33 ships (27 ships of the line and six others)
(France: 18 ships of the line and eight others Spain: 15 ships of the line)
CASUALTIES AND LOSSES
458 dead 1,208 wounded TOTAL: 1,666
France: 10 ships captured, one ship destroyed, 2,218 dead, 1,155 wounded, 4,000 captured
Spain: 11 ships captured, 1,025 dead, 1,383 wounded, 4,000 captured
Aftermath: Apx. 3,000 prisoners drowned in a storm after the battle TOTAL: 13,781
* v * t * e
Anglo-Spanish War 1796–1808
* 25 January 1797
* Cape St. Vincent
* 26 April 1797
* 13 October 1796 * 19 December 1796 * Minorca * Cartagena (1798) * 19 January 1799 * 6 February 1799 * 7 July 1799 * 10 December 1800 * 6 May 1801 * Algeciras (1st • 2nd )
* Newfoundland * Trinidad * San Juan * St. George\'s Caye * Puerto Cabello * Diamond Rock
* Río de la Plata
* 1st Buenos Aires * Cardal * Montevideo * 2nd Buenos Aires
* 23 August 1806
* Manila * Zamboanga * Macau
* v * t * e
* Proposed Invasion of the United Kingdom
* Cape Finisterre
* Cape Ortegal
* Castelfranco Veneto
* San Domingo
* v * t * e
* Diamond Rock * Cape Finisterre * 10 August 1805 * Trafalgar * Cape Ortegal
The BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR (21 October 1805) was a naval engagement
fought by the British
Twenty-seven British ships of the line led by Admiral Lord Nelson
The British victory spectacularly confirmed the naval supremacy that Britain had established during the eighteenth century and was achieved in part through Nelson's departure from the prevailing naval tactical orthodoxy . Conventional practice, at the time, was to engage an enemy fleet in a single line of battle parallel to the enemy, to facilitate signalling in battle and disengagement, and to maximise fields of fire and target areas. Nelson instead divided his smaller force into two columns directed perpendicularly against the enemy fleet, with decisive results.
During the battle, Nelson was shot by a French musketeer; he died shortly thereafter, becoming one of Britain's greatest war heroes. Villeneuve was captured along with his ship Bucentaure . Admiral Federico Gravina , the senior Spanish flag officer, escaped with the remnant of the fleet and succumbed months later to wounds sustained during the battle. Villeneuve attended Nelson's funeral while a captive on parole in Britain.
* 1 Background
* 1.1 Pursuit of Villeneuve
* 2 The fleets
* 2.1 British * 2.2 Franco-Spanish
* 3 The battle
* 3.1 Nelson\'s plan * 3.2 Departure
* 3.3 Battle
* 3.3.1 Cosmao and MacDonnell sortie * 3.3.2 The British cast off the prizes * 3.3.3 Aftermath
* 4 Results of the battle * 5 Consequences * 6 100th anniversary * 7 200th anniversary * 8 In popular culture * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links
Main article: Trafalgar Campaign
In 1805, the
First French Empire
Third Coalition declared war on France, after the
Peace of Amiens ,
The main French fleets were at Brest in Brittany and at
The British possessed an experienced and well-trained corps of naval
officers. By contrast, some of the best officers in the French navy
had either been executed or had left the service during the early part
Napoleon's naval plan in 1805 was for the French and Spanish fleets
PURSUIT OF VILLENEUVE
Early in 1805,
Villeneuve returned from the
Napoleon's invasion plans for Britain depended on having a sufficiently large number of ships of the line before Boulogne in France. This would require Villeneuve's force of 33 ships to join Vice-Admiral Ganteaume 's force of 21 ships at Brest, along with a squadron of five ships under Captain Allemand, which would have given him a combined force of 59 ships of the line.
