1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers
> 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river
2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes
(e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.
Bayonne (French pronunciation: [bajɔn]; Gascon: Baiona
[baˈjunɔ]; Basque: Baiona [baiona]; Spanish: Bayona) is a city and
commune and one of the two sub-prefectures of the department of
Pyrénées-Atlantiques, in the
Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of
south-western France. It is located at the confluence of the Nive
Adour rivers in the northern part of the cultural region of the
Basque Country, as well as the southern part of
Gascony where the
Aquitaine basin joins the beginning of the Pre-Pyrenees.
Together with nearby Anglet, Biarritz, Saint-Jean-de-Luz, and several
Bayonne forms an urban area with 288,359 inhabitants
at the 2012 census, 45,855 of whom lived in the city of Bayonne
The site on the left bank of the
Nive and the
Adour was probably
occupied before ancient times as a fortified enclosure was attested in
the 1st century at the time when the
Tarbelli occupied the territory.
Archaeological studies have confirmed the presence of a Roman castrum,
a stronghold in
Novempopulania at the end of the 4th century before
the city was populated by the Vascones.
Bayonne was the capital of
Labourd and, in the 12th century,
extended to and beyond the Nive. At that time the first bridge was
built over the Adour. The city came under the domination of the
English in 1152 through the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine: it
became militarily and, above all, commercially important thanks to
maritime trade. It was separated from the Viscount of
Labourd in 1177
by Richard the Lion Heart. In 1451 the city was taken by the Crown of
France after the Hundred Years' War. The loss of trade with the
English and the silting up of the river as well as the movement of the
city towards the north weakened it. The district of Saint-Esprit
developed anyway thanks to the arrival of a Jewish population fleeing
the Spanish Inquisition. From this community
Bayonne gained its
reputation for chocolate. The course of the
Adour was changed in 1578
under the direction of Louis de Foix and the river returned to its
former mouth, returning business lost to
Bayonne for over a hundred
years. In the 17th century the city was fortified by Vauban. In 1814
Bayonne and its surroundings were the scene of fighting between the
Napoleonic troops and the Spanish-Anglo-Portuguese coalition led by
the Duke of Wellington: the city then underwent its final siege.
In 1951 the
Lacq gas field was discovered whose extracted sulphur and
associated oil are shipped from the port of Bayonne. During the second
half of the 20th century many housing estates were built forming new
districts on the periphery and the city was extended to form a
Anglet and Biarritz: this agglomeration became the
heart of a vast Basque-Landes urban area.
Bayonne was, in 2014, a commune with over 45,000 inhabitants, the
heart of the urban area of
Bayonne and of the Agglomeration Côte
Adour which includes
Anglet and Biarritz. It is an important
part of the Basque Bayonne-
San Sebastián Eurocity and it plays the
role of economic capital of the
Adour basin. Modern
industry—metallurgy and chemicals—are established to take
advantage of procurement opportunities and sea shipments through the
harbour. It is now mostly business services which today represent the
largest source of employment.
Bayonne is also a cultural capital, a
city with strong Basque and Gascon influences and a rich historical
past. Its heritage lies in its architecture, the diversity of
collections in museums, its gastronomic specialties, and traditional
events such as the famous Fêtes de Bayonne.
The inhabitants of the commune are known as Bayonnais or
1.1 Geology and relief
2 Communication and transport
2.1 Road communications
2.3 Cycling network
2.4 Public transport
2.4.1 Urban network
2.4.2 Interurban networks
2.4.3 Rail transport
2.4.4 Air transport
3.2 Old attestations
4.2 Ancient times
4.3 Middle Ages
4.4 Renaissance and modern times
French Revolution and Empire
4.6 Contemporary period
4.7 The World Wars
5 Policy and Administration
5.1 List of mayors under the Ancien Régime
5.2 Modern times
5.3 Cantons of Bayonne
5.4 Judicial and administrative proceedings
5.6 Twin towns – Sister cities
6.2 Cultural festivities and events
6.4 Sports and sports facilities
6.5.1 Catholic worship
6.5.2 Jewish worship
6.5.3 Muslim worship
6.5.4 Protestant worship
7.1 Population and income tax
7.3 Businesses and shops
7.4 Workshops and Industry
7.5 Service activities
7.6 The port of Bayonne
7.7 Tourism services
10 In popular culture
11 Notes and references
11.2.2 Bibliographic sources
11.3 External links
Bayonne is located in the south-west of
France on the western border
between Basque Country and Gascony. It developed at the confluence of
Adour and tributary on the left bank, the Nive, 6 km from the
Atlantic coast. The commune was part of the Basque province of
Neighbouring communes and villages
Geology and relief
Bayonne occupies a territory characterized by a flat relief to the
west and to the north towards the Landes forest, tending to slightly
raise towards the south and east. The city has developed at the
confluence of the
Nive 6 kilometres (3.7 miles) from the
ocean. The meeting point of the two rivers coincides with a narrowing
Adour valley. Above this the alluvial plain extends for nearly
thirty kilometres (19 miles) towards both
Peyrehorade, and is characterized by swampy meadows called barthes
which are influenced by floods and high tides.[Note 1] Downstream from
this point the river has shaped a large bed in the sand dunes creating
a significant bottleneck at the confluence.
The occupation of the hill that dominates this narrowing of the valley
developed through a gradual spread across the lowlands by building
embankments and the aggradation from flood soil.[PH 1]
Nive has played a leading role in the development of the Bayonne
river system in recent geological time by the formation of alluvial
terraces that form the sub-soil of
Bayonne beneath the surface
accumulations of silt and aeolian sands.[PH 2] The drainage network of
Pre-Pyrenees evolved mostly from the
south-east to northwest oriented east-west. The
Adour was then
captured by the gaves and this system, together with the Nive, led to
the emergence of a new alignment of the lower
Adour and the Adour-Nive
confluence. This capture has been dated to the early Quaternary
(80,000 years ago).[PH 2]
Before this capture the
Nive had deposited pebbles from the Mindel
glaciation of medium to large sizes that slowed erosion of the hills
causing the bottleneck at Bayonne. After the deposit of the lowest
alluvial terrace (10 to 15 metres (33–49 feet) high at Grand
Bayonne), the course of the
Adour became fixed in its lower
Subsequent to these deposits there was a rise in sea level in the
Holocene period (from 15,000 to 5000 years ago) which explains the
invasion of the lower valleys with fine sand, peat, and mud with a
thickness of more than 40 metres (130 feet) below the current bed of
Adour and the
Nive in Bayonne. These same deposits are spread
across the barthes.[PH 1]
In the late
Quaternary the topographic physiognomy we know today was
formed—i.e. a set of hills overlooking a swampy lowland. The
promontory of Bassussarry–Marracq ultimately extended to the
labourdin foothills, dying out at the Grand
Bayonne hill is an
example. Similarly, on the right bank of the Nive, the heights of
Château-Neuf (Mocoron Hill) met the latest advance of the plateau of
Saint-Pierre-d'Irube (height 30 to 35 metres (98–115 feet)).[PH
1] On the right bank of the
Adour the heights of Castelnau (today the
citadel) with an altitude of 35 to 40 metres (115–131 feet),
and Fort (today Saint-Esprit) with an altitude of 20 to 25 metres
(66–82 feet) rise above the Barthes of the Adour, the Nive,
Bourgneuf, Saint-Frédéric, Sainte-Croix, Aritxague, and Pontots.[PH
The area of the commune is 2,168 hectares (5,360 acres) and its
altitude varies between 0 to 55 metres (0–180 feet).
The confluence of the
Adour and the
Nive from the right bank of the
The city is traversed by the Adour. The river is part of the Natura
2000 network from its source at
Bagnères-de-Bigorre to its exit to
Atlantic Ocean after Bayonne, between
Tarnos (Landes) for the
right bank and
Anglet (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) for the left
Apart from the Nive, which converges on the left bank of the Adour
after 79.3 kilometres (49.3 miles) of a sometimes tumultuous course,
two tributaries join the
Bayonne commune: the Ruisseau de
Portou and the Ruisseau du Moulin Esbouc. Tributaries of the
the Ruisseau de Hillans and the Ruisseau d'Urdaintz which both rise in
The nearest weather station is that of Biarritz-Anglet.
The climate of
Bayonne is relatively similar to that of its neighbour
Biarritz, described below, with fairly heavy rainfall; The oceanic
climate is due to the proximity of the Atlantic Ocean. The average
winter temperature is around 8 °C and is around 20 °C in
summer. The lowest temperature recorded was −12.7 °C on 16
January 1985 and the highest 40.6 °C on 4 August 2003. Rains on
the Basque coast are rarely persistent except during winter storms.
They often take the form of intense thunderstorms of short duration.
Comparison of local Meteorological data with other cities in
Climate data for Biarritz-
Anglet (altitude 69 metres (226 feet),
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)
Average snowy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Météo France
Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity and snowy days, 1961–1990)
Communication and transport
Public transport around Bayonne: railway lines are black, the
intercity bus lines
Pyrénées-Atlantiques are green and those of
Landes purple. The PTU (perimeter of urban transport, which operates
the Chronoplus network is uncharted here) is bounded by a red line.
Means of transport (water, roads, bridges, and railways).
Bayonne is located at the intersection of the A63 autoroute
(Bordeaux-Spain) and the D1 extension of the
A64 autoroute (towards
Toulouse). The city is served by three interchanges—two of them on
the A63: exit 6 (
Bayonne Nord) serves the northern
Bayonne but also allows quick access to the centre while
exit 5 (
Bayonne Sud) provides access to the south and also
serves Anglet. The third exit is the D1 / A64 via the Mousserolles
interchange (exit 1
Bayonne Mousserolles) which links the
district of the same name and also serves the neighbouring communes of
Mouguerre and Saint-Pierre-d'Irube.
Bayonne was traversed by
Route nationale 10
Route nationale 10 connecting
Hendaye but this is now downgraded to a departmental road D810. Route
nationale 117, linking
Toulouse has been downgraded to
departmental road D817.
The Saint-Esprit bridge over the Adour.
