HOME
The Info List - Bollywood


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i)

HINDI CINEMA, often metonymously referred to as BOLLYWOOD, is the Indian Hindi-language film industry, based in the city of Mumbai (formerly Bombay), Maharashtra
Maharashtra
, India
India
. Bollywood
Bollywood
the term being a portmanteau of Bombay and Hollywood
Hollywood
. Bollywood
Bollywood
is a part of the larger cinema of India
India
(also known as Indywood), which includes other production centers producing films in other Indian languages . Linguistically, Bollywood
Bollywood
films tend to use a colloquial dialect of Hindi- Urdu
Urdu
, or Hindustani , mutually intelligible to both Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu
Urdu
speakers, while modern Bollywood
Bollywood
films also increasingly incorporate elements of Hinglish .

Indian cinema
Indian cinema
is the world's largest film industry in terms of film production, with an annual output of 1,986 feature films as of 2017, and Bollywood
Bollywood
is its largest film producer, with 364 Hindi
Hindi
films produced annually as of 2017. Bollywood
Bollywood
represents 43% of Indian net box office revenue, while Telugu and Tamil cinema
Tamil cinema
represent 36%, and the rest of the regional cinema constitute 21%, as of 2014. Bollywood is thus one of the largest centers of film production in the world. In terms of ticket sales, Bollywood
Bollywood
sells an estimated 3.6 billion tickets annually across the globe, compared to Hollywood
Hollywood
's 2.6 billion tickets sold.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Early history (1910s–1940s) * 2.2 Golden Age (late 1940s–1960s) * 2.3 Classic Bollywood
Bollywood
(1970s–1980s) * 2.4 New Bollywood
Bollywood
(1990s–present)

* 3 Influences for Bollywood
Bollywood

* 4 Influence of Bollywood
Bollywood

* 4.1 India
India
* 4.2 Overseas

* 5 Genre conventions * 6 Cast and crew * 7 Dialogues and lyrics * 8 Sound * 9 Makeup * 10 Bollywood
Bollywood
song and dance * 11 Finances * 12 Advertising * 13 International shoots * 14 Awards * 15 Film education

* 16 Global markets

* 16.1 Asia-Pacific

* 16.1.1 South Asia
South Asia
* 16.1.2 Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
* 16.1.3 East Asia
East Asia
* 16.1.4 Oceania
Oceania

* 16.2 Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and Central Asia
Central Asia
* 16.3 Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa
North Africa
* 16.4 South America * 16.5 Sub-Saharan Africa and Horn of Africa * 16.6 Western Europe
Western Europe
and North America

* 17 Plagiarism
Plagiarism
* 18 See also * 19 References * 20 Further reading * 21 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The name "Bollywood" is a portmanteau derived from Bombay (the former name for Mumbai) and Hollywood
Hollywood
(in California
California
), the center of the American film industry . The naming scheme for "Bollywood" was inspired by "Tollywood", the name that was used to refer to the cinema of West Bengal
West Bengal
. Dating back to 1932, "Tollywood" was the earliest Hollywood-inspired name , referring to the Bengali film industry based in Tollygunge (in Calcutta , West Bengal
West Bengal
), whose name is reminiscent of "Hollywood" and was the centre of the cinema of India
India
at the time. It was this "chance juxtaposition of two pairs of rhyming syllables," Holly and Tolly, that led to the portmanteau name "Tollywood" being coined. The name "Tollywood" went on to be used as a nickname for the Bengali film industry by the popular Calcutta-based Junior Statesman youth magazine, establishing a precedent for other film industries to use similar-sounding names, eventually leading to the coining of "Bollywood". "Tollywood" is now also popularly used to refer to the Telugu film industry in Telangana
Telangana
and Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
.

The term "Bollywood" itself has origins in the 1970s, when India overtook the United States
United States
as the world's largest film producer. Credit for the term has been claimed by several different people, including the lyricist, filmmaker and scholar Amit Khanna, and the journalist Bevinda Collaco. Bollywood
Bollywood
does not exist as a physical place. Some deplore the name, arguing that it makes the industry look like a poor cousin to Hollywood.

HISTORY

EARLY HISTORY (1910S–1940S)

Dadasaheb Phalke is considered the father of Indian cinema, including Bollywood.

Raja Harishchandra
Raja Harishchandra
(1913), by Dadasaheb Phalke , is known as the first silent feature film made in India
India
. By the 1930s, the industry was producing over 200 films per annum. The first Indian sound film, Ardeshir Irani 's Alam Ara (1931), was a major commercial success. There was clearly a huge market for talkies and musicals; Bollywood and all the regional film industries quickly switched to sound filming.

The 1930s and 1940s were tumultuous times: India
India
was buffeted by the Great Depression
Great Depression
, World War II
World War II
, the Indian independence movement
Indian independence movement
, and the violence of the Partition . Most Bollywood
Bollywood
films were unabashedly escapist , but there were also a number of filmmakers who tackled tough social issues, or used the struggle for Indian independence as a backdrop for their plots.

In 1937, Ardeshir Irani, of Alam Ara fame, made the first colour film in Hindi
Hindi
, Kisan Kanya . The next year, he made another colour film, a version of Mother India. However, colour did not become a popular feature until the late 1950s. At this time, lavish romantic musicals and melodramas were the staple fare at the cinema.

Prior to the 1947 partition of India
India
, which was divided into the Republic of India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
, the Bombay film industry (now called Bollywood) was closely to the Lahore
Lahore
film industry (now the Lollywood industry of Pakistani cinema ), as both produced films in Hindi- Urdu
Urdu
, or Hindustani , the lingua franca across northern and central India. In the 1940s, many actors, filmmakers and musicians in the Lahore industry migrated to the Bombay industry, including actors such as K.L. Saigal , Prithviraj Kapoor , Dilip Kumar and Dev Anand and singers such as Mohammed Rafi
Mohammed Rafi
, Noorjahan and Shamshad Begum . Around that time, filmmakers and actors from the Bengali film industry based in Calcutta (now Kolkata) also began migrating to the Bombay film industry, which for decades after partition would be dominated by actors, filmmakers and musicians with origins in what is today Pakistani Punjab
Pakistani Punjab
, along with those from Bengal
Bengal
.

GOLDEN AGE (LATE 1940S–1960S)

Following India\'s independence , the period from the late 1940s to the early 1960s is regarded by film historians as the "Golden Age" of Hindi
Hindi
cinema. Some of the most critically acclaimed Hindi
Hindi
films of all time were produced during this period. Examples include Pyaasa (1957) and Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959) directed by Guru Dutt and written by Abrar Alvi , Awaara (1951) and Shree 420 (1955) directed by Raj Kapoor and written by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas , and Aan (1952) directed by Mehboob Khan and starring Dilip Kumar . These films expressed social themes mainly dealing with working-class life in India
India
, particularly urban life in the former two examples; Awaara presented the city as both a nightmare and a dream, while Pyaasa
Pyaasa
critiqued the unreality of city life.

Mehboob Khan 's Mother India
India
(1957), a remake of his earlier Aurat (1940), was the first Indian film to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film , which it lost by a single vote. Mother India
India
was also an important film that defined the conventions of Hindi
Hindi
cinema for decades. It spawned a new genre of dacoit films , which was further defined by Gunga Jumna (1961). Written and produced by Dilip Kumar, Gunga Jumna was a dacoit crime drama about two brothers on opposite sides of the law, a theme that later became common in Indian films since the 1970s. Madhumati (1958), directed by Bimal Roy and written by Ritwik Ghatak , popularised the theme of reincarnation in Western popular culture . Some of the most famous epic films of Hindi
Hindi
cinema were also produced at the time, such as K. Asif 's Mughal-e-Azam (1960). Other acclaimed mainstream Hindi filmmakers at the time included Kamal Amrohi and Vijay Bhatt . Nargis , Raj Kapoor and Dilip Kumar in Andaz (1949). Kapoor and Kumar are among the greatest and most influential movie stars in the history of Indian cinema, while Nargis is one of its greatest actresses.

Successful actors at the time included Dilip Kumar , Pradeep Kumar , Raj Kapoor , Dev Anand , and Guru Dutt , while successful actresses included Sumitra Devi , Nargis , Suraiya , Vyjayanthimala
Vyjayanthimala
, Meena Kumari , Nutan , Madhubala , Sadhana , Waheeda Rehman and Mala Sinha . The three most popular male Indian actors of the 1950s and 1960s were Dilip Kumar, Raj Kapoor, and Dev Anand, each with their own unique acting style. Kapoor followed the "tramp " style of Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
, Anand modelled himself after the "suave" style of Hollywood
Hollywood
movie stars like Gregory Peck
Gregory Peck
and Cary Grant
Cary Grant
, and Kumar pioneered a form of method acting that was similar to yet predated Hollywood
Hollywood
method actors such as Marlon Brando
Marlon Brando
. Kumar, who was described as "the ultimate method actor" by Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
and is considered one of India's greatest actors, inspired future generations of Indian actors; much like Brando's influence on Robert De Niro and Al Pacino
Al Pacino
, Kumar had a similar influence on later Indian actors such as Amitabh Bachchan
Amitabh Bachchan
, Naseeruddin Shah
Naseeruddin Shah
, Shah Rukh Khan and Nawazuddin Siddiqui .

While commercial Hindi
Hindi
cinema was thriving, the 1950s also saw the emergence of a new Parallel Cinema movement. Though the movement was mainly led by Bengali cinema , it also began gaining prominence in Hindi
Hindi
cinema. The movement emphasized social realism . Early examples of films in this movement include Dharti Ke Lal (1946) directed by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas and based on the Bengal
Bengal
famine of 1943 , Neecha Nagar (1946) directed by Chetan Anand and written by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas, and Bimal Roy's Do Bigha Zamin (1953). Their critical acclaim, as well as the latter's commercial success, paved the way for Indian neorealism and the Indian New Wave. Some of the internationally acclaimed Hindi
Hindi
filmmakers involved in the movement included Mani Kaul , Kumar Shahani , Ketan Mehta , Govind Nihalani , Shyam Benegal
Shyam Benegal
and Vijaya Mehta . Rajesh Khanna in 2010. He was the first Indian actor to be referred to as a "superstar ", starring in 15 consecutive solo hit films from 1969 to 1971.

Ever since the social realist film Neecha Nagar won the Grand Prize at the first Cannes Film Festival
Cannes Film Festival
, Hindi
Hindi
films were frequently in competition for the Palme d\'Or at the Cannes Film Festival
Cannes Film Festival
throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, with some of them winning major prizes at the festival. Guru Dutt , while overlooked in his own lifetime, had belatedly generated international recognition much later in the 1980s. Dutt is now regarded as one of the greatest Asian filmmakers of all time, alongside the more famous Indian Bengali filmmaker Satyajit Ray . The 2002 Sight & Sound critics' and directors' poll of greatest filmmakers ranked Dutt at No. 73 on the list. Some of his films are now included among the greatest films of all time , with Pyaasa
Pyaasa
(1957) being featured in Time magazine\'s "All-TIME" 100 best movies list, and with both Pyaasa
Pyaasa
and Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959) tied at No. 160 in the 2002 Sight & Sound critics' and directors' poll of all-time greatest films. Several other Hindi
Hindi
films from this era were also ranked in the Sight max-width:288px"> The screenwriting duo Salim-Javed , consisting of Salim Khan
Salim Khan
(l) and Javed Akhtar
Javed Akhtar
(r), revolutionized Indian cinema
Indian cinema
in the 1970s, and are considered Bollywood's greatest screenwriters .

By the start of the 1970s, Hindi
Hindi
cinema was experiencing thematic stagnation, dominated by musical romance films . The arrival of screenwriter duo Salim-Javed , consisting of Salim Khan
Salim Khan
and Javed Akhtar , marked a paradigm shift, revitalizing the industry. They began the genre of gritty, violent, Bombay underworld crime films in the early 1970s, with films such as Zanjeer (1973) and Deewaar
Deewaar
(1975). They reinterpreted the rural themes of Mehboob Khan 's Mother India (1957) and Dilip Kumar 's Gunga Jumna (1961) in a contemporary urban context reflecting the socio-economic and socio-political climate of 1970s India, channeling the growing discontent and disillusionment among the masses, and unprecedented growth of slums , and dealing with themes involving urban poverty, corruption, and crime, as well as anti-establishment themes. This resulted in their creation of the "angry young man", personified by Amitabh Bachchan
Amitabh Bachchan
, who reinterpreted Dilip Kumar's performance in Gunga Jumna in a contemporary urban context, and giving a voice to the angst of the urban poor. Amitabh Bachchan
Amitabh Bachchan
in 2014. The most successful Indian actor during the 1970s–1980s, he is considered one of India's greatest and most influential movie stars.

By the mid-1970s, romantic confections had made way for gritty, violent crime films and action films about gangsters (Bombay underworld ) and bandits (dacoits ). The writing of Salim-Javed and acting of Amitabh Bachchan
Amitabh Bachchan
popularized the trend, with films such as Zanjeer and particularly Deewaar, a crime film inspired by Gunga Jumna that pitted "a policeman against his brother, a gang leader based on real-life smuggler Haji Mastan " portrayed by Bachchan; Deewaar
Deewaar
was described as being "absolutely key to Indian cinema" by Danny Boyle
Danny Boyle
. Along with Bachchan, other actors that rode the crest of this trend include Feroz Khan , Mithun Chakraborty
Mithun Chakraborty
, Naseeruddin Shah
Naseeruddin Shah
, Jackie Shroff , Sanjay Dutt , Anil Kapoor and Sunny Deol , which lasted into the early 1990s. Actresses from this era included Hema Malini , Jaya Bachchan , Raakhee , Shabana Azmi
Shabana Azmi
, Zeenat Aman , Parveen Babi , Rekha , Dimple Kapadia , Smita Patil , Jaya Prada
Jaya Prada
and Padmini Kolhapure .

The 1970s was also when the name "Bollywood" was coined, and when the quintessential conventions of commercial Bollywood
Bollywood
films were established. Key to this was the emergence of the masala film genre, which combines elements of multiple genres (action , comedy , romance , drama , melodrama , musical ). The masala film was pioneered in the early 1970s by filmmaker Nasir Hussain , along with screenwriter duo Salim-Javed, pioneering the Bollywood
Bollywood
blockbuster format. Yaadon Ki Baarat (1973), directed by Hussain and written by Salim-Javed, has been identified as the first masala film and the "first" quintessentially "Bollywood" film. Salim-Javed went on to write more successful masala films in the 1970s and 1980s. Masala films launched Amitabh Bachchan
Amitabh Bachchan
into the biggest Bollywood
Bollywood
movie star of the 1970s and 1980s. A landmark for the masala film genre was Amar Akbar Anthony (1977), directed by Manmohan Desai and written by Kader Khan . Manmohan Desai went on to successfully exploit the genre in the 1970s and 1980s.

Both these trends, the masala film and the violent crime film, are represented by the blockbuster Sholay (1975), written by Salim-Javed and starring Amitabh Bachchan. It combined the dacoit film conventions of Mother India
India
and Gunga Jumna with that of Spaghetti Westerns , spawning the Dacoit Western genre (also known as the "Curry Western "), which was popular in the 1970s.

Some Hindi
Hindi
filmmakers such as Shyam Benegal
Shyam Benegal
continued to produce realistic Parallel Cinema throughout the 1970s, alongside Mani Kaul , Kumar Shahani , Ketan Mehta , Govind Nihalani and Vijaya Mehta . However, the 'art film' bent of the Film Finance Corporation came under criticism during a Committee on Public Undertakings investigation in 1976, which accused the body of not doing enough to encourage commercial cinema. The 1970s thus saw the rise of commercial cinema in the form of enduring films such as Sholay (1975), which consolidated Amitabh Bachchan
Amitabh Bachchan
's position as a lead actor. The devotional classic Jai Santoshi Ma
Jai Santoshi Ma
was also released in 1975.