When Villeneuve set sail from Ferrol on 10 August, he was under
The same month, Nelson returned home to Britain after two years of
duty at sea. He remained ashore for 25 days and was warmly received
by his countrymen. Word reached Britain on 2 September about the
combined French and Spanish fleet in
On 15 August, Cornwallis decided to detach 20 ships of the line from
the fleet guarding the
The British fleet used frigates (faster, but too fragile for the line of battle), to keep a constant watch on the harbour, while the main force remained out of sight, approximately 50 miles (80 km) west of the shore. Nelson's hope was to lure the combined Franco-Spanish force out and engage it in a decisive battle. The force watching the harbour was led by Captain Blackwood , commanding HMS Euryalus . His squadron of seven ships comprised five frigates, a schooner , and a brig .
At this point, Nelson's fleet badly needed provisioning. On 2
October, five ships of the line, HMS Queen , Canopus , Spencer ,
Zealous , Tigre , and the frigate HMS Endymion were dispatched to
Meanwhile, Villeneuve's fleet in
On 16 September,
First rates 3 4
Second rates 4 0
Third rates 20 29
Total ships of the line 27 33
Other ships 6 7
On 21 October, Admiral Nelson had 27 ships of the line under his
command. Nelson's flagship,
Against Nelson, Vice-Admiral Villeneuve—sailing on his flagship Bucentaure—fielded 33 ships of the line, including some of the largest in the world at the time. The Spanish contributed four first-rates to the fleet. Three of these ships, one at 130 guns (Santisima Trinidad ) and two at 112 guns (Príncipe de Asturias, Santa Ana), were much larger than anything under Nelson's command. The fourth first-rate carried 100 guns. The fleet had six 80-gun third-rates, (four French and two Spanish), and one Spanish 64-gun third-rate. The remaining 22 third-rates were 74-gun vessels, of which fourteen were French and eight Spanish. In total, the Spanish contributed 15 ships of the line and the French 18. The fleet also included five 40-gun frigates and two 18-gun brigs , all French.
The prevailing tactical orthodoxy at the time involved manoeuvring to approach the enemy fleet in a single line of battle and then engaging broadside in parallel lines. Before this time the fleets had usually been involved in a mixed mêlée. One reason for the development of the line of battle system was to facilitate control of the fleet: if all the ships were in line, signalling in battle became possible. The line also allowed either side to disengage by breaking away in formation; if the attacker chose to continue, their line would be broken as well. This often led to inconclusive battles, or allowed the losing side to minimise its losses; but Nelson wanted a conclusive action.
Nelson's solution to the problem was to cut the opposing line in
three. Approaching in two columns, sailing perpendicular to the
enemy's line, one towards the centre of the opposing line and one
towards the trailing end, his ships would break the enemy formation
into three, surround one third, and force them to fight to the end.
Nelson hoped specifically to cut the line just in front of the French
flagship, Bucentaure; the isolated ships in front of the break would
not be able to see the flagship's signals, hopefully taking them out
of combat while they reformed. The intention of going straight at the
enemy echoed the tactics used by Admiral Duncan at the Battle of
Camperdown and Admiral Jervis at the Battle of
Cape St Vincent , both
in 1797. The
Battle of Trafalgar
The plan had three principal advantages. First, the British fleet would close with the Franco-Spanish as quickly as possible, reducing the chance that they would be able to escape without fighting. Second, it would quickly bring on a mêlée and frantic battle by breaking the Franco-Spanish line and inducing a series of individual ship-to-ship actions, in which the British were likely to prevail. Nelson knew that the superior seamanship, faster gunnery and better morale of his crews were great advantages. Third, it would bring a decisive concentration on the rear of the Franco-Spanish fleet. The ships in the van of the enemy fleet would have to turn back to support the rear, which would take a long time. Additionally, once the Franco-Spanish line had been broken, their ships would be relatively defenceless against powerful broadsides from the British fleet, and it would take them a long time to reposition to return fire.