There are several bridges over both the
Nive and the
Adour linking the
Coming from upstream on the
Adour there is the A63 bridge, then the
Saint-Frédéric bridge which carries the D 810, then the railway
bridge that replaced the old Eiffel iron bridge, the Saint-Esprit
bridge, and finally the Grenet bridge. The Saint-Esprit bridge
connects the Saint-Esprit district to the Amiral-Bergeret dock just
upstream of the confluence with the river Nive. In 1845 the old
bridge, originally made ??of wood, was rebuilt in masonry with
seven arches supporting a deck 230 metres (750 feet) wide.[FL 1] It
was then called the Nemours Bridge in honour of Louis of Orleans,
sixth Duke of Nemours, who laid the first stone. The bridge was
finally called Saint-Esprit. Until 1868 the bridge had a moving span
near the left bank. It was expanded in 1912 to facilitate the movement
of horse-drawn carriages and motor vehicles.[FL 1]
Nive coming from upstream to downstream there is the A63 bridge
then the Pont Blanc (White bridge)[Note 2] railway bridge, and then
D810 bridge, the Génie bridge (or Pont Millitaire), the Pannecau
bridge, the Marengo bridge[Note 3] leading to the covered markets, and
the Mayou Bridge[Note 4] The Pannecau bridge was long named Bertaco
bridge and was rebuilt in masonry under
Napoleon III.[FL 2] According
to François Lafitte Houssat, "[...] a municipal ordinance of 1327
provided for the imprisonment of any quarrellsome woman of bad
character in an iron cage dropped into the waters of the
from the bridge. The practice lasted until 1780 [...]"[FL 2] This
punishment bore the evocative name of cubainhade.[DN 1]
The commune is traversed by the Vélodyssée. Bicycle paths are
located along the left bank of the Adour, a large part of the left
bank of the Nive, and along various axes of the city where there are
some bicycle lanes. The city offers free bicycles on loan.
Most of the lines of the Chronoplus bus network operated by the
Transdev agglomeration of
Bayonne to other communes in
the urban transport perimeter: Anglet, Biarritz, Bidart, Boucau,
Saint-Pierre-d'Irube and Tarnos[Note 5] The
Bayonne free shuttle
Bayonne serves the city centre (Grand and Petit Bayonne) by connecting
several parking stations; other free shuttles perform other short
trips within the commune.
Bayonne is connected to many cities in the western half of the
department such as
Saint-Jean-de-Luz and Saint-Palais by the
Pyrenees-Atlantiques long distance coach network of Transport 64
managed by the General Council. Since the network restructuring in the
summer of 2013, the lines converge on Bayonne.
Bayonne is also
served by services from the Landes departmental network, XL'R.
Gare de Bayonne
Gare de Bayonne is located in the Saint-Esprit district and is an
important station on the Bordeaux-Irun railway. It is also the
terminus of lines leading from
Bayonne and from
Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port. It is served by TGV, Intercités, Lunéa, and
TER Aquitaine trains (to Hendaye, Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port, Dax,
Bordeaux, Pau, and Tarbes).
Bayonne is served by the
Bayonne Airport (IATA
code: BIQ • ICAO code: LFBZ), located on the communal territories of
Anglet and Biarritz.[Note 6] The airport was returned to service in
1954 after repair of damage from bombing during the Second World War.
Airport management is carried out by the joint association for the
development and operation of the airport of Biarritz-Anglet-Bayonne,
which includes the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of
Country, the agglomeration of Côte Basque-Adour, the departments of
Pyrénées-Atlantiques and Landes, and the commune of
Saint-Jean-de-Luz. The airport of Biarritz-Anglet-
Bayonne had nearly
1.1 million passengers in 2013. It has regular connections to
Paris-Orly, Paris-CDG, Lyon, Nice, Geneva, and
London Stansted and
from March to October 2014 had connections with: Marseille,
Strasbourg, Lille, Brussels South Charleroi Airport, Dublin,
Stockholm-Skavsta, Stockholm-Arlanda, London-Gatwick, Copenhagen,
Oslo, and Helsinki. Airline companies serving the airport at 1
November 2014 were: Air France, Etihad Regional, EasyJet, Finnair,
Hop!, Ryanair, SAS, Twin Jet, and Volotea.
While the modern Basque spelling is Baiona and the same in Gascon
Occitan, "the name
Bayonne poses a number of problems both
historical and linguistic which have still not been clarified".
There are different interpretations of its meaning.
The termination -onne in
Bayonne can come from many in hydronyms -onne
or toponyms derived from that. In certain cases the element -onne
follows an Indo-European theme: *ud-r/n (Greek húdōr giving hydro,
Gothic watt meaning "water") hence *udnā meaning "water" giving unna
then onno in the glossary of Vienne. Unna therefore would refer to
the Adour. This toponymic type evoking a river traversing a locality
is common. The appellative unna seems to be found in the name of the
Garonne (Garunna 1st century; Garonna 4th century). However it is
possible to see a pre-Celtic suffix -ona in the name of the Charente
(Karantona in 875) or the
Charentonne (Carentona in 1050).
It could also be an augmentative Gascon from the original Latin
radical Baia- with the suffix -ona' in the sense of "vast expanse of
water" or a name derived from the Basque bai meaning "river" and ona
meaning "good", hence "good river".
The proposal by Eugene Goyheneche repeated by Manex Goyhenetche and
supported by Jean-Baptiste Orpustan is bai una, "the place of the
river" or bai ona "hill by the river"—Ibai means "river" in Basque
and muinoa means "hill".
"It has perhaps been lost from sight that many urban place names in
France, from north to south, came from the element Bay- or Bayon- such
as: Bayons, Bayonville,
Bayonvillers and pose the unusual problem of
whether they are Basque or Gascon"
adds Pierre Hourmat.[PiH 1] However, the most ancient form of Bayonne:
Baiona, clearly indicates a feminine or a theme of -a whereas this is
not the case for Béon or Bayon. In addition, the Bayon- in Bayonville
Bayonvillers in northern
France is clearly the personal Germanic
The names of the Basque province of
Labourd and the locality of
Bayonne have been attested from an early period with the place name
Bayonne appearing in the
Latin form Lapurdum after a period during
which the two names could in turn designate a Viscounty or
Bayonne were synonymous and used interchangeably until the
12th century before being differentiated: Labord for the province and
Bayonne for the city. The attribution of
Bayonne as Civitas
Boatium, a place mentioned in the
Antonine Itinerary and by Paul
Raymond in his 1863 dictionary, has been abandoned. The city of the
Boïates may possibly be
La Teste-de-Buch but is certainly not
The following table details the origins of Labord, Bayonne, and other
names in the commune.
Tribunus cohortis Novempopulanoe: Lapurdo
Notary of Provinces
In provincia Novempopulana tribunus cohortis Novempopulanæ in Lapurdo
Gregory of Tours
Sancta Maria Lasburdensis
Sancta Maria Baionensis
civitas de Baiona
Molendinum de la Mufala, Balaisson
Molin de le Muhale
Molin de la Muffale
lo pont de Belaischon
Fons de Coquoanhea
Archives of Bayonne
Lo portau de Lachepailhet
District; it was once the name of one of the city gates which was
previously called the Portail de Tarride.
Farm at Saint-Esprit
Port de Bertaco
Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees,
1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. (in French)
Goyheneche: according to the Notitia Dignitatum Imperii dating from
340 to 420
Guiart: Guillaume Guiart, around 1864
Lhande: Basque-French Dictionary by Pierre Lhande, 1926.
Cassini 1750: 1750 Cassini Map
Cassini 1790: 1790 Cassini Map
Chapter: Titles of the Chapter of Bayonne
Bayonne or Livre d'Or (Book of Gold)
Camara: Chapters of the Camara de Comptos.
In the absence of accurate objective data there is some credence to
the probable existence of a fishing village on the site in a period
prior to ancient times. Numerous traces of human occupation have been
found in the
Bayonne region from the
Middle Paleolithic especially in
the discoveries at Saint-Pierre-d'Irube, a neighbouring locality.[Note
8] On the other hand, the presence of a mound about 14 metres (46
feet) high has been detected in the current Cathedral Quarter
Nive which formed a natural protection and a usable
port on the left bank of the Nive. At the time the mound was
surrounded north and west by the
Adour swamps. At its foot lies the
Bayonne Sea"—the junction of the two rivers—which may have
been about 1,200 metres (3,900 feet) wide between Saint-Esprit and the
Bayonne and totally covered the current location of Bourg-Neuf
(in the district of Petit Bayonne). To the south the last bend of the
Nive widens near the Saint-Léon hills. Despite this, the
narrowing of the
Adour valley allows easier crossing than anywhere
else along the entire length of the estuary.
In conclusion, the strategic importance of this height was so obvious
it must be presumed that it has always been inhabited.
Novempopulania indicating the position of the Tarbelli
territory north-west of the Pyrenees.
The oldest documented human occupation site is located on a hill
Nive and its confluence with the Adour.[PiH 1]
In the 1st century AD, during the Roman occupation,
seems to have been of some importance since the Romans surrounded the
city with a wall to keep out the Tarbelli, Aquitani, or the
proto-Basque who then occupied a territory that extended south of
modern-day Landes, to the modern French Basque country, the Chalosse,
the valleys of the Adour, the mountain streams of Pau,
Pyrénées-Atlantiques, and to the Gave d'Oloron.
The archaeological discoveries of October and November 1995 provided a
shred of evidence to support this projection. In the four layers of
sub-soil along the foundation of the Gothic cathedral (in the "apse of
the cathedral" area) a 2-metre depth was found of old objects from the
end of the 1st century—in particular sigillated Gallic ceramics from
Montans imitating Italian styles, thin-walled bowls, and fragments of
amphorae.[Note 9] In the "southern sector" near the cloister door
there were objects from the second half of the 1st century as well as
coins from the first half of the 3rd century.
A very high probability of human presence, not solely military, seems
to provisionally confirm the occupation of the site at least around
the 3rd century.