The most internationally acclaimed Hindi
Hindi
film of the 1980s was Mira Nair 's Salaam Bombay! (1988), which won the Camera d\'Or at the 1988 Cannes Film Festival
Cannes Film Festival
and was nominated for the Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Foreign Language Film .

NEW BOLLYWOOD (1990S–PRESENT)

Shah Rukh Khan , one of the "Three Khans ", in 2012. He was the most successful Indian actor for most of the 1990s and 2000s.

In the late 1980s, Hindi
Hindi
cinema experienced another period of stagnation, with a decline in box office turnout, due to increasing violence, decline in musical melodic quality, and rise in video piracy, leading to middle-class family audiences abandoning theaters. The turning point came with Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak (1988), directed by Mansoor Khan , written and produced by his father Nasir Hussain , and starring his cousin Aamir Khan with Juhi Chawla
Juhi Chawla
. Its blend of youthfulness, wholesome entertainment, emotional quotients and strong melodies lured family audiences back to the big screen. It set a new template for Bollywood
Bollywood
musical romance films that defined Hindi
Hindi
cinema in the 1990s.

The period of Hindi
Hindi
cinema from the 1990s onwards is referred to as "New Bollywood" cinema, linked to economic liberalisation in India during the early 1990s. By the early 1990s, the pendulum had swung back toward family-centric romantic musicals. Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak was followed by blockbusters such as Maine Pyar Kiya
Maine Pyar Kiya
(1989), Chandni (1989), Hum Aapke Hain Kaun (1994), Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (1995), Raja Hindustani (1996), Dil To Pagal Hai (1997), Pyaar To Hona Hi Tha (1998) and Kuch Kuch Hota Hai (1998). A new generation of popular actors emerged, such as Aamir Khan, Aditya Pancholi , Ajay Devgan , Akshay Kumar , Salman Khan (Salim Khan\'s son ), and Shahrukh Khan , and actresses such as Madhuri Dixit
Madhuri Dixit
, Sridevi , Juhi Chawla
Juhi Chawla
, Meenakshi Seshadri , Manisha Koirala
Manisha Koirala
, Kajol , and Karisma Kapoor . In that point of time, action films and comedy films were also successful, with actors like Govinda , Sunny Deol , Sunil Shetty , Akshay Kumar, and Ajay Devgan, with Akshay Kumar gaining popularity for performing dangerous stunts in action films in his well-known Khiladi (film series) and other action films. Other actresses during this time included Raveena Tandon , Twinkle Khanna , Sonali Bendre , Sushmita Sen
Sushmita Sen
, Mahima Chaudhary and Shilpa Shetty .

This decade also marked the entry of new performers in arthouse and independent films, some of which succeeded commercially, the most influential example being Satya (1998), directed by Ram Gopal Varma and written by Anurag Kashyap
Anurag Kashyap
. The critical and commercial success of Satya led to the emergence of a distinct genre known as Mumbai
Mumbai
noir , urban films reflecting social problems in the city of Mumbai
Mumbai
. This led to a resurgence of Parallel Cinema by the end of the decade. These films often featured actors like Nana Patekar and Manoj Bajpai , and actresses like Manisha Koirala
Manisha Koirala
, Tabu , Pooja Bhatt and Urmila Matondkar , whose performances were usually critically acclaimed. Aamir Khan , one of the "Three Khans", in 2008. He has been the most successful Indian actor since the late 2000s.

Since the 1990s, the three biggest Bollywood
Bollywood
movie stars have been the "Three Khans ": Aamir Khan , Shah Rukh Khan , and Salman Khan . Combined, they have starred in the top ten highest-grossing Bollywood films . The three Khans have had successful careers since the late 1980s, and have dominated the Indian box office since the 1990s, across three decades. Shah Rukh Khan was the most successful Indian actor for most of the 1990s and 2000s, while Aamir Khan has been the most successful Indian actor since the late 2000s; according to Forbes
Forbes
, Aamir Khan is "arguably the world's biggest movie star" as of 2017, due to his immense popularity in the world's two most populous nations , India
India
and China
China
.

The 2000s saw a growth in Bollywood's recognition across the world due to a growing and prospering NRI and Desi communities overseas. A fast growth in the Indian economy and a demand for quality entertainment in this era, led the nation's film-making to new heights in terms of production values, cinematography and innovative story lines as well as technical advances in areas such as special effects and animation. Some of the largest production houses, among them Yash Raj Films and Dharma Productions were the producers of new modern films. Some popular films of the decade were Kaho Naa... Pyaar Hai (2000), Gadar: Ek Prem Katha (2001), Lagaan (2001), Koi... Mil Gaya (2003), Munna Bhai M.B.B.S. (2003), Rang De Basanti (2006), Lage Raho Munna Bhai (2006), Dhoom 2 (2006), Krrish (2006) and Jab We Met (2007) among others. This decade also saw the rise of popular actors and movie stars like Arjun Rampal , Hrithik Roshan , Abhishek Bachchan
Abhishek Bachchan
, Vivek Oberoi , Shahid Kapoor and John Abraham , as well as actresses like Aishwarya Rai , Rani Mukerji , Preity Zinta , Ameesha Patel , Lara Dutta
Lara Dutta
, Bipasha Basu
Bipasha Basu
, Kareena Kapoor , Priyanka Chopra and Katrina Kaif . Salman Khan , one of the "Three Khans", with Bollywood
Bollywood
actresses (from left) Kareena Kapoor , Rani Mukerji , Preity Zinta , Katrina Kaif , Karisma Kapoor , and Priyanka Chopra , in Mumbai
Mumbai
, 2010.

In the 2010s, the industry saw the trend of established movie stars like Salman Khan, Akshay Kumar and Shahrukh Khan making big-budget masala entertainers like Dabangg
Dabangg
(2010), Ek Tha Tiger (2012), Rowdy Rathore (2012), Chennai Express
Chennai Express
(2013), Kick (2014) and Happy New Year (2014) opposite much younger actresses. These films were often not the subject of critical acclaim, but were nonetheless major commercial successes. On the other hand, Aamir Khan has been credited for redefining and modernizing the masala film (which originated from his uncle Nasir Hussain's Yaadon Ki Baarat, which he first appeared in) with his own distinct brand of socially conscious cinema in the early 21st century, earning both commercial success and critical acclaim. While most stars from the 2000s continued their successful careers into the next decade, the 2010s also saw the rise of a new generation of popular actors like Ranbir Kapoor
Ranbir Kapoor
, Ranveer Singh , Varun Dhawan , Sidharth Malhotra , Sushant Singh Rajput , Arjun Kapoor , Aditya Roy Kapur and Tiger Shroff , as well as actresses like Vidya Balan , Kangana Ranaut , Deepika Padukone , Sonam Kapoor
Sonam Kapoor
, Anushka Sharma
Anushka Sharma
, Sonakshi Sinha
Sonakshi Sinha
, Jacqueline Fernandez , Shraddha Kapoor and Alia Bhatt , with Balan and Ranaut gaining wide recognition for successful female-centric films such as The Dirty Picture (2011), Kahaani (2012) and Queen (2014), and Tanu Weds Manu Returns (2015). Kareena Kapoor and Bipasha Basu
Bipasha Basu
are among the few working actresses from the 2000s who successfully completed 15 years in the industry.

INFLUENCES FOR BOLLYWOOD

Moti Gokulsing and Wimal Dissanayake identify six major influences that have shaped the conventions of Indian popular cinema:

* The ancient Indian epics of Mahabharata and Ramayana
Ramayana
which have exerted a profound influence on the thought and imagination of Indian popular cinema, particularly in its narratives. Examples of this influence include the techniques of a side story , back-story and story within a story . Indian popular films often have plots which branch off into sub-plots; such narrative dispersals can clearly be seen in the 1993 films Khalnayak and Gardish . * Ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
drama , with its highly stylised nature and emphasis on spectacle, where music , dance and gesture combined "to create a vibrant artistic unit with dance and mime being central to the dramatic experience." Sanskrit
Sanskrit
dramas were known as natya , derived from the root word nrit (dance), characterising them as spectacular dance-dramas which has continued Indian cinema. The theory of rasa dating back to ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
drama is believed to be one of the most fundamental features that differentiate Indian cinema, particularly Hindi
Hindi
cinema, from that of the Western world. * The traditional folk theatre of India
India
, which became popular from around the 10th century with the decline of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
theatre. These regional traditions include the Jatra of Bengal
Bengal
, the Ramlila
Ramlila
of Uttar Pradesh , and the Terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
. * The Parsi theatre , which "blended realism and fantasy , music and dance, narrative and spectacle, earthy dialogue and ingenuity of stage presentation, integrating them into a dramatic discourse of melodrama . The Parsi plays contained crude humour, melodious songs and music, sensationalism and dazzling stagecraft." * Hollywood
Hollywood
, where musicals were popular from the 1920s to the 1950s, though Indian filmmakers departed from their Hollywood counterparts in several ways. "For example, the Hollywood
Hollywood
musicals had as their plot the world of entertainment itself. Indian filmmakers, while enhancing the elements of fantasy so pervasive in Indian popular films, used song and music as a natural mode of articulation in a given situation in their films. There is a strong Indian tradition of narrating mythology, history, fairy stories and so on through song and dance." In addition, "whereas Hollywood
Hollywood
filmmakers strove to conceal the constructed nature of their work so that the realistic narrative was wholly dominant, Indian filmmakers made no attempt to conceal the fact that what was shown on the screen was a creation, an illusion, a fiction. However, they demonstrated how this creation intersected with people's day to day lives in complex and interesting ways." * Western musical television, particularly MTV
MTV
, which has had an increasing influence since the 1990s, as can be seen in the pace, camera angles, dance sequences and music of 2000s Indian films. An early example of this approach was in Mani Ratnam 's Bombay (1995).

Sharmistha Gooptu and Bhaumik identify Indo-Persian /Islamicate culture as a major influence. In the early 20th century, Urdu
Urdu
was the lingua franca of popular cultural performances across northern India, established in popular performance art traditions such as nautch dancing, Urdu
Urdu
poetry , and Parsi theater. Urdu
Urdu
and related Hindi dialects were the most widely understood across northern India, thus Hindi- Urdu
Urdu
became the standardized language of early Indian talkies . The One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights) also had a strong influence, on Parsi theater which performed "Persianate adventure-romances" that were adapted into films, and on early Bombay cinema where "Arabian Nights cinema" was a popular genre.

The scholars Chaudhuri Diptakirti and Rachel Dwyer , and the screenwriter Javed Akhtar
Javed Akhtar
, identify Urdu
Urdu
literature as a major influence on Hindi
Hindi
cinema. Most of the screenwriters and scriptwriters of classic Hindi
Hindi
cinema often came from Urdu
Urdu
literary backgrounds, from Khwaja Ahmad Abbas and Akhtar ul Iman to Salim-Javed and Rahi Masoom Raza , while a handful of screenwriters and scriptwriters also came from other Indian literary traditions such as Bengali literature and Hindi
Hindi
literature . Most of Hindi
Hindi
cinema's classic scriptwriters wrote their scripts and dialogues mainly in Urdu, including the likes of Salim-Javed, Gulzar , Rajinder Singh Bedi , Inder Raj Anand , Rahi Masoom Raza and Wajahat Mirza . Urdu
Urdu
poetry had a particularly strong impact on filmi Bollywood songs , where the lyrics draw heavily from Urdu
Urdu
poetry and the ghazal tradition.

Todd Stadtman identifies several foreign influences on commercial Bollywood
Bollywood
masala films in the 1970s, including New Hollywood
Hollywood
, Italian exploitation films , and Hong Kong martial arts cinema . Starting with Deewaar
Deewaar
(1975), Bollywood
Bollywood
films up until the 1990s often incorporated fight sequences inspired by 1970s martial arts films from Hong Kong cinema . Rather than following the Hollywood
Hollywood
model, Bollywood
Bollywood
action scenes tended to follow the Hong Kong model, with an emphasis on acrobatics and stunts , and combining kung fu (as it was perceived by Indians) with Indian martial arts
Indian martial arts
(particularly Indian wrestling ).

INFLUENCE OF BOLLYWOOD

INDIA

Perhaps the biggest influence of Bollywood
Bollywood
has been on nationalism in India
India
itself, where along with rest of Indian cinema, it has become part and parcel of the 'Indian story'. In India, Bollywood
Bollywood
is often associated with India's national identity. In the words of the economist and Bollywood
Bollywood
biographer Lord Meghnad Desai ,

Cinema actually has been the most vibrant medium for telling India its own story, the story of its struggle for independence, its constant struggle to achieve national integration and to emerge as a global presence.

Bollywood
Bollywood
has had an impact on Indian society and culture for a long time. For many decades, Bollywood
Bollywood
has influenced daily life and culture in India, where it has been the biggest entertainment industry. Many of the musical, dancing, wedding and fashion trends in India, for example, have been influenced by Bollywood. Some of the biggest Bollywood
Bollywood
fashion trendsetters have included Madhubala in Mughal-e-Azam (1960) and Madhuri Dixit
Madhuri Dixit
in Hum Aapke Hain Koun..! (1994).

Bollywood
Bollywood
has also had a socio-political impact on Indian society, reflecting Indian politics over the decades. In classic Bollywood cinema of the 1970s, for example, popular Bombay underworld crime films written by Salim-Javed and starring Amitabh Bachchan
Amitabh Bachchan
, such as Zanjeer (1973) and Deewaar
Deewaar
(1975), reflected the socio-economic and socio-political realities of 1970s India, channeling the growing popular discontent and disillusionment among the masses, and the failure of the state in ensuring their welfare and well-being, in a time when prices were rapidly rising, commodities were becoming scarce, public institutions were losing legitimacy, smugglers and gangsters were gathering political clout, and there was an unprecedented growth of slums . The cinema of Salim-Javed and Amitabh Bachchan dealt with themes relevant to Indian society at the time, such as urban poverty in slums, corruption in society, and the Bombay underworld crime scene, and was perceived by audiences as anti-establishment , often represented by an "angry young man" protagonist, presented as a vigilante or anti-hero , with his suppressed rage giving a voice to the angst of the urban poor.

OVERSEAS

Overseas, Bollywood
Bollywood
has been a prominent form of soft power for India, increasing India's influence overseas, as well as changing overseas perceptions of India. In Western European countries such as Germany
Germany
, for example, stereotypes of the country included bullock carts, beggars, sacred cows, corrupt politicians, and catastrophes, before Bollywood
Bollywood
as well as the IT industry transformed global perceptions of India. According to author Roopa Swaminathan, " Bollywood
Bollywood
cinema is one of the strongest global cultural ambassadors of a new India." The role of Bollywood
Bollywood
in exerting India's global influence is comparable to the role of Hollywood
Hollywood
in exerting America's global influence. See Global markets below for further information on Bollywood's influence in different global regions.

Bollywood
Bollywood
has also influenced Hollywood
Hollywood
and other film industries. In the 2000s, Bollywood
Bollywood
began influencing musical films in the Western world, and played a particularly instrumental role in the revival of the American musical film genre. Baz Luhrmann stated that his musical film Moulin Rouge! (2001) was directly inspired by Bollywood
Bollywood
musicals. The film incorporated an Indian-themed play based on the ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
drama Mṛcchakatika
Mṛcchakatika
and a Bollywood-style dance sequence with a song from the film China
China
Gate (1998). The critical and financial success of Moulin Rouge! renewed interest in the then-moribund Western musical genre, and subsequently films such as Chicago , The Producers , Rent , Dreamgirls , Hairspray , Sweeney Todd , Across the Universe , The Phantom of the Opera , Enchanted and Mamma Mia! were produced, fuelling a renaissance of the genre.

