evidence of a Saxon settlement exists in the form of religious objects found when the Victorian parish church was built.[11] In 1067 Great Bolton was the property of Roger de Poitou and after 1100, of Roger de Meresheys. It became the property of the Pilkingtons who forfeited it in the Civil War and after that the Stanleys who became Earls of Derby.[12] Great Bolton and Little Bolton were part of the Marsey fee, in 1212 Little Bolton was held by Roger de Bolton
Bolton
as plough-land, by the service of the twelfth part of a knight's fee to Randle de Marsey.[13] The parish church in Bolton
Bolton
has an early foundation although the exact date is unknown; it was given by the lord of the manor to the Gilbertine
Gilbertine
canons of Mattersey Priory
Mattersey Priory
in Nottinghamshire, founded by Roger de Marsey.[14]

Ye Olde Man & Scythe

A charter to hold a market in Churchgate was granted on 14 December 1251 by King Henry III of England.[15] Bolton
Bolton
became a market town and borough by a charter from the Earl of Derby, William de Ferrers, on 14 January 1253, and a market was held until the 18th century. Burgage plots were laid out on Churchgate and Deansgate in the centre of the medieval town close to where Ye Olde Man & Scythe public house, dating from 1251, is situated today.[16] In 1337 Flemish weavers settled and introduced the manufacture of woollen cloth.[17] More Flemish weavers, fleeing the Huguenot
Huguenot
persecutions, settled here in the 17th century. The second wave of settlers wove fustian, a rough cloth made of linen and cotton.[18] Digging sea coal was recorded in 1374.[6] There was an outbreak of the plague in the town in 1623.[6] During the English Civil War, the people of Bolton
Bolton
were Puritans and supported the Parliamentarian cause.[14] A parliamentary garrison in the town was attacked twice without success but on 28 May 1644 Prince Rupert's Royalist
Royalist
army with troops under the command of the Earl of Derby attacked again. The attack became known as the Bolton
Bolton
Massacre in which 1,500 died, 700 were taken prisoner and the town plundered.[18] At the end of the Civil War Lord Derby was tried as a traitor at Chester and condemned to death. When his appeal for pardon to parliament was rejected he attempted to escape but was recaptured and executed for his part in the massacre outside Ye Olde Man & Scythe Inn on 15 October 1651.[6] Industrial revolution onward