A Roman castrum dating to the end of the 4th century has been proven
as a fortified place of Novempopulania. Named Lapurdum, the name
became the name of the province of Labourd.[Note 10] According to
Eugene Goyheneche the name Baiona designated the city, the port, and
the cathedral while that of Lapurdum was only a territorial
designation. This Roman settlement was strategic as it allowed the
monitoring of the trans-Pyrenean roads and of local people rebellious
to the Roman power. The construction covered 6 to 10 hectares
according to several authors. [Note 11] [Note 12]
The geographical location of the locality at the crossroads of a river
system oriented from east to west and the road network connecting
Europe to the
Iberian Peninsula from north to south predisposed the
site to the double role of fortress and port.[EG 1] The city, after
being Roman, alternated between the
Vascones and the English for three
centuries from the 12th to the 15th century.
The Romans left the city in the 4th century and the Basques, who had
always been present, dominated the former
between the Garonne, the Ocean, and the Pyrénées.
Vasconia and then
Gascony after a Germanic deformation
(resulting from the
Visigoth and Frankish invasions). Basquisation of
the plains region was too weak against the advance of romanization.
From the mixture between the Basque and
Latin language Gascon was
Bayonne for the period from the
High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages are
virtually nonexistent. [Note 13] with the exception of two
Norman intrusions: one questionable in 844 and a second attested in
Labourd was created in 1023
Bayonne was the capital and the
Viscount resided there.[Note 14] The history of
Bayonne proper started
in 1056 when Raymond II the Younger, Bishop of Bazas, had the mission
to build the Church of Bayonne[Note 15][EG 2]
The construction was under the authority of Raymond III of Martres,
Bishop of Bayonne
Bishop of Bayonne from 1122 to 1125, combined with Viscount Bertrand
for the Romanesque cathedral, the rear of which can still be seen
today, and the first wooden bridge across the
Adour extending the
Mayou bridge over the Nive, which inaugurated the heyday of
Bayonne.[EG 2] From 1120 new districts were created under population
pressure. The development of areas between the old Roman city of Grand
Bayonne and the
Nive also developed during this period, then between
Nive and the
Adour at the place that became Petit Bayonne. A
Jacobin Convent was located there in 1225 then that of the Cordeliers
in 1247.[EG 2] Construction of and modifications to the defences of
the city also developed to protect the new districts.[PiH 2]
In 1130 the King of
Alfonso the Battler
Alfonso the Battler besieged the city
Bayonne came under English rule when Eleanor of
Henry II of England
Henry II of England in 1152.[PiH 3] This alliance
Bayonne many commercial privileges. The Bayonnaises became
Bordeaux wines and other south-western products like
resin, ham, and woad to England.[EG 3]
Bayonne was then an important
military base. In 1177 King Richard separated the Viscounty of Labourd
whose capital then became Ustaritz. Like many cities at the time, in
Bayonne obtained the award of a municipal charter and was
emancipated from feudal powers.
The official publication in 1273 of a
Coutume unique to the city,
remained in force for five centuries until the separation of Bayonne
from Labourd.[EG 4] [Note 16]
Bayonnaise industry at that time was dominated by shipbuilding: wood
(oak, beech, chestnut from the Pyrenees, and pine from Landes) being
overabundant.[EG 5] There was also maritime activity in providing
crews for whaling, commercial marine or, and it was often so at a time
when it was easy to turn any merchant ship into a warship, the English
Royal Navy.[EG 6] [Note 17]
Renaissance and modern times
View of the ramparts overlooking the river.
Bartizan on the Redoubt, restored in 2005.
The Ramparts of Bayonne.
Jean de Dunois
Jean de Dunois - a former companion at arms of Joan of Arc—captured
the city on 20 August 1451 and annexed it to the Crown "without making
too many victims", but at the cost of a war indemnity of 40,000 gold
Écus payable in a year,[PH 3]—thanks to the opportunism of the
bishop who claimed to have seen "a large white cross surmounted by a
crown which turns into a fleur-de-lis in the sky" to dissuade Bayonne
from fighting against the royal troops.[Note 18] [PH 4]
The city continued to be fortified by the kings of
France to protect
it from danger from the Spanish border. In 1454 Charles VII created a
separate judicial district: the
Seneschal of Lannes a "single
Guyenne during the English period" which had
jurisdiction over a wide area including Bayonne, Dax and Saint-Sever
and which exercised civil justice, criminal jurisdiction within the
competence of the district councilors. Over time, the "
the Sword" which was at Dax lost any role other than protocol and
Bayonne, along with Dax and Saint-Sever, became the de facto seat of a
Seneschal under the authority of a "lieutenant-general of the
In May 1462 King
Louis XI authorized the holding of two annual
fairs[Note 19] by letters patent after signing the Treaty of Bayonne
after which it was confirmed by the coutoumes of the inhabitants in
July 1472 following the death of Charles de Valois, Duke de Berry, the
king's brother.[PH 6]
At the time the
Spanish Inquisition raged in the Iberian Peninsula
Jews left Spain, and especially Portugal, then settled in
Saint-Esprit. They brought with them chocolate and the recipe for its
preparation.[DN 2] The golden age of the city ended in the 15th
century with the loss of trade with England and the silting of the
Bayonne created by the movement of the course of the
the north.[EG 7]
At the beginning of the 16th century
Labourd saw the emergence of the
plague. Its path can be tracked by reading the Registers. In July
1515 the city of
Bayonne was "prohibited to welcome people from
plague-stricken places" and on 21 October, "we inhibit and prohibit
all peasants and residents of this city [...] to go Parish Bidart
[...] because of the contagion of the plague". On 11 April 1518 the
plague raged in
Saint-Jean-de-Luz and the city of
and prohibited for all peasants and city inhabitants and other
foreigners to maintain relationships at the location and Parish of
Saint-Jean-de-Luz where people have died of the plague". On 11
November 1518 plague was present in
Bayonne to the point that in 1519
the city council moved to the district of Brindos (Berindos at the
time) in Anglet.
In 1523 Marshal
Odet of Foix, Viscount of Lautrec
Odet of Foix, Viscount of Lautrec resisted the
Philibert of Chalon
Philibert of Chalon in the service of Charles V and
lifted the siege of Bayonne.[PiH 4] It was at Château-Vieux that the
ransom demand for the release of Francis I, taken prisoner after his
defeat at the Battle of Pavia, was gathered.[PiH 4] [Note 20]
The meeting in 1565 between
Catherine de Medici
Catherine de Medici and the envoy of
Philip II: the Duke of Alba, is known as the Interview of Bayonne. At
the time that
Protestants tore each other apart in parts
of the kingdom of France,
Bayonne seemed relatively untouched by these
troubles. An iron fist from the city leaders did not appear to be
unknown. In fact they never hesitated to use violence and criminal
sanctions for keeping order in the name of the "public good". Two
brothers, Saubat and Johannes Sorhaindo who were both lieutenants of
the mayor of
Bayonne in the second half of the 16th century, perfectly
embody this period. They often wavered between Catholicism and
Protestantism but always wanted to ensure the unity and prestige of
In the 16th century the king's engineers, under the direction of Louis
de Foix, were dispatched to rearrange the course of the
creating an estuary to maintain the river bed. The river discharged in
the right place to the Ocean on 28 October 1578. [PH 7] The port of
Bayonne then attained a greater level of activity. Fishing for cod and
whale ensured the wealth of fishermen and shipowners.
From 1611 to 1612 the college Principal of
Bayonne was a man of 26
years old with a future:
Cornelius Jansen known as Jansénius, the
future Bishop of Ypres.
Bayonne became the birthplace of Jansenism, an
austere science which strongly disrupted the monarchy of Louis
During the sporadic conflicts that troubled the French countryside
from the mid 17th century,
Bayonne peasants were short of powder and
projectiles. They attached the long hunting knives in the barrels of
their muskets and that way they fashioned makeshift spears later
called bayonets. In that same century,
Vauban was charged by Louis
XIV to fortify the city. He added a citadel built on a hill
overlooking the district of San Espirit Cap deou do Punt.
The Redoubt, a system of fortifications destroyed at the beginning of
the 20th century, seen from the Quaie de l'Amiral-Lesseps.
French Revolution and Empire
Bayonne peaked in the 18th century. The Chamber of
Commerce was founded in 1726.[PiH 5] Trade with Spain, the
Netherlands, the Antilles, the cod fishery off the shores of
Newfoundland, and construction sites maintained a high level of
activity in the port.[PH 8]
In 1792 the district of Saint-Esprit (that revolutionaries renamed
Port-de-la-Montagne) located on the right bank of the Adour, was
separated from the city and renamed Jean-Jacques Rousseau. It was
Bayonne on 1 June 1857. For 65 years the autonomous
commune was part of the department of Landes.[PiH 6]
In 1808 at the Château of Marracq the act of abdication of the
Spanish king Charles IV in favour of
Napoleon was signed under the
"friendly pressure" of the Emperor. In the process the
was initialed as the first Spanish constitution.[EG 8]
Also in 1808 the French Empire imposed on the
Duchy of Warsaw
Duchy of Warsaw the
Bayonne to buy from
France the debts owed to it by
Prussia. The debt, amounting to more than 43 million francs in
gold, was bought at a discounted rate of 21 million francs.
However, although the duchy made its payments in installments to
France over a four-year period,
Prussia was unable to pay it (due to a
very large indemnity it owed to
France resulting from Treaties of
Tilsit), causing the Polish economy to suffer heavily.
Trade was the wealth of the city in the 18th century but suffered
greatly in the 19th century, severely sanctioned by conflict with
Spain, its historic trading partner in the region.[PiH 7] The Siege of
Bayonne marked the end of the period with the surrender of the
Napoleonic troops of Marshal
Jean-de-Dieu Soult who were defeated by
the coalition led by Wellington on 5 May 1814.[EG 9]
The second Gare de Bayonne, photographed here in the 1930s.[Note 21]
In 1854 the railway arrived from
Paris bringing many tourists eager to
enjoy the beaches of Biarritz.
