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The BENGALIS (বাঙালি Bangali), also rendered as the BENGALI PEOPLE, BANGALIS and BANGALEES, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group native to the region of Bengal
Bengal
in South Asia , which is presently-divided between Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and the Indian state of West Bengal
Bengal
. They speak the Bengali language
Bengali language
, the most easterly branch of the Indo-European language family.

Bengalis
Bengalis
are the third largest ethnic group in the world after Han Chinese and Arabs . Apart from Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and West Bengal
Bengal
, Bengali-majority populations also reside in India's Tripura state, the Barak Valley in Assam
Assam
state, and the union territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands . The global Bengali diaspora has well-established communities in Pakistan
Pakistan
, the United States
United States
, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, Canada
Canada
, the Middle East , Japan , Singapore, and Italy.

They have four major religious subgroups, including Bengali Muslims , Bengali Hindus
Bengali Hindus
, Bengali Christians and Bengali Buddhists .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Ancient history * 1.2 Middle Ages * 1.3 Bengal
Bengal
Renaissance * 1.4 Independence movement * 1.5 Partitions of Bengal
Bengal
* 1.6 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War

* 2 Culture

* 2.1 Cuisine * 2.2 Festivals * 2.3 Language * 2.4 Literature * 2.5 Religion * 2.6 Media and music * 2.7 Arts and science * 2.8 Sport * 2.9 Political culture

* 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References and further reading * 6 External links

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Bengal
Bengal
, History of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, and History of West Bengal
Bengal

ANCIENT HISTORY

Further information: Anga
Anga
, Gangaridai , Magadha
Magadha
, Pundra Kingdom
Pundra Kingdom
, Suhma Kingdom , Ruhma Kingdom and Vanga Kingdom Anga
Anga
in 600 BCE
BCE
Magadha
Magadha
from 6th-4th centuries BCE
BCE
Gangaridai in 323 BCE
BCE

Archaeologists have discovered remnants of a 4,000 years old Chalcolithic civilisation in the greater Bengal
Bengal
region and believe the finds are one of the earliest signs of settlement in the region. However, evidence of much older Palaeolithic human habitations were found in the form of a stone implement and a hand axe in Rangamati and Feni districts of Bangladesh. The origin of the word Bangla ~ Bengal is unknown, though it is believed to be derived from a tribe called Bang that settled in the area around the year 1000 BCE
BCE
.

Kingdoms of Pundra and Vanga were formed in Bengal
Bengal
and were first described in the Atharvaveda
Atharvaveda
around 1000 BCE
BCE
as well as in Hindu
Hindu
epic Mahabharata
Mahabharata
. Anga
Anga
and later Magadha
Magadha
expanded to include most of the Bihar
Bihar
and Bengal
Bengal
regions. It was one of the four main kingdoms of India
India
at the time of Buddha and was one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas
Mahajanapadas
. Under the Maurya Empire founded by Chandragupta Maurya , Magadha extended over nearly all of South Asia, including parts of Balochistan and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, reaching its greatest extent under the Buddhist emperor Ashoka the Great
Ashoka the Great
in the 3rd century BCE.

One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal
Bengal
is the mention of a land ruled by the king Xandrammes named Gangaridai by the Greeks around 100 BCE. The word is speculated to have come from Gangahrd (Land with the Ganges
Ganges
in its heart) in reference to an area in Bengal. Later from the 3rd to the 6th centuries CE , the kingdom of Magadha served as the seat of the Gupta Empire .

MIDDLE AGES

See also: Pala Empire
Pala Empire
, Sena Empire , and Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate The Pala Empire
Pala Empire
circa 800 Art of the Sena Empire , 11th century Gateway of Lakhnauti Realm of Mughal Bengal
Bengal

One of the first recorded independent kings of Bengal
Bengal
was Shashanka , reigning around the early 7th century. After a period of anarchy, Gopala came to power in 750. He founded the Bengali Buddhist Pala Empire which ruled the region for four hundred years, and expanded across much of Southern Asia : from Assam
Assam
in the northeast , to Kabul in the west, and to Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
in the south. Atisha
Atisha
was a renowned Bengali Buddhist teacher who was instrumental in the revival of Buddhism
Buddhism
in Tibet and also held the position of Abbot at the Vikramshila
Vikramshila
university. Tilopa was also from Bengal
Bengal
region.