Swan Lane Mills

A tradition of cottage spinning and weaving and improvements to spinning technology by local inventors, Richard Arkwright
Richard Arkwright
and Samuel Crompton, led to rapid growth of the textile industry in the 19th century. Crompton, whilst living at Hall i' th' Wood, invented the [spinning mule]] in 1779. Streams draining the surrounding moorland into the River Croal
River Croal
provided the water necessary for the bleach works that were a feature of this area.[19] Bleaching using chlorine was introduced in the 1790s by the Ainsworths at Halliwell Bleachworks. Bolton
Bolton
and the surrounding villages had more than thirty bleachworks including the Lever Bank Bleach
Bleach
Works in the Irwell Valley.[20] The mule revolutionised cotton spinning by combining the roller drafting of Arkwright's water frame with the carriage drafting and spindle tip twisting of James Hargreaves's spinning jenny, producing a high quality yarn. Self-acting mules were used in Bolton
Bolton
mills until the 1960s producing fine yarn.[20] The earliest mills were situated by the streams and river as at Barrow Bridge, but steam power led to the construction of the large multi-storey mills and their chimneys that dominated Bolton's skyline, some of which survive today.[18] Growth of the textile industry was assisted by the availability of coal in the area. By 1896 John Fletcher had coal mines at Ladyshore in Little Lever; The Earl of Bradford had a coal mine at Great Lever; the Darcy Lever
Darcy Lever
Coal
Coal
Company had mines at Darcy Lever
Darcy Lever
and there were coal mines at Tonge, Breightmet, Deane and Doffcocker. Some of these pits were close to the Manchester
Manchester
Bolton
Bolton
& Bury
Bury
Canal providing the owners with markets in Bolton
Bolton
and Manchester.[21] Coal
Coal
mining declined in the 20th century. Important transport links contributed to the growth of the town and the textile industry; the Manchester
Manchester
Bolton
Bolton
& Bury
Bury
Canal[18] constructed in 1791, connected the town to Bury
Bury
and Manchester providing transport for coal and other basic materials. The Bolton
Bolton
and Leigh Railway, the oldest in Lancashire, opened to goods traffic in 1828 and Great Moor Street station opened to passengers in 1831. The railway initially connected Bolton
Bolton
to the Leeds and Liverpool Canal
Leeds and Liverpool Canal
in Leigh, an important link with the port of Liverpool for the import of raw cotton from America, but was extended in 1829 to link up with the Manchester
Manchester
to Liverpool Line.[18] Local firms built locomotives for the railway, in 1830 "Union" was built by Rothwell, Hick and Company and two locomotives, "Salamander" and "Veteran" were built by Crook and Dean.[22] Bolton's first Mayor, Charles James Darbishire was sympathetic to Chartism
Chartism
and a supporter of the Anti-Corn Law League. In August 1839 Bolton
Bolton
was besieged by Chartist rioters and the Riot Act
Riot Act
was read and special constables sworn in. The mayor accompanied soldiers called to rescue special constables at Little Bolton Town Hall, which was besieged by a mob, and the incident ended without bloodshed.[23] Derby Barracks was established in Fletcher Street in the early 1860s.[24] By 1900 Bolton
Bolton
was Lancashire's third largest engineering centre after Manchester
Manchester
and Oldham. About 9,000 men were employed in the industry, half of them working for Dobson and Barlow in Kay Street. The firm made textile machinery.[25] Another engineering company Hick, Hargreaves & Co based at the Soho Foundry made Lancashire
Lancashire
boilers and heavy machinery.[26] Thomas Ryder and Son of Turner Bridge manufactured machine tools for the international motor industry. Wrought iron
Wrought iron
was produced for more than 100 years at Thomas Walmsley and Sons' Atlas Forge.[27] By 1911 the textile industry in Bolton
Bolton
employed about 36,000 people. The last mill to be constructed was Sir John Holden's Mill in 1927.[28] The cotton industry declined from the 1920s. A brief upturn after the Second World War was not sustained, and the industry had virtually vanished by the end of the 20th century. During the night of 26 September 1916, Bolton
Bolton
was the target for an aerial offensive. L21, a Zeppelin
Zeppelin
commanded by Oberleutnant Kurt Frankenburg of the Imperial German Navy, dropped twenty-one bombs on the town, five of them on the working class area of Kirk Street, killing thirteen residents and destroying six houses. Further attacks followed on other parts of the town, including three incendaries dropped close to the Town Hall.[29][30] Lord Leverhulme In 1899 William Lever, Lord Leverhulme, bought Hall i'th' Wood as a memorial to Samuel Crompton
Samuel Crompton
inventor of the spinning mule. Lever restored the dilapidated building and presented it to the town in 1902, having turned it into a museum furnished with household goods typical of domestic family life in the 16th and 17th centuries. Lever re-endowed Bolton
Bolton
Schools, giving land and his house on Chorley New Road. He presented the town with 67 acres (270,000 m2) of land for a public park which the corporation named Leverhulme Park
Leverhulme Park
in 1914.[31] In 1902 he gave the people of Bolton
Bolton
Lever Park at Rivington. In 1911, Lever consulted Thomas Mawson, landscape architect and lecturer in Landscape Design at the University of Liverpool, regarding town planning in Bolton. Mawson published " Bolton
Bolton
– a Study in Town Planning and Civic Art" and gave lectures entitled " Bolton
Bolton
Housing and Town Planning Society" which formed the basis of an illustrated book " Bolton
Bolton
– as it is and as it might be". In 1924, Leverhulme presented Bolton
Bolton
Council with an ambitious plan to rebuild the town centre based on Mawson's designs funded partly by himself. The council declined in favour of extending the town hall and building the civic centre.[32] Governance

The coat of arms of the former Bolton
Bolton
County Borough
County Borough
Council