Bayonne turned instead to the steel
industry with the forges of the Adour.[Note 22] The Port took on an
industrial look but its slow decline seemed inexorable in the 19th
century. The discovery of the
Lacq gas field restored a certain
The Treaty of
Bayonne was concluded on 2 December 1856. It overcame
the disputes in fixing the Franco-Spanish border in the area extending
from the mouth of the
Bidassoa to the border between
The city built three light railway lines to connect to
Biarritz at the
beginning of the 20th century. The most direct line, that of the
Biarritz was operated from 1888 to 1948. In
addition a line further north served Anglet, operated by the Chemin de
Biarritz company from 1877 to 1953. Finally a line
Adour to its mouth and to the
Atlantic Ocean by the bar
in Anglet, was operated by VFDM réseau basque from 1919 to 1948.
On the morning of 23 December 1933, sub-prefect Anthelme received
Gustave Tissier, the director of the Crédit Municipal de Bayonne. He
responded well, with some astonishment, to his persistent interview.
It did not surprise him to see the man unpacking what became the scam
of the century.
"Tissier, director of the Crédit Municipal, was arrested and
imprisoned under suspicion of forgery and misappropriation of public
funds. He had issued thousands of false bonds in the name of Crédit
Municipal [...]"[Note 23]
This was the beginning of the
Stavisky Affair which, together with
other scandals and political crises, led to the
Paris riots of 6
The World Wars
The 249th Infantry Regiment, created from the 49th Infantry Regiment,
was engaged in operations in the First World War, including action at
Chemin des Dames, especially on the plateau of Craonne.[FL 3] 700
Bayonnaises perished in the conflict.[FL 3] [Note 24] A centre for
engagement of foreign volunteers was established in August 1914 in
Bayonne. Many nationalities were represented, particularly the
Spanish, the Portuguese, the Czechs,[Note 25] and the Poles[Note 26]
Second World War
Second World War
Bayonne was occupied by the 3rd SS Panzer
Division Totenkopf from 27 June 1940 to 23 August 1944.[PiH 8]
On 5 April 1942 the Allies made a landing attempt in
Bayonne but after
a barge penetrated the
Adour with great difficulty, the operation was
On 21 August 1944, after blowing up twenty ships in port, German
troops withdrew. On the 22nd a final convoy of five vehicles passed
through the city. It transported Gestapo Customs agents and some
elements of the Feldgendarmerie. One or more Germans opened fire with
machine guns killing three people.[Note 27] On the 23rd there was
an informal and immediate installation of a "special municipal
delegation" by the young deputy prefect Guy Lamassoure representing
Provisional Government of the French Republic
Provisional Government of the French Republic which had been
Algiers since 27 June.
Paul Raymond noted in 1863 that the arms of the city were blazoned:
Azure, a tower embattled and ramparted of Argent, wavy proper in base,
cantoned to dexter with a letter N crowned of Or, between two pines
Vert each fructed of seven Or and set with fruit pal, debruised by two
lions langued confronting.
The current arms are Blazoned:
[Note 28] Gules, a tower turreted of Or, masooned, windowed, and porte
of Sable on a sea wavy of Azure, Or and Sable in base and surmounted
by a fleur-de-lis of Or, between two oaks proper fructed seven of Or
debruised by two lions langued confronting of Or; the arms stamped
with a county crown.
Policy and Administration
List of mayors under the Ancien Régime
The Gramont family provided captains and governors in
1472 to 1789 as well as mayors, a post which became hereditary from 28
January 1590 by concession of Henry IV to Antoine II of Gramont. From
the 15th century they resided in the Château Neuf then in the
Château-Vieux from the end of the 16th century: [Note 29]
Roger de Gramont, (1444–1519), Lord of Gramont, Baron of Haux,
Seneschal of Guyenne, hereditary mayor of Bayonne. He was an advisor
and chamberlain of
Louis XI in 1472 and then Charles VIII in 1483. He
was Ambassador for
Louis XII in
Rome in 1502. He became governor of
Bayonne and its castles on 26 February 1487. He died of the plague in
Jean II de Gramont, Lord of Gramont, mayor and captain of
18 March 1523. On 15 September 1523, as a lieutenant in the company of
Marshal Lautrec, he rescued
Bayonne from the siege by the forces of
Charles V under the command of the Prince of Orange. He died during
the wars in Italy;
Antoine I of Gramont, born in 1526, he was appointed at the age of
nine years (1535) as mayor and captain of Bayonne. In 1571 he charged
Louis de Foix with the changes to the mouth of the
Adour along the
fortifications of the city;
Antoine II de Gramont (1572–1644), Count of Gramont, Guiche and
Toulonjon, Viscount then Count of Louvigny, ruler of Bidache, Viscount
of Aster, lord then baron of Lescun. He was a Duke de Brevet in 1643,
but unverified by Parliament. On 28 January 1590 Henry IV granted him
and his descendants the perpetual office of Mayor of Bayonne. He then
became the Viceroy of Navarre. In 1595, Antoine II de Gramont charged
Jean Errard (1599) then Louis de Millet (1612) to strengthen the
defenses of the city;
Antoine III of Gramont-Touloujon (1604–1678), Count and then, in
1648, Duke of Gramont, Prince of Bidache, Count of Guiche, Toulonjon,
and Louvigny, Viscount of Astern, Baron of Andouins and Hagetmau, and
lord of Lesparre, peer of
France in 1648, Marshal of
France in 1641.
As Ambassador of Louis XIV, in 1660 he sought the hand of the Infanta
Maria Theresa. The king gave him power of attorney to represent him in
the marriage which was celebrated in Madrid. It was he who welcomed
Louis XIV, Anne of Austria, Mazarin, and the rest of the Court to
Bayonne. He died on 12 July 1678 at the Château-Vieux;
Antoine Charles IV of Gramont (1641–1720), Duke of Gramont, Prince
of Bidache, Count of Guiche and Louvigny, Viscount of Aster, Baron of
Andouins and Hagetmau, Lord of Lesparre, peer of France, Viceroy of
Navarre. In 1689, he continued the fortification works undertaken by
Vauban in Bayonne, where he remained from 1706 to 1712. He supported
Philip V during the War of the Spanish Succession, using
supply his troops, weapons, reinforcements and subsidies. In
retaliation, the opponents of Philip V organized two attacks in 1707:
one at Château-Vieux leaving Antoine IV unharmed.
List of Successive Mayors
Mayors from 1725 to 1941
Matthieu de Bruix
Jean de Moracin
François de Poheyt
Jean-Louis Rol Montpellier
François Casaubon Maisonneuve
Jean Baptiste Picot
Jean François Dubrocq
Jean Rol de Montpellier
Martin Antoine Bretous
Joseph de Sorhainde
Jean-Pierre de Nogué
Pierre Anselme Monho
Jean-Pierre Joseph de Basterrèche
Paum Lacroix Ravignan
Joseph Laborde Noguez
Martin Charles Chégaray
Antoine Robert d'Hirairt
Joachim Alexandre Dubrocq
Joseph Arnaud Eugène de Basterreche
Joachim Alexandre Dubrocq
Jules Séraphin Chateauneuf
Jacques Théodore Plantié
Edouard Séraphin Haulon
Jacques Léon Portes
Joseph Edouard Viard
Gabriel Léo Pouzac
Jules Prosper Castagnet
Mayors from 1941
Jean Pierre Brana
MP, Chairman of the Adour-Basque Coast agglomeration 2008–2014
Jean René Etchegaray
President of the Adour-Basque Coast agglomeration
(Not all data is known)
Cantons of Bayonne
As per the Decree of 22 December 1789
Bayonne was part of two cantons:
Bayonne-North-east, which includes part of
Bayonne commune plus
Boucau, Saint-Pierre-d'Irube, Lahonce, Mouguerre, and Urcuit; and
Bayonne Northwest which consisted of the rest of
Bayonne commune plus
Anglet, Arcangues, and Bassussarry.
In a first revision of cantons in 1973 three cantons were created from
the same total; geographic area:
Bayonne East, and
Bayonne West. A further reconfiguration in 1982 focused primarily on
Bayonne and, apart from
Bayonne North Canton, which also includes
Boucau, the cantons of
Bayonne East and
Bayonne West did not change.
Starting from the
French departmental elections, 2015
French departmental elections, 2015 which took place
on 22 and 29 March, a new division took effect following the decree of
25 February 2014 Once again three cantons centred on
defined: Bayonne-1—with part of Anglet; Bayonne-2—which includes
Boucau; and Bayonne-3 now define the cantonal territorial division of
Judicial and administrative proceedings
Bayonne is the seat of many courts for the region. It falls under the
jurisdiction of the
Tribunal d'instance (District court) of Bayonne,
the Tribunal de grande instance (High Court) of Bayonne, the Cour
d'appel (Court of Appeal) of Pau, the Tribunal pour enfants (Juvenile
court) of Bayonne, the
Conseil de prud'hommes (Labour Court) of
Tribunal de commerce
Tribunal de commerce (Commercial Court) of Bayonne, the
Tribunal administratif (Administrative tribunal) of Pau, and the Cour
administrative d'appel (Administrative Court of Appeal) of
The commune has a police station, a Departmental Gendarmerie, an
Autonomous Territorial Brigade of the district gendarmerie, squadron
Mobile Gendarmerie and a Tax collection office.
The commune is part of twelve inter-communal structures of which
eleven are based in the commune:
the Côte basque-
the transport association of Côte basque-
the intercommunal association for the management of the Txakurrak
the intercommunal association for the support of Basque culture;
the Bil Ta Garbi joint association;
the joint association for maritime Nive;
the joint association for the Basque Museum and the History of
the joint association for the development and monitoring of SCOT in
the agglomeration of
Bayonne and south Landes;
the Kosta Garbia joint association;
the joint association for the development of the European freight
centre of Bayonne-Mouguerre-Lahonce;
the joint association for operating the regional Maurice Ravel
the Energy association of Pyrénées-Atlantiques;
The city of
Bayonne is part of the Agglomeration Côte Basque-Adour
which also includes Anglet, Biarritz,
Bidart and Boucau. The statutory
powers of the structure extend to economic development—including
higher education and research—housing and urban planning, public
transport—through Transdev—alternative and the collection and
recovery waste collection and management of rain and coastal waters,
the sustainable development, interregional cooperation and finally
Bayonne is part of the Basque Bayonne-San Sebastián
Eurocity which is a
European economic interest grouping
European economic interest grouping (EEIG)
established in 1993 based in San Sebastián.