The Pala dynasty was later followed by a shorter reign of the Hindu Sena Empire . Islam
Islam
was introduced to Bengal
Bengal
in the twelfth century by Sufi missionaries. Subsequent Muslim
Muslim
conquests helped spread Islam throughout the region. Bakhtiar Khilji , a Turkic general of the Slave dynasty
Slave dynasty
of Delhi Sultanate , defeated Lakshman Sen of the Sena dynasty and conquered large parts of Bengal. Consequently, the region was ruled by dynasties of sultans and feudal lords under the Bengal Sultanate for the next few hundred years. Islam
Islam
was introduced to the Sylhet region by the Muslim
Muslim
saint Shah Jalal in the early 14th century. Mughal general Man Singh
Man Singh
conquered parts of Bengal
Bengal
including Dhaka
Dhaka
during the time of Emperor Akbar
Akbar
. A few Rajput
Rajput
tribes from his army permanently settled around Dhaka
Dhaka
and surrounding lands. Later, in the early 17th century, Islam
Islam
Khan conquered all of Bengal. However, administration by governors appointed by the court of the Mughal Empire gave way to semi-independence of the area under the Nawabs of Murshidabad
Murshidabad
, who nominally respected the sovereignty of the Mughals in Delhi
Delhi
. After the weakening of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
with the death of Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707, Bengal
Bengal
was ruled independently by the Nawabs until 1757, when the region was annexed by the East India Company after the Battle of Plassey
Battle of Plassey
.

BENGAL RENAISSANCE

Bengal
Bengal
Renaissance refers to a socio-religious reform movement during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the city of Kolkata
Kolkata
by caste Hindus under the patronage of the British Raj and it created a reformed religion called Brahmo
Brahmo
dharma. The Bengal
Bengal
renaissance can be said to have started with reformer and humanitarian Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1775–1833), considered the "Father of the Bengal
Bengal
Renaissance", and ended with Asia's first Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore (1861–1941), although there have been many stalwarts thereafter embodying particular aspects of the unique intellectual and creative output. Nineteenth century Bengal
Bengal
was a unique blend of religious and social reformers, scholars, literary giants, journalists, patriotic orators and scientists, all merging to form the image of a renaissance, and marked the transition from 'medieval' to 'modern'.

Other figures have been considered to be part of the Renaissance. Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda
is considered a key figure in the introduction of Vedanta and Yoga
Yoga
in Europe and America and is credited with raising interfaith awareness, and bringing Hinduism
Hinduism
to the status of a world religion during the 1800s. Jagadish Chandra Bose
Jagadish Chandra Bose
was a Bengali polymath : a physicist , biologist , botanist , archaeologist , and writer of science fiction who pioneered the investigation of radio and microwave optics , made significant contributions to plant science , and laid the foundations of experimental science in the Indian subcontinent . He is considered one of the fathers of radio science, and is also considered the father of Bengali science fiction . Satyendra Nath Bose was a Bengali physicist , specializing in mathematical physics . He is best known for his work on quantum mechanics in the early 1920s, providing the foundation for Bose–Einstein statistics and the theory of the Bose–Einstein condensate . He is honoured as the namesake of the boson .

INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT

See also: Independence fighters from Bengal
Bengal

Bengal
Bengal
played a major role in the Indian independence movement
Indian independence movement
, in which revolutionary groups such as Anushilan Samiti
Anushilan Samiti
and Jugantar were dominant. Many of the early proponents of the independence struggle, and subsequent leaders in the movement were Bengalis
Bengalis
such as Chittaranjan Das , Khwaja Salimullah , Surendranath Banerjea , Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy , Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose
Subhas Chandra Bose
, Titumir (Sayyid Mir Nisar Ali), Prafulla Chaki , A. K. Fazlul Huq , Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani , Bagha Jatin , Khudiram Bose , Surya Sen , Binoy-Badal-Dinesh, Sarojini Naidu , Aurobindo Ghosh
Aurobindo Ghosh
, Rashbehari Bose , and Sachindranath Sanyal .

Some of these leaders, such as Netaji, who was born, raised and educated at Cuttack in Odisha did not subscribe to the view that non-violent civil disobedience was the best way to achieve Indian Independence, and were instrumental in armed resistance against the British force. Netaji was the co-founder and leader of the Indian National Army (distinct from the army of British India) that challenged British forces in several parts of India. He was also the head of state of a parallel regime, the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind . Bengal
Bengal
was also the fostering ground for several prominent revolutionary organisations, the most notable of which was Anushilan Samiti . A number of Bengalis
Bengalis
died during the independence movement and many were imprisoned in Cellular Jail
Cellular Jail
, the notorious prison in Andaman .