The main drawback of attacking head-on was that as the leading British ships approached, the Franco-Spanish fleet would be able to direct raking broadside fire at their bows, to which they would be unable to reply. To lessen the time the fleet was exposed to this danger, Nelson had his ships make all available sail (including stuns\'ls ), yet another departure from the norm. He was also well aware that French and Spanish gunners were ill-trained and would have difficulty firing accurately from a moving gun platform. The Combined Fleet was sailing across a heavy swell , causing the ships to roll heavily and exacerbating the problem. Nelson's plan was indeed a gamble, but a carefully calculated one.
During the period of blockade off the coast of
Nelson was careful to point out that something had to be left to chance. Nothing is sure in a sea battle, so he left his captains free from all hampering rules by telling them that "No captain can do very wrong if he places his ship alongside that of the enemy." In short, circumstances would dictate the execution, subject to the guiding rule that the enemy's rear was to be cut off and superior force concentrated on that part of the enemy's line.
Admiral Villeneuve himself expressed his belief that Nelson would use some sort of unorthodox attack, stating specifically that he believed—accurately—that Nelson would drive right at his line. But his long game of cat and mouse with Nelson had worn him down, and he was suffering from a loss of nerve. Arguing that the inexperience of his officers meant he would not be able to maintain formation in more than one group, he chose not to act on his assessment.
The Combined Fleet of French and Spanish warships anchored in Cádiz
and under the leadership of Admiral Villeneuve was in disarray. On 16
September 1805 Villeneuve received orders from
The sudden change was prompted by a letter Villeneuve had received on
18 October, informing him that Vice-Admiral
François Rosily had
The weather, however, suddenly turned calm following a week of gales. This slowed the progress of the fleet leaving the harbour, giving the British plenty of warning. Villeneuve had drawn up plans to form a force of four squadrons, each containing both French and Spanish ships. Following their earlier vote on 8 October to stay put, some captains were reluctant to leave Cádiz, and as a result they failed to follow Villeneuve's orders closely and the fleet straggled out of the harbour in no particular formation.
It took most of 20 October for Villeneuve to get his fleet organised; it eventually set sail in three columns for the Straits of Gibraltar to the southeast. That same evening, Achille spotted a force of 18 British ships of the line in pursuit. The fleet began to prepare for battle and during the night, they were ordered into a single line. The following day, Nelson's fleet of 27 ships of the line and four frigates was spotted in pursuit from the northwest with the wind behind it. Villeneuve again ordered his fleet into three columns, but soon changed his mind and ordered a single line. The result was a sprawling, uneven formation.
At 5:40 a.m. on the 21st of October, the British were about 21 miles (34 km) to the northwest of Cape Trafalgar, with the Franco-Spanish fleet between the British and the Cape. At circa 6 a.m., Nelson gave the order to prepare for battle. At 8 am the British frigate Euryalus, which had been keeping watch on the Combined Fleet overnight, observed the British fleet still "forming the lines" in which it would attack.
At 8 a.m., Villeneuve ordered the fleet to wear together (turn about) and return to Cádiz. This reversed the order of the allied line, placing the rear division under Rear-Admiral Pierre Dumanoir le Pelley in the vanguard. The wind became contrary at this point, often shifting direction. The very light wind rendered manoeuvring virtually impossible for all but the most expert seamen. The inexperienced crews had difficulty with the changing conditions, and it took nearly an hour and a half for Villeneuve's order to be completed. The French and Spanish fleet now formed an uneven, angular crescent, with the slower ships generally to leeward and closer to the shore.
By 11 a.m. Nelson's entire fleet was visible to Villeneuve, drawn up in two parallel columns. The two fleets would be within range of each other within an hour. Villeneuve was concerned at this point about forming up a line, as his ships were unevenly spaced and in an irregular formation. The Franco-Spanish fleet was drawn out nearly five miles (8 km) long as Nelson's fleet approached.
As the British drew closer, they could see that the enemy was not sailing in a tight order, but rather in irregular groups. Nelson could not immediately make out the French flagship as the French and Spanish were not flying command pennants.