Lying within the county boundaries of Lancashire, until the early 19th century, Great Bolton and Little Bolton were two of the eighteen townships of the ecclesiastical parish of Bolton
Bolton
le Moors.[33][34] These townships were separated by the River Croal, Little Bolton on the north bank and Great Bolton on the south.[6][13][14] Bolton
Bolton
Poor Law Union was formed on 1 February 1837. It continued using existing poorhouses at Fletcher Street and Turton but in 1856 started to build a new workhouse at Fishpool Farm in Farnworth. Townleys Hospital was built on the site which is now Royal Bolton
Bolton
Hospital.[35] In 1838 Great Bolton, most of Little Bolton and the Haulgh area of Tonge with Haulgh were incorporated under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 as a municipal borough, the second to be created in England. Further additions were made adding part of Rumworth in 1872 and part of Halliwell in 1877.[36][37] In 1889 Bolton
Bolton
was granted County Borough status and became self-governing and independent from Lancashire
Lancashire
County Council jurisdiction. In 1898, the borough was extended further by adding the civil parishes of Breightmet, Darcy Lever, Great Lever, the rest of Halliwell, Heaton, Lostock, Middle Hulton, the rest of Rumworth which had been renamed Deane in 1894, Smithills, and Tonge plus Astley Bridge Urban District, and part of Over Hulton
Over Hulton
civil parish.[36][37] The County Borough of Bolton
County Borough of Bolton
was abolished in 1974 and became a constituent part of the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton
Bolton
in Greater Manchester.[36][37] Bolton
Bolton
unsuccessfully applied for city status in 2011.[38][39] Bolton
Bolton
Metropolitan Borough Council is divided into twenty wards, each of which elects three councillors for a term of up to four years. As of 2014 there are forty Labour councillors, sixteen Conservatives and three Liberal Democrats, with one seat remaining vacant.[40] Under the Reform Act of 1832, a Parliamentary Borough was established. The Bolton
Bolton
constituency was represented by two Members of Parliament.[41] The Parliamentary Borough continued until 1950 when it was abolished and replaced with two parliamentary constituencies, Bolton
Bolton
East and Bolton
Bolton
West, each with one Member of Parliament.[41] In 1983 Bolton
Bolton
East was abolished and two new constituencies were created, Bolton
Bolton
North East, and Bolton
Bolton
South East covering most of the former Farnworth
Farnworth
constituency. At the same time major boundary changes also took place to Bolton
Bolton
West, which took over most of the former Westhoughton
Westhoughton
constituency.[41][42] Under the town twinning scheme the local council have twinned Bolton
Bolton
with Le Mans
Le Mans
in France, since 1967,[43][44] and Paderborn
Paderborn
in Germany, since 1975.[43] Geography Further information: Geography of Greater Manchester

A panoramic view of Bolton
Bolton
and environs from the north-west, taken from Winter Hill.

Bolton
Bolton
is a town in Greater Manchester, in the North West of England.[36] Close to the West Pennine Moors, it is 10 miles (16 km) northwest of the city of Manchester
Manchester
and surrounded by several smaller towns and villages which together form the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton, of which Bolton
Bolton
is the administrative centre. The early name, Bolton
Bolton
le Moors, described the position of the town amid the low hills on the edge of the West Pennine Moors
West Pennine Moors
southeast of Rivington
Rivington
Pike (456 m). Bolton
Bolton
lies on relatively flat land on both sides of the clough or steep-banked valley through which the River Croal flows in a southeasterly direction towards the River Irwell.[6] The geological formation around Bolton
Bolton
consists of sandstones of the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
series and Coal
Coal
Measures; in the northern part of Bolton the lower Coal
Coal
Measures are mixed with underlying Millstone Grit.[14]

Neighbouring towns, villages and places.

Horwich Egerton and Chapeltown Tottington

Aspull
Aspull
and Blackrod

Bolton

Little Lever
Little Lever
and Radcliffe

Westhoughton Atherton and Tyldesley Farnworth
Farnworth
and Kearsley

Climate in the Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
area is generally similar to the climate of England, although owing to protection from the mountains in North Wales it experiences slightly lower than average rainfall except during the summer months, when rainfall is higher than average.[45] Bolton
Bolton
has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).[46][47]

v t e

Areas and suburbs of Bolton

Barrow Bridge Breightmet Burnden Deane Doffcocker Great Lever Halliwell Heaton Lostock Markland Hill Rumworth Smithills Tonge

Demography

Bolton
Bolton
Compared

2001 Census Bolton Bolton
Bolton
(borough) GM Urban Area England

Total population 139,403 261,037 2,240,230 49,138,831

White 81.6% 89.0% 90.3% 90.9%

Asian 15.8% 9.1% 6.2% 4.6%

Black 0.9% 0.6% 1.3% 2.3%

Source: Office for National Statistics[48][49]

At the time of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Census 2001, according to the Office for National Statistics, the Urban Subdivision of Bolton[50] was part of the Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
Urban Area and had a total resident population of 139,403, of which 67,823 (48.7%) were male and 71,580 (51.3%) were female,[51] living in 57,827 households.[52] The settlement occupied 4,446 hectares (17.17 sq mi), compared with 2,992 hectares (11.55 sq mi) in the 1991 census, though it should be noted that the 2001 Urban census area contains a large rural area to the south of the town. Its population density was 31.35 people per hectare compared with an average of 40.20 across the Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
Urban Area.[51] The median age of the population was 35, compared with 36 within the Greater Manchester Urban Area and 37 across England
England
and Wales.[53] The majority of the population of Bolton
Bolton
were born in England (87.10%); 2.05% were born elsewhere within the United Kingdom, 1.45% within the rest of the European Union, and 9.38% elsewhere in the world.[54] Data on religious beliefs across the town in the 2001 census show that 67.9% declared themselves to be Christian, 12.5% stated that they were Muslim, 8.6% said they held no religion, and 3.4% reported themselves as Hindu.[55] Population change For earlier population figures, see Great Bolton and Little Bolton.