PARTITIONS OF BENGAL

Main articles: 1905 Partition of Bengal
Bengal
and 1947 Partition of Bengal
Bengal

The first partition in 1905 divided the Bengal
Bengal
region in British India
India
into two provinces for administrative and development purposes. However, the partition stoked Hindu
Hindu
nationalism . This in turn led to the formation of the All India
India
Muslim
Muslim
League in Dhaka
Dhaka
in 1906 to represent the growing aspirations of the Muslim
Muslim
population. The partition was annulled in 1912 after protests by the Indian National Congress and Hindu
Hindu
Mahasabha .

The breakdown of Hindu- Muslim
Muslim
unity in India
India
drove the Muslim
Muslim
League to adopt the Lahore Resolution in 1943, calling the creation of "independent states" in eastern and northwestern British India. The resolution paved the way for the Partition of British India
India
based on the Radcliffe Line in 1947, despite attempts to form a United Bengal state that was opposed by many people.

The legacy of partition has left lasting differences between the two sides of Bengal, most notably in linguistic accent and cuisine.

BANGLADESH LIBERATION WAR

Main article: Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War

The rise of self-determination and Bengali nationalism movements in East Bengal
Bengal
which was then East Pakistan
Pakistan
led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman , culminated in the 1971 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War against the Pakistani military junta. An estimated 3 million (3,000,000) people died in the conflict, particularly as a result of the 1971 Bangladesh genocide . The war caused millions of East Pakistani refugees to take shelter in India's Bengali state West Bengal
Bengal
, with Calcutta , the capital of West Bengal
Bengal
province, becoming the capital-in-exile of the Provisional Government of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
. The Mukti Bahini guerrilla forces waged a nine-month war against the Pakistani military. The conflict ended after the Indian Armed Forces intervened on the side of Bangladeshi forces in the final two weeks of the war, which ended with the Surrender of Pakistan
Pakistan
and the liberation of Dhaka
Dhaka
on 16 December 1971.

CULTURE

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Part of a series on the

CULTURE OF BENGAL

History

* History of Bengal
Bengal

People

* Bengalis * Bengali renaissance * List of Bengalis

Languages

* Script * Dialects * Vocabulary * Grammar * Bengali Language Movement
Bengali Language Movement

Traditions

* Bengali wedding * Bengali Hindu
Hindu
wedding * Gaye holud * Walima * Bhadralok
Bhadralok
* Panjika

Cuisine

* Bengali cuisine
Bengali cuisine

Festivals

* Pohela Boishakh
Pohela Boishakh
* Ekushey Book Fair * Nabanna * Kolkata
Kolkata
Book
Book
Fair * Poush Mela
Poush Mela
* Sharadotsav

Art

* Bangladeshi art * Bengal
Bengal
School of Art * Kalighat painting

Literature History

* History * Charyapada * Mangal-Kāvya
Mangal-Kāvya
* Vaishnava Padavali * Laila Majnu
Laila Majnu

Genres

* Poetry * Novels * Science fiction * Folk literature * Tarja

Institutions

* Literary institutions * Bangiya Sahitya Parishad * Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi
Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi
* Bangla Academy
Bangla Academy

Awards

* Literary awards * Rabindra Puraskar * Bangla Academy
Bangla Academy
Literary Award * Ananda Puraskar

Music and performing arts

* Music

Media

* Cinema of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Cinema of West Bengal
Bengal

Sport

* Kabaddi
Kabaddi
* Boli Khela * Lathi khela
Lathi khela
* Chaturaṅga * Kho kho
Kho kho

* * Bengal
Bengal
portal

* v * t * e

Further information: Culture of Bengal
Bengal
and Culture of Bangladesh
Bangladesh

CUISINE

Bengali cuisine
Bengali cuisine
is the culinary style originating in Bengal, a region of South Asia which is now located in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and West Bengal. Some Indian regions like Tripura , Shillong
Shillong
and the Barak Valley region of Assam
Assam
(in India) also have large native Bengali populations and share this cuisine. With an emphasis on fish, vegetables, and milk served with rice as a staple diet, Bengali cuisine
Bengali cuisine
is known for its subtle flavours, and its huge spread of confectioneries and desserts. It also has the only traditionally developed multi-course tradition from the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
that is analogous in structure to the modern service à la russe style of French cuisine, with food served course-wise rather than all at once.

