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The Bengalis
Bengalis
(বাঙালি [baŋali]), also rendered as the Bengali people, Bangalis and Bangalees,[27] are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group and nation[28] native to the region of Bengal
Bengal
in South Asia, which is presently-divided between most of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and the Indian state of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam, Jharkhand. They speak the Bengali language, one of the most easterly representatives of the Indo-European language family. Bengalis
Bengalis
are the third largest ethnic group in the world, after Han Chinese and Arabs.[29] Apart from Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and West Bengal, Bengali-majority populations also reside in India's Tripura
Tripura
state, the Barak Valley
Barak Valley
in Assam
Assam
state, and the union territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands as well as Bangladesh's Chittagong Hill Tracts which is originally not a part of Bengal. The global Bengali diaspora ( Bangladeshi diaspora
Bangladeshi diaspora
and Indian Bengalis) have well-established communities in Pakistan, the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, the Middle East, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, and Italy. They have four major religious subgroups: Bengali Muslims, Bengali Hindus, Bengali Christians, and Bengali Buddhists.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Ancient history 1.2 Middle Ages 1.3 Mughal era 1.4 British colonization 1.5 Bengal
Bengal
Renaissance 1.6 Independence movement 1.7 Partitions of Bengal 1.8 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War

2 Culture

2.1 Cuisine 2.2 Festivals 2.3 Language 2.4 Literature 2.5 Religion 2.6 Performing arts 2.7 Arts and science 2.8 Sport 2.9 Political culture

3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 Bibliography and further reading 7 External links

History Main articles: History of Bengal, History of Bangladesh, and History of West Bengal Ancient history

Anga
Anga
in 600 BCE

Further information: Anga, Gangaridai, Magadha, Pundra
Pundra
Kingdom, Suhma Kingdom, Ruhma Kingdom and Vanga
Vanga
Kingdom

Magadha
Magadha
from 6th-4th centuries BCE

Anga, Pundra, Vanga, Radha
Radha
in 500 BCE

Gangaridai
Gangaridai
in 323 BCE

Archaeologists have discovered remnants of a 4,000-year-old Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
civilisation in the greater Bengal
Bengal
region, and believe the finds are one of the earliest signs of settlement in the region.[30] However, evidence of much older Palaeolithic
Palaeolithic
human habitations were found in the form of a stone implement and a hand axe in Rangamati
Rangamati
and Feni districts of Bangladesh.[31] The origin of the word Bangla ~ Bengal
Bengal
is unknown, though it is believed to be derived from a tribe called Bang that settled in the area around the year 1000 BCE.[32] Kingdoms of Pundra
Pundra
and Vanga
Vanga
were formed in Bengal
Bengal
and were first described in the Atharvaveda
Atharvaveda
around 1000 BCE
BCE
as well as in Hindu
Hindu
epic Mahabharata. Anga
Anga
and later Magadha
Magadha
expanded to include most of the Bihar
Bihar
and Bengal
Bengal
regions. It was one of the four main kingdoms of India
India
at the time of Buddha and was one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas. Under the Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
founded by Chandragupta Maurya, Magadha extended over nearly all of South Asia, including parts of Balochistan and Afghanistan, reaching its greatest extent under the Buddhist emperor Ashoka the Great
Ashoka the Great
in the 3rd century BCE. One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal
Bengal
is the mention of a land ruled by the king Xandrammes named Gangaridai
Gangaridai
by the Greeks around 100 BCE. The word is speculated to have come from Gangahrd ('Land with the Ganges
Ganges
in its heart') in reference to an area in Bengal.[33] Later from the 3rd to the 6th centuries CE, the kingdom of Magadha
Magadha
served as the seat of the Gupta Empire. Middle Ages See also: Pala Empire, Sena dynasty, and Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate

The Pala Empire
Pala Empire
circa 800

Art of the Sena Empire, 11th century

Gateway of Lakhnauti

One of the first recorded independent kings of Bengal
Bengal
was Shashanka, reigning around the early 7th century.[34] After a period of anarchy, Gopala came to power in 750. He founded the Bengali Buddhist Pala Empire which ruled the region for four hundred years, and expanded across much of Southern Asia: from Assam
Assam
in the northeast, to Kabul
Kabul
in the west, and to Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
in the south.[35] Atisha
Atisha
was a renowned Bengali Buddhist teacher who was instrumental in the revival of Buddhism
Buddhism
in Tibet and also held the position of Abbot
Abbot
at the Vikramshila
Vikramshila
university. Tilopa was also from Bengal
Bengal
region. The Pala Empire
Pala Empire
enjoyed relations with the Srivijaya Empire, the Tibetan Empire, and the Arab
Arab
Abbasid Caliphate. Islam
Islam
first appeared in Bengal
Bengal
during Pala rule, as a result of increased trade between Bengal
Bengal
and the Middle East.[36] The Pala dynasty was later followed by a shorter reign of the Hindu Sena Empire. Islam
Islam
was introduced to Bengal
Bengal
in the twelfth century by Sufi missionaries. Subsequent Muslim
Muslim
conquests helped spread Islam throughout the region.[37] Bakhtiar Khalji, a Turkic general of the Slave dynasty
Slave dynasty
of Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate, defeated Lakshman Sen of the Sena dynasty and conquered large parts of Bengal. Consequently, the region was ruled by dynasties of sultans and feudal lords under the Bengal Sultanate for the next few hundred years. Islam
Islam
was introduced to the Sylhet region by the Muslim
Muslim
saint Shah Jalal
Shah Jalal
in the early 14th century. Mughal era

A Bengali woman in Dhaka
Dhaka
clad in fine Bengali muslin, 18th century.