A. R. Rahman
A. R. Rahman
, an Indian film composer, wrote the music for Andrew Lloyd Webber 's Bombay Dreams
Bombay Dreams
, and a musical version of Hum Aapke Hain Koun has played in London's West End. The Bollywood
Bollywood
sports film Lagaan (2001) was nominated for the Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Foreign Language Film , and two other Bollywood
Bollywood
films Devdas (2002) and Rang De Basanti (2006) were nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Film Not in the English Language .

Danny Boyle
Danny Boyle
's Slumdog Millionaire (2008), which won four Golden Globes and eight Academy Awards
Academy Awards
, was directly inspired by Bollywood films, and is considered to be a "homage to Hindi
Hindi
commercial cinema", inspired by Mumbai
Mumbai
underworld crime films such as Deewaar (1975), Satya (1998), Company (2002) and Black Friday (2007). Deewaar also had a Hong Kong remake, The Brothers (1979), which went on to inspire John Woo 's internationally acclaimed breakthrough A Better Tomorrow (1986), which set the template for the heroic bloodshed genre in Hong Kong action cinema . 1970s "angry young man" epics such as Deewaar
Deewaar
and Amar Akbar Anthony (1977) have similarities to the heroic bloodshed genre of 1980s Hong Kong action cinema. The theme of reincarnation was popularised in Western popular culture through Bollywood
Bollywood
films, with Madhumati (1958) inspiring the Hollywood
Hollywood
film The Reincarnation
Reincarnation
of Peter Proud (1975), which in turn inspired the Bollywood
Bollywood
film Karz (1980), which in turn influenced another Hollywood film Chances Are (1989). The 1975 film Chhoti Si Baat is believed to have inspired Hitch (2005), which in turn inspired the Bollywood
Bollywood
film Partner (2007).

The influence of filmi Bollywood music can also be seen in popular music elsewhere in the world. In 1978, technopop pioneers Haruomi Hosono and Ryuichi Sakamoto of the Yellow Magic Orchestra
Yellow Magic Orchestra
produced an electronic album Cochin Moon based on an experimental fusion between electronic music and Bollywood-inspired Indian music. Devo
Devo
's 1988 hit song "Disco Dancer" was inspired by the song "I am a Disco Dancer" from the Bollywood
Bollywood
film Disco Dancer (1982). The 2002 song "Addictive ", sung by Truth Hurts and produced by DJ Quik and Dr. Dre
Dr. Dre
, was lifted from Lata Mangeshkar
Lata Mangeshkar
's "Thoda Resham Lagta Hai" from Jyoti (1981). The Black Eyed Peas
The Black Eyed Peas
' Grammy Award
Grammy Award
winning 2005 song "Don\'t Phunk with My Heart " was inspired by two 1970s Bollywood songs : "Ye Mera Dil Yaar Ka Diwana" from Don (1978) and "Ae Nujawan Hai Sub" from Apradh (1972). Both songs were originally composed by Kalyanji Anandji , sung by Asha Bhosle , and featured the dancer Helen .

In 2005, the Kronos Quartet re-recorded several R. D. Burman compositions, with Asha Bhosle as the singer, into an album You\'ve Stolen My Heart: Songs from R.D. Burman\'s Bollywood
Bollywood
, which was nominated for "Best Contemporary World Music Album" at the 2006 Grammy Awards. Filmi
Filmi
music composed by A. R. Rahman
A. R. Rahman
(who would later win two Academy Awards
Academy Awards
for the Slumdog Millionaire soundtrack ) has frequently been sampled by musicians elsewhere in the world, including the Singaporean artist Kelly Poon , the Uzbek artist Iroda Dilroz, the French rap group La Caution , the American artist Ciara
Ciara
, and the German band Löwenherz , among others. Many Asian Underground artists, particularly those among the overseas Indian diaspora , have also been inspired by Bollywood
Bollywood
music.

GENRE CONVENTIONS

Further information: Masala film
Masala film
, Parallel Cinema , Dacoit film , Mumbai
Mumbai
underworld film , and Muslim social Melodrama
Melodrama
and romance are common ingredients to Bollywood
Bollywood
films. Pictured Achhut Kanya (1936)

Bollywood
Bollywood
films are mostly musicals and are expected to contain catchy music in the form of song-and-dance numbers woven into the script. A film's success often depends on the quality of such musical numbers. Indeed, a film's music is often released before the movie and helps increase the audience.

Indian audiences expect full value for their money, with a good entertainer generally referred to as paisa vasool, (literally, "money's worth"). Songs and dances, love triangles, comedy and dare-devil thrills are all mixed up in a three-hour extravaganza with an intermission. They are called Masala films , after the Hindi
Hindi
word for a spice mixture. Like masalas, these movies are a mixture of many things such as action, comedy, romance and so on. Most films have heroes who are able to fight off villains all by themselves.

Bollywood
Bollywood
plots have tended to be melodramatic . They frequently employ formulaic ingredients such as star-crossed lovers and angry parents, love triangles, family ties, sacrifice, corrupt politicians, kidnappers, conniving villains, courtesans with hearts of gold , long-lost relatives and siblings separated by fate, dramatic reversals of fortune, and convenient coincidences.

There have always been Indian films with more artistic aims and more sophisticated stories, both inside and outside the Bollywood
Bollywood
tradition (see Parallel Cinema ). They often lost out at the box office to movies with more mass appeal. Bollywood
Bollywood
conventions are changing, however. A large Indian diaspora in English-speaking countries, and increased Western influence at home, have nudged Bollywood
Bollywood
films closer to Hollywood
Hollywood
models.

Film critic Lata Khubchandani writes, "our earliest films ... had liberal doses of sex and kissing scenes in them. Strangely, it was after Independence the censor board came into being and so did all the strictures." Plots now tend to feature Westernised urbanites dating and dancing in clubs rather than centring on pre-arranged marriages. Though these changes can widely be seen in contemporary Bollywood, traditional conservative ways of Indian culture continue to exist in India
India
outside the industry and an element of resistance by some to western-based influences. Despite this, Bollywood
Bollywood
continues to play a major role in fashion in India
India
. Some studies into fashion in India have revealed that some people are unaware that the changing nature of fashion in Bollywood
Bollywood
films are often influenced by globalisation; many consider the clothes worn by Bollywood
Bollywood
actors as authentically Indian.

CAST AND CREW

Madhuri Dixit
Madhuri Dixit
in 2012. She is often regarded as one of the greatest actresses of Indian cinema, for her critical and commercial success during the 1980s and 1990s. See also: Indian movie actors , Indian movie actresses , Indian film directors , Indian film music directors , List of Bollywood actors , Indian playback singers , and List of Hindi
Hindi
film clans

Bollywood
Bollywood
employs people from all parts of India
India
. It attracts thousands of aspiring actors and actresses, all hoping for a break in the industry. Models and beauty contestants, television actors, theatre actors and even common people come to Mumbai
Mumbai
with the hope and dream of becoming a star. Just as in Hollywood
Hollywood
, very few succeed. Since many Bollywood
Bollywood
films are shot abroad, many foreign extras are employed too.

Very few non-Indian actors are able to make a mark in Bollywood, though many have tried from time to time. There have been some exceptions, of which one recent example is the hit film Rang De Basanti , where the lead actress is Alice Patten , an Englishwoman. Kisna , Lagaan , and The Rising: Ballad of Mangal Pandey also featured foreign actors. Of late, Emma Brown Garett , an Australian born actress, has starred in a few Indian films.

Bollywood
Bollywood
can be very clannish, and the relatives of film-industry insiders have an edge in getting coveted roles in films or being part of a film's crew. However, industry connections are no guarantee of a long career: competition is fierce and if film industry scions do not succeed at the box office, their careers will falter. Some of the biggest stars, such as Dilip Kumar , Amitabh Bachchan
Amitabh Bachchan
, Rajesh Khanna , Dharmendra
Dharmendra
, Madhuri Dixit
Madhuri Dixit
, Shah Rukh Khan and Akshay Kumar have succeeded despite a lack of any show business connections. For film clans, see List of Hindi
Hindi
film clans .

DIALOGUES AND LYRICS

See also: Music of Bollywood , Bombay Hindi
Hindi
, Hindustani language , Tapori (word) , and Urdu
Urdu
poetry

The film script or lines of dialogue (called "dialogues" in Indian English ) and the song lyrics are often written by different people. Dialogues are usually written in an unadorned Hindi- Urdu
Urdu
, collectively known as Hindustani , that would be understood by the largest possible audience. Bollywood
Bollywood
films tend to use a colloquial dialect of Hindi-Urdu, mutually intelligible to both Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu speakers. While formally referred to as Hindi
Hindi
cinema, most of its classic scriptwriters actually wrote their scripts and dialogues mainly in Urdu, including the likes of Salim-Javed , Gulzar , Rajinder Singh Bedi , Inder Raj Anand , Rahi Masoom Raza and Wajahat Mirza . Salim-Javed, for example, wrote in Urdu
Urdu
script , with the Urdu dialogues then transcribed by an assistant into Devanagari
Devanagari
script so that Hindi
Hindi
readers could read the Urdu
Urdu
dialogues. In the 1970s, the Urdu
Urdu
writers and screenwriters Krishan Chander and Ismat Chughtai noted that "more than seventy-five per cent of films are made in Urdu" but were categorized as Hindi
Hindi
films by the government. Urdu
Urdu
poetry has had a particularly strong impact on Bollywood songs , where the lyrics draw heavily from Urdu
Urdu
poetry and the ghazal tradition.

Some movies have used regional dialects to evoke a village setting, or old-fashioned, courtly, formal Urdu
Urdu
in medieval era historical films . Jyotika Virdi, in her book The cinematic imagiNation , wrote about the presence of Urdu
Urdu
in Hindi
Hindi
films: " Urdu
Urdu
is often used in film titles, screenplay, lyrics, the language of love, war, and martyrdom." She notes that Urdu
Urdu
was widely used in classic Hindi
Hindi
cinema, due to formal Urdu
Urdu
being widely taught in pre-partition India
India
and still being used in Hindi
Hindi
cinema decades after partition, but there has since been a decline of formal Urdu
Urdu
in modern Hindi
Hindi
cinema: "The extent of Urdu used in commercial Hindi
Hindi
cinema has not been stable ... the decline of Urdu
Urdu
is mirrored in Hindi
Hindi
films ... It is true that many Urdu
Urdu
words have survived and have become part of Hindi
Hindi
cinema's popular vocabulary. But that is as far as it goes. ... for the most part popular Hindi
Hindi
cinema has forsaken the florid Urdu
Urdu
that was part of its extravagance and retained a "residual" Urdu". The National Science and Media Museum notes that Bollywood
Bollywood
films continue to use a colloquial Hindi- Urdu
Urdu
dialect that is mutually intelligible to both Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu
Urdu
speakers. Urdu
Urdu
continues to be extensively used in Bollywood
Bollywood
films, in dialogues and particularly songs.

Contemporary mainstream movies also make great use of English (Indian English ). According to Bollywood
Bollywood
Audiences Editorial, "English has begun to challenge the ideological work done by Urdu." Some movie scripts are first written in Latin script
Latin script
. Characters may shift from one language to the other to express a certain atmosphere (for example, English in a business setting and Hindi
Hindi
in an informal one). The blend of Hindi, Urdu
Urdu
and English occasionally seen in modern Bollywood
Bollywood
films is often referred to as Hinglish , which has become increasingly prevalent in modern Bollywood
Bollywood
films.

Cinematic language, whether in dialogues or lyrics, is often melodramatic and invokes God, family, mother, duty, and self-sacrifice liberally. Song lyrics are often about love. Bollywood
Bollywood
song lyrics, especially in the old movies, frequently use the poetic vocabulary of court Urdu, with many Persian loanwords. Another source for love lyrics is the long Hindu
Hindu
tradition of poetry about the amours of Krishna
Krishna
, Radha
Radha
, and the gopis , as referenced in films such as Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baje and Lagaan .

Music directors often prefer working with certain lyricists, to the point that the lyricist and composer are seen as a team. This phenomenon is compared to the pairings of American composers and songwriters that created old-time Broadway musicals.

SOUND

Sound in Bollywood
Bollywood
films was once rarely recorded on location (otherwise known as sync sound). Therefore, the sound was usually created (or re-created) entirely in the studio, with the actors reciting their lines as their images appear on-screen in the studio in the process known as "looping in the sound" or ADR —with the foley and sound effects added later. This created several problems, since the sound in these films usually occurs a frame or two earlier or later than the mouth movements or gestures. The actors had to act twice: once on-location, once in the studio—and the emotional level on set is often very difficult to re-create. Commercial Indian films, not just the Hindi-language variety, are known for their lack of ambient sound, so there is a silence underlying everything instead of the background sound and noises usually employed in films to create aurally perceivable depth and environment.

The ubiquity of ADR in Bollywood
Bollywood
cinema became prevalent in the early 1960s with the arrival of the Arriflex 3 camera, which required a blimp (cover) to shield the sound of the camera, for which it was notorious, from on-location filming. Commercial Indian filmmakers, known for their speed, never bothered to blimp the camera, and its excessive noise required that everything had to be re-created in the studio. Eventually, this became the standard for Indian films.

The trend was bucked in 2001, after a 30-year hiatus of synchronised sound, with the film Lagaan , in which the sound was done on the location. This opened up a heated debate on the use and economic feasibility of on-location sound, and several Bollywood
Bollywood
films have employed on-location sound since then.

MAKEUP

In 1955 the Bollywood
Bollywood
group Cine Costume Make-Up Artist & Hair Dressers' Association (CCMAA) created a rule that did not allow women to obtain memberships as makeup artists. However, in 2014 the Supreme Court of India
India
ruled that this rule was in violation of the Indian constitutional guarantees granted under Article 14 (right to equality), 19(1)(g) (freedom to carry out any profession) and Article 21 (right to liberty). The judges of the Supreme Court of India stated that the ban on women makeup artist members had no "rationale nexus" to the cause sought to be achieved and was "unacceptable, impermissible and inconsistent" with the constitutional rights guaranteed to the citizens. The Court also found illegal the rule which mandated that for any artist, female or male, to work in the industry, they must have domicile status of five years in the state where they intend to work. In 2015 it was announced that Charu Khurana had become the first woman to be registered by the Cine Costume Make-Up Artist "> A group of Bollywood
Bollywood
singers at the Indian Singers' Rights Association (ISRA) meet in 2013. Further information: Music of Bollywood , Filmi
Filmi
, Filmi-ghazal , Filmi
Filmi
qawwali , and Hindi
Hindi
dance songs

Bollywood
Bollywood
film music is called filmi music (from Hindi, meaning "of films"). Songs from Bollywood
Bollywood
movies are generally pre-recorded by professional playback singers, with the actors then lip synching the words to the song on-screen, often while dancing. While most actors, especially today, are excellent dancers, few are also singers. One notable exception was Kishore Kumar , who starred in several major films in the 1950s while also having a stellar career as a playback singer. K. L. Saigal , Suraiyya, and Noor Jehan were also known as both singers and actors. Some actors in the last thirty years have sung one or more songs themselves; for a list, see Singing actors and actresses in Indian cinema
Indian cinema
.