FESTIVALS

Main article: List of festivals in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bengali New Year

The Bengalis
Bengalis
celebrate many holidays and festivals. The Bengali proverb "Baro Mase Tero Parbon" ("Thirteen festivals in twelve months") indicates the abundance of festivity in the state. Durga Puja is solemnized as perhaps the most significant of all religious celebrations in West Bengal
Bengal
whereas in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Eid-ul-Azha is the most significant religious festival.

Some major festivals celebrated are Durga Puja, Eid ul Fitr, Eid ul Azha, 21 February - Bengali language
Bengali language
Day , Bengali New Year , Independence Day Of Bangladesh, Birthday of Kazi Nazrul Islam
Islam
, Pohela Falgun , Birthday of Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
, Death Anniversary of Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
etc.

LANGUAGE

Main article: Bengali language
Bengali language

Bengali or Bangla is the language native to the region of Bengal, which comprises present-day Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura and southern Assam. It is written using the Bengali script . With about 250 million native and about 300 million total speakers worldwide, Bengali is one of the most spoken languages , ranked seventh in the world. The National Anthem of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, National Anthem of India
India
, National Anthem of Sri Lanka and the national song of India
India
were first composed in the Bengali language.

Along with other Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, Bengali evolved circa 1000–1200 CE from eastern Middle Indo-Aryan dialects such as the Magadhi Prakrit
Prakrit
and Pali , which developed from a dialect or group of dialects that were close, but not identical to, Vedic and Classical Sanskrit .

LITERATURE

Main articles: Bengali literature and Middle Bengali literature

The earliest extant work in Bengali literature is the Charyapada, a collection of Buddhist mystic songs dating back to the 10th and 11th centuries. Thereafter, the timeline of Bengali literature is divided into two periods: medieval (1360–1800) and modern (1800–present). Bengali literature is one of the most enriched bodies of literature in Modern India
India
and Bangladesh.

The first works in Bengali, written in new Bengali, appeared between 10th and 12th centuries C.E. It is generally known as the Charyapada. These are mystic songs composed by various Buddhist seer-poets: Luipada, Kanhapada, Kukkuripada, Chatilpada, Bhusukupada, Kamlipada, Dhendhanpada, Shantipada, Shabarapada, etc. The famous Bengali linguist Haraprasad Shastri discovered the palm-leaf Charyapada manuscript in the Nepal Royal Court Library in 1907.

The Middle Bengali Literature is a period in the history of Bengali literature dated from 15th to 18th centuries. Following the Mughal invasion of Bengal
Bengal
in the 13th century, literature in vernacular Bengali began to take shape. The oldest example of Middle Bengali Literature is believed to be Shreekrishna Kirtana by Boru Chandidas.

In the mid-19th century, Bengali literature gained momentum. During this period, the Bengali Pandits of Fort William College did the tedious work of translating text books in Bengali to help teach the British local languages including Bengali. This work played a role in the background in the evolution of Bengali prose.

RELIGION

Main articles: Demographics of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, West Bengal
Bengal
§ Demographics , Tripura § Demographics , and Andaman and Nicobar Islands § Demographics See also: Religion in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Christianity
Christianity
in West Bengal
Bengal

The largest religions practiced in Bengal
Bengal
are Islam
Islam
and Hinduism. According to 2014 US Department of State estimates, 89.9% of the population of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
follow Islam
Islam
while 8.3% follow Hinduism. In West Bengal, Hindus are the majority with 70.54% of the population while Muslims comprise 27.01%. Other religious groups include Buddhists (compromising around 1% of the population in Bangladesh) and Christians.

MEDIA AND MUSIC

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ARTS AND SCIENCE

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SPORT

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POLITICAL CULTURE

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SEE ALSO

* Bengal
Bengal
portal

* Bengali renaissance * Ghosts in Bengali culture * List of Bangladeshis
Bangladeshis
* List of Bengalis * List of people from West Bengal
Bengal