Twin towns – Sister cities
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France
Bayonne has twinning associations with:
Bulgaria since 2004
Satu Mare, Roumania since 2008
Spain since 1970
Hungary since 2008
L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, since 2008
Finland since 2008
Greece since 2008
Portugal since 2008
Daytona Beach, Florida,
United States since 1970
Bayonne, New Jersey,
United States since 1970
Italy since 2008
In 2012 the commune had 45,855 inhabitants. The evolution of the
number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted
in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes
with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike
larger communes that have a sample survey every year.[Note 30]
Population change (See database)
Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968
(population without double counting and municipal population from
Population of Bayonne
Bayonne commune is attached to the Academy of Bordeaux. It has an
information and guidance center (CIO).
On 14 December 2015
Bayonne had 10 kindergartens, 22 elementary or
primary schools (12 public and 10 private primary schools including
two ikastolas). 2 public colleges (Albert Camus and Marracq colleges),
5 private colleges (La Salle Saint-Bernard, Saint Joseph, Saint-Amand,
Notre-Dame and Largenté) which meet the criteria of the first cycle
of second degree studies. For the second cycle
Bayonne has 3 public
high schools (René-Cassin school (general education), the Louis de
Foix school (general, technological and vocational education), and the
Paul Bert vocational school), 4 private high schools (Saint-Louis
Villa Pia (general education), Largenté, Bernat Etxepare (general and
technological), and Le Guichot vocational school).
There are also the Maurice Ravel Conservatory of Music, Dance, and
Dramatic Art and the art school of the urban community of
Cultural festivities and events
Fêtes de Bayonne
Fêtes de Bayonne 2004, King Léon.
Bayonne Bullfighting ring
For 550 years every holy Thursday, Friday and Saturday the Foire au
Jambon (Ham festival) is held to mark the beginning of the season.
An annual summer festival has been held in the commune since 1932 for
five days[Note 32] organized around parades, bulls races, fireworks,
and music in the Basque and Gascon tradition. These festivals have
become the most important festive events in
France in terms of
Main article: Fêtes de Bayonne
Bayonne has the oldest French bullfighting tradition. A bylaw
regulating the encierro is dated 1283: cows, oxen and bulls are
released each year in the streets of Petit
Bayonne during the summer
festivals. The current arena, opened in 1893, is the largest in
France with more than 10,000 seats. A dozen bullfights are
held each year, attracting the biggest names in bullfighting.
Throughout summer several novilladas also take place. The city is a
member of the Union of French bullfighting cities.
Bayonne is the focus of much of the hospital services for the
Bayonne and the southern Landes. In this area all
inhabitants are less than 35 km from a hospital offering medical,
obstetrical, surgical, or psychiatric care. The hospitals for all the
Basque Coast are mainly established in
Bayonne (the main site of
Saint-Léon and Cam-de-Prats) and also in
Saint-Jean-de-Luz which has
Sports and sports facilities
Bayonne Rowing Boat shed
Rowing, a popular sport for a long time on the
Nive and the
Bayonne. There are two clubs: the Nautical Society of
(established in 1875) and Aviron Bayonnais—established in 1904 by
former members of the SNB and which later became a sports club.
Basketball. Denek Bat
Urcuit is a basketball club with a male
section competing in NM1 (3rd national level of the French league).
The club is based in the city of
Urcuit but plays in the Lauga Sports
Palace in Bayonne.
Aviron Bayonnais FC
Aviron Bayonnais FC played from their home base at Didier
Deschamps stadium in CFA 2 (the 5th French division) during the
2013–2014 season after a year in CFA and three consecutive years in
the Championnat National.
Didier Deschamps started his career at
Aviron Bayonnais FC. The stadium, formerly called the Grand Basque, is
now named after him. There are also three other football clubs in
Bayonne: the Crusaders of Saint Andrew playing in the higher regional
division, the Portuguese stars of
Bayonne (first district division),
Bayonne association on the right bank of the river (3rd
Omnisports. Aviron Bayonnais, created in 1904, includes many sports
sections and a large number of members.[Note 33] The pro rugby and
football club are the most famous sections of the club. The Bayonne
Olympic Club, created in 1972, is located in the district of Hauts de
Sainte-Croix. The club offers a wide range of sports including pelote,
gymnastics, combat sports, and a pool section. The club had nearly 400
members in 2007.
Bayonne is an important place for Basque pelota. The
French Federation of
Basque Pelota is headquartered at Trinquet
moderne near the Bullring. Many titles were won by pelota players
from the city. The World Championships took place in
Bayonne in 1978
in association with Biarritz.
Rugby appeared in Basque Country at the end of the 19th century with
the arrival in 1897 at
Bayonne High School of a 20 year old person
from Landes who converts his comrades to football-rugby which he had
discovered in Bordeaux. Practicing in the fields near the Spanish
Gate, they communicated their enthusiasm to other colleges in Bayonne
Biarritz leading to the creation of the
Biarritz Sporting Club and
Biarritz Stadium which merged in 1913 to become
Bayonne has two rugby clubs: The
Bayonne Athletic Association (ASB)
Fédérale 3 while the Aviron Bayonnais rugby pro in the
2014–2015 season played in Top 14, where they have played without
interruption since the 2004–2005 season. Aviron Bayonnais has won
three league titles in
France (1913, 1934 and 1943). It was the first
club from a small town to become champion of France. Its stadium is
the Stade Jean Dauger. There is also a women's team in the ASB,
playing in the National Division 1B. This team won the 2014 Armelle
Bayonne is in the Diocese of Bayonne,
Lescar and Oloron, with a
Suffragan bishop since 2002 under the Archdiocese of Bordeaux.
Marc Aillet has been the bishop of this diocese since 15
October 2008. The diocese is located in
Bayonne in the Place
Bayonne Cathedral in Grand Bayonne,
Bayonne has Saint-Esprit,
Saint Andrew (Rue des Lisses), Arènes (Avenue of the Czech Legion),
Saint-Étienne, and Saint-Amand (Avenue Marechal Soult) churches.
The Carmel of Bayonne, located in the Marracq district, has had a
Carmelite nuns since 1858.
The Way of Baztan (also ruta del Baztan or camino Baztanés) is a way
on the pilgrimage of
Camino de Santiago
Camino de Santiago which crosses the Pyrenees
further west by the lowest pass (by the Col de Belate, 847 m). It
is the ancient road used by pilgrims descending to
Bayonne then either
along the coast on the Way of Soulac or because they landed there from
England, for example, to join the
French Way as soon as possible in
Pamplona. The Way of
Bayonne joins the
French Way further downstream
The synagogue was built in 1837 in the Saint-Esprit district north of
the town. The Jewish community of
Bayonne is old—it consists of
different groups of fugitives from
established at SAint-Esprit-lès-
Bayonne after the expulsion of Jews
Spain in 1492 and
Portugal in 1496. In 1846 the Central
Consistory moved to Saint-Esprit which was integrated with
The mosque is located in Rue Joseph-Latxague. It is the seat of the
cultural association of Muslims in the Basque Coast.
The Protestant church is located at the corner of Rue Albert-I st and
Rue du Temple A gospel church is located in the Saint-Esprit
districtit where there is also a church belonging to the Gypsy
Evangelical Church of the Protestant Federation of France.
Rue Poissonnerie, a shopping street in Grand-Bayonne.
Population and income tax
In 2011, the median household income tax was €22,605, placing
Bayonne 28,406th place among the 31,886 communes with more than 49
households in metropolitan France.
In 2011 47.8% of households were not taxable.[Insee 1]
In 2011 the population aged from 15 to 64 years was 29,007 persons of
which 70.8% were employable, 60.3% in employment and 10.5%
unemployed.[Insee 2] While there were 30,012 jobs in the employment
area, against 29,220 in 2006, and the number of employed workers
residing in the employment area was 17,667, the indicator of job
concentration is 169.9% which means that the employment area offers
nearly two jobs to for every available worker.[Insee 3]
Businesses and shops
Bayonne is the economic capital of the agglomeration of
southern Landes. The table below details the number of companies
Bayonne according to their industry:[Insee 4]
Structure of the Economy in
Bayonne as at 1 January 2013.
No. of Establishments
Trade, transport and services
Public Administration, education, health, and social services
Scope: Commercial activities excluding Agriculture.
The table below shows employees by business establishments in terms of
Active establishments by sector of activity on 31 December 2011.
1 to 9
10 to 19
20 to 49
Agriculture, sylviculture and fishing
Trade, transport, services
including trade and car repair
Public Administration, education, health, social services
Scope: All activities.
The following comments apply to the two previous tables:[Note 34]
the bulk of economic activity is provided by companies in the tertiary
Agriculture is almost non-existent Note 54;[Note 35]
less than 5% of the activity is from the industrial sector which
remains focused on establishments of less than 50 employees, as also
are construction-related activities;
public administration, education, health and social services are
activities of over 20% of establishments, confirming the importance of
Bayonne as an administrative centre.
In 2013 549 new establishments were created in
Bayonne including 406
Sole proprietorships.[Insee 6] [Insee 7]
Workshops and Industry
Bayonne has few such industries, as indicated in the previous tables.
There is Plastitube specializing in plastic packaging (190
employees). The Izarra liqueur company set up a distillery in 1912
at Quai Amiral-Bergeret and has long symbolized the economic wealth of
Bayonne. Industrial activities are concentrated in the neighbouring
communes of Boucau,
Tarnos (Turbomeca), Mouguerre, and Anglet.
Bayonne is known for its fine chocolates, produced in the town for 500
Bayonne ham, a cured ham seasoned with peppers from nearby
Espelette. Izarra, the liqueur made in bright green or yellow colours,
is distilled locally. It is said by some that
Bayonne is the
birthplace of mayonnaise, supposedly a corruption of Bayonnaise, the
French adjective describing the city's people and produce. Now
bayonnaise can refer to a particular mayonnaise flavoured with the
Bayonne is now the centre of certain craft industries that were once
widespread, including the manufacture of makilas, traditional Basque
walking-sticks. The Fabrique Alza just outside the city is known for
its palas, bats used in pelota, the traditional Basque sport.