Songs are what make and break the movie; they determine if it is going to be a flop or a hit: "Few films without successful musical tracks, and even fewer without any songs and dances, succeed" With the increase of globalization, there has also been a change in the type of music that Bollywood
Bollywood
films entail; the lyrics of the songs have increasingly been a mix of Hindi
Hindi
and English languages, as opposed to the strict Hindi
Hindi
prior to Globalization. Also, with the inspiration of global trends, such as Salsa, Pop and Hip Hop, there has been a modification of the type of music heard in Bollywood
Bollywood
films.

Playback singers are prominently featured in the opening credits and have their own fans who will go to an otherwise lackluster movie just to hear their favourites. Going by the quality as well as the quantity of the songs they rendered, most notable singers of Bollywood
Bollywood
are Lata Mangeshkar , Asha Bhosle , Geeta Dutt , Shamshad Begum , Kavita Krishnamurthy , Sadhana Sargam
Sadhana Sargam
and Alka Yagnik
Alka Yagnik
among female playback singers; and K. L. Saigal, Talat Mahmood, Mukesh , Mohammed Rafi
Mohammed Rafi
, Manna Dey
Manna Dey
, Hemant Kumar , Kishore Kumar , Kumar Sanu
Kumar Sanu
, Udit Narayan and Sonu Nigam
Sonu Nigam
among male playback singers. Kishore Kumar and Mohammed Rafi are often considered arguably the finest of the singers that have lent their voice to Bollywood
Bollywood
songs, followed by Lata Mangeshkar, who, through the course of a career spanning over six decades, has recorded thousands of songs for Indian movies. The composers of film music, known as music directors, are also well-known. Their songs can make or break a film and usually do. Remixing of film songs with modern beats and rhythms is a common occurrence today, and producers may even release remixed versions of some of their films' songs along with the films' regular soundtrack albums.

The dancing in Bollywood
Bollywood
films, especially older ones, is primarily modelled on Indian dance: classical dance styles, dances of historic northern Indian courtesans (tawaif ), or folk dances . In modern films, Indian dance elements often blend with Western dance styles (as seen on MTV
MTV
or in Broadway musicals), though it is usual to see Western pop and pure classical dance numbers side by side in the same film. The hero or heroine will often perform with a troupe of supporting dancers. Many song-and-dance routines in Indian films feature unrealistically instantaneous shifts of location or changes of costume between verses of a song. If the hero and heroine dance and sing a duet, it is often staged in beautiful natural surroundings or architecturally grand settings. This staging is referred to as a "picturisation".

Songs typically comment on the action taking place in the movie, in several ways. Sometimes, a song is worked into the plot, so that a character has a reason to sing. Other times, a song is an externalisation of a character's thoughts, or presages an event that has not occurred yet in the plot of the movie. In this case, the event is often two characters falling in love. The songs are also often referred to as a "dream sequence", and anything can happen that would not normally happen in the real world.

Previously song and dance scenes often used to be shot in Kashmir
Kashmir
, but due to political unrest in Kashmir
Kashmir
since the end of the 1980s, those scenes have since then often been shot in Western Europe, particularly in Switzerland
Switzerland
and Austria
Austria
.

Renowned contemporary Bollywood
Bollywood
dancers include Madhuri Dixit
Madhuri Dixit
, Hrithik Roshan , Aishwarya Rai Bachchan , Sridevi , Meenakshi Seshadri , Malaika Arora Khan
Malaika Arora Khan
, Shahid Kapoor and Tiger Shroff . Older Bollywood
Bollywood
dancers are people such as Helen , known for her cabaret numbers, Madhubala , Vyjanthimala , Padmini , Hema Malini , Mumtaz , Cuckoo Moray , Parveen Babi , Waheeda Rahman , Meena Kumari , and Shammi Kapoor .

For the last few decades Bollywood
Bollywood
producers have been releasing the film's soundtrack, as tapes or CDs, before the main movie release, hoping that the music will pull audiences into the cinema later. Often the soundtrack is more popular than the movie. In the last few years some producers have also been releasing music videos, usually featuring a song from the film. However, some promotional videos feature a song which is not included in the movie.

FINANCES

Bollywood
Bollywood
films are multi-million dollar productions, with the most expensive productions costing up to 1 billion rupees (roughly USD 20 million). The latest Science fiction movie Ra.One was made at an immense budget of 1.35 billion (roughly USD 27 million), making it the most expensive movie ever produced in Bollywood. Sets , costumes, special effects, and cinematography were less than world-class up until the mid-to-late 1990s, although with some notable exceptions. As Western films and television gain wider distribution in India
India
itself, there is an increasing pressure for Bollywood
Bollywood
films to attain the same production levels, particularly in areas such as action and special effects. Recent Bollywood
Bollywood
films have employed international technicians to improve in these areas, such as Krrish (2006) which has action choreographed by Hong Kong based Tony Ching . The increasing accessibility to professional action and special effects, coupled with rising film budgets, has seen an explosion in the action and sci-fi genres.

Sequences shot overseas have proved a real box office draw, so Mumbai film crews are increasingly filming in Australia, Canada, New Zealand , the United Kingdom, the United States, continental Europe
Europe
and elsewhere. Nowadays, Indian producers are winning more and more funding for big-budget films shot within India
India
as well, such as Lagaan , Devdas and other recent films.

Funding for Bollywood
Bollywood
films often comes from private distributors and a few large studios . Indian banks and financial institutions were forbidden from lending money to movie studios. However, this ban has now been lifted. As finances are not regulated, some funding also comes from illegitimate sources, such as the Mumbai
Mumbai
underworld . The Mumbai
Mumbai
underworld has been known to be involved in the production of several films, and are notorious for patronising several prominent film personalities. On occasion, they have been known to use money and muscle power to get their way in cinematic deals. In January 2000, Mumbai
Mumbai
mafia hitmen shot Rakesh Roshan
Rakesh Roshan
, a film director and father of star Hrithik Roshan . In 2001, the Central Bureau of Investigation seized all prints of the movie Chori Chori Chupke Chupke after the movie was found to be funded by members of the Mumbai
Mumbai
underworld .

Another problem facing Bollywood
Bollywood
is widespread copyright infringement of its films. Often, bootleg DVD
DVD
copies of movies are available before the prints are officially released in cinemas. Manufacturing of bootleg DVD, VCD, and VHS copies of the latest movie titles is a well established 'small scale industry' in parts of South Asia
South Asia
and South East Asia
East Asia
. The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) estimates that the Bollywood
Bollywood
industry loses $100 million annually in loss of revenue from unlicensed home videos and DVDs. Besides catering to the homegrown market, demand for these copies is large amongst some sections of the Indian diaspora , too. (In fact, bootleg copies are the only way people in Pakistan
Pakistan
can watch Bollywood movies, since the Government of Pakistan
Pakistan
has banned their sale, distribution and telecast). Films are frequently broadcast without compensation by countless small cable TV companies in India
India
and other parts of South Asia. Small convenience stores run by members of the Indian diaspora in the US and the UK regularly stock tapes and DVDs of dubious provenance, while consumer copying adds to the problem. The availability of illegal copies of movies on the Internet also contributes to the industry's losses.

Satellite TV, television and imported foreign films are making huge inroads into the domestic Indian entertainment market. In the past, most Bollywood
Bollywood
films could make money; now fewer tend to do so. However, most Bollywood
Bollywood
producers make money, recouping their investments from many sources of revenue, including selling ancillary rights. There are also increasing returns from theatres in Western countries like the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States, where Bollywood
Bollywood
is slowly getting noticed. As more Indians migrate to these countries, they form a growing market for upscale Indian films.

For a comparison of Hollywood
Hollywood
and Bollywood
Bollywood
financial figures, see chart. It shows tickets sold in 2002 and total revenue estimates. Bollywood
Bollywood
sold 3.6 billion tickets and had total revenues (theatre tickets, DVDs, television and so on.) of US$1.3 billion, whereas Hollywood
Hollywood
films sold 2.6 billion tickets and generated total revenues (again from all formats) of US$51 billion.

ADVERTISING

Many Indian artists used to make a living by hand-painting movie billboards and posters (The well-known artist M.F. Hussain used to paint film posters early in his career). This was because human labour was found to be cheaper than printing and distributing publicity material. Now, a majority of the huge and ubiquitous billboards in India's major cities are created with computer-printed vinyl. The old hand-painted posters, once regarded as ephemera, are becoming increasingly collectible as folk art .

Releasing the film music, or music videos, before the actual release of the film can also be considered a form of advertising. A popular tune is believed to help pull audiences into the theatres.

Bollywood
Bollywood
publicists have begun to use the Internet as a venue for advertising. Most of the better-funded film releases now have their own websites, where browsers can view trailers, stills, and information about the story, cast, and crew.

Bollywood
Bollywood
is also used to advertise other products. Product placement , as used in Hollywood, is widely practised in Bollywood.

Bollywood
Bollywood
movie stars appear in print and television advertisements for other products, such as watches or soap (see Celebrity endorsement ). Advertisers say that a star endorsement boosts sales.

INTERNATIONAL SHOOTS

With the increasing prominence of international setting such as Switzerland, London, Paris, New York, Brazil, Singapore
Singapore
and so on, it does not entail that the people and cultures residing in these exotic settings are represented. Contrary to these spaces and geographies being filmed as they are, they are actually Indianized by adding Bollywood
Bollywood
actors and Hindi
Hindi
speaking extras to them. While immersing in Bollywood
Bollywood
films, viewers get to see their local experiences duplicated in different locations around the world.

Rao states that "Media representation can depict India's shifting relation with the world economy, but must retain its 'Indianness' in moments of dynamic hybridity", where "Indianness" refers to the cultural identity and political affiliation. With Bollywood's popularity among diasporic audiences, "Indianness" poses a problem, but at the same time, it gives back to its homeland audience, a sense of uniqueness from other immigrant groups.

AWARDS

The Filmfare Awards ceremony is one of the most prominent film events given for Hindi
Hindi
films in India. The Indian screen magazine Filmfare started the first Filmfare Awards in 1954, and awards were given to the best films of 1953. The ceremony was referred to as the Clare Awards after the magazine's editor. Modelled after the poll-based merit format of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
, individuals may submit their votes in separate categories. A dual voting system was developed in 1956. The Filmfare awards are frequently accused of bias towards commercial success rather than artistic merit.

The National Film Awards were introduced in 1954. Since 1973, the Indian government has sponsored the National Film Awards, awarded by the government run Directorate of Film Festivals
Directorate of Film Festivals
(DFF). The DFF screens not only Bollywood
Bollywood
films, but films from all the other regional movie industries and independent/art films. These awards are handed out at an annual ceremony presided over by the President of India. Under this system, in contrast to the National Film Awards, which are decided by a panel appointed by Indian Government, the Filmfare Awards are voted for by both the public and a committee of experts.

Notable private awards ceremonies for Hindi
Hindi
films, held within India are:

* Filmfare Awards – since 1954 * Screen Awards – since 1995 * Stardust Awards – since 2003

Notable private awards ceremonies for Hindi
Hindi
films, held overseas are:

* International Indian Film Academy Awards
Academy Awards
– (different country each year) – since 2000 * Zee Cine Awards - (different country each year) – since 1998

Most of these award ceremonies are lavishly staged spectacles, featuring singing, dancing, and numerous celebrities.

FILM EDUCATION

* Film and Television Institute of India
India
* Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
Film and Television Institute * Asian Academy of Film & Television * National Institute Of Film 16 were screened in 2008. Continued easing followed in 2009 and 2010. The new policy is opposed by nationalists and representatives of Pakistan's small film industry but is embraced by cinema owners, who are making profits after years of low receipts. The most popular male actors there are the three Khans of Bollywood
Bollywood
: Salman Khan , Shah Rukh Khan , and Aamir Khan . The most popular female actress there was Madhuri Dixit
Madhuri Dixit
; at India- Pakistan
Pakistan
cricket matches in the 1990s, many Pakistani fans frequently chanted the slogan, "Madhuri dedo, Kashmir
Kashmir
lelo!" ("Give Madhuri, take Kashmir
Kashmir
!").

Bollywood
Bollywood
films are very popular in Nepal, to the extent that Bollywood
Bollywood
films earn more than Nepali films there. Actors such as Salman Khan, Akshay Kumar and Shah Rukh Khan are most popular in Nepal, with their films having audiences fully pack cinema halls across the country.

Bollywood
Bollywood
films also very popular in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, due to the country's proximity to the Indian subcontinent and cultural similarities present in the films. For example, India
India
seems to share a similar style of music and musical instruments with Afghanistan. Some of the popular stars there include Shah Rukh Khan, Ajay Devgan , Sunny Deol , Aishwarya Rai , Preity Zinta , and Madhuri Dixit. A number of Bollywood
Bollywood
films were filmed inside Afghanistan, while some dealt with the country, including Dharmatma , Kabul Express , Khuda Gawah
Khuda Gawah
and Escape From Taliban .

Southeast Asia

Bollywood
Bollywood
films are popular in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, particularly in Maritime Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
. The three Khans of Bollywood
Khans of Bollywood
(Shah Rukh Khan , Aamir Khan , and Salman Khan ) are very popular in the Malay world , including Indonesia
Indonesia
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, and Singapore
Singapore
. Bollywood
Bollywood
is also fairly popular in Thailand
Thailand
.

In Indonesia, due to Indian cultural ties , Bollywood
Bollywood
films have been popular in the country, where they were first introduced at the end of World War II
World War II
in 1945. The "angry young man" films of Amitabh Bachchan and Salim-Javed were popular in the 1970s and 1980s, before Bollywood's popularity gradually began declining in the 1980s and 1990s. Bollywood
Bollywood
experienced a revival in Indonesia
Indonesia
with the release of Shah Rukh Khan's Kuch Kuch Hota Hai (1998) in 2001, becoming a bigger box-office success there than Titanic (1997). Since then, Bollywood
Bollywood
has had a strong presence in Indonesia, particularly Shah Rukh Khan films such as Mohabbatein (2000), Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham (2001), Kal Ho Naa Ho (2003), Chalte Chalte (2003), and Veer-Zaara (2004), as well as Koi Mil Gaya (2003).

East Asia

In East Asia
East Asia
, some Bollywood
Bollywood
films are widely appreciated in countries such as China
China
, Japan
Japan
, and South Korea
South Korea
. In Japan, several Hindi
Hindi
films have a cult following there, such as the films directed by Guru Dutt . Several Hindi
Hindi
films have also had mainstream commercial success in Japan, including Mehboob Khan 's Aan (1952) starring Dilip Kumar , and Aziz Mirza 's Raju Ban Gaya Gentleman (1992) starring Shah Rukh Khan , which released there in 1997 and sparked a short-lived boom in Indian films released in Japan
Japan
for the next two years. Another Shah Rukh Khan starrer, Dil Se.. (1998), was also a hit in Japan. The highest-grossing Hindi
Hindi
film in Japan
Japan
is the Aamir Khan starrer 3 Idiots (2009), which also received a Japanese Academy Award nomination. 3 Idiots was also a critical and commercial success in South Korea.

Some Hindi
Hindi
movies had success in China
China
back in the 1940s and 1950s, and are still popular among older generations of Chinese in the present. Some of the popular Hindi
Hindi
films in the region included Dr. Kotnis Ki Amar Kahani (1946), Awaara (1951) and Do Bigha Zamin (1953). Raj Kapoor was a famous movie star in China, with the song "Awara Hoon " ("I am a Tramp") popular in the country. In China, the few Indian films to gain commercial success there during the 1970s–1980s included Awaara, Tahir Hussain 's Caravan (1971), Noorie (1979), and Disco Dancer (1982). Famous Indian film stars in China
China
included Raj Kapoor, Nargis , and Mithun Chakraborty
Mithun Chakraborty
. Since the 1980s, Hindi films significantly declined in popularity there, taking decades before Tahir Hussain's son Aamir Khan opened up the Chinese market for Indian films in the early 21st century. His Academy Award
Academy Award
nominated Lagaan (2001) became the first Indian film to have a nationwide release there. The Chinese filmmaker He Ping was impressed by Lagaan, especially its soundtrack, and thus hired the film's music composer A. R. Rahman
A. R. Rahman
to score the soundtrack for his film Warriors of Heaven and Earth (2003).