Main article: Bengal
Bengal
Subah Further information: Muslin
Muslin
trade in Bengal
Bengal
and Mughal Empire The Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
conquered Bengal
Bengal
in the 16th century. Mughal general Man Singh
Man Singh
conquered parts of Bengal
Bengal
including Dhaka
Dhaka
during the time of Emperor Akbar. A few Rajput
Rajput
tribes from his army permanently settled around Dhaka
Dhaka
and surrounding lands. Later, in the early 17th century, Islam
Islam
Khan conquered all of Bengal. However, administration by governors appointed by the court of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
gave way to semi-independence of the area under the Nawabs of Murshidabad, who nominally respected the sovereignty of the Mughals in Delhi. The Bengal
Bengal
Subah province in the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
was the wealthiest state in the subcontinent. Bengal's trade and wealth impressed the Mughals so much that it was described as the Paradise of the Nations by the Mughal Emperors.[38] Under Mughal rule, Bengal
Bengal
was a center of the worldwide muslin, silk and pearl trades.[39] During the Mughal era, the most important center of cotton production was Bengal, particularly around its capital city of Dhaka, leading to muslin being called "daka" in distant markets such as Central Asia.[40] Domestically, much of India
India
depended on Bengali products such as rice, silks and cotton textiles. Overseas, Europeans depended on Bengali products such as cotton textiles, silks and opium; Bengal
Bengal
accounted for 40% of Dutch imports from Asia, for example, including more than 50% of textiles and around 80% of silks.[41] From Bengal, saltpeter was also shipped to Europe, opium was sold in Indonesia, raw silk was exported to Japan
Japan
and the Netherlands, cotton and silk textiles were exported to Europe, Indonesia, and Japan,[42] cotton cloth was exported to the Americas and the Indian Ocean.[43] Bengal
Bengal
also had a large shipbuilding industry. In terms of shipbuilding tonnage during the 16th–18th centuries, the annual output of Bengal
Bengal
alone totaled around 2,232,500 tons, larger than the combined output of the Dutch (450,000–550,000 tons), the British (340,000 tons), and North America (23,061 tons).[44] After the weakening of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
with the death of Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707, Bengal
Bengal
was ruled independently by the Nawabs until 1757, when the region was annexed by the East India
India
Company after the Battle of Plassey. British colonization Main article: Bengal
Bengal
Presidency Further information: Company rule in India
India
and British Raj In Bengal
Bengal
effective political and military power was transferred from the old regime to the British East India
India
Company around 1757–65.[45] Company rule in India
India
began under the Bengal
Bengal
Presidency. Calcutta
Calcutta
was named the capital of British India
India
in 1772. The presidency was run by a military-civil administration, including the Bengal
Bengal
Army, and had the world's sixth earliest railway network. Great Bengal
Bengal
famines struck several times during colonial rule, notably the Great Bengal famine of 1770 and Bengal
Bengal
famine of 1943, each killing millions of Bengalis. Under British rule, Bengal
Bengal
experienced deindustrialization.[46] The Indian Rebellion of 1857
Indian Rebellion of 1857
was initiated on the outskirts of Calcutta, and spread to Dhaka, Chittagong, Jalpaiguri, Sylhet and Agartala, in solidarity with revolts in North India. The failure of the rebellion led to the abolishment of the Mughal Court and direct rule by the British Raj. Bengal
Bengal
Renaissance Main article: Bengal
Bengal
Renaissance Bengal
Bengal
Renaissance refers to a socio-religious reform movement during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, centered around the city of Calcutta
Calcutta
and predominantly led by upper caste Bengali Hindus
Bengali Hindus
under the patronage of the British Raj
British Raj
who created a reformed religion called Brahmo
Brahmo
dharma. The Bengal
Bengal
renaissance can be said to have started with reformer and humanitarian Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1775–1833), considered the "Father of the Bengal
Bengal
Renaissance", and ended with Asia's first Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore (1861–1941), although there have been many stalwarts thereafter embodying particular aspects of the unique intellectual and creative output.[47] Nineteenth-century Bengal
Bengal
was a unique blend of religious and social reformers, scholars, literary giants, journalists, patriotic orators and scientists, all merging to form the image of a renaissance, and marked the transition from 'medieval' to 'modern'.[48] Other figures have been considered to be part of the Renaissance. Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda
is considered a key figure in the introduction of Vedanta
Vedanta
and Yoga
Yoga
in Europe and America[49] and is credited with raising interfaith awareness, and bringing Hinduism
Hinduism
to the status of a world religion during the 1800s.[50] Jagadish Chandra Bose
Jagadish Chandra Bose