The active tertiary sector includes some large retail chains such as
those detailed by geographer Roger Brunet: BUT (240 staff),
Carrefour (150 staff),
E.Leclerc (150 staff),
Leroy Merlin (130
Galeries Lafayette (120 employees). Banks, cleaning
companies (Onet, 170 employees), and security (Brink's, 100 employees)
are also major employers in the commune, as is urban transport which
employs nearly 200 staff. Five health clinics, providing a total of
more than 500 beds, each employ 120 to 170 staff.
The port of Bayonne
The cargo ship BBC-Magellan in the port of
Bayonne in 2014.
The port of
Bayonne is located at the mouth of the Adour, downstream
of the city. It also occupies part of communes of
Tarnos in Landes. It benefits greatly
from the natural gas field of
Lacq to which it is connected by
pipeline. This is the 9th largest French port for trade with an annual
traffic of about 4.2 million tonnes of which 2.8 is export. It is also
the largest French port for export of maize. It is the property of
the Aquitaine region who manage and control the site.
Metallurgical products movement are more than one million tons per
year and maize exports to
Spain vary between 800,000 and 1 million
tons. The port also receives refined oil products from the Total oil
Donges (800,000 tons per year). Fertilizers are a traffic
of 500,000 tons per year and sulphur from Lacq, albeit in sharp
decline, is 400,000 tons.
The port also receives
General Motors vehicles from
Portugal and wood both tropical and from Landes.
Due to its proximity to the ocean and the foothills of the Pyrenees as
well as its historic heritage,
Bayonne has developed important
activities related to tourism.[Insee 8]
On 31 December 2012 there were 15 hotels in the city offering more
than 800 rooms to visitors, but there were no camp sites.[Insee 9] The
tourist infrastructure in the surrounding urban area of Bayonne
complements the local supply with around 5800 rooms spread over nearly
200 hotels and 86 campsites offering over 14,000 beds.
The Château Vieux
Bayonne into Grand
Bayonne and Petit
five bridges between the two, both quarters still being backed by
Vauban's walls. The houses lining the
Nive are examples of Basque
architecture, with half-timbering and shutters in the national colours
of red and green. The much wider
Adour is to the north. The Pont
Saint-Esprit connects Petit
Bayonne with the Quartier Saint-Esprit
across the Adour, where the massive Citadelle and the railway station
are located. Grand
Bayonne is the commercial and civic hub, with small
pedestrianised streets packed with shops, plus the cathedral and
Hôtel de Ville.
The Cathédrale Sainte-Marie is an imposing, elegant Gothic building,
rising over the houses, glimpsed along the narrow streets. It was
constructed in the 12th and 13th centuries. The south tower was
completed in the 16th century but the cathedral was only completed in
the 19th century with the north tower. The cathedral is noted for its
charming cloisters. There are other details and sculptures of note,
although much was destroyed in the Revolution.
Nearby is the Château Vieux, some of which dates back to the 12th
century, where the governors of the city were based, including the
English Black Prince.
The Musée Basque is the finest ethnographic museum of the entire
Basque Country. It opened in 1922 but has been closed for a decade
recently for refurbishment. It now has special exhibitions on Basque
agriculture, seafaring and pelota, handicrafts and Basque history and
way of life.
Musée Bonnat began with a large collection bequeathed by the
local-born painter Léon Bonnat. The museum is one of the best
galleries in south west
France and has paintings by Edgar Degas, El
Greco, Sandro Botticelli, and Francisco Goya, among others.
At the back of Petit
Bayonne is the Château Neuf, among the ramparts.
Now an exhibition space, it was started by the newly arrived French in
1460 to control the city. The walls nearby have been opened to
visitors. They are important for plant life now and Bayonne's botanic
gardens adjoin the walls on both sides of the Nive.
The area across the
Adour is largely residential and industrial, with
much demolished to make way for the railway. The Saint-Esprit church
was part of a bigger complex built by Louis XI to care for
pilgrims to Santiago de Compostela. It is home to a wooden Flight into
Overlooking the quarter is Vauban's 1680 Citadelle. The soldiers of
Wellington's army who died besieging the citadelle in 1813 are buried
in the nearby English Cemetery, visited by
Queen Victoria and other
British dignitaries when staying in Biarritz.
The distillery of the famous local liqueur Izarra is located on the
northern bank of the
Adour and is open to visitors.
Edmund Crouchback or Edmond Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster, born in
London and died in 1296 at Bayonne, was an English prince.
Second surviving son of King
Henri III and Eleanor of Provence, he was
Earl of Lancaster
Earl of Lancaster and the founder of the House of Lancaster;
Jean du Vergier de Hauranne, (1581–1643), theologian, who introduced
Jansenism into France
Guillaume du Tillot
Guillaume du Tillot (1711–1774), politician
Marguerite Brunet, called Mademoiselle Montansier, born in 1730 at
Bayonne and died in 1820 at Paris, was an actress and director of
theatre. The house where she was born still exists in Rue des Faures,
Dominique Joseph Garat
Dominique Joseph Garat (1749–1833), writer and politician
François Cabarrus (1752–1810), French adventurer and Spanish
Armand Joseph Dubernad
Armand Joseph Dubernad (1741–1799), financial trader, consul general
of the Holy Roman Empire
Bertrand Pelletier (1761–1797), chemist and pharmacologist
Jacques Laffitte (1767–1844), banker and politician
Frédéric Bastiat (1801–1850), classical-liberal author and
Charles Lavigerie born at
Bayonne in 1825 and died in 1892 at Algiers
(Algérie), was a 19th-century Cardinal. He was the founder of the
Society of Missionaries of Africa which is better known under the name
Léon Bonnat (1833–1922), painter
Ramón Altarriba y Villanueva
Ramón Altarriba y Villanueva (1841–1906), Spanish Carlist
René Cassin (1887–1976), lawyer and judge; recipient of the 1968
Nobel Peace Prize
François Duhourcau (1883–1851), writer and historian
Michel Camdessus (born 1933), managing director of the International
Monetary Fund from 1997 to 2000
Didier Deschamps (born 1968), World-Cup-winning footballer
Imanol Harinordoquy (born 1980), French international rugby union
Anthony Dupuis (born 1973), professional tennis player
Sylvain Luc (born 1965), jazz guitarist
Xavier de le Rue (born 1979), a snowboarder
Joe Duplantier, vocalist and guitarist of technical death metal band,
Mario Duplantier, drummer of Gojira, brother of Joe Duplantier
Eva Bisseni, judoka
Achille Zo (1826–1901), painter
Stéphane Ruffier (born 1986) a French national football team
Aymeric Laporte, footballer. Raised in the city.
In popular culture
In Wyndham Lewis's novel The Wild Body (1927) the protagonist,
Ker-Orr, in the first story, "A Soldier of Humour", takes the train
Paris and stays in
Bayonne before going to Spain.
In Ernest Hemingway's novel The Sun Also Rises, three of the
Bayonne en route to Pamplona, Spain.
In Kim Stanley Robinson's novel
The Years of Rice and Salt
The Years of Rice and Salt (2002),
Bayonne is the first city recolonized by the Muslims after the total
depopulation of Europe by the Black Death. Named "Baraka", its
earliest colonizers were later driven out by rivals from Al-Andalus
and flee to the Loire Valley, where they found the city of Nsara.
In Trevanian's novel Shibumi, Hannah has been called as "a whore from
Bayonne" by elderly Basque women in a village of the Northern Basque
The seventh track of Joe Bonamassa's album Dust Bowl is entitled The
Last Matador of Bayonne.
In the summer of 2008, Manu Chao's live album
Baionarena was recorded
in the Arena of Bayonne.
The album Life is Elsewhere, by English band Little Comets, features a
song titled Bayonne.,
The eighth track of La Nef's album La Traverse Miraculeuse is entitled
Le Navire de Bayonne.
Notes and references
Gascony and in Basque country alluvial floodplains along a river
are called barthe (from the gascon barta)
^ The successor to the iron railway bridge Raccordement
d'Aïtachouria, the Pont Blanc has been used since 2003 to link the
Floride Sports Field to the wilderness area on the Ansot plain.
^ The Marengo masonry bridge was under
^ The Mayou bridge, formerly called Major or Maior, was rebuilt in
stone in 1857.
^ The A1, A2, B, C, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 14 and N lines (as at 9
^ Only a quarter of the area, the west end of the runway, is located
^ Achille Luchaire, Annals of the Faculty of Letters of Bordeaux
(1879), note 12 and 24, regarding the Notitia Provinciarum mentioning
the civitas Boatium (var. Boasium, Bohatium, Boaccensium, Boacium)
"whose identification with Bayonne, proposed by Scaliger and Valois,
is absolutely inadmissible (see Desjardins, Gaule rom., II, 874, note
1)" (in French).
^ Neanderthal Stone tools (from 80,000 to 45,000 BC corresponding to
Mousterian period, the Riss Glaciations, and Würm II)
^ Sigillata ceramics of red brick colour, the resulting relief
decoration is decorated before firing by stamping
^ The Notitia Dignitatum imperii Romani, dating from 340 to 420 AD,
mentions the seat of the tribune of the cohort of
these terms: "In provincia Novempopulana tribunus cohortis
^ Gérard Coulon, The Gallo-Romains: life, work, beliefs,
diversions—54 BC – 486 AD, Paris, 2006, Errance, Hespérides
collection, ISBN 2-87772-331-3, p. 21 (in French), retains the
number 10 hectares.