Population changes in Bolton
Bolton
since 1891

Year Population ±%

1891 146,487 —    

1901 168,215 +14.8%

1911 180,851 +7.5%

1921 178,683 −1.2%

Year Population ±%

1931 177,250 −0.8%

1939 163,823 −7.6%

1951 167,167 +2.0%

1961 160,789 −3.8%

Year Population ±%

1971 154,223 −4.1%

1981 143,921 −6.7%

1991 139,020 −3.4%

2001 139,403 +0.3%

Sources: County Borough
County Borough
1891–1971.[56][57][58] Urban Subdivision 1981–2001.[51][59][60]

Economy

Bolton
Bolton
Compared

2001 UK Census Bolton GM Urban Area England

Population (16–74) 97,859 1,606,414 35,532,091

Full-time employment 37.0% 40.1% 40.8%

Part-time employment 11.7% 11.2% 11.8%

Self-employed 6.7% 6.6% 8.3%

Unemployed 4.2% 3.6% 3.3%

Retired 13.0% 13.0% 13.5%

Source: Office for National Statistics[61]

At the time of the 2001 Census, 56,390 people resident in Bolton
Bolton
were in employment. Of these, 21.13% worked in the wholesale and retail trade, including repair of motor vehicles; 18.71% worked within manufacturing industry; 11.00% worked within the health and social work sector and 6.81% were employed in the transport, storage and communication industries.[62] In the last quarter of the 20th century heavy industry was replaced by service-based activities including data processing, call centres, hi-tech electronics and IT companies. The town retains some traditional industries employing people in paper-manufacturing, packaging, textiles, transportation, steel foundries and building materials. Missiles were produced at the British Aerospace
British Aerospace
(BAe) factory in Lostock, now closed. The Reebok
Reebok
brand's European headquarters are located at the Reebok
Reebok
Stadium. Bolton
Bolton
is also the home of the family bakery, Warburtons, established in 1876 on Blackburn Road. On 13 February 2003, Bolton
Bolton
was granted Fairtrade Town status.[63] Bolton
Bolton
attracts visitors to its shopping centres, markets, public houses, restaurants and cafes in the town centre as well retail parks and leisure facilities close to the town centre and in the surrounding towns and suburbs.[64][65] Tourism plays a part in the economy, visitor attractions include Hall i' th' Wood, Smithills
Smithills
Hall and Country Park, Last Drop Village, Barrow Bridge
Barrow Bridge
and the Bolton
Bolton
Steam Museum.[66][67] There are several regeneration projects planned for Bolton
Bolton
over the next ten years, including Church Wharf by Ask Developments and Bluemantle[68] and Merchant's Quarter by local developer Charles Topham group, which together will contribute 1,000,000 square feet (93,000 m2) of business space.[69] The Bolton
Bolton
Innovation Zone is a large £300 million development with the University of Bolton
University of Bolton
at its core. Landmarks See also: Grade I listed buildings in Greater Manchester, Grade II* listed buildings in Greater Manchester, and List of public art in Greater Manchester

The 14th-century Smithills
Smithills
Hall is now a museum.