was a Bengali polymath: a physicist, biologist, botanist, archaeologist, and writer of science fiction[51] who pioneered the investigation of radio and microwave optics, made significant contributions to plant science, and laid the foundations of experimental science in the Indian subcontinent.[52] He is considered one of the fathers of radio science,[53] and is also considered the father of Bengali science fiction. Satyendra Nath Bose
Satyendra Nath Bose
was a Bengali physicist, specializing in mathematical physics. He is best known for his work on quantum mechanics in the early 1920s, providing the foundation for Bose–Einstein statistics
Bose–Einstein statistics
and the theory of the Bose–Einstein condensate. He is honoured as the namesake of the boson. Though the Bengal
Bengal
Renaissance was the "culmination of the process of emergence of the cultural characteristics of the Bengali people
Bengali people
that had started in the age of Hussein Shah, it remained predominantly Hindu
Hindu
and only partially Muslim." There were, nevertheless, examples of Muslim
Muslim
intellectuals such as Syed Ameer Ali, Mosharraf Hussain,[54] Sake Dean Mahomed, Kazi Nazrul Islam, and Roquia Sakhawat Hussain. The Freedom of Intellect Movement
Freedom of Intellect Movement
sought to challenge religious and social dogma in Bengali Muslim
Muslim
society. Independence movement See also: Independence fighters from Bengal Bengal
Bengal
played a major role in the Indian independence movement, in which revolutionary groups such as Anushilan Samiti
Anushilan Samiti
and Jugantar
Jugantar
were dominant. Many of the early proponents of the independence struggle, and subsequent leaders in the movement were Bengalis
Bengalis
such as Chittaranjan Das, Khwaja Salimullah, Surendranath Banerjea, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, Titumir (Sayyid Mir Nisar Ali), Prafulla Chaki, A. K. Fazlul Huq, Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani, Bagha Jatin, Khudiram Bose, Surya Sen, Binoy-Badal-Dinesh, Sarojini Naidu, Aurobindo Ghosh, Rashbehari Bose, and Sachindranath Sanyal. Some of these leaders, such as Netaji, who was born, raised and educated at Cuttack in Odisha did not subscribe to the view that non-violent civil disobedience was the best way to achieve Indian Independence, and were instrumental in armed resistance against the British force. Netaji was the co-founder and leader of the Indian National Army (distinct from the army of British India) that challenged British forces in several parts of India. He was also the head of state of a parallel regime, the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind. Bengal
Bengal
was also the fostering ground for several prominent revolutionary organisations, the most notable of which was Anushilan Samiti. A number of Bengalis
Bengalis
died during the independence movement and many were imprisoned in Cellular Jail, the notorious prison in Andaman. Partitions of Bengal Main articles: 1905 Partition of Bengal
Bengal
and 1947 Partition of Bengal The first partition in 1905 divided the Bengal
Bengal
region in British India into two provinces for administrative and development purposes. However, the partition stoked Hindu
Hindu
nationalism. This in turn led to the formation of the All India
India
Muslim
Muslim
League in Dhaka
Dhaka
in 1906 to represent the growing aspirations of the Muslim
Muslim
population. The partition was annulled in 1912 after protests by the Indian National Congress and Hindu
Hindu
Mahasabha. The breakdown of Hindu- Muslim
Muslim
unity in India
India
drove the Muslim
Muslim
League to adopt the Lahore Resolution
Lahore Resolution
in 1943, calling the creation of "independent states" in eastern and northwestern British India. The resolution paved the way for the Partition of British India
India
based on the Radcliffe Line
Radcliffe Line
in 1947, despite attempts to form a United Bengal state that was opposed by many people. The legacy of partition has left lasting differences between the two sides of Bengal, most notably in linguistic accent and cuisine. Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War Main article: Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War The rise of self-determination and Bengali nationalism
Bengali nationalism
movements in East Bengal
Bengal
(later East Pakistan), led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, culminated in the 1971 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War against the Pakistani military junta. An estimated 3 million (3,000,000) people died in the conflict, particularly as a result of the 1971 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
genocide. The war caused millions of East Pakistani refugees to take shelter in India's Bengali state West Bengal, with Calcutta, the capital of West Bengal
Bengal
province, becoming the capital-in-exile of the Provisional Government of Bangladesh. The Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
guerrilla forces waged a nine-month war against the Pakistani military. The conflict ended after the Indian Armed Forces
Indian Armed Forces
intervened on the side of Bangladeshi forces in the final two weeks of the war, which ended with the Surrender of Pakistan
Pakistan
and the liberation of Dhaka
Dhaka
on 16 December 1971. Culture