When 3 Idiots released in China, the country was only the 15th largest film market, partly due to China's widespread pirate DVD distribution at the time. However, it was the pirate market that introduced 3 Idiots to most Chinese audiences, becoming a cult hit in the country. It became China's 12th favourite film of all time, according to ratings on Chinese film review site Douban , with only one domestic Chinese film (Farewell My Concubine ) ranked higher. Aamir Khan gained a large growing Chinese fanbase as a result. After 3 Idiots went viral, several of his other films, such as Taare Zameen Par (2007) and Ghajini (2008), also gained a cult following. By 2013, China
China
grew to become the world's second largest film market (after the United States), paving the way for Aamir Khan's Chinese box office success, with Dhoom 3
Dhoom 3
(2013), PK (2014), and Dangal (2016), which became the 16th highest-grossing film in China
China
, the fifth highest-grossing non- English language
English language
film worldwide, and the highest-grossing non-English foreign film in any market. Several Aamir Khan films, including Taare Zameen Par, 3 Idiots, and Dangal, are some of the highest-rated films on popular Chinese film site Douban . His next film, the Zaira Wasim starrer Secret Superstar (2017), broke Dangal's record for the highest-grossing opening weekend by an Indian film, cementing Aamir Khan's status as a superstar in China, and as "a king of the Chinese box office", with Secret Superstar being China's highest-grossing foreign film of 2018 to date. He has become a household name in China, with his success there described as a form of Indian soft power , helping to improve China– India
India
relations , despite political tensions between the two nations. With Bollywood
Bollywood
giving serious competition to Hollywood
Hollywood
in the Chinese market, the success of Aamir Khan films has drove up the buyout prices of Indian film imports for Chinese distributors. Bajrangi Bhaijaan (2015) and Hindi
Hindi
Medium (2017) are set to be released in China
China
for 2018.

Oceania

Bollywood
Bollywood
is not as successful in the Oceanic countries and Pacific Islands such as New Guinea
New Guinea
. However, it ranks second to Hollywood
Hollywood
in countries such as Fiji
Fiji
, with its large Indian minority, as well as Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
.

Australia
Australia
is one of the countries where there is a large South Asian Diaspora. Bollywood
Bollywood
is popular amongst non-Asians in the country as well. Since 1997 the country has provided a backdrop for an increasing number of Bollywood
Bollywood
films. Indian filmmakers have been attracted to Australia's diverse locations and landscapes, and initially used it as the setting for song-and-dance sequences, which demonstrated the contrast between the values. However, nowadays, Australian locations are becoming more important to the plot of Bollywood
Bollywood
films. Hindi
Hindi
films shot in Australia
Australia
usually incorporate aspects of Australian lifestyle. The Yash Raj Film Salaam Namaste (2005) became the first Indian film to be shot entirely in Australia and was the most successful Bollywood
Bollywood
film of 2005 in the country. This was followed by Heyy Babyy (2007) Chak De! India
India
(2007) and Singh Is Kinng (2008) which turned out to be box office successes. Following the release of Salaam Namaste, on a visit to India
India
the then prime minister John Howard
John Howard
also sought, having seen the film, to have more Indian movies shooting in the country to boost tourism, where the Bollywood
Bollywood
and cricket nexus, was further tightened with Steve Waugh 's appointment as tourism ambassador to India. Australian actress Tania Zaetta , who co-starred in Salaam Namaste, among other Bollywood films, expressed her keenness to expand her career in Bollywood.

EASTERN EUROPE AND CENTRAL ASIA

Bollywood
Bollywood
films are particularly popular in the former Soviet Union ( Russia
Russia
, Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
, Central Asia
Central Asia
). Bollywood
Bollywood
films have been dubbed into Russian , and shown in prominent theatres such as Mosfilm and Lenfilm .

Indian films were popular in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, more so than Hollywood
Hollywood
films and occasionally even domestic Soviet films
Soviet films
. The first Indian film to release there was Dharti Ke Lal (1946), directed by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas and based on the Bengal
Bengal
famine of 1943 , released in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1949. Since then, 300 Indian films were released in the Soviet Union, most of which were Bollywood films, drawing higher average audience figures than domestic Soviet productions, with 50 Indian films drawing more than 20 million viewers (compared to 41 Hollywood
Hollywood
films), with some such as Awaara (1951) and Disco Dancer (1982) drawing more than 60 million viewers, establishing Indian actors like Raj Kapoor , Nargis , Rishi Kapoor
Rishi Kapoor
and Mithun Chakraborty
Mithun Chakraborty
as household names in the country.

Ashok Sharma, Indian Ambassador to Suriname
Suriname
, who has served three times in the Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
region during his diplomatic career said:

The popularity of Bollywood
Bollywood
in the CIS dates back to the Soviet days when the films from Hollywood
Hollywood
and other Western cinema centers were banned in the Soviet Union. As there was no means of other cheap entertainment, the films from Bollywood
Bollywood
provided the Soviets a cheap source of entertainment as they were supposed to be non-controversial and non-political. In addition, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was recovering from the onslaught of the Second World War. The films from India, which were also recovering from the disaster of partition and the struggle for freedom from colonial rule, were found to be a good source of providing hope with entertainment to the struggling masses. The aspirations and needs of the people of both countries matched to a great extent. These films were dubbed in Russian and shown in theatres throughout the Soviet Union. The films from Bollywood
Bollywood
also strengthened family values, which was a big factor for their popularity with the government authorities in the Soviet Union.

The film Mera Naam Joker (1970), sought to cater to such an appeal and the popularity of Raj Kapoor in Russia, when it recruited Russian actress Kseniya Ryabinkina for the movie. In the contemporary era, Lucky: No Time for Love (2005) was shot entirely in Russia. After the collapse of the Soviet film distribution system, Hollywood
Hollywood
occupied the void created in the Russian film market. This made things difficult for Bollywood
Bollywood
as it was losing market share to Hollywood. However, Russian newspapers report that there is a renewed interest in Bollywood
Bollywood
among young Russians.

In Poland
Poland
, Bollywood
Bollywood
star Shah Rukh Khan has a large following. He was introduced to Polish audiences with the release of Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham (2001) there in 2005, after which some of his other films became hits in the country, including Dil Se
Dil Se
(1998), Main Hoon Na (2004) and Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna (2006). Shah Rukh Khan has become a household name in Poland, and Bollywood
Bollywood
films are often covered in the largest Polish newspaper Gazeta Wyborcza .

MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA

Hindi
Hindi
films have been popular in Arab countries , including Palestine , Jordan
Jordan
, Egypt
Egypt
, and the Gulf countries . Imported Indian films are usually subtitled in Arabic upon the film's release. Since the early 2000s, Bollywood
Bollywood
has progressed in Israel
Israel
. Special
Special
channels dedicated to Indian films have been displayed on cable television. There are channels such as MBC Bollywood and Zee Aflam , which show Hindi
Hindi
movies and serials.

In Egypt, Bollywood
Bollywood
films used to be very popular in the 1970s and 1980s. In 1987 however, Bollywood
Bollywood
films were restricted to only a handful of films by the Egyptian government
Egyptian government
. Amitabh Bachchan
Amitabh Bachchan
, however, has remained been very popular in Egypt. Indian tourists visiting Egypt
Egypt
are frequently asked by locals, "Do you know Amitabh Bachchan?"

Bollywood
Bollywood
movies are regularly screened in Dubai cinemas because of the high demand. Recently in Turkey, Bollywood
Bollywood
has been gaining popularity as Barfi! was the first Hindi
Hindi
film to have a wide theatrical release. Bollywood
Bollywood
also has viewership in Central Asia (particularly in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
).

SOUTH AMERICA

Bollywood
Bollywood
movies are not influential in many countries of South America, though Bollywood
Bollywood
culture and dance is recognised. However, due to significant South Asian diasporic communities in Suriname
Suriname
and Guyana
Guyana
, Hindi-language movies are popular. In 2006, Dhoom 2 became the first Bollywood
Bollywood
film to be shot in Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
, Brazil.

In January 2012, it was announced that UTV Motion Pictures would be releasing movies in Peru
Peru
, starting with Guzaarish .

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA AND HORN OF AFRICA

Historically, Hindi
Hindi
films have been distributed to some parts of Africa, largely by Lebanese businessmen. Mother India
India
(1957), for example, continued to be played in Nigeria
Nigeria
decades after its release. Indian movies have also gained ground so as to alter the style of Hausa fashions, songs have also been copied by Hausa singers and stories have influenced the writings of Nigerian novelists. Stickers of Indian films and stars decorate taxis and buses in Northern Nigeria, while posters of Indian films adorn the walls of tailor shops and mechanics' garages in the country. Unlike in Europe
Europe
and North America where Indian films largely cater to the expatriate Indian market yearning to keep in touch with their homeland, in West Africa, as in many other parts of the world, such movies rose in popularity despite the lack of a significant Indian audience, where movies are about an alien culture, based on a religion wholly different, and, for the most part, a language that is unintelligible to the viewers. One such explanation for this lies in the similarities between the two cultures. Other similarities include wearing turbans; the presence of animals in markets; porters carrying large bundles, chewing sugar cane; youths riding Bajaj motor scooters; wedding celebrations, and so forth. With the strict Muslim culture, Indian movies were said to show "respect" toward women, where Hollywood
Hollywood
movies were seen to have "no shame". In Indian movies women were modestly dressed, men and women rarely kiss, and there is no nudity , thus Indian movies are said to "have culture" that Hollywood
Hollywood
films lack. The latter choice was a failure because "they don't base themselves on the problems of the people," where the former is based socialist values and on the reality of developing countries emerging from years of colonialism. Indian movies also allowed for a new youth culture to follow without such ideological baggage as "becoming western." The first ever movie to be shot in Mauritius
Mauritius
was Souten starring Rajesh Khanna in 1983.

In South Africa
South Africa
, film imports from India
India
were watched by both Black South African and Indian South African
Indian South African
audiences. Several Bollywood personalities have avenued to the continent for both shooting movies and off-camera projects. The film Padmashree Laloo Prasad Yadav
Padmashree Laloo Prasad Yadav
(2005) was one of many movies shot in South Africa. Dil Jo Bhi Kahey
Dil Jo Bhi Kahey
(2005) was shot almost entirely in Mauritius
Mauritius
, which has a large ethnically Indian population.

Ominously, however, the popularity of old Bollywood
Bollywood
versus a new, changing Bollywood
Bollywood
seems to be diminishing the popularity on the continent. The changing style of Bollywood
Bollywood
has begun to question such an acceptance. The new era features more sexually explicit and violent films. Nigerian viewers, for example, commented that older films of the 1950s and 1960s had culture to the newer, more westernised picturisations. The old days of India
India
avidly "advocating decolonization ... and India's policy was wholly influenced by his missionary zeal to end racial domination and discrimination in the African territories" were replaced by newer realities. The emergence of Nollywood , Africa's local movie industry has also contributed to the declining popularity of Bollywood
Bollywood
films. A greater globalised world worked in tandem with the sexualisation of Indian films so as to become more like American films, thus negating the preferred values of an old Bollywood
Bollywood
and diminishing Indian soft power .

Additionally, classic Bollywood
Bollywood
actors like Kishore Kumar and Amitabh Bachchan have historically enjoyed popularity in Egypt
Egypt
and Somalia
Somalia
. In Ethiopia
Ethiopia
, Bollywood
Bollywood
movies are shown alongside Hollywood productions in Piazza theatres, such as the Cinema Ethiopia
Ethiopia
in Addis Ababa . In the other countries of North Africa
North Africa
, Bollywood
Bollywood
films are also broadcast, though local aesthetics tend much more toward expressive or auteur cinema than commercial fare.

WESTERN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA

" Bollywood
Bollywood
Steps" show in London
London
.

The first Indian film to be released in the Western world
Western world
, and get mainstream attention, was Aan (1952), directed by Mehboob Khan , and starring Dilip Kumar and Nimmi . It was subtitled in 17 languages and released in 28 countries, including the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, United States , and France
France
. Aan also received critical acclaim in the British press at the time, such as The Times
The Times
which compared it favourably with Hollywood
Hollywood
productions at the time. Mehboob Khan's later Academy Award
Academy Award
nominated Mother India
India
(1957) was an unprecedented success in overseas markets, including Europe
Europe
, Russia
Russia
, the Eastern Bloc , French territories , and Latin America
Latin America
.

The awareness of Hindi
Hindi
cinema is substantial in the United Kingdom, where they frequently enter the UK top ten. The most successful Indian actor at the UK box office has been Shah Rukh Khan , whose popularity in British Asian
British Asian
communities played a key role in introducing Bollywood
Bollywood
to the UK, with films such as Darr (1993), Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge (1995), and Kuch Kuch Hota Hai (1998). Dil Se (1998) was the first Indian film to enter the UK top ten. Many Indian films, such as Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge and Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham (2001), have been set in London.

Bollywood
Bollywood
is also appreciated in other Western European countries, such as France
France
, Germany
Germany
, the Netherlands
Netherlands
, and the Scandinavian countries. Various Bollywood
Bollywood
films are dubbed in German , and shown on the German television channel RTL II on a regular basis. Germany
Germany
is the second largest European market for Indian films, after the United Kingdom. The most recognized Indian actor in Germany
Germany
is Shah Rukh Khan, who has had box-office success in the country, with films such as Don 2 (2011) and Om Shanti Om (2007). He has a large German fan following, particularly in cities such as Berlin
Berlin
, where the tabloid Die Tageszeitung compared his popularity to that of the Pope
Pope
. Michelle Obama
Michelle Obama
joining students for a ' Bollywood
Bollywood
Dance Clinic' in the State Dining Room of the White House
White House
, 2013.

Bollywood
Bollywood
has experienced a marked growth in revenue in Canada
Canada
and the United States, particularly popular amongst the South Asian communities in large cities, such as Toronto
Toronto
, Chicago, and New York City. Yash Raj Films , one of India's largest production houses and distributors, reported in September 2005 that Bollywood
Bollywood
films in the United States
United States
earn around $100 million a year through theatre screenings, video sales and the sale of movie soundtracks. In other words, films from India
India
do more business in the United States
United States
than films from any other non-English speaking country. Numerous films in the mid-1990s and onwards have been largely, or entirely, shot in New York, Los Angeles, Vancouver and Toronto. Bollywood's immersion in the traditional Hollywood
Hollywood
domain was further tied with such films as The Guru (2002) and Marigold: An Adventure in India
India
(2007) trying to popularise the Bollywood-theme for Hollywood.

PLAGIARISM

Constrained by rushed production schedules and small budgets, some Bollywood
Bollywood
writers and musicians have been known to resort to plagiarism . Ideas, plot lines, tunes or riffs have been copied from other Indian film industries or foreign films (including Hollywood
Hollywood
and other Asian films ) without acknowledgement of the original source. This has led to criticism towards the film industry.

Before the 1990s, this could be done with impunity. Copyright enforcement was lax in India
India
and few actors or directors ever saw an official contract. The Hindi
Hindi
film industry was not widely known to non-Indian audiences (excluding the Soviet states), who would not even be aware that their material was being copied. Audiences may also not have been aware of the plagiarism since many audiences in India
India
were unfamiliar with foreign films and music. While copyright enforcement in India
India
is still somewhat lenient, Bollywood
Bollywood
and other film industries are much more aware of each other now and Indian audiences are more familiar with foreign movies and music. Organisations like the India
India
EU Film Initiative seek to foster a community between film makers and industry professional between India
India
and the EU.