Situated in the town centre on the site of a former market is the Grade II*
Grade II*
listed town hall, an imposing neoclassical building designed by William Hill and opened in June 1873 by Albert Edward, Prince of Wales.[16] In the 1930s the building was extended by Bradshaw Gass & Hope.[16][70] Within the Town Hall are the Albert Halls and several function rooms. The original, single Albert Hall was destroyed by fire on 14 November 1981. After rebuilding work, it was replaced by the present Albert Halls, which were opened in 1985.[70] The Great Hall of Smithills
Smithills
Hall was built in the 14th century when William de Radcliffe received the Manor of Smithills
Smithills
from the Hultons, the chapel dates from the 16th century and was extended during the 19th. Smithills
Smithills
Hall was where, in 1555, George Marsh was tried for heresy during the Marian Persecutions. After being "examined" at Smithills, according to local tradition, George Marsh stamped his foot so hard to re-affirm his faith, that a footprint was left in the stone floor. It is a Grade I listed building and is now a museum.[71][72] Hall i' th' Wood, now a museum, is a late mediaeval yeoman farmer's house built by Laurence Brownlow. Around 1637 it was owned by the Norris family, who added the stone west wing. In the 18th century it was divided up into tenements. Samuel Crompton
Samuel Crompton
lived and worked there. In the 19th century it deteriorated further until in 1895 it was bought by industrialist William Hesketh Lever, who restored it and presented it to Bolton
Bolton
Council in 1900.[73] Bolton's 26 conservation areas contain 700 listed buildings, many of which are in the town centre, and there is parkland including the Victorian Queen's Park, Leverhulme Park
Leverhulme Park
and other open spaces in the surrounding area.[74][75] These include Le Mans
Le Mans
Crescent, Ye Olde Man & Scythe, Little Bolton Town Hall, the Market Place, Wood Street and Holy Trinity Church. The Market Hall of 1854 is a Grade II listed building.[76] Outside the town centre can be found Mere Hall, Firwood Fold, Haulgh Hall, Park Cottage, St Mary's Church, Deane, Lostock Hall Gatehouse and All Souls Church. Notable mills still overlooking parts of the town are Sir John Holden's Mill[77] and Swan Lane Mills.[78] Most views northwards are dominated by Rivington
Rivington
Pike and the Winter Hill TV Mast on the West Pennine Moors
West Pennine Moors
above the town.[79] Transport Bolton
Bolton
is well served by the local road network and national routes. The A6, a major north–south trunk road, passes to the west through Hunger Hill and Westhoughton. The A666 dual carriageway (sometimes referred to as the Devil's Highway because of its numeric designation), is a spur from the M61/ M60 motorway
M60 motorway
interchange through the town centre to Astley Bridge, Egerton, Darwen and Blackburn. The M61 has three dedicated junctions serving the borough. A network of local buses coordinated by Transport for Greater Manchester
Manchester
serves the Bolton
Bolton
district and beyond;[80] bus operators include Arriva North West, First Greater Manchester, Diamond Bus North West and Maytree Travel. Bolton
Bolton
is also served by the National Express coach network. The bus station on Moor Lane was scheduled to be replaced by a new interchange in the town centre next to the railway station by the end of 2014, at a cost of £48 million.[81] Bolton Interchange
Bolton Interchange
is located on the Manchester
Manchester
loop of the West Coast Mainline which was served by Virgin West Coast
Virgin West Coast
trains passing through Manchester
Manchester
Piccadilly station. Managed by Northern, the station is part of a town-centre transport interchange with services to Manchester, Wigan, Southport, Blackburn and intermediate stations operated by TransPennine Express
TransPennine Express
and Northern trains.[82][83] Education See also: List of schools in Bolton Bolton
Bolton
School, an independent day school, was founded on a site next to the parish church in 1524 as a grammar school for boys; it merged around 1656 with a free grammar school that had been founded shortly after 1641.[84][85][86] In 1898, it moved to its present site in Chorley New Road, and in 1913 merged with Bolton
Bolton
Girls' Day School.[87] In 1855 the Bolton
Bolton
Church Institute was founded by Canon James Slade
James Slade
near to the parish church. The school became Canon Slade School, which has since relocated to Bradshaw.[88] The town's other secondary schools include Bolton
Bolton
St Catherine's Academy, Ladybridge High School, Sharples School, Smithills
Smithills
School, Thornleigh Salesian College and UTC Bolton. Bolton College provides further education from sites throughout the borough.[89] Bolton Sixth Form College comprises the Town Centre Campus and Farnworth
Farnworth
Campus.[90] The Bolton
Bolton
TIC (Technical Innovation Centre), opened in 2006, supports local schools by providing additional technical training.[91] The University of Bolton, formerly the Bolton
Bolton
Institute of Higher Education, gained university status in 2005.[92] Religion See also: List of churches in Greater Manchester

Bolton
Bolton
Parish
Parish
Church

Religion in Bolton
Bolton
2001[93]