Nelson was outnumbered and outgunned, the enemy totalling nearly 30,000 men and 2,568 guns to his 17,000 men and 2,148 guns. The Franco-Spanish fleet also had six more ships of the line, and so could more readily combine their fire. There was no way for some of Nelson's ships to avoid being "doubled on" or even "trebled on".
As the two fleets drew closer, anxiety began to build among officers and sailors; one British sailor described the time before thus: "During this momentous preparation, the human mind had ample time for meditation, for it was evident that the fate of England rested on this battle".
Nelson's signal. Nelson's signal, "England expects that
every man will do his duty ", flying from Victory on the bicentenary
Battle of Trafalgar
The battle progressed largely according to Nelson's plan. At 11:45, Nelson sent the famous flag signal, "England expects that every man will do his duty ".
His Lordship came to me on the poop , and after ordering certain signals to be made, about a quarter to noon, he said, "Mr. Pasco , I wish to say to the fleet, ENGLAND CONFIDES THAT EVERY MAN WILL DO HIS DUTY" and he added "You must be quick, for I have one more to make which is for close action." I replied, "If your Lordship will permit me to substitute 'expects' for 'confides' the signal will soon be completed, because the word 'expects' is in the vocabulary, and 'confides' must be spelt," His Lordship replied, in haste, and with seeming satisfaction, "That will do, Pasco, make it directly."
The term "England" was widely used at the time to refer to the United Kingdom; the British fleet included significant contingents from Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. Unlike the photographic depiction (right), this signal would have been shown on the mizzen mast only and would have required 12 lifts.
As the battle opened, the French and Spanish were in a ragged curved line headed north. As planned, the British fleet was approaching the Franco-Spanish line in two columns. Leading the northern, windward column in Victory was Nelson, while Collingwood in the 100-gun Royal Sovereign led the second, leeward, column. The two British columns approached from the west at nearly a right angle to the allied line. Nelson led his column into a feint toward the van of the Franco-Spanish fleet and then abruptly turned toward the actual point of attack. Collingwood altered the course of his column slightly so that the two lines converged at this line of attack.
Just before his column engaged the allied forces, Collingwood said to his officers: "Now, gentlemen, let us do something today which the world may talk of hereafter." Because the winds were very light during the battle, all the ships were moving extremely slowly, and the foremost British ships were under heavy fire from several of the allied ships for almost an hour before their own guns could bear. Artist's conception of HMS Sandwich fighting the French flagship Bucentaure (completely dismasted) at Trafalgar. Bucentaure is also fighting HMS Temeraire (on the left) and being fired into by HMS Victory (behind her). In fact, this is a mistake by Auguste Mayer , the painter; HMS Sandwich never fought at Trafalgar.
At noon, Villeneuve sent the signal "engage the enemy", and Fougueux fired her first trial shot at Royal Sovereign. Royal Sovereign had all sails out and, having recently had her bottom cleaned, outran the rest of the British fleet. As she approached the allied line, she came under fire from Fougueux, Indomptable , San Justo, and San Leandro, before breaking the line just astern of Admiral Alava's flagship Santa Ana , into which she fired a devastating double-shotted raking broadside. Artist's conception of the situation at noon as the Royal Sovereign was breaking into the Franco-Spanish line
The second ship in the British lee column, Belleisle , was engaged by L\'Aigle , Achille, Neptune , and Fougueux; she was soon completely dismasted, unable to manoeuvre and largely unable to fight, as her sails blinded her batteries, but kept flying her flag for 45 minutes until the following British ships came to her rescue.