One of the common justifications of plagiarism in Bollywood
Bollywood
in the media is that producers often play a safer option by remaking popular Hollywood
Hollywood
films in an Indian context. Screenwriters generally produce original scripts, but due to financial uncertainty and insecurity over the success of a film many were rejected. Screenwriters themselves have been criticised for lack of creativity which happened due to tight schedules and restricted funds in the industry to employ better screenwriters. Certain filmmakers see plagiarism in Bollywood
Bollywood
as an integral part of globalisation where American and western cultures are firmly embedding themselves into Indian culture, which is manifested, amongst other mediums, in Bollywood
Bollywood
films. Vikram Bhatt , director of films such as Raaz which stars Bipasha Basu
Bipasha Basu
, a remake of What Lies Beneath , and Kasoor , a remake of Jagged Edge , has spoken about the strong influence of American culture and desire to produce box office hits based along the same lines in Bollywood. He said, "Financially, I would be more secure knowing that a particular piece of work has already done well at the box office. Copying is endemic everywhere in India. Our TV shows are adaptations of American programmes. We want their films, their cars, their planes, their Diet Cokes and also their attitude. The American way of life is creeping into our culture." Mahesh Bhatt has said, "If you hide the source, you're a genius. There's no such thing as originality in the creative sphere".

There have been very few cases of film copyright violations taken to court because of serious delays in the legal process, and due to the long time they take to decide a case. There have been some notable cases of conflict though. The makers of Partner (2007) and Zinda (2005) have been targeted by the owners and distributors of the original films, Hitch and Oldboy . American Studio Twentieth Century Fox brought the Mumbai-based B.R. Films to court over its forthcoming Banda Yeh Bindaas Hai, allegedly an illegal remake of its 1992 film My Cousin Vinny . B.R. Films eventually settled out of court by paying the studio at a cost of about $200,000, paving the way for the film's release. Some on the other hand do comply with copyright law, with Orion Pictures in 2008 securing the rights to remake the Hollywood film Wedding Crashers .

SEE ALSO

* Bollywood
Bollywood
portal * India
India
portal * Mumbai
Mumbai
portal * Film portal

* Bibliography of Hindi
Hindi
cinema * Central Board of Film Certification
Central Board of Film Certification
* Color Era in Indian Cinema
Color Era in Indian Cinema
* Film City
Film City
* Hindi
Hindi
film distribution circuits * List of Hindi
Hindi
Animated Movies * List of Bollywood films * List of cinema of the world * List of highest-grossing Indian films * List of highest domestic net collection of Hindi
Hindi
films * List of Hollywood-inspired nicknames

REFERENCES

* ^ A B "INDIAN FEATURE FILMS CERTIFIED DURING THE YEAR 2017". Film Federation of India
India
. 31 March 2017. * ^ http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/mumbai/Bollywood-revenues-may-cross-Rs-19300-cr-by-FY17/article13982597.ece * ^ "The Digital March Media ">(PDF). Deloitte. Retrieved 21 April 2014. * ^ "The New Indywood" (PDF). Deloitte. * ^ "\'The word B\'wood is derogatory\'". The Indian Express. Retrieved 11 November 2016. * ^ Richard Corliss (16 September 1996). "Hooray for Bollywood!". Time . * ^ A B C D E "Decoding the Bollywood
Bollywood
poster". National Science and Media Museum . 28 February 2013. * ^ A B C D E F Aḵẖtar, Jāvīd ; Kabir, Nasreen Munni (2002). Talking Films: Conversations on Hindi
Hindi
Cinema with Javed Akhtar. Oxford University Press . p. 49. ISBN 9780195664621 . JA: I write dialogue in Urdu, but the action and descriptions are in English. Then an assistant transcribes the Urdu
Urdu
dialogue into Devnagari because most people read Hindi. But I write in Urdu. Not only me, I think most of the writers working in this so-called Hindi
Hindi
cinema write in Urdu: Gulzar , or Rajinder Singh Bedi or Inder Raj Anand or Rahi Masoom Raza or Vahajat Mirza , who wrote dialogue for films like Mughal-e-Azam and Gunga Jumna and Mother India
India
. So most dialogue-writers and most song-writers are from the Urdu
Urdu
discipline, even today. * ^ A B "Film World". Film World. T.M. Ramachandran. 10: 65. 1974. I feel that the Government should eradicate the age-old evil of certifying Urdu
Urdu
films as Hindi
Hindi
ones. It is a known fact that Urdu
Urdu
has been willingly accepted and used by the film industry. Two eminent Urdu
Urdu
writers Krishan Chander and Ismat Chughtai have said that "more than seventy-five per cent of films are made in Urdu." It is a pity that although Urdu
Urdu
is freely used in films, the producers in general mention the language of the film as "Hindi" in the application forms supplied by the Censor Board. It is a gross misrepresentation and unjust to the people who love Urdu. * ^ "The Digital March Media ">(PDF). Deloitte. Retrieved 21 April 2014. * ^ Pippa de Bruyn; Niloufer Venkatraman; Keith Bain (2006). Frommer's India. Frommer's. p. 579. ISBN 0-471-79434-1 . * ^ Wasko, Janet (2003). How Hollywood
Hollywood
works. SAGE. p. 185. ISBN 0-7619-6814-8 . * ^ K. Jha; Subhash (2005). The Essential Guide to Bollywood. Roli Books. p. 1970. ISBN 81-7436-378-5 . * ^ A B C Jonathan Matusitz & Pam Payano (2011). The Bollywood
Bollywood
in Indian and American Perceptions: A Comparative Analysis. India Quarterly: A Journal of International Affairs, 67 (1), 65–77. doi : 10.1177/097492841006700105 * ^ "Bollywood: Can new money create a world-class film industry in India?". Business Week . 2 December 2002. * ^ Lorenzen, Mark (April 2009). "Go West: The Growth of Bollywood" (PDF). Creativity at Work. Copenhagen Business School . * ^ A B Rajghatta, Chidanand (6 July 2008). " Bollywood
Bollywood
in Hollywood". The Times
The Times
of India
India
. Retrieved 20 February 2009. * ^ Sarkar, Bhaskar (2008). "The Melodramas of Globalization". Cultural Dynamics. 20: 31–51 . doi :10.1177/0921374007088054 . Madhava Prasad traces the origin of the term to a 1932 article in the American Cinematographer by Wilford E. Deming, an American engineer who apparently helped produce the first Indian sound picture. At this point, the Calcutta suburb of Tollygunge was the main centr of film production in India. Deming refers to the area as Tollywood, since it already boasted two studios with 'several more projected' (Prasad, 2003) 'Tolly', rhyming with 'Holly', got hinged to 'wood' in the Anglophone Indian imagination, and came to denote the Calcutta studios and, by extension, the local film industry. Prasad surmises: 'Once Tollywood was made possible by the fortuitous availability of a half-rhyme, it was easy to clone new Hollywood
Hollywood
babies by simply replacing the first letter' (Prasad, 2003). * ^ Prasad, M. Madhava; Punathambekar, Aswin (2008). "Chapter 2: Surviving Bollywood". In Anandam P. Kavoori. Global Bollywood. New York: New York University Press . pp. 41–3. ISBN 0-8147-4798-1 . Retrieved 6 February 2012. * ^ A B Subhash K Jha (8 April 2005). "Amit Khanna: The Man who saw \'Bollywood\'". Sify . Archived from the original on 9 April 2005. Retrieved 31 May 2009. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * ^ A B Anand (7 March 2004). "On the Bollywood
Bollywood
beat". The Hindu
Hindu
. Chennai, India. Retrieved 31 May 2009. * ^ Crusie, Jennifer; Yeffeth, Glenn (2005). Flirting with Pride & Prejudice. BenBella Books, Inc. p. 92. ISBN 1-932100-72-5 . * ^ Dadasaheb Phalke, the father of Indian cinema
Indian cinema
– Bāpū Vāṭave, National Book Trust – Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 17 November 2012. * ^ Sachin Sharma, TNN 28 June 2012, 03.36AM IST (28 June 2012). "Godhra forgets its days spent with Dadasaheb Phalke – Times of India". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 17 November 2012. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ Vilanilam, J. V. (2005). Mass Communication in India: A Sociological Perspective. New Delhi: Sage Publications. p. 128. ISBN 81-7829-515-6 . * ^ A B Gulzar; Nihalani, Govind; Chatterji, Saibal (2003). Encyclopaedia of Hindi
Hindi
Cinema. Encyclopædia Britannica (India) Pvt Ltd. pp. 136–137. ISBN 81-7991-066-0 . * ^ "Talking Images, 75 Years of Cinema". The Tribune. Retrieved 9 March 2013. * ^ Ghosh, Partha S. (2016). Migrants, Refugees and the Stateless in South Asia. SAGE Publications
SAGE Publications
. p. 263. ISBN 9789351508557 . * ^ K. Moti Gokulsing, K. Gokulsing, Wimal Dissanayake (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. p. 17. ISBN 1-85856-329-1 . * ^ Sharpe, Jenny (2005). "Gender, Nation, and Globalization
Globalization
in Monsoon Wedding and Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge". Meridians: feminism, race, transnationalism. 6 (1): 58–81 . doi :10.1353/mer.2005.0032 . * ^ Gooptu, Sharmistha (July 2002). "Reviewed work(s): The Cinemas of India
India
(1896–2000) by Yves Thoraval". Economic and Political Weekly . 37 (29): 3023–4. * ^ A B C D K. Moti Gokulsing, K. Gokulsing, Wimal Dissanayake (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. p. 18. ISBN 1-85856-329-1 . * ^ Khanna, Priyanka (24 February 2008). "For Bollywood, Oscar is a big yawn again". Thaindian News. Archived from the original on 30 September 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012. * ^ Sridharan, Tarini (25 November 2012). "Mother India, not Woman India". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 6 January 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2012. * ^ Bollywood
Bollywood
Blockbusters: Mother India
India
(Part 1) (Documentary). CNN-IBN . 2009. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. * ^ Kehr, Dave (23 August 2002). "Mother India
India
(1957). Film in review; \'Mother India\'". The New York Times
The New York Times
. Retrieved 7 June 2012.