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Part of a series on the

Culture of Bengal

History

History of Bengal

People

Bengalis Bengali renaissance List of Bengalis

Languages

Script Dialects Vocabulary Grammar Bengali Language Movement

Traditions

Bengali wedding Bengali Hindu
Hindu
wedding Gaye holud Walima Bhadralok Panjika

Cuisine

Bengali cuisine

Festivals

Pohela Boishakh Ekushey Book
Book
Fair Nabanna Kolkata
Kolkata
Book
Book
Fair Poush Mela Sharadotsav

Art

Bangladeshi art Bengal
Bengal
School of Art Kalighat painting

Literature History

History Charyapada Mangal-Kāvya Vaishnava Padavali Laila Majnu

Genres

Poetry Novels Science fiction Folk literature Tarja

Institutions

Literary institutions Bangiya Sahitya Parishad Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi Bangla Academy

Awards

Literary awards Rabindra Puraskar Bangla Academy
Bangla Academy
Literary Award Ananda Puraskar

Music and performing arts

Music

Media

Cinema of Bangladesh Cinema of West Bengal

Sport

Kabaddi Boli Khela Lathi khela Chaturaṅga Kho kho

Bengal
Bengal
portal

v t e

Further information: Culture of Bengal, Culture of Bangladesh, Culture of West Bengal, and Culture of Tripura Cuisine Bengali cuisine
Bengali cuisine
is the culinary style originating in Bengal, a region of South Asia
South Asia
which is now located in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and West Bengal. Some Indian regions like Tripura, Shillong
Shillong
and the Barak Valley
Barak Valley
region of Assam
Assam
(in India) also have large native Bengali populations and share this cuisine. With an emphasis on fish, vegetables, and milk served with rice as a staple diet, Bengali cuisine
Bengali cuisine
is known for its subtle flavours, and its huge spread of confectioneries and desserts. It also has the only traditionally developed multi-course tradition from the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
that is analogous in structure to the modern service à la russe style of French cuisine, with food served course-wise rather than all at once. Festivals Main article: List of festivals in Bangladesh Bengalis
Bengalis
celebrate the major holidays of the Muslim
Muslim
and Hindu
Hindu
faiths. For Muslims, these include Eid-ul-Azha, Eid-ul-Fitr, and Muharram. Although Bengali Hindus
Bengali Hindus
observe Holi, Diwali, and other important religious festivals, Durga Puja
Durga Puja
is the biggest and most important to them. Dedicated to the goddess Durga, who is a manifestation of Shakti, the festivities last for five days. Months before the festival, special clay idols of Durga and her children are made. These show her mounted on a lion and killing the evil demon Mahishasura. These lavishly painted and decorated idols are displayed and worshipped on each day of the festival in the pandals and at homes. On the tenth day, the idols are decorated with flowers and carried through the streets in processions. The procession makes it way to a river or other waterbody, where the image of Durga is immersed into the water. Language Main article: Bengali language Bengali or Bangla is the language native to the region of Bengal, which comprises present-day Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura
Tripura
and southern Assam. It is written using the Bengali script. With about 250 million native and about 300 million total speakers worldwide, Bengali is one of the most spoken languages, ranked seventh in the world.[55][56] The National Anthem of Bangladesh, National Anthem of India, National Anthem of Sri Lanka and the national song of India
India
were first composed in the Bengali language. Along with other Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, Bengali evolved circa 1000–1200 CE from eastern Middle Indo-Aryan dialects such as the Magadhi Prakrit
Prakrit
and Pali, which developed from a dialect or group of dialects that were close, but not identical to, Vedic and Classical Sanskrit. Literature Main articles: Bengali literature
Bengali literature
and Middle Bengali literature The earliest extant work in Bengali literature
Bengali literature
is the Charyapada, a collection of Buddhist mystic songs dating back to the 10th and 11th centuries. Thereafter, the timeline of Bengali literature
Bengali literature
is divided into two periods: medieval (1360–1800) and modern (1800–present). Bengali literature
Bengali literature
is one of the most enriched bodies of literature in Modern India
India
and Bangladesh. The first works in Bengali, written in new Bengali, appeared between 10th and 12th centuries C.E. It is generally known as the Charyapada. These are mystic songs composed by various Buddhist seer-poets: Luipada, Kanhapada, Kukkuripada, Chatilpada, Bhusukupada, Kamlipada, Dhendhanpada, Shantipada, Shabarapada, etc. The famous Bengali linguist Haraprasad Shastri discovered the palm-leaf Charyapada manuscript in the Nepal Royal Court Library in 1907. The Middle Bengali Literature is a period in the history of Bengali literature dated from 15th to 18th centuries. Following the Mughal invasion of Bengal
Bengal
in the 13th century, literature in vernacular Bengali began to take shape. The oldest example of Middle Bengali Literature is believed to be Shreekrishna Kirtana by Boru Chandidas. In the mid-19th century, Bengali literature
Bengali literature
gained momentum. During this period, the Bengali Pandits of Fort William College did the tedious work of translating text books in Bengali to help teach the British local languages including Bengali. This work played a role in the background in the evolution of Bengali prose. Religion Main articles: Demographics of Bangladesh, West Bengal § Demographics, Tripura
Tripura
§ Demographics, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands § Demographics See also: Religion in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Christianity
Christianity
in West Bengal The largest religions practiced in Bengal
Bengal
are Islam
Islam
and Hinduism. According to 2014 US Department of State estimates, 89.9% of the population of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
follow Islam
Islam
while 8.3% follow Hinduism. In West Bengal, Hindus are the majority with 70.54% of the population while Muslims comprise 27.01%. Other religious groups include Buddhists (comprising around 1% of the population in Bangladesh) and Christians.[26] Performing arts See also: Music of West Bengal, Music of Bangladesh, Gaudiya Nritya, and Theatre in Bangladesh

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Bengali theater traces its roots to Sanskrit drama under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE. It includes narrative forms, song and dance forms, supra-personae forms, performance with scroll paintings, puppet theatre and the processional forms like the Jatra. Bengal
Bengal
has an extremely rich heritage of dancing dating back to antiquity. It includes classical, folk and martial dance traditions.[57][58] Arts and science

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Sport

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Political culture

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See also

Bengal
Bengal
portal

Bengali renaissance Ghosts in Bengali culture List of Bangladeshis List of Bengalis List of people from West Bengal

Notes

^ Includes Bangladeshi Americans, Americans of Bangladeshi descent and Bengali Indian Americans, Americans of Indian descent whose ancestral origins are in West Bengal, the Barak Valley
Barak Valley
and Tripura