^ According to Eugène Goyheneche in Basque Country: Soule, Labourd,
Lower Navarre, Société nouvelle d’éditions régionales et de
diffusion, Pau, 1979, BnF FRBNF34647711, the old Roman wall which is
still visible in parts was in the shape of a polygon of 1,125 metres
(3,691 feet) perimeter in an area of 6 to 9 hectares (15–22
Treaty of Andelot
Treaty of Andelot signed in 587 between Guntram, king of
Burgundy, and Brunhilda of Austrasia, mentions Lapurdo; it documents
the return to Brunhilda of several cities including Aire, Couserans
and Lapurdo, each "with its territories" ("cum terminibus"). Manex
Goyhenetche indicates that in the 6th century, the term civitas was
used to designate a fortress. "The Frankish dynasties of Austrasia and
Neustria by the Treaty of Andelot, consolidated their grip on part of
the former territory of the Nine Peoples [...] In the 4th century
Lapurdum continued to exist and by the end of the 6th century returned
to its function as a fortress. Lapurdum controlled firstly the routes
leading to the Pyrenean passes and secondly the cabotage routes of the
Frankish fleets from
^ The Vicount resided in Chatelet (lou Castet), next to the entry to
the current Cinq Cantons (Five Cantons) which was the Roman gate
leading to the port (source: Eugene Goyheneche, The Basque Country:
Soule, Labourd, Lower Navarre, New Society regional editions and
distribution, Pau, 1979 (Record BNF FRBNF34647711).
^ It can be deduced that it existed prior to that date.
^ Relations with
Labourd were often difficult and caused many bloody
conflicts. The most famous of them took place in 1343 when the mayor
of Bayonne, Pé de Poyane, killed five labourdin nobles: an episode
which, according to Eugene Goyheneche, had its origin in a fictional
story of On the Proudines bridge at Villefranque, retold by Augustine
Chaho and Hippolyte Taine.
^ For example a Bayonnais fleet participated in the Siege of Calais
led by the English in 1346 which consisted of 15 vessels and 439 men
(source: Eugene Goyheneche, The Basque Country: Soule, Labourd, Lower
Navarre, Society new regional editions and distribution, Pau,1979
(Record BNF FRBNF34647711), p. 163. (in French).
^ The siege lasted nine days from 12 to 20 August 1451 according to
Pierre Hourmat, History of
Bayonne origins to the
French Revolution of
1789, Society of Arts Science & Arts of Bayonne,1986, p. 143.
^ Two annual fairs: one on the first day of Lent and the other the 1st
August: "[...] grant them free fairs in perpetuity of all Aydes,
imposicions, impostz and any other subsidies qualxconques, which one
will be held the first day of karesme and the other on the first day
of August [...]" as letters patent of
Louis XI established at
Montferrand in May 1462.
^ Francis I was replaced as a captive by his two eldest sons: Francis
III, Duke of Brittany, and Henry II of
France who were finally
released in 1530 after payment of the ransom.
^ The second
Gare de Bayonne
Gare de Bayonne succeeded an earlier station made of wood
and metal built in 1854 at the beginning of the 20th century
^ The Forges of the
Adour were actually located in the commune of
Boucau on the right bank of the river.
^ It was in these terms that the newspaper Le Courrier de Bayonne
recounted the event a few days later.
^ The Courrier de
Bayonne of 8 August 1914 described the departure of
the Regiment in the following terms: "[...] As for the trains which
carried our brave little poilus of the 49th, they were adorned with
flowers. On the wagons were pleasant or patriotic inscriptions. We
noted the following: "Pleasure Train for Berlin, out and back"; on
others: "Vive la France! Long live England ! Long live
Russia !" were framed by garlands and on the locomotives were the
flags of the three countries fraternally chattering in the wind ... If
the Germans saw it, perhaps they would not be very sure of victory.
[...]" (Source: Maurice Sacx,
Bayonne and the Basque
Country—Witnesses of history, Biarritz, Basque Museum of Bayonne,
^ The Avenue of the Czech Legion in
Bayonne is in their honour.
^ The Polish company was cited in an order of the Army dated 21 June
General Petain (source: François Lafitte Houssat, Bayonne
Nive and Adour, Joue-les-Tours, Alan Sutton, 2001
^ The shooting took place at the Saint-Léon crossroads near the train
station and near the citadel.
^ This blazon was effective 3 August 1919, by the municipal council of
the city of Bayonne, quoted by René Broca in the preface of the book
Bayonne from its origins to the
French Revolution of 1789,
Pierre Hourmat, Corporation Sciences Humanities & Arts, Bayonne,
^ The Château-Neuf was completed in 1507 by Roger de Gramont.
^ At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification
have been modified by Law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002 Archived 6
March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., the so-called "law of local
democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" allows, after
a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual
publication of the legal population of the different French
administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than
10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually and the
entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of
the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999
under this new law came into force on 1 January 2009 and was based on
the census of 2006.
^ In 2014 the Ham Festival was held from 17 to 20 April
Bayonne Celebrations traditionally begin on the Wednesday preceding
the first weekend of August but the schedule has been changed and the
start of celebrations has been advanced in recent years because the
crowds become too large. They end the following Sunday.
^ There are 20 sports sections including the Aviron Bayonnais pro
Aviron Bayonnais FC
Aviron Bayonnais FC according to the Aviron Bayonnais FC
website (accessed 29 July 2014).
^ These remarks are not the result of a statistical study of the data
presented; they are only indicative.
^ Part of the commune is part of the town is in the appellation
d'origine controlee (AOC) zone of
Ossau-Iraty but there were no
producers in 2014.
Bayonne on Lion1906
^ INSEE Results of Census 2012 (in French)
^ INSEE Complete Dossier -
Bayonne 64102 (in French)
^ Inhabitants of
Pyrénées-Atlantiques (in French)
Bayonne on Google Maps
^ Geographic Repertoire of communes, published by the Institut
géographique national (in French)
Adour River (Q---0000),
Sandre website, consulted on 25
July 2014 (in French)
Adour in the
Natura 2000 network, Institution
consulted on 23 August 2014 (in French)
^ Page FR7200724 Natura 2000, National Inventory of Natural heritage
website, consulted on 23 August 2014 (in French)
Bayonne on the Géoportail from National Geographic Institute (IGN)
website (in French)
^ Paris, Nice, Strasbourg, Brest
^ Data from the Station at
Biarritz from 1981 to 2010 (in French)
^ "Données climatiques de la station de Biarritz" (in French). Meteo
France. Retrieved December 28, 2015.
^ "Climat Aquitaine" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved December 28,
^ "Biarritz–Pays–Basque (64)" (PDF). Fiche Climatologique:
Statistiques 1981–2010 et records (in French). Meteo France.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2018. Retrieved 6 March
^ "Normes et records 1961-1990: Biarritz-
Anglet (64) - altitude 69m"
(in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved December 28, 2015.
^ The bicycle in town - City of Bayonne,
Bayonne official website,
consulted on 6 October 2014 (in French)
^ Chronoplus Network Map Archived 23 September 2015 at the Wayback
Machine., consulted on 25 July 2014 (in French).
^ Network map Archived 26 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine.,
Transports 64, consulted on 11 September 2014 (in French).
^ The RDTL network, consulted on 11 September 2014 (in French).
^ Record passenger numbers in 2013 for the Biarritz-Anglet-Bayonne
airport, Sud-Ouest, 1 October 2013, consulted on 22 August 2014 (in
Bayonne Airport website, consulted on 11 January
2015 (in French).
^ Euskaltzaindia, Academy of the Basque language, consulted on 5
August 2014 (in French)
^ Hector Iglesias, Names of Places and people in Bayonne,
Biarritz in the 18th century Archived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback
Machine., éditions Elkar, Donostia-Saint-Sébastien, 2000, consulted
on 25 July 2014, ISBN 2-913156-32-0, p. 34 (in French)
^ Xavier Delamarre, Dictionary of the Gallic language. A linguistic
approach to continental old Celtic, éditions Errance, Paris, 2003,
ISBN 2-87772-237-6, p. 48 (in French)
^ General Toponymy of France, Ernest Nègre, 28 July 2014 (in French)
^ General Toponymy of France, Ernest Nègre, 28 July 2014 (in French)
^ a b Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy, Presses
universitaires de Bordeaux, 2006, ISBN 2 86781 396 4 p. 19, 26
^ a b Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees,
Paul Raymond, Imprimerie nationale, 1863, Digitised from
Library 15 June 2011 (in French)
^ Eugène Goyheneche, Goyheneche, 1973, "Lapurdum ...", p. 85–92 (in
Bayonne on the 1750 Cassini Map
Bayonne on the 1790 Cassini Map
^ Chapter of
Bayonne in the Departmental Archives of
Pyrénées-Atlantiques (in French)
^ Manuscript from the 14th century in the Departmental Archives of
Pyrénées-Atlantiques (in French)
^ Titles published by don José Yanguas y Miranda in Diccionario de
Antiguedades del reino de Navarra, 1840, Pamplona, (in Spanish)
^ Association Lauburu, The Cathedral in the heart of the city, 1992
^ a b Eugène Goyheneche,
Bayonne and the Bayonnaise Region from the
12th to the 15th century, Thesis by the E.N.C., 1949 (in French)
^ Pierre Laborde. History of Bayonne, 1991 (in French).
^ Charles Athanase Walckenaer, Ancient Historical Geography and
comparison of the Cisalpine and Transalpine Gauls, followed by a
geographical analysis of ancient routes and accompanied by a nine map
Atlas, Vol. 1, P. Dufart, 1839, 1085 pages (in French).
^ In The Week in Basque Country, M. Esteban, March 1996 (in French)
^ On the presumed origin of the division of the Basque language,
Hector Iglesias, consulted on 5 August 2014 (in French).