* ^ A B Teo, Stephen (2017). Eastern Westerns: Film and Genre Outside and Inside Hollywood. Taylor & Francis . p. 122. ISBN 9781317592266 . * ^ A B Tejaswini Ganti, Bollywood: A Guidebook to Popular Hindi Cinema, page 153 * ^ A B Doniger, Wendy (2005). "Chapter 6: Reincarnation". The woman who pretended to be who she was: myths of self-imitation. Oxford University Press . pp. 112–136 . ISBN 0-19-516016-9 . * ^ "Film Festival – Bombay Melody". University of California, Los Angeles . 17 March 2004. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2009. * ^ A B Before Brando, There Was Dilip Kumar, The Quint, December 11, 2015 * ^ A B "Unmatched innings". The Hindu
Hindu
. 24 January 2012. Archived from the original on 8 February 2012. Retrieved 9 January 2015. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * ^ Sen, Raja (29 June 2011). "Readers Choice: The Greatest Actresses of all time". Rediff.com. Retrieved 19 September 2011. * ^ A B C Ahmed, Rauf. "The Present". Rediff.com
Rediff.com
. Archived from the original on 29 May 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2008. * ^ A B Rajadhyaksha, Ashish (2016). Indian Cinema: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. p. 61. ISBN 9780191034770 . * ^ A B Maker of innovative, meaningful movies. The Hindu
Hindu
, 15 June 2007 * ^ " Do Bigha Zamin at filmreference". Filmreference.com. 3 August 1980. Retrieved 12 November 2010. * ^ Srikanth Srinivasan (4 August 2008). "Do Bigha Zamin: Seeds of the Indian New Wave". Dear Cinema. Archived from the original on 7 March 2009. Retrieved 13 April 2009. * ^ A B " India
India
and Cannes: A Reluctant Courtship". Passion For Cinema. 2008. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2009. * ^ K. Moti Gokulsing, K. Gokulsing, Wimal Dissanayake (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. pp. 18–9. ISBN 1-85856-329-1 . * ^ Kevin Lee (5 September 2002). "A Slanted Canon". Asian American Film Commentary. Retrieved 24 April 2009. * ^ "All-Time 100 Best Movies". Time . 12 February 2005. Retrieved 19 May 2008. * ^ "2002 Sight & Sound Top Films Survey of 253 International Critics & Film Directors". Cinemacom. 2002. Retrieved 19 April 2009. * ^ A B "Revisiting Prakash Mehra\'s Zanjeer: The film that made Amitabh Bachchan". The Indian Express . 20 June 2017. * ^ "Salim-Javed: Writing Duo that Revolutionized Indian Cinema". Pandolin. 25 April 2013. * ^ Chaudhuri, Diptakirti (2015-10-01). Written by Salim-Javed: The Story of Hindi
Hindi
Cinema’s Greatest Screenwriters. Penguin UK . ISBN 9789352140084 . * ^ A B C D E F Raj, Ashok (2009). Hero Vol.2. Hay House . p. 21. ISBN 9789381398036 . * ^ Ganti, Tejaswini (2004). Bollywood: A Guidebook to Popular Hindi
Hindi
Cinema. Psychology Press . p. 153. ISBN 9780415288545 . * ^ Chaudhuri, Diptakirti (2015). Written by Salim-Javed: The Story of Hindi
Hindi
Cinema’s Greatest Screenwriters. Penguin Books
Penguin Books
. p. 72. ISBN 9789352140084 . * ^ A B Kumar, Surendra (2003). Legends of Indian cinema: pen portraits. Har-Anand Publications. p. 51. * ^ A B C D Mazumdar, Ranjani. Bombay Cinema: An Archive of the City. University of Minnesota Press
University of Minnesota Press
. p. 14. ISBN 9781452913025 . * ^ A B Chaudhuri, Diptakirti (2015). Written by Salim-Javed: The Story of Hindi
Hindi
Cinema’s Greatest Screenwriters. Penguin Group . p. 74. ISBN 9789352140084 . * ^ A B C " Deewaar
Deewaar
was the perfect script: Amitabh Bachchan
Amitabh Bachchan
on 42 years of the cult film". Hindustan Times . 29 January 2017. * ^ "Amitabh Bachchan: Meet the biggest movie star in the world". independent.co.uk. 9 February 2015. Retrieved 2015-02-09. * ^ "Why Amitabh Bachchan
Amitabh Bachchan
is more than a superstar". bbc.com. 11 October 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-11. * ^ Wajihuddin, Mohammed (2 December 2005). "Egypt\'s Amitabh Bachchan mania". The Times
The Times
of India
India
. Retrieved 22 November 2011. * ^ Jatras, Todd (9 March 2001). "India\'s Celebrity Film Stars". Article. Forbes
Forbes
. Retrieved 22 November 2011. * ^ "Bachchan Receives Lifetime Achievement Award at DIFF". Khaleej Times. 25 November 2009. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2011. * ^ A B C Amitava Kumar (23 December 2008). "Slumdog Millionaire\'s Bollywood
Bollywood
Ancestors". Vanity Fair . Retrieved 4 January 2008. * ^ A B Stadtman, Todd (2015). Funky Bollywood: The Wild World of 1970s Indian Action Cinema. FAB Press. ISBN 9781903254776 . * ^ A B C D E Chaudhuri, Diptakirti (2015-10-01). Written by Salim-Javed: The Story of Hindi
Hindi
Cinema’s Greatest Screenwriters. Penguin UK . p. 58. ISBN 9789352140084 . * ^ "How film-maker Nasir Husain started the trend for Bollywood masala films". Hindustan Times . 30 March 2017. * ^ A B Kaushik Bhaumik, An Insightful Reading of Our Many Indian Identities, The Wire , 12/03/2016 * ^ Rachel Dwyer (2005). 100 Bollywood
Bollywood
films. Lotus Collection, Roli Books. p. 14. ISBN 978-81-7436-433-3 . Retrieved 6 August 2013. * ^ Rajadhyaksa, 685 * ^ Rajadhyaksa, 688 * ^ A B C https://www.forbes.com/sites/suparnadutt/2017/01/23/why-dangal-star-aamir-khan-is-the-new-king-of-bollywood/ * ^ Chintamani, Gautam (2016). Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak: The Film That Revived Hindi
Hindi
Cinema. HarperCollins
HarperCollins
. ISBN 9789352640980 . * ^ A B Ray, Kunal (18 December 2016). "Romancing the 1980s". The Hindu
Hindu
. * ^ Sen, Meheli (2017). Haunting Bollywood: Gender, Genre, and the Supernatural in Hindi
Hindi
Commercial Cinema. University of Texas Press . p. 189. ISBN 9781477311585 . * ^ Joshi, Priya (2015). Bollywood\'s India: A Public Fantasy. Columbia University Press
Columbia University Press
. p. 171. ISBN 9780231539074 . * ^ Stacey Yount, Akshay Kumar on Filmi
Filmi
things, BollySpice , 2 March 2008 Archived 9 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ " Akshay Kumar meets Jackie Chan in Hong Kong". Bollywood Hungama . 20 May 2004. Archived from the original on 23 March 2011. Retrieved 11 April 2011. * ^ A B Aruti Nayar (16 December 2007). " Bollywood
Bollywood
on the table". The Tribune. Retrieved 19 June 2008. * ^ Christian Jungen (4 April 2009). "Urban Movies: The Diversity of Indian Cinema". FIPRESCI . Archived from the original on 17 June 2009. Retrieved 11 May 2009. * ^ A B C D "Impact of Bollywood
Bollywood
on Indian Culture". DESIblitz. 15 January 2014. * ^ https://www.forbes.com/sites/robcain/2016/03/20/are-bollywoods-three-khans-the-last-of-the-movie-kings/ * ^ After Aamir, SRK, Salman, why Bollywood\'s next male superstar may need a decade to rise, Firstpost , 16 October 2016 * ^ http://www.ndtv.com/india-news/aamir-khan-is-the-king-of-the-king-khans-moved-ahead-of-shah-rukh-salman-1723117 * ^ Cain, Rob (5 October 2017). "Why Aamir Khan Is Arguably The World\'s Biggest Movie Star, Part 2". Forbes
Forbes
. * ^ A B C D E F Anita N. Wadhwani. " Bollywood
Bollywood
Mania" Rising in United States
United States
Archived 20 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
.. US State Department. (9 August 2006). Retrieved 29 July 2010. * ^ Rangan, Baradwaj (8 January 2017). "Masala redux". The Hindu
Hindu
. Retrieved 8 January 2017. * ^ A B C D E F G Gokulsing, K. Moti; Dissanayake, Wimal (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. pp. 98–99. ISBN 1-85856-329-1 . * ^ Matthew Jones (January 2010). "Bollywood, Rasa and Indian Cinema: Misconceptions, Meanings and Millionaire". Visual Anthropology. 23 (1): 33–43. doi :10.1080/08949460903368895 . * ^ Gooptu, Sharmistha (2010). Bengali Cinema: \'An Other Nation\'. Routledge
Routledge
. p. 38. ISBN 9781136912177 . * ^ A B C Chaudhuri, Diptakirti (2015). Written by Salim-Javed: The Story of Hindi
Hindi
Cinema’s Greatest Screenwriters. Penguin Books
Penguin Books
. ISBN 9789352140084 . * ^ A B C D Dwyer, Rachel (2006). Filming the Gods: Religion and Indian Cinema. Routledge
Routledge
. p. 106. ISBN 9781134380701 . * ^ A B Dwyer, Rachel (2014). Picture Abhi Baaki Hai: Bollywood
Bollywood
as a Guide to Modern India. Hachette . p. 70. ISBN 9789350098608 . * ^ Heide, William Van der (2002). Malaysian Cinema, Asian Film: Border Crossings and National Cultures. Amsterdam University Press . ISBN 9789053565803 . * ^ Morris, Meaghan; Li, Siu Leung; Chan, Stephen Ching-kiu (2005). Hong Kong Connections: Transnational Imagination in Action Cinema. Hong Kong University Press . p. 149. ISBN 9781932643190 . * ^ A B Desai, Lord Meghnad (4 May 2013). "How Bollywood
Bollywood
mirrors Indian realities". BBC. Retrieved 15 January 2014. * ^ Raghavendra, M. K. The Politics of Hindi
Hindi
Cinema in the New Millennium: Bollywood
Bollywood
and the Anglophone Indian Nation. Oxford Scholarship Online . ISBN 9780199450565 . * ^ "Baahubali 2, Dangal\'s overseas box office success is a testimony to Indian film industry\'s soft power". Firstpost . 31 May 2017. * ^ A B "A window to India\'s rising soft power — Bollywood". The Indian Express . 13 April 2017. * ^ A B C " Shah Rukh Khan as popular as Pope: German media". Daily News and Analysis . 10 February 2008. * ^ Swaminathan, Roopa (2017). Bollywood
Bollywood
Boom: India’s Rise as a Soft Power. Random House Publishers. ISBN 9789386495143 . * ^ " Baz Luhrmann Talks Awards and \'Moulin Rouge\'". * ^ "Guide Picks – Top Movie Musicals on Video/DVD". About.com
About.com
. Retrieved 15 May 2009. * ^ "Hollywood/Bollywood". Public Broadcasting Service
Public Broadcasting Service
. Retrieved 12 February 2010. * ^ "Slumdog draws crowds, but not all like what they see". The Age . Melbourne. 25 January 2009. Retrieved 24 January 2008. * ^ "\'Slumdog Millionaire\' has an Indian co-director". The Hindu . Chennai, India. 11 January 2009. Archived from the original on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 23 January 2009. * ^ A B Mondal, Sayantan. " Amitabh Bachchan
Amitabh Bachchan
starrer \'Deewar\' was remade in Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam
Malayalam
– and Cantonese". Scroll.in. Retrieved 30 January 2017. * ^ "The Brothers". Hong Kong Cinemagic . Retrieved 21 November 2017. * ^ Morton, Lisa (2001). The Cinema of Tsui Hark. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0990-8 . * ^ Volodzko, David (13 June 2015). "30 Years Later, This Chinese Film Still Echoes in Hollywood". The Diplomat . * ^ Banker, Ashok (2002). Bollywood. Penguin Group . p. 83. * ^ Doniger, Wendy (2005). "Chapter 6: Reincarnation". The woman who pretended to be who she was: myths of self-imitation. Oxford University Press . pp. 112–136 . ISBN 0-19-516016-9 . * ^ "Exploits of a date doc". The Hindu
Hindu
. Chennai, India. 15 April 2005. Retrieved 15 March 2009. * ^ Dominique Leone (19 July 2005). "Hosono & Yokoo: Cochin Moon". Pitchfork . Retrieved 26 May 2011. * ^ DEVO – disco dancer with commentary on YouTube
YouTube
* ^ "Truth Hurts". VH1
VH1
. 19 September 2002. Archived from the original on 13 April 2009. Retrieved 18 May 2009. * ^ ae naujawan hai sub kuchh yahan – Apradh 1972 on YouTube
YouTube
* ^ Robin Denselow (2 May 2008). "Kalyanji Anandji, The Bollywood Brothers". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 1 March 2009. * ^ Löwenherz – Bis in die Ewigkeit on YouTube
YouTube
* ^ Kalita, S. Mitra (2005). Suburban Sahibs: Three Immigrant Families And Their Passage from India
India
to America. Rutgers University Press , p. 134. ISBN 0-8135-3318-X * ^ Gangadhar, V. (13 April 2007). "Moving with the times". The Hindu
Hindu
. Chennai, India. Retrieved 9 December 2009. * ^ A B C D Gupta, Suman; Omoniyi, Tope (2001). The Cultures of Economic Migration: International Perspectives. Ashgate Publishing Ltd. p. 202. ISBN 978-0-7546-7070-4 . * ^ Khubchandani, Lata. "Memories of another day". mid-day.com. * ^ "How to become a Bollywood
Bollywood
Actor". * ^ A. Chatterji, Shoma (30 June 2007). "Where East meets West". The Tribune . Retrieved 9 August 2008. * ^ Gulzar; Nihalani, Govind; Chatterji, Saibal (2003). Encyclopaedia of Hindi
Hindi
Cinema. Encyclopædia Britannica (India) Pvt Ltd. pp. 10–18, 63. ISBN 81-7991-066-0 . * ^ Virdi, Jyotika (2003). The cinematic imagiNation (sic): Indian popular films as social history. Rutgers University Press. * ^ "Soulful Urdu
Urdu
Words Used In Bollywood
Bollywood
That You May Be Unaware Of". CNN-News18 . CNN International
CNN International
. 4 August 2017. * ^ Desai, Jigna, Dudrah, Rajinder, Rai, Amit, Bollywood
Bollywood
Audiences Editorial, South Asian Popular Culture; October 2005, Vol. 3 Issue 2, pages 79–82. * ^ Us Salam, Ziya (12 August 2007). "Assault of the mixed doubles". The Hindu
Hindu
. Chennai, India. Retrieved 9 December 2009. * ^ Tejaswini Ganti (2004). Bollywood: a guidebook to popular Hindi cinema. Psychology Press. pp. 22–23. ISBN 978-0-415-28854-5 . Retrieved 25 April 2011. * ^ A B C " Lagaan used synchronized sound". The Times
The Times
of India
India
. 16 January 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2009. * ^ A B C D Samyabrata Ray Goswami (2014-11-11). "Women get makeup justice". Telegraphindia.com. Retrieved 2015-04-21. * ^ Amit Anand Choudhary (April 21, 2015). " Bollywood
Bollywood
make-up artists\' group inducts first woman after SC rap". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2015-04-21. * ^ A B C Rao, S. (2010). "I Need an Indian Touch": Glocalization and Bollywood
Bollywood
Films. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 3(1), 1-19. doi :10.1080/17513050903428117 * ^ BBC News: Kashmir
Kashmir
beckons Bollywood
Bollywood
(10 April 2003). * ^ BOLLYWOOD – The Indian Cinema and Switzerland
Switzerland
(2002). Archived 18 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ The Hindu: Bollywood
Bollywood
boosts Austria\'s tourism potential. (2008). * ^ "10 Best Bollywood
Bollywood
Dancers Celeb Zen Page 2". www.celebzen.in. Retrieved 2015-12-02. * ^ "Helen: Bollywood\'s Queen of Dance". The Huffington Post UK. Retrieved 2015-12-05. * ^ "The Tragic ending of Cuckoo Moore – Helen remembers Cuckoo". cineplot.com. Retrieved 2015-12-05. * ^ "Happy Birthday Parveen Babi". The Indian Express. 2014-04-04. Retrieved 2015-12-05. * ^ "World Dance Day: Top 6 dancing queens of Bollywood!". Zee News. Retrieved 2015-12-05. * ^ "\'Her Story\' Vinod Mehta Aug 01,2013". www.outlookindia.com. Retrieved 2015-12-05. * ^ "Shammi Kapoor". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-12-05. * ^ Times of India; movie report (6 November 2011). "It took me 20 years to be an overnight success: Shah Rukh Khan". The Times
The Times
of India. Retrieved 12 December 2011. * ^ "I & B Ministry will help film industry". Rediff. 31 March 2001. Retrieved 9 March 2013. * ^ Singh, Vijay (1 October 2003). "Bharat Shah sentenced, but won\'t have to spend time in prison". Rediff.com
Rediff.com
. Retrieved 14 February 2008. * ^ A B Ramanan, Manju (21 February 2005). "A different canvas". The Times
The Times
of India
India
. Retrieved 21 November 2008. * ^ "Collectors can make good money with old Bollywood
Bollywood
posters". The Economic Times. 18 December 2011. Retrieved 20 August 2013. * ^ "100 years of Indian cinema: Top 50 hand-painted Bollywood posters". CNN-IBN. 3 May 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2013. * ^ Jerry Pinto ; Sheena Sippy (2008). Bollywood
Bollywood
Posters. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-28776-7 . Retrieved 20 August 2013. * ^ Skelton, Tracey; Allen, Tim (1999). Culture and Global Change. Routledge. p. 269. ISBN 0-415-13917-1 . * ^ Ferrao, Dominic (31 January 2003). " Bollywood
Bollywood
wakes up to the power of Web". The Times
The Times
of India
India
. Retrieved 21 November 2008. * ^ "Leo Entertainment capitalises on film placements". Indian Television. 14 January 2003. Retrieved 9 March 2013. * ^ O'Neill, P. (2013). Imagining global India: Bollywood's transnational appeal. Continuum, 27(2), 254-266. doi :10.1080/10304312.2013.766309 * ^ " Filmfare Awards gets new sponsor". The Times
The Times
of India. Archived from the original on 20 February 2009. Retrieved 12 November 2010. * ^ "Diaspora News & Network Ltd". Dnnworld.com. 4 March 2005. Retrieved 12 November 2010. * ^ Filmfare Awards Complete Winners List – BollywoodSoundtracks.com Archived 3 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ A B C Larkin, Brian (31 August 2002). " Bollywood
Bollywood
Comes To Nigeria". Samarmagazine.org. Archived from the original on 31 July 2010. Retrieved 12 November 2010. * ^ Desai, 38 * ^ A B C "Dangal underlines popularity of Indian films in China". China
China
Daily . 2017-07-20. * ^ Can new money create a world-class film industry in India?. Business Week. * ^ "Bollywood\'s expanding reach". BBC News. 3 May 2012. Retrieved 9 March 2013. * ^ "Despite official ban, Hindi
Hindi
movies are a craze in Pakistan". Archived from the original on 24 February 2008. Retrieved 5 February 2008. * ^ " Bollywood
Bollywood
stumbles in Pak with Taj Mahal". The Indian Express . 14 May 2006. Retrieved 21 November 2008. * ^ "Will it be curtains for Indian films in Pakistan?". ThaIndian . 9 January 2009. Retrieved 23 February 2010. * ^ "The Mirror is Watching". Outlook India
India
. 1 March 2010. Retrieved 23 February 2009. * ^ A B C Sudhakaran, Sreeju (10 June 2017). " Aamir Khan in China, Shah Rukh Khan in Germany
Germany
- 7 Bollywood
Bollywood
stars who have massive fan following in other countries". Bollywood Life . * ^ " Bollywood
Bollywood
set to cross LoC". Hindustan Times . 27 January 2006. * ^ The Hindu
Hindu
Business Line: It\'s Bollywood
Bollywood
all the way in Afghanistan * ^ "CNN World: Kabul TV bans \'explicit\' Indian films, soaps". 29 August 2002. Archived from the original on 9 August 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2010. * ^ "BBC: Bollywood
Bollywood
eyes Afghan market". BBC News. 27 November 2001. Retrieved 31 December 2009. * ^ Yogendra Singh (19 November 2008). " Bollywood
Bollywood
in Southeast Asia". Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies . Retrieved 18 May 2009. * ^ Tambunan, Shuri Mariasih Gietty (23 December 2012). "Bollywood in Indonesia: The Kuch Kuch Hota Hai effect". OneWorld.net . * ^ "Asian Film Series No.9 GURU DUTT Retorospective". Japan Foundation . 2001. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2009. * ^ Matsuoka, Tamaki (2008). Asia to Watch, Asia to Present: The Promotion of Asian/Indian Cinema in Japan
Japan
(PDF). Senri Ethnological Studies, Reitaku University. p. 246. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2011. * ^ Kohli-Khandekar, Vanita (2013). The Indian Media Business. SAGE Publications . p. 188. ISBN 9788132117889 . * ^ " Japan
Japan
is going gaga over Bollywood". Quartz . 11 December 2014. * ^ " 3 Idiots to race for Japan
Japan
Academy Awards". * ^ Chaerim Oh (4 December 2011). "Embrace Your Nerdiness with 3 Idiots". KAIST Herald. KAIST . Retrieved 29 March 2012. * ^ A B C "Aamir: I couldn\'t really enjoy the food in China". Rediff
Rediff
. 21 May 2015. * ^ "Aamir Khan: the second coming of Tagore?". South China
China
Morning Post . 28 January 2018. * ^ A B " Lagaan released in China". The Tribune. Press Trust of India
India
. 20 November 2002. Archived from the original on 27 December 2007. Retrieved 12 January 2008. * ^ A B C https://www.forbes.com/sites/robcain/2017/06/08/how-a-52-year-old-indian-actor-became-chinas-favorite-movie-star/ * ^ Anil K. Joseph (20 November 2002). " Lagaan revives memories of Raj Kapoor in China". Press Trust of India
India
. Archived from the original on 5 December 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2009. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * ^ "Rahman\'s \'Lagaan\' cast a spell on me". Sify . 13 February 2004. Archived from the original on 24 March 2009. Retrieved 24 February 2009. * ^ "Q&A: Aamir Khan on what it takes to crack China\'s box office". Reuters
Reuters
. 2017. Retrieved 31 May 2017. * ^ 内地总票房排名 ("ALL-TIME DOMESTIC BOX OFFICE RANKINGS"). 中国票房 (CHINA BOX OFFICE) (IN CHINESE). ENTGROUP. * ^ Cain, Rob (12 June 2017). "\'Dangal\' Tops $300 Million, Becoming The 5th Highest-Grossing Non-English Movie Ever". Forbes. Retrieved 14 June 2017. * ^ Miller, Lee (28 January 2018). " Bollywood
Bollywood
Hit Beats \'Star Wars\' at China\'s Box Office". Bloomberg News . * ^ Miller, Lee (29 January 2018). " China
China
Picks Bollywood
Bollywood
Over Hollywood". Bloomberg News . * ^ Miller, Lee (29 January 2018). "How Aamir Khan\'s Secret Superstar beat \'Star Wars\' at China\'s Box Office". Business Standard . * ^ "印度的良心阿米尔·汗如何用电影改变国家". Sina . 19 May 2017. * ^ "《摔跤吧!爸爸》主演阿米尔·汗被誉为"印度刘德华"-中新网". China
China
News Service . 11 May 2017. * ^ A B "Meet the Secret Superstar of China, from India". South China
China
Morning Post . 28 January 2018. * ^ " China
China
Box Office: Bollywood\'s \'Secret Superstar\' Beats \'Ferdinand\' and \'Jumanji\'". The Hollywood
Hollywood
Reporter . 22 January 2018. * ^ " Aamir Khan film \'Secret Superstar\' lives up to the hype to become king of the Chinese mainland weekend box office". Global Times . 22 January 2018. * ^ A B "Secret Superstar: Aamir Khan\'s film becomes second Indian movie to cross Rs 500 cr in China, next only to his Dangal". Firstpost . 2 February 2018. * ^ "5 big stories from the week gone by". Filmfare . 29 January 2018. * ^ Gao, Charlotte. "Aamir Khan: India\'s Soft Power in China". The Diplomat . * ^ Xi, Wei. " Bollywood
Bollywood
superstar Aamir Khan softens Sino-India communications". Global Times . Retrieved 29 January 2018. * ^ "Aamir Khan: the second coming of Tagore?". South China
China
Morning Post . 28 January 2018. * ^ "Significant Digits For Tuesday, Jan. 30, 2018". FiveThirtyEight . 30 January 2018. * ^ "Headlines from China: Tencent Acquires Stake in Hollywood Studio Skydance Media". China
China
Film Insider. 26 January 2018. * ^ A B C D E F " Bollywood
Bollywood
clubs popular among Australians". The Times of India
India
. Indo-Asian News Service. 15 September 2007. Archived from the original on 12 February 2008. Retrieved 12 November 2007. * ^ Phillips, Mark (13 May 2005). " Bollywood
Bollywood
on Bourke Street". The Age . Melbourne. Retrieved 18 August 2008. * ^ "Australian PM says Salaam Namaste to Bollywood". bonza.rmit.edu.au. 7 March 2006. Archived from the original on 20 January 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2008. * ^ Ramachandran, Arjun (23 May 2008). "Tania Zaetta\'s Bollywood career in doubt". The Sydney Morning Herald
The Sydney Morning Herald
. Retrieved 17 November 2008. * ^ A B Sanskar Shrivastava (1 August 2013). "Influence of Bollywood
Bollywood
in Former Soviet Union; Why India
India
and Russia
Russia
Need to Target Bollywood
Bollywood
Diplomacy and Business". The World Reporter. Retrieved 1 August 2013. * ^ Indian Films in Soviet Cinemas: The Culture of Movie-going After Stalin, page 75, Indiana University Press
Indiana University Press
, 2005 * ^ A B Moscow Prime Time: How the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
Built the Media Empire that Lost the Cultural Cold War, page 44, Cornell University Press , 2011 * ^ Behind The Scenes Of Hindi
Hindi
Cinema: A Visual Journey Through The Heart Of Bollywood, page 138, Royal Tropical Institute , 2005 * ^ "With love from India
India
to Russia". Russia
Russia
Beyond . 22 October 2009. * ^ The Routledge
Routledge
Handbook of the Cold War, page 357, Routledge
Routledge
, 2014 * ^ A Taste for Indian Films: Negotiating Cultural Boundaries in Post-Stalinist Soviet Society, page 312, Indiana University
Indiana University
* ^ Sergey Kudryavtsev . "Зарубежные популярные фильмы в советском кинопрокате (Индия)". * ^ Sergey Kudryavtsev . "Зарубежные фильмы в советском кинопрокате". * ^ A B " Bollywood
Bollywood
re-enters Russian homes via cable TV". The Hindu . Chennai, India. 27 September 2007. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2011. * ^ Moscow Prime Time: How the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
Built the Media Empire that Lost the Cultural Cold War, page 43, Cornell University Press
Cornell University Press
, 2011 * ^ Do you remember Jimmy Jimmy?, SBS , 18 March 2017 * ^ Ashreena, Tanya. "Promoting Bollywood
Bollywood
Abroad Will Help to Promote India". Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. * ^ RussiaToday : Features : Bollywood
Bollywood
challenges Hollywood
Hollywood
in Russia
Russia
Archived 26 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ "After Kama Sutra, it is Bollywood
Bollywood
and SRK in Poland". Daily News and Analysis . 7 December 2008. * ^ A B "9 Countries Where Bollywood
Bollywood
Is Badshah". India
India
Times . 15 October 2017. * ^ " Bollywood
Bollywood
films gaining popularity in Gulf countries". The Times of India
India
. Press Trust of India. 8 October 2006. Retrieved 21 November 2008. * ^ "Indian films swamp Israel". The Tribune. Press Trust of India. 16 November 2004. Retrieved 21 November 2008. * ^ " Bollywood
Bollywood
craze grows ever stronger with audiences in the Middle East
Middle East
The National". www.thenational.ae. Retrieved 2015-12-02.