References

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Clothed the World: The World of South Asian Textiles, 1500–1850. Brill Publishers. p. 174.  ^ Ray, Indrajit (2011), Bengal
Bengal
Industries and the British Industrial Revolution (1757–1857), page 174, Routledge, ISBN 1136825525 ^ Baten, Jörg (2016). A History of the Global Economy. From 1500 to the Present. Cambridge University Press. p. 251. ISBN 9781107507180.  ^ Ray, Indrajit (2011). Bengal
Bengal
Industries and the British Industrial Revolution (1757–1857), Routledge, ISBN 1136825525 ^ History of the Bengali-speaking People by Nitish Sengupta, p 211, UBS Publishers' Distributors Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 81-7476-355-4. ^ Calcutta
Calcutta
and the Bengal
Bengal
Renaissance by Sumit Sarkar in Calcutta, the Living City edited by Sukanta Chaudhuri, Vol I, p 95. ^ Georg, Feuerstein (2002). The Yoga
Yoga
Tradition. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 600. ISBN 3-935001-06-1.  ^ Clarke, Peter Bernard (2006). New Religions in Global Perspective. Routledge. p. 209. ISBN 0-7007-1185-6.  ^ A versatile genius Archived 3 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine., Frontline 21 (24), 2004. ^ Chatterjee, Santimay and Chatterjee, Enakshi, Satyendranath Bose, 2002 reprint, p. 5, National Book
Book
Trust, ISBN 81-237-0492-5 ^ Sen, A. K. (1997). "Sir J.C. Bose and radio science". Microwave Symposium Digest. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave
Microwave
Symposium. Denver, CO: IEEE. pp. 557–560. doi:10.1109/MWSYM.1997.602854. ISBN 0-7803-3814-6.  ^ History of Bengali-speaking People by Nitish Sengupta, p 210, 212-213. ^ "Statistical Summaries". Ethnologue. 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2012.  ^ Huq, Mohammad Daniul; Sarkar, Pabitra (2012). "Bangla Language". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.  ^ Hasan, Sheikh Mehedi (2012). "Dance". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.  ^ Ahmed, Wakil (2012). "Folk Dances". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. 

Bibliography and further reading

Sengupta, Nitish (1 November 2002). History of the Bengali-Speaking People. Ubs Pub Distributors Ltd. p. 554. ISBN 978-8174763556.  Ray, R. (1994). History of the Bengali People. Orient BlackSwan. p. 656. ISBN 978-0863113789.  Ray, Niharranjan (1994). History of the Bengali people: ancient period. University of Michigan: Orient Longmans. p. 613. ISBN 9780863113789.  Ray, N (2013). History of the Bengali People from Earliest Times to the Fall of the Sena Dynasty. Orient Blackswan Private Limited. p. 613. ISBN 978-8125050537.  Das, S.N. (1 December 2005). The Bengalis: The People, Their History and Culture. p. 1900. ISBN 978-8129200662.  Sengupta, Nitish (2011). Land of Two Rivers: A History of Bengal
Bengal
from the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
to Mujib. Penguin UK. p. 656. ISBN 9788184755305.  Nasrin, Mithun B; Van Der Wurff, W.A.M (2015). Colloquial Bengali. Routledge. p. 288. ISBN 9781317306139.  Sengupta, Debjani (22 October 2015). The Partition of Bengal: Fragile Borders and New Identities. Cambridge University Press. p. 283. ISBN 978-1107061705.  Chakrabarti, Kunal; Chakrabarti, Shubhra (1 February 2000). Historical Dictionary of the Bengalis
Bengalis
(Historical Dictionaries of Peoples and Cultures). Scarecrow Press. p. 604. ISBN 978-0810853348.  Chatterjee, Pranab (28 December 2009). A Story of Ambivalent Modernization in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and West Bengal: The Rise and Fall of Bengali Elitism in South Asia
South Asia
(Asian Thought and Culture). Peter Lang Publishing Inc. p. 294. ISBN 978-1433108204.  Singh, Kumar Suresh (2008). People of India: West Bengal, Volume 43, Part 1. University of Virginia: Anthropological Survey of India. p. 1397. ISBN 9788170463009.  Milne, William Stanley (1913). A Practical Bengali Grammar. Asian Educational Services. p. 561. ISBN 9788120608771.  Alexander, Claire; Chatterji, Joya (10 December 2015). The Bengal Diaspora: Rethinking Muslim
Muslim
migration. Routledge. p. 304. ISBN 978-0415530736.  Chakraborty, Mridula Nath (26 March 2014). Being Bengali: At Home and in the World. Routledge. p. 254. ISBN 978-0415625883.  Sanyal, Shukla (16 October 2014). Revolutionary Pamphlets, Propaganda and Political Culture in Colonial Bengal. Cambridge University Press. p. 219. ISBN 978-1107065468.  Dasgupta, Subrata (2009). The Bengal
Bengal
Renaissance: Identity and Creativity from Rammohun Roy to Rabindranath Tagore. Permanent Black. p. 286. ISBN 978-8178242798.  Glynn, Sarah (30 November 2014). Class, Ethnicity and Religion in the Bengali East End: A Political History. Manchester University. p. 304. ISBN 978-0719095955.  Ahmed, Salahuddin (2004). Bangladesh: Past and Present. Aph Publishing Corporations. p. 365. ISBN 9788176484695.  Deodhari, Shanti (2007). Banglar Bow (Bengali Bride). AuthorHouse. p. 80. ISBN 9781467011884.  Gupta, Swarupa (2009). Notions of Nationhood in Bengal: Perspectives on Samaj, C. 1867-1905. BRILL. p. 408. ISBN 9789004176140.  Roy, Manisha (2010). Bengali Women. University of Chicago Press. p. 232. ISBN 9780226230443.  Basak, Sita (2006). Bengali Culture And Society Through Its Riddles. Neha Publishers & Distributors. ISBN 9788121208918.  Raghavan, Srinath (2013). 1971: A Global History of the Creation of Bangladesh. Harvard University Press. p. 368. ISBN 978-0674728646.  Inden, Ronald B; Nicholas, Ralph W. (2005). Kinship in Bengali culture. Orient Blackswan. p. 158. ISBN 9788180280184.  Nicholas, Ralph W. (2003). Fruits of Worship: Practical Religion in Bengal. Orient Blackswan. p. 248. ISBN 9788180280061.  Das, S.N. (2002). The Bengalis: The People, Their History, and Culture. Religion and Bengali culture. volume 4. Cosmo Publications. p. 321. ISBN 9788177553925.  Schendel, Willem van (2004). The Bengal
Bengal
Borderland: Beyond State and Nation in South Asia. Anthem Press. p. 440. ISBN 978-1843311447.  Mukherjee, Janam (2015). Hungry Bengal : War, Famine, Riots and the End of Empire. Harper Collins India. p. 344. ISBN 978-9351775829.  Guhathakurta, Meghna; Schendel, Willem van (2013). The Bangladesh Reader: History, Culture, Politics. Duke University Press. p. 568. ISBN 978-0822353188.  Sengupta, Nitish (19 November 2012). Bengal
Bengal
Divided: The Unmaking of a Nation (1905-1971). Penguin India. p. 272. ISBN 978-0143419556. 