NOTES

* ^ "General Assembly hears appeal for Bangla to be made an official UN language". United Nations. 27 September 2010. Retrieved 21 May 2015. * ^ "Countries and Their Cultures". Everyculture. 27 September 2010. Retrieved 21 May 2015. * ^ "Bangladesh" IMF Population estimates. * ^ "Census of India". Archived from the original on 13 May 2010. Retrieved 2008-01-07. * ^ "Five million illegal immigrants residing in Pakistan". Express Tribune. * ^ "Homeless In Karachi". Outlook . Retrieved 2 March 2010. * ^ "Falling back". Daily Times. 17 December 2006. Archived from the original on 9 October 2013. Retrieved 25 April 2015. * ^ van Schendel, Willem (2005). The Bengal
Bengal
Borderland: Beyond State and Nation in South Asia. Anthem Press. p. 250. ISBN 9781843311454 . * ^ Migration Profile - Saudi Arabia * ^ Migration Profile - UAE * ^ "Labor Migration in the United Arab Emirates: Challenges and Responses". Migration Information Source. 18 September 2013. Retrieved 14 December 2013. * ^ "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2012 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 2013-04-03. * ^ "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2010 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 2013-04-03. * ^ "2011 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in the United Kingdom". Office for National Statistics. 11 October 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2015. * ^ Census Profile – Province/Territory, Note 20 * ^ Comparing State Polities: A Framework for Analyzing 100 Governments By Michael J. III Sullivan, pg. 119 * ^ Bangladesh- CIA World Factbook
CIA World Factbook
* ^ A B "Data on Religion". Census of India
India
(2001). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 August 2006. * ^ "Bangalees and indigenous people shake hands on peace prospects". Dhaka
Dhaka
Tribune. Retrieved 16 April 2017. * ^ roughly 163 million in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and 100 million in India
India
(CIA Factbook 2014 estimates, numbers subject to rapid population growth); about 3 million Bangladeshis
Bangladeshis
in the Middle East , 1 million Bengalis in Pakistan
Pakistan
, 0.4 million British Bangladeshi . * ^ "4000-year old settlement unearthed in Bangladesh". Xinhua. 12 March 2006. * ^ "History of Bangladesh". Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Student Association @ TTU. Archived from the original on 26 December 2005. Retrieved 26 October 2006. * ^ James Heitzman and Robert L. Worden, ed. (1989). "Early History, 1000 B.C.-A.D. 1202". Bangladesh: A country study. Library of Congress. * ^ Chowdhury, AM (2012). "Gangaridai". In Islam, Sirajul ; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
. * ^ Bhattacharyya, PK (2012). "Shashanka". In Islam, Sirajul ; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
. * ^ Karim, Abdul (2012). "Islam, Bengal". In Islam, Sirajul ; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
. * ^ History of the Bengali-speaking People by Nitish Sengupta, p 211, UBS Publishers' Distributors Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 81-7476-355-4 . * ^ Calcutta and the Bengal
Bengal
Renaissance by Sumit Sarkar in Calcutta, the Living City edited by Sukanta Chaudhuri, Vol I, p 95. * ^ Georg, Feuerstein (2002). The Yoga
Yoga
Tradition. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 600. ISBN 3-935001-06-1 . * ^ Clarke, Peter Bernard (2006). New Religions in Global Perspective. Routledge. p. 209. ISBN 0-7007-1185-6 . * ^ A versatile genius Archived 3 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine ., Frontline 21 (24), 2004. * ^ Chatterjee, Santimay and Chatterjee, Enakshi, Satyendranath Bose, 2002 reprint, p. 5, National Book
Book
Trust, ISBN 81-237-0492-5 * ^ Sen, A. K. (1997). "Sir J.C. Bose and radio science". Microwave Symposium Digest. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave
Microwave
Symposium. Denver, CO: IEEE. pp. 557–560. ISBN 0-7803-3814-6 . doi :10.1109/MWSYM.1997.602854 . * ^ "Statistical Summaries". Ethnologue. 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2012. * ^ Huq, Mohammad Daniul; Sarkar, Pabitra (2012). "Bangla Language". In Islam, Sirajul ; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh .

REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING

* Sengupta, Nitish (1 November 2002). History of the Bengali-Speaking People. Ubs Pub Distributors Ltd. p. 554. ISBN 978-8174763556 . * Ray, R. (1994). History of the Bengali People. Orient BlackSwan. p. 656. ISBN 978-0863113789 . * Ray, Niharranjan (1994). History of the Bengali people: ancient period. University of Michigan
University of Michigan
: Orient Longmans. p. 613. ISBN 9780863113789 . * Ray, N (2013). History of the Bengali People from Earliest Times to the Fall of the Sena Dynasty. Orient Blackswan Private Limited. p. 613. ISBN 978-8125050537 . * Das, S.N. (1 December 2005). The Bengalis: The People, Their History and Culture. p. 1900. ISBN 978-8129200662 . * Sengupta, Nitish (2011). Land of Two Rivers: A History of Bengal from the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
to Mujib. Penguin UK. p. 656. ISBN 9788184755305 . * Nasrin, Mithun B; Van Der Wurff, W.A.M (2015). Colloquial Bengali. Routledge. p. 288. ISBN 9781317306139 . * Sengupta, Debjani (22 October 2015). The Partition of Bengal: Fragile Borders and New Identities. Cambridge University Press . p. 283. ISBN 978-1107061705 . * Chakrabarti, Kunal; Chakrabarti, Shubhra (1 February 2000). Historical Dictionary of the Bengalis
Bengalis
(Historical Dictionaries of Peoples and Cultures). Scarecrow Press. p. 604. ISBN 978-0810853348 . * Chatterjee, Pranab (28 December 2009). A Story of Ambivalent Modernization in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and West Bengal: The Rise and Fall of Bengali Elitism in South Asia (Asian Thought and Culture). Peter Lang Publishing Inc. p. 294. ISBN 978-1433108204 . * Singh, Kumar Suresh (2008). People of India: West Bengal, Volume 43, Part 1. University of Virginia : Anthropological Survey of India. p. 1397. ISBN 9788170463009 . * Milne, William Stanley (1913). A Practical Bengali Grammar. Asian Educational Services. p. 561. ISBN 9788120608771 . * Alexander, Claire; Chatterji, Joya (10 December 2015). The Bengal Diaspora: Rethinking Muslim
Muslim
migration. Routledge. p. 304. ISBN 978-0415530736 . * Chakraborty, Mridula Nath (26 March 2014). Being Bengali: At Home and in the World. Routledge. p. 254. ISBN 978-0415625883 . * Sanyal, Shukla (16 October 2014). Revolutionary Pamphlets, Propaganda and Political Culture in Colonial Bengal. Cambridge University Press . p. 219. ISBN 978-1107065468 . * Dasgupta, Subrata (2009). The Bengal
Bengal
Renaissance: Identity and Creativity from Rammohun Roy to Rabindranath Tagore. Permanent Black. p. 286. ISBN 978-8178242798 . * Glynn, Sarah (30 November 2014). Class, Ethnicity and Religion in the Bengali East End: A Political History. Manchester University
Manchester University
. p. 304. ISBN 978-0719095955 . * Ahmed, Salahuddin (2004). Bangladesh: Past and Present. Aph Publishing Corporations. p. 365. ISBN 9788176484695 . * Deodhari, Shanti (2007). Banglar Bow (Bengali Bride). AuthorHouse. p. 80. ISBN 9781467011884 . * Gupta, Swarupa (2009). Notions of Nationhood in Bengal: Perspectives on Samaj, C. 1867-1905. BRILL. p. 408. ISBN 9789004176140 . * Roy, Manisha (2010). Bengali Women. University of Chicago Press
University of Chicago Press
. p. 232. ISBN 9780226230443 . * Basak, Sita (2006). Bengali Culture And Society Through Its Riddles. Neha Publishers & Distributors. ISBN 9788121208918 . * Raghavan, Srinath (2013). 1971: A Global History of the Creation of Bangladesh. Harvard University Press . p. 368. ISBN 978-0674728646 . * Inden, Ronald B; Nicholas, Ralph W. (2005). Kinship in Bengali culture. Orient Blackswan. p. 158. ISBN 9788180280184 . * Nicholas, Ralph W. (2003). Fruits of Worship: Practical Religion in Bengal. Orient Blackswan. p. 248. ISBN 9788180280061 . * Das, S.N. (2002). The Bengalis: The People, Their History, and Culture. Religion and Bengali culture. volume 4. Cosmo Publications. p. 321. ISBN 9788177553925 . * Schendel, Willem van (2004). The Bengal
Bengal
Borderland: Beyond State and Nation in South Asia. Anthem Press. p. 440. ISBN 978-1843311447 . * Mukherjee, Janam (2015). Hungry Bengal
Bengal
: War, Famine, Riots and the End of Empire. Harper Collins India. p. 344. ISBN 978-9351775829 .

* Guhathakurta, Meghna; Schendel, Willem van (2013). The Bangladesh Reader: History, Culture, Politics. Duke University Press
Duke University Press
. p. 568. ISBN 978-0822353188 . * Sengupta, Nitish (19 November 2012). Bengal
Bengal
Divided: The Unmaking of a Nation (1905-1971). Penguin India. p. 272. ISBN 978-0143419556 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

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