UK Census 2001 Bolton (borough) Greater Manchester England

Christian 74.56% 78.01% 71.74%

No religion 8.75% 10.48% 14.59%

Muslim 7.07% 3.04% 3.1%

Buddhist 0.10% 0.18% 0.28%

Hindu 2.00% 0.40% 1.11%

Jewish 0.06% 0.42% 0.52%

Sikh 0.03% 0.10% 0.67%

Other religions 0.15% 0.16% 0.29%

Religion not stated 7.28% 7.23% 7.69%

There is evidence from Saxon times of Christian
Christian
churches and at the time of the Civil War a Puritan
Puritan
and nonconformist presence in the town. The Unitarians were among the early dissenting congregations which eventually included Methodists, Baptists, Seventh Day Adventist and other denominations. More than forty churches were built during the Victorian era, but some have now been closed, demolished or converted to other uses.[94][95] Today, the parish of Bolton-le-Moors covers a small area in the town centre,[96] but until the 19th century it covered a much larger area, divided into eighteen chapelries and townships.[14][97] The neighbouring ancient parish of Deane centred around St Mary's Church once covered a large area to the west and south of Bolton,[98] and the township of Great Lever
Great Lever
was part of the ancient parish of Middleton.[97] The Church of St Peter, commonly known as Bolton
Bolton
Parish
Parish
Church, is an example of the gothic revival style. Built between 1866 and 1871 of Longridge
Longridge
stone to designs by Paley, the church is 67 ft (20.4 m) in width, 156 ft (47.5 m) in length, and 82 ft (25.0 m) in height. The tower is 180 ft (54.9 m) high with 13 bells.[11] The first church on the same site was built in Anglo-Saxon times. It was rebuilt in Norman times and again in the early 15th century. Little is known of the first two earlier churches, but the third building was a solid, squat building with a sturdy square tower at the west end. It was modified over the years until it fell into disrepair and was demolished in 1866.[14] Fragments of stone and other artefacts from these first three buildings are displayed in the museum corner of the present church.[11] St Mary's Deane, once the only church in a parish of ten townships in the hundred of Salford, is a church established in Saxon times. The current building dates from 1250 with extensions and restoration in the 19th century and is a Grade II*
Grade II*
listed building.[99] St George's Church was built between 1794 and 1796 when Little Bolton was a separate township. Built by Peter Rothwell and paid for by the Ainsworth family.[100] in 1975 it was leased to Bolton
Bolton
Council, and became a craft centre in 1994.[101] St Patrick's Roman Catholic Church on Great Moor Street,was built in 1861.[102] The New Zakaria Mosque, the first mosque in Bolton, served the Muslim community from Pakistan and India from the 1960s. The first place of worship for Hindus was in the former St Barnabus Church, converted into a Hindu
Hindu
temple.[94] Sport Bolton Wanderers F.C.
Bolton Wanderers F.C.
is an English Football League club which was formed in 1874 and for 102 years played at Burnden
Burnden
Park. The club moved to the Reebok
Reebok
Stadium in Horwich
Horwich
in 1997. The club has won four FA Cups, the most recent in 1958, and spent 73 seasons in the top division of the English league – more than any club never to have been league champions.[103] Bolton Hockey Club
Bolton Hockey Club
fields women's men's and junior teams and has more than 120 playing members.[104] The town has two local cricket leagues, the Bolton
Bolton
Cricket League,[105] and the Bolton
Bolton
Cricket Association.[106] Bolton
Bolton
also has a rugby union club, Bolton
Bolton
RUFC formed in 1872 situated on Avenue Street. The club operates four senior teams, as well as women's and junior sections.[107] Bolton Robots of Doom is a baseball club started in 2003, playing home games at Stapleton Avenue. In addition to the adult team there is a junior team, Bolton
Bolton
Bears. Baseball
Baseball
in Bolton
Bolton
dates back to 1938 with a team called Bolton
Bolton
Scarlets.[108] An American football team, the Bolton Bulldogs, plays home games at Smithills
Smithills
School operating varsity and junior varsity teams.[109] Speedway racing, known as Dirt Track Racing, was staged at Raikes Park in the pioneering days of 1928, but the speedway was short-lived.[110] Greyhound racing took place at the Raikes Park Greyhound Stadium from 1927 until 1996.[111] Culture and society