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Bangladesh articles

History

Timeline Outline Topics:

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Ancient

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Colonial & Pakistan
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era

Portuguese Bengala British Bengal:

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Bengal
(1905) Prime Minister of Bengal Lahore Resolution Famine of 1943 Direct Action Day Partition of Bengal
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Capital: Kolkata

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famine of 1770 Bengal
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famine of 1943 Partition of Bengal
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Presidency division

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Cities and towns

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Culture

Bônggabdô (calendar) Baul Bhadu Gombhira Chau dance Cuisine Rabindra Sangeet Rabindra Nritya Natya Dolyatra Pohela Baishakh Durgapuja Language Literature Cinema Jatra Ghosts in Bengali culture

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People

Rabindranath Tagore Satyajit Ray Kazi Nazrul Islam Anil Kumar Gain Ritwik Ghatak Subhas Chandra Bose Jamini Roy Nandalal Bose Jagdish Chandra Bose Meghnad Saha Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay

Image gallery at Wikimedia Commons

v t e

Bengali renaissance

People

Sri Aurobindo Atul Prasad Sen Rajnarayan Basu Jagadish Chandra Bose Subhash Chandra Bose Satyendra Nath Bose Bethune Upendranath Brahmachari Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay Akshay Kumar Datta Henry Derozio Alexander Duff Michael Madhusudan Dutt Romesh Chunder Dutt Anil Kumar Gain Dwarkanath Ganguly Kadambini Ganguly Monomohun Ghose Ramgopal Ghosh Aghore Nath Gupta David Hare Kazi Nazrul Islam Eugène Lafont Ashutosh Mukherjee Harish Chandra Mukherjee Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Paramahamsa Gour Govinda Ray Upendrakishore Ray Chowdhury Raja Ram Mohan Roy Meghnad Saha Akshay Chandra Sarkar Mahendralal Sarkar Brajendra Nath Seal Girish Chandra Sen Keshub Chandra Sen Haraprasad Shastri Debendranath Tagore Rabindranath Tagore Satyendranath Tagore Jnanadanandini Devi Sitanath Tattwabhushan Brahmabandhav Upadhyay Ram Chandra Vidyabagish Dwarkanath Vidyabhusan Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar Swami Vivekananda Paramahansa Yogananda Begum Rokeya