* ^ "Living the spectacle: Why Egyptians worship Bollywood
Bollywood
- Entertainment - Arts & Culture - Ahram Online". english.ahram.org.eg. Retrieved 2015-12-02. * ^ Bradley, Matt (2013-09-30). " Bollywood
Bollywood
Rides Back to Egypt
Egypt
on Chennai Express". WSJ Blogs - Middle East
Middle East
Real Time. Retrieved 2015-12-02. * ^ "Egypt\'s Amitabh Bachchan
Amitabh Bachchan
mania". The Times
The Times
of India
India
. 2 December 2005. * ^ " Barfi! making inroads for Bollywood
Bollywood
in Turkey The National". www.thenational.ae. Retrieved 2015-12-02. * ^ Louise Hidalgo (24 October 1998). "World: Bollywood
Bollywood
stirs Uzbek passions". BBC News. Retrieved 18 May 2009. Indian films are known for their all singing all dancing formula. * ^ Monica Whitlock & Rahim Rahimian (23 June 2004). "Bollywood bowls Tajiks over". BBC News. Retrieved 18 May 2009. * ^ Archived 12 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Global Bollywood
Bollywood
– Anandam P. Kavoori, Aswin Punathambekar * ^ Firdaus Ashraf, Syed (15 September 2006). "Will Hrithik\'s Dhoom 2 prove lucky for Brazil?". Rediff.com
Rediff.com
. Retrieved 5 March 2008.

* ^ " Bollywood
Bollywood
Comes to Latin America". Fox News Channel. 26 January 2012. * ^ http://www.silverdollarproduction.com/film-shooting.html * ^ A B Rajinder, Dudrah; Jigna, Desai (2008). The Bollywood Reader. McGraw-Hill Education
McGraw-Hill Education
. p. 65. ISBN 9780335222124 . * ^ Balchand, K. (26 September 2004). "Lalu Prasad, at home". The Hindu
Hindu
. Chennai, India. Retrieved 9 December 2009. * ^ " Bollywood
Bollywood
in Africa – Is it getting too Western? – How the World Works". Salon. 13 June 2007. Retrieved 12 November 2010. * ^ Baru, Sanjaya (2013). Strategic Consequences of India\'s Economic Performance. Routledge. p. 442. ISBN 1-134-70973-0 . * ^ Matt Phillips, Jean-Bernard Carillet (2006). Ethiopia
Ethiopia
& Eritrea. Ediz. Inglese. Lonely Planet. p. 103. ISBN 1-74104-436-7 . * ^ Carter, Sandra Gayle (2009). What Moroccan Cinema?: A Historical and Critical Study. Lexington Books. p. 9. ISBN 0-7391-3187-7 . * ^ https://moviemahal.net/2017/01/11/mehboobs-aan-1952-indian-cinemas-entry-into-europe * ^ https://www.filmfare.com/features/nimmis-filmfare-interview-11920-2.html * ^ A B Gaur, Madan (1973). Other Side of the Coin: An Intimate Study of Indian Film Industry. Trimurti Prakashan . p. 122. * ^ Chatterjee, Gayatri (2002). Mother India. British Film Institute. pp. 77–78. ISBN 978-0-85170-917-8 . * ^ "Can new money create a world-class film industry in India?". * ^ A B C Jha, Lata (10 February 2017). "Why Shah Rukh Khan remains the ultimate NRI hero". Live Mint . * ^ "Darr". Box Office India
India
. Retrieved 2 November 2017. * ^ Desai, Lord Meghnad (25 November 2007). " Bollywood
Bollywood
needs to change its act". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 30 May 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2011. * ^ Francis C. Assisi. Bollywood
Bollywood
Culture Binds Global Indian Diaspora * ^ Lehmann, Ana (5 December 2004). " Bollywood
Bollywood
in Germany". The Tribune . Retrieved 21 November 2008. * ^ A B C D E Shedde, Meenakshi (18 May 2003). " Plagiarism
Plagiarism
issue jolts Bollywood". The Times
The Times
of India. Retrieved 23 May 2017. * ^ Ayres, Alyssa; Oldenburg, Philip (2005). India
India
briefing: takeoff at last. M.E. Sharpe. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-7656-1593-0 . * ^ A B C D "Cloning Hollywood". The Hindu
Hindu
. Chennai, India. 3 August 2003. Retrieved 14 April 2009. * ^ "Partner may face $30 mn Hitch". The Times
The Times
of India. 8 August 2007. Retrieved 22 November 2016. * ^ "Copycat filmmaker lacks creativity". The Hindu
Hindu
. Chennai, India. 20 January 2006. Retrieved 13 February 2009. * ^ Blakely, Rhys (7 August 2009). " Plagiarism
Plagiarism
case could stop Bollywood
Bollywood
borrowing from Hollywood". The Times. London. Retrieved 12 November 2010. * ^ Orion Pictures produce official remake to Wedding Crashers, Bollywood Hungama Archived 28 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
.

FURTHER READING

* Alter, Stephen . Fantasies of a Bollywood
Bollywood
Love-Thief: Inside the World of Indian Moviemaking. ISBN 0-15-603084-5 . * Begum-Hossain, Momtaz . Bollywood
Bollywood
Crafts: 20 Projects Inspired by Popular Indian Cinema, 2006. The Guild of Mastercraftsman Publications. ISBN 1-86108-418-8 . * Bose, Mihir , Bollywood: A History, New Delhi, Roli Books, 2008. ISBN 978-81-7436-653-5 . * Dwyer, Rachel. Bollywood's India: Hindi
Hindi
Cinema as a Guide to Contemporary India
India
(Reaktion Books, distributed by University of Chicago Press; 2014) 295 pages * Ganti, Tejaswini. Bollywood, Routledge, New York and London, 2004. * Ganti, Tejaswini. Producing Bollywood: Inside the Contemporary Hindi
Hindi
Film Industry (Duke University Press; 2012) 424 pages; looks at how major changes in film production since the 1990s have been influenced by the liberal restructuring of India's state and economy. * Gibson, Bernard. 'Bollywood'. Passing the Envelope, 1994. * Jolly, Gurbir, Zenia Wadhwani, and Deborah Barretto, eds. Once Upon a Time in Bollywood: The Global Swing in Hindi
Hindi
Cinema, TSAR Publications. 2007. ISBN 978-1-894770-40-8 . * Joshi, Lalit Mohan. Bollywood: Popular Indian Cinema. ISBN 0-9537032-2-3 . * Kabir, Nasreen Munni . Bollywood, Channel 4 Books, 2001. * Mehta, Suketu. Maximum City, Knopf, 2004. * Mishra, Vijay. Bollywood
Bollywood
Cinema: Temples of Desire. ISBN 0-415-93015-4 . * Pendakur, Manjunath. Indian Popular Cinema: Industry, Ideology, and Consciousness. ISBN 1-57273-500-7 . * Prasad, Madhava. Ideology of the Hindi
Hindi
Film: A Historical Construction, Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-565295-9 . * Raheja, Dinesh and Kothari, Jitendra. Indian Cinema: The Bollywood Saga . ISBN 81-7436-285-1 . * Raj, Aditya (2007) " Bollywood
Bollywood
Cinema and Indian Diaspora" in Media Literacy: A Reader edited by Donaldo Macedo and Shirley Steinberg New York: Peter Lang * Rajadhyaksa, Ashish (1996), "India: Filming the Nation", The Oxford History of World Cinema, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-811257-2 . * Rajadhyaksha, Ashish and Willemen, Paul. Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema, Oxford University Press, revised and expanded, 1999. * Jha, Subhash and Bachchan, Amitabh (foreword). The Essential Guide to Bollywood. ISBN 978-81-7436-378-7 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to CINEMA OF INDIA .

Wikimedia Commons has media related to BOLLYWOOD .

* National Geographic Magazine: "Welcome to Bollywood" * Bollywood
Bollywood
Songs

* v * t * e

Bollywood
Bollywood
( Hindi
Hindi
cinema)

* Directors * Producers * Actors * Actresses *

.