Bolton
Bolton
Civic Centre in 1994, Le Mans
Le Mans
Crescent

According to a survey of the British Association for the Advancement of Science Boltonians are the friendliest people in Britain.[112] Humphrey Spender
Humphrey Spender
photographed Bolton
Bolton
calling it Worktown for the Mass-Observation Project, a social research organisation which aimed to record everyday life in Britain. His photographs provide a record of ordinary people living and working in a British pre-War industrial town.[113] Bolton
Bolton
has several theatres including the Octagon and independent groups such as Bolton Little Theatre
Bolton Little Theatre
and the Phoenix Theatre Company. Inside the Town Hall there is a theatre and conference complex, the Albert Halls. Le Mans
Le Mans
Crescent, home to the central library, museum, art gallery, aquarium, magistrates' court and town hall, is to be the centre of a new Cultural Quarter. The library and museum are to be extended into the area now occupied by the Magistrates Court. Bolton Museum and Art Gallery houses a collection of local and international art.[114] Bolton Steam Museum
Bolton Steam Museum
houses a variety of preserved steam engines in part of the old Atlas Mill.[115] Bolton
Bolton
Central Library was one of the earliest public libraries established after the Public Libraries Act 1850, opening in October 1853 in the Exchange Building on the old market square (Victoria Square) before moving to Le Mans
Le Mans
Crescent in July 1938.[116] The Bolton
Bolton
Symphony Orchestra performs regular concerts at the Albert Halls and Victoria Hall in the town centre.[117] The 2008 BBC Radio 3 Adult Choir of the Year[118] and five times gold-medal winning barbershop chorus The Cottontown Chorus is based in Bolton.[119] The town's daily newspaper is The Bolton
Bolton
News, formerly the Bolton Evening News. There is a weekly free paper, the Bolton
Bolton
Journal and Bolton
Bolton
Council's monthly newspaper, Bolton
Bolton
Scene. The town is part of the BBC North West
BBC North West
and ITV Granada television regions, served by the Winter Hill transmitter near Belmont. Local radio is provided by Tower FM, which broadcasts across Bolton
Bolton
and Bury; Bolton
Bolton
FM began broadcasting in 2009.[120] The fictional village of Newbank in Benjamin Disraeli's novel Coningsby was based in part on the industrial village of Barrow Bridge.[121] Spring and Port Wine
Spring and Port Wine
by playwright, Bill Naughton
Bill Naughton
was filmed and set in Bolton
Bolton
and The Family Way
The Family Way
based on Naughton's play All in Good Time was also filmed and set in the town.[122] Peter Kay filmed comedy TV series That Peter Kay
Peter Kay
Thing in the town. Bolton
Bolton
has been use as a setting for film and television drama. Le Mans Crescent has featured as a London street in the Jeremy Brett version of Sherlock Holmes, a Russian secret service building in the 1990s comedy series Sleepers and in Peaky Blinders in 2014.[123] The 1990s BBC drama Between the Lines filmed an episode in Victoria Square.[124] Public services See also: Healthcare in Greater Manchester Bolton
Bolton
is policed by the Bolton
Bolton
Central Division of Greater Manchester Police, which covers the town centre, Rumworth and Halliwell. Great Lever and Little Lever
Little Lever
are covered by Farnworth
Farnworth
Police Station, Astley Bridge Police Station covers Tonge and The Haulgh, Breightmet
Breightmet
and Crompton while Heaton and Lostock, and Smithills
Smithills
are covered by Horwich
Horwich
Police (Middlebrook).[125] The statutory emergency fire and rescue service is provided by the Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
Fire and Rescue Service, from Bolton
Bolton
Central, Bolton
Bolton
North, Horwich
Horwich
and Farnworth
Farnworth
Fire Stations.[126] Hospital services are provided by the Royal Bolton Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, which provides Accident and Emergency and other services at Royal Bolton
Bolton
Hospital in Farnworth.[127] Community health services, including GPs, district and community nurses, dentists and pharmacists, are co-ordinated by the Bolton Primary Care Trust.[128] Waste management is co-ordinated by the Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
Waste Disposal Authority.[129] Bolton's Distribution Network Operator for electricity is Electricity North West Ltd.[130] United Utilities manage Bolton's drinking and waste water.[131] Notable people Main article: List of people from Bolton Among the notable people born in Bolton
Bolton
are the Protestant martyr George Marsh, 1515–55,[72] the inventor of the spinning mule that revolutionised the textile industry, Samuel Crompton, 1753–1827,[132] and industrialist Lord Leverhulme of Bolton-le-Moors, 1851–1925.[32] More recently, people born and raised in Bolton
Bolton
include Fred Dibnah, a steeplejack who became a popular television historian of Britain's industrial past;[133] world champion boxer Amir Khan, who became the WBA World light-welterweight champion on 18 July 2009 at the age of 22, making him Britain's third-youngest world champion boxer;[134] comedian Peter Kay;[135] and President of the International Paralympic Committee Philip Craven.[136] Playwright and author Bill Naughton
Bill Naughton
was born in Ireland but brought up in Bolton
Bolton
from an early age.[122] See also

Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
portal

List of mills in Bolton Listed buildings in Bolton

References Citations

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Bolton
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Bolton
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Bolton
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Smithills
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Smithills
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Bolton
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Bolton
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Astley Bridge Mill
(1387926)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 20 December 2012  ^ Historic England, "Swan Lane Mill Number 3 (1388071)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 20 December 2012  ^ " Rivington
Rivington
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Bolton
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Bolton
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Bolton
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Bolton
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Bolton
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Bolton
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Bibliography