Culture

Adi Dharm Bengali literature Bengali poetry Bengali music Brahmo
Brahmo
Samaj British Raj British Indian Association History of Bengal Nazrul geeti Rabindra Nritya Natya Rabindra Sangeet Sambad Prabhakar Socialism in Bengal Swadeshi Satyagraha Tattwabodhini Patrika Tagore family Bangiya Sahitya Parishad Young Bengal

Institutions

Anandamohan College Asiatic Society Banga Mahila Vidyalaya Bangabasi College Bethune College Bengal
Bengal
Engineering and Science University, Shibpur Calcutta
Calcutta
Madrasah College Calcutta
Calcutta
Medical College Fort William College General Assembly's Institution Hindu
Hindu
Mahila Vidyalaya Hindu
Hindu
Theatre Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science Midnapore
Midnapore
College National Council of Education, Bengal Oriental Seminary Presidency College Ripon College Sanskrit College Scottish Church College Serampore College St. Xavier's College, Kolkata Vidyasagar College Visva-Bharati University University of Calcutta University of Dhaka

Other renaissance and revolutionary movements

Bhakti movement Gaudiya Vaishnavism Brahmoism Fakir-Sannyasi rebellion Indian independence movement Kalighat painting Jugantar
Jugantar
movement Bengal
Bengal
School of Art Hindu–German Conspiracy Kallol Gananatya Andolan Bratachari movement Bengali Little Magazine Movement Parallel cinema Indian Communism Naxalism Hungryalism Prakalpana Movement

v t e

Ethnic groups in Bangladesh

Indo-Aryans

Barua Bengalis Bishnupriya Manipuris

Austro-Asiatic

Khasiya Mahle Munda Santals

Dravidian

Kurukh Malto Sauria Paharia

Tibeto-Burman

Bawm Chak Chakma Garo Khumi Khyang Kuki Lushei Marma Mro Pankho Rakhine Tanchangya Tripuri

Others

Armenians (Dhaka) Burmese (Rohingyas) Chinese Indians Nepalis Pakistanis

v t e

Ethnic groups of India

This tree diagram depicts the relationships of the major ethnic, linguistic and religious groups in India. For example, an H under Gujarati implies a Hindu, Gujarati-speaking Indian of Indo-Aryan ancestry. This list excludes caste groups like the Dalits which is a socio-political identity across linguistic, religious and racial lines. In addition, it should be noted that the terms 'Indo-Aryan' and 'Dravidian' refer to linguistic differences that exist between both groups.

Indians

Indo-Aryans

Assamese (অসমীয়া)

Bengali (বাঙালী)

Dogra (डोगरा / ڈوگرا)

Gujarati (ગુજરાતી)

Hindi (हिन्दी)

Konkani (कोंकणे)

Marathi (मराठी माणसं)

Punjabi (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ / पंजाबी / پنجابی)

Odia (ଓଡିଆ)

H, M, C, S

H, M, A

H, S, M

H, M, J

H, M

HC

H, M, B, J

H, M, C, S

Dards

Brokpa (ब्रोक्पा)

Kashmiri (कॉशुर / کٲشُر)

Shina (षीना / شینا‎)

Kho (کھو)

B

H, M

B, H, M

Tibeto-Burmans

Arunachali (རྫོང་ཁ་)

Manipuri (মনিপুরি)

Bodo-Garo

Mizo

Naga

Sikkimese - Lepcha (Róng) (རྫོང)

Tripuri (ত্রিপুরা)

B, T, H

H, C

C, H, T

C, T

C, T

B, H

H, T

Dravidians

Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡಿಗ)

Malayali (മലയാളി)

Tamil (தமிழர்)

Telugu (తెలుగు)

H, C

H, C, M, A

H, C, M, A

H, C

Iranic

Parsi (પારસી)

Pathan
Pathan
(پٹھان / पठान)

Austroasians

Khasi (খাসি)

Nicobarese
Nicobarese
(निकोबारी)

Munda (मुण्डा)

C, T

C, M

S, T

v t e

Ethnic groups in Pakistan

Balti Baloch Brahui Burusho Hazaras Hindkowans Kalash Kashmiris Kho Muhajirs Pashtuns Punjabis Shina Siddi Sindhis Wakhis

Authority control

LCCN: sh85013168 BNF:

.