^ Renée Mussot-Goulard, The Gascons, Atlantica, 2001 (in French)
^ Jacques Allières, The Basques, Paris, Presses universitaires de
France,?March 2003 (1st ed. 1997), 127 p. ISBN 213053144X and
ISBN 9782130531449, OCLC 77097933. (in French)
^ group=Note>Peter Hourmat, (History of
Bayonne from its origins to
French Revolution of 1789, Society of Sciences Letters Arts of
Bayonne,1986, P. 27 to 35 (in French))deplores the lack of sources for
the period 5th century to the 10th century: "If the existence of a
major military site is attested by the remains of the tower walls of a
castrum, the headquarters or refuge of a cohort in the last days of
the Roman Empire, in the half a millennium that followed the collapse
of the latter plunges us into an almost total ignorance of who
occupied the area of the castrum and the identity of the people. A
heavy silence covers the fate of Lapurdum and documents at our
disposal for five centuries can be counted on the fingers of one hand
and these lead to different or contradictory interpretations ... . So
this story becomes a long series of question marks, for example that
^ Manex Goyhenetche, General History of Basque country, Prehistory,
Roman era, Middle Ages, Vol. 1, Elkarlanean, Donostia and Bayonne,
1998, 492 pages, ISBN 2-913156-20-7, BnF FRBNF37031711, p. 134
^ On 12 April 1215 John, King of England, granted
Bayonne a legal
personality that would last throughout the Middle Ages and, to some
extent, until the French Revolution. The form of the charter resembled
that of La Rochelle. According to Eugene Goyheneche, "the city is
governed by the "Hundred Peers" who were actually a mayor, twelve
deputies, twelve councilors, and seventy-five peers who were co-opted
and proposed each year by the mayor for the king's choice. The mayor
was head of the administrative, judiciary, and military: he had
custody of the keys to the city and some mayors were admirals in the
bayonnaise fleet. The king was represented by a marshal" (source:
Eugene Goyheneche, The Basque Country: Soule, Labourd, Lower Navarre,
Societe new regional editions and distribution, Pau,1979 (Record BNF
FRBNF34647711) (in French).
^ Léon Cadier,
Seneschal of Lannes under Charles VII, royal
administration and provincials states[permanent dead link], A. Picard,
Paris, 1885, 92 pages, consulted 16 June 2014 (in French).
^ Gascon Registers, Vol. 1, pp. 44, 53, 141, 154, 158–159, 195, and
233—cited by Manex Goyhenetche, General History of Basque Country
III: Economic and social revolution from the 16th to the 18th century,
Vol. 3, Donostia / Bayonne, Elkarlanean,? 2001, 411 p.
(ISBN 8483317443 and ISBN 9788483317440,
OCLC 466971263), p. 42–43. (in French)
^ Ferdinand Barbe, The Epidemics of pestilence in
Bayonne in the 16th
century, Bulletin de la Société des sciences et lettres de Bayonne,
1947—cited by Manex Goyhenetche, General History of Basque Country
III: Economic and social revolution from the 16th to the 18th century,
Vol. 3, Donostia / Bayonne, Elkarlanean,? 2001, 411 p.
(ISBN 8483317443 and ISBN 9788483317440,
OCLC 466971263), p. 42. (in French)
^ Vincent Hiribarren,
Bayonne at the beginning of the Wars of
Religion, Revue d’histoire de Bayonne, du Pays basque et du
Bas-Adour, Vol. 159, 2004, p. 95–122 (in French).
^ Vincent Hiribarren, For God, King, and the good of the city, Bayonne
deliberations from 1565 to 1569, Memoir by Maitrise under the
direction of Denis Crouzet, université
Paris IV-Sorbonne, June 2003,
137 p. (in French)
^ Vincent Hiribarren, A lion at the head of a thousand sheep. the
Sorhaindo family in
Bayonne at the end of the 16th century, Vol. 166,
Bulletin of the Basque museum, 2005, p. 19–34. (in French)
^ Pierre Hourmat, Bulletin SSLAB, Collection No. 157, The City of
Bayonne Library, p. 257 (in French).
^ Pierre Hourmat, Bulletin SSLAB, Collection No. 158, The City of
Bayonne Library, p. 158 (in French).
^ François Noel, L. J. M. Carpentier, Puissant (Mr.), New Dictionary
of the origins, inventions, and discoveries in arts, sciences,
geography, agriculture, commerce etc., Janet et Cotelle, 1833, p. 143
^ Pierre Hourmat,
Vauban and the fortifications of
Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Société des Sciences Lettres & Arts de
Bayonne, 1984, p. 32 (in French).
^ Eugène Goyheneche, Our Basque Land, Société nouvelle
d’éditions régionales et de diffusion, Pau, 1979, BnF
FRBNF33028848, p. 93 (in French).
^ Communal Notice for Saint-Esprit, consulted on 7 July 2012 (in
^ a b Paul Robert Magocsi; Jean W. Sedlar; Robert A. Kann; Charles
Jelavich; Joseph Rothschild (1974). A History of East Central Europe.
University of Washington Press. p. 49.
ISBN 978-0-295-95358-8. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
^ In The week in Basque Country, T. Laxalt, February 1996. (in French)
^ Claude Duhau, Mayors and Councilors of
Bayonne (1831–2001), 1999,
p. 80 (in French).
^ Louis Poullenot, Lower Pyrénées Occupation Liberation 1940–1945,
J&D Éditions, Biarritz, 1995, p. 246 (in French).
^ Jacques Navarret, The Port of
Bayonne - Congrès 1999, p. 293 (in
^ In The week in Basque Country, J. Crouzet, August 1994. (in French)
^ a b c d e Olivier Ribeton, A Gramont Museum at Bayonne, Publication
of the Société des Sciences, Lettres et Arts de Bayonne, Bayonne,
1986 (in French).
^ List of Mayors of
France (in French)
^ Decree No. 2014-248 of 25 February 2014 concerning the delimitation
of cantons in the department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, consulted on 9
March 2015 (in French)
^ List of competent jurisdictions for Bayonne, Ministry of Justice
website (in French).
Pyrénées-Atlantiques Communal database Archived 19 May 2014 at the
Wayback Machine., consulted on 9 March 2015 (in French).
^ The Bayonne-
San Sebastián Eurocity, GEIE, consulted on 9 March 2015
^ Statutes of the basque Bayonne-
San Sebastián Eurocity, GEIE,
consulted on 9 March 2015 (in French).
^ "National Commission for Decentralised cooperation". Délégation
pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales
(Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Retrieved 14
^ Schools in
Bayonne (in French)
^ The Foire au jambon, consulted on 29 July 2014 (in French).
^ a b c d e f g
Roger Brunet personal website, consulted on 5 August
2014 (in French).
^ The headquarters of the French Federation of Basque Pelota,
retrieved 5 August 2014 (in French).
^ Photos of the French delegation at the World championships for
Basque pelota, consulted on 5 August 2014 (in French).
France Chauvirey, Life in olden days in Basque country,
Éditions Sud Ouest, Luçon, 1994, ISBN 2 87901 219 8, p. 157 (in
^ The Diocese of Bayonne,
Lescar and Oloron, consulted on 9 March 2015
^ Community of Bayonne, consulted on 13 September 2014 (in French).
^ The Mosque of Bayonne, consulted on 29 July 2014 (in French).
^ The Temple of Bayonne, Reformed Church consulted on 29 July 2014 (in
^ List of Evangelical churches in Pyrénées-Atlantiques, consulted on
29 July 2014 (in French).
^ Page RFDM2011COM: Local Fiscal Revenue by household, 2011, consulted
on 30 July 2014 (20mb+) (in French).
^ The Port of
Bayonne Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine.,
official website, consulted on 14 September 2014 (in French).
^ The port of
Bayonne Archived 14 September 2014 at the Wayback
Machine., official website, consulted on 14 September 2014 (in
^ Traffic in the port of
Bayonne in 2008 Archived 4 March 2016 at the
Wayback Machine., Port of
Bayonne official website, consulted on 14
September 2014 (in French).
^ Key Tourism statistics for the Urban area of
Bayonne at 31 December
2012 Archived 14 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine., consulted on
14 September 2014.
Dossier 2013 relative to the commune,
^ REV T1 - Taxes on the income of households.
^ EMP T1 - Population from 15 to 64 years by type of activity.
^ EMP T5 - Employment and Activity.
^ DEN T5 - Number of establishments by sector of activity on 1 January
^ CEN T1 - Active establishments by sector of activity on 31 December
^ DEN T1 - Creation of Enterprises by sector of activity in 2011.
^ DEN T2 - Creation of individual entreprises by sector of activity in
^ EMP T8 - Employment by sector of activity (in French).
^ TOU T1 - Number and capacity of hotels at 31 December 2012 (in
Leon H. Histoire des Juifs de Bayonne, Paris, Armand Durlacher, 1893.
in-4 : xvj, 436 pp. ; illustré de 4 planches hors-texte.
Pierre Dubourg-Noves Bayonne, Ouest-France, 1986, ISBN 2 85882
609 9 (in French). Noted "DN" in the text.
^ p. 20.
^ p. 27.
Eugène Goyheneche, Basque Country: Soule, Labourd, Lower-Navarre,
Société nouvelle d’éditions régionales et de diffusion, Pau,
1979, BnF FRBNF34647711 (in French). Noted "EG" in the text.
^ p. 149.
^ a b c d p. 152.
^ p. 171.
^ p. 160.
^ p. 162.
^ p. 163.
^ p. 187.
^ p. 417.
^ p. 418.
Pierre Hourmat, History of
Bayonne from its origins to the French
Revolution of 1789, Société des Sciences Lettres & Arts de
Bayonne, 1986 (in French). Noted "PH"" in the text.
^ a b c d p. 4
^ a b c p. 3
^ p. 159.
^ p. 142.
^ p. 160.
^ p. 164.
^ p. 214.
^ p. 511.
Pierre Hourmat Visiting Bayonne, Sud Ouest, 1989 (in French). Noted
PiH" in the text.
^ a b p. 3.
^ p. 152.
^ p. 6.
^ a b p. 11.
^ p. 18.
^ p. 25.
^ p. 24.
^ p. 30.
Bayonne of the
Nive and Adour, François Lafitte Houssat, Alan Sutton,
Joué-lès-Tours, 2001, ISBN 2-84253-557-X (in French). Noted as
"FL" in the text.
^ a b p. 118.
^ a b p. 25.
^ a b p. 54.
^ p. 55.
Bayonne Official website. Noted as "M" in the text.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bayonne.
City council website (in French)
Webpage about the citadel and fortifications of the town
BAIONA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa – Auñamendi Encyclopedia
(Euskomedia Fundazioa) (in Spanish)
INSEE commune file (in French)
Jewish Encyclopedia 1906
Anglet (Angelu / Anglet)
Biarritz (Miarritze / Biàrritz)
Boucau (Bokale / Bocau)
Guiche (Gixune / Guishe)
Saint-Jean-de-Luz (Donibane Lohizune)
Official name in French (native name in Basque and sometimes in
Occitan, if different, in parentheses)
Communes of the