Ashmore, Owen (1982), The Industrial Archaeology of North-West England, Manchester
Manchester
University Press, ISBN 978-0-7190-0820-7  Dunne, Tom (1978), Bolton
Bolton
Public Libraries 1853–1978, Arts Department of Bolton
Bolton
Metropolitan Borough, ISBN 978-0-906585-00-9  Hartwell, Clare; Hyde, Matthew; Pevsner, Nikolaus (2004), Lancashire: Manchester
Manchester
and the South-East, Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-10583-4  Lewis, Samuel (1835), A Topographical Dictionary of England
England
(3rd ed.)  Mills, David (2011), A Dictionary of British Place-Names, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-852758-6  Shorrocks, Graham (1999), A Grammar of the Dialect of the Bolton
Bolton
Area: Introduction, phonology, Peter Lang, ISBN 978-0-9529333-0-4  Smith, Peter J. C. (1991), Zeppelins over Lancashire, Neil Richardson, ISBN 1-85216-066-7  Sweeney, D. J. (1996), A Lancashire
Lancashire
Triangle Part One, Triangle Publishing, ISBN 978-0-9529333-0-4  Wood, C. M. (1974), The Geography of Pollution: A Study of Greater Manchester, Manchester
Manchester
University Press 

Further reading

Southern, Christine (1975), The Changing Face of Bolton, Hendon Publishing Lancs., ISBN 0-902907-76-X 

External links

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Bolton.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bolton, Greater Manchester.

Bolton
Bolton
Council

v t e

Ceremonial county of Greater Manchester

Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
Portal

Statutory City Region

Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
Combined Authority Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
Statutory City Region Mayor of Greater Manchester

Metropolitan districts

City of Manchester City of Salford Metropolitan Borough of Bolton Metropolitan Borough of Bury Metropolitan Borough of Oldham Metropolitan Borough of Rochdale Metropolitan Borough of Stockport Metropolitan Borough of Tameside Metropolitan Borough of Trafford Metropolitan Borough of Wigan

Major settlements

Altrincham Ashton-in-Makerfield
Ashton-in-Makerfield
(part) Ashton-under-Lyne Atherton Audenshaw Blackrod Bolton Bredbury Bury Chadderton Clifton Denton Droylsden Dukinfield Eccles Failsworth Farnworth Golborne Heywood Hindley Horwich Hyde Kearsley Leigh Littleborough Manchester Marple Middleton Milnrow Mossley Oldham Partington Pendlebury Prestwich Radcliffe Ramsbottom Rochdale Royton Sale Salford Shaw Stalybridge Standish Stockport Stretford Swinton Tyldesley Urmston Walkden Westhoughton Whitefield Wigan Worsley See also: List of civil parishes in Greater Manchester

Rivers

Beal Bollin Croal Dean Brook Douglas Etherow Goyt Irk Irwell Medlock Mersey Roch Spodden Tame Tib Tonge

Topics

Parliamentary constituencies and Members of Parliament Crime Cycling Demography People Public art Schools Geography Places Population of major settlements Castles Churches Flag Football clubs Grade I listed buildings Grade II*
Grade II*
listed buildings Mills Scheduled monuments SSSIs History Lord Lieutenants High Sheriffs Museums Places of interest

v t e

Buildings and structures in the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton, England

Notable low-rises

Astley Bridge Mill Bolton
Bolton
Town Hall Bolton
Bolton
Museum Bolton
Bolton
Steam Museum Bolton
Bolton
Union Mill Century Mill Eagley Mills 10 Firwood Fold 15 Firwood Fold Hall i' th' Wood Kearsley
Kearsley
Mill Smithills
Smithills
Hall Swan Lane Mills Ye Olde Man & Scythe

Places of worship

All Souls Holy Trinity St George's St James' St John the Evangelist's St Mary the Virgin's St Margaret's St Matthew's St Maxentius' St Patrick's St Peter's St Saviour's St Stephen and All Martyrs' St Thomas' Shri Swaminarayan Mandir

Education

Bolton
Bolton
School Bolton
Bolton
TIC Rivington
Rivington
and Blackrod
Blackrod
High School University of Bolton

Transportation

Bolton
Bolton
bus station Bolton
Bolton
Interchange Bolton
Bolton
railway station Blackrod
Blackrod
railway station Farnworth
Farnworth
railway station Horwich
Horwich
Parkway railway station Kearsley
Kearsley
railway station Lostock railway station Moses Gate railway station Westhoughton
Westhoughton
railway station

Shopping complexes

Middlebrook

Sport and Entertainment

Bolton
Bolton
Arena Bolton
Bolton
Little Theatre Macron Stadium Octagon Theatre

Bridges

Prestolee Aqueduct Ringley Old Bridge

Demolished

Burnden
Burnden
Park Lostock Junction Mills Chequerbent railway station Chequerbent railway station
Chequerbent railway station
(1831) Grundy Hill Horwich
Horwich
railway station Westhoughton
Westhoughton
Mill

Lists

List of schools in Bolton List of mills in Bolton

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 139530

.