For 40 minutes, Victory was under fire from Héros , Santísima Trinidad , Redoutable , and Neptune; although many shots went astray, others killed and wounded a number of her crew and shot her wheel away, so that she had to be steered from her tiller belowdecks. Victory could not yet respond. At 12:45, Victory cut the enemy line between Villeneuve's flagship Bucentaure and Redoutable; she came close to the Bucentaure, firing a devastating raking broadside through her stern which killed and wounded many on her gundecks. Villeneuve thought that boarding would take place, and with the Eagle of his ship in hand, told his men, "I will throw it onto the enemy ship and we will take it back there!" However Victory engaged the 74-gun Redoutable; Bucentaure was left to be dealt with by the next three ships of the British windward column: Temeraire , Conqueror , and HMS Neptune . Painter Nicholas Pocock's conception of the situation at 1300h Painter Denis Dighton's imagining of Nelson being shot on the quarterdeck of Victory
A general mêlée ensued and, during that fight, Victory locked masts with the French Redoutable. The crew of Redoutable, which included a strong infantry corps (with three captains and four lieutenants), gathered for an attempt to board and seize the Victory. A musket bullet fired from the mizzentop of Redoutable struck Nelson in the left shoulder, passed through his spine at the sixth and seventh thoracic vertebrae, and lodged two inches below his right scapula in the muscles of his back. Nelson exclaimed, "They finally succeeded, I am dead." He was carried below decks.
Victory's gunners were called on deck to fight boarders, and she ceased firing. The gunners were forced back below decks by French grenades . As the French were preparing to board Victory, Temeraire, the second ship in the British windward column, approached from the starboard bow of Redoutable and fired on the exposed French crew with a carronade , causing many casualties.
At 13:55, Captain Lucas , of Redoutable, with 99 fit men out of 643 and severely wounded himself, surrendered. The French Bucentaure was isolated by Victory and Temeraire, and then engaged by HMS Neptune, HMS Leviathan , and Conqueror; similarly, Santísima Trinidad was isolated and overwhelmed, surrendering after three hours.
As more and more British ships entered the battle, the ships of the allied centre and rear were gradually overwhelmed. The allied van, after long remaining quiescent, made a futile demonstration and then sailed away. The British took 22 vessels of the Franco-Spanish fleet and lost none. Among the captured French ships were L'Aigle, Algésiras , Berwick , Bucentaure, Fougueux, Intrépide , Redoutable, and Swiftsure . The Spanish ships taken were Argonauta, Bahama, Monarca, Neptuno, San Agustín , San Ildefonso, San Juan Nepomuceno , Santísima Trinidad , and Santa Ana. Of these, Redoutable sank, and Santísima Trinidad and Argonauta were scuttled by the British. Achille exploded, Intrépide and San Augustín burned, and L'Aigle, Berwick, Fougueux, and Monarca were wrecked in a gale following the battle. Painter Nicholas Pocock's conception of the situation at 1700h
As Nelson lay dying, he ordered the fleet to anchor, as a storm was predicted. However, when the storm blew up, many of the severely damaged ships sank or ran aground on the shoals . A few of them were recaptured, some by the French and Spanish prisoners overcoming the small prize crews, others by ships sallying from Cádiz. Surgeon William Beatty heard Nelson murmur, "Thank God I have done my duty"; when he returned, Nelson's voice had faded, and his pulse was very weak. He looked up as Beatty took his pulse, then closed his eyes. Nelson's chaplain, Alexander Scott , who remained by Nelson as he died, recorded his last words as "God and my country." It has been suggested by Nelson historian Craig Cabell that Nelson was actually reciting his own prayer as he fell into his death coma, as the words 'God' and 'my country' are closely linked therein. Nelson died at half-past four, three hours after being hit.
Battle of Trafalgar
Data for this chart are in Trafalgar order of battle and casualties . Blue = French (the two ships that took no casualties were both French.) Red = Spanish The number is the order in the line Data for this chart are in Trafalgar order of battle and casualties . Yellow = HMS Africa Green = The Weather Column, led by Nelson Grey = Lee Column, led by Collingwood The number is the order in the column.
Towards the end of the battle, and with the combined fleet being
overwhelmed, the still relatively un-engaged portion of the van under
Rear-Admiral Dumanoir Le Pelley tried to come to the assistance of the
collapsing centre. After failing to fight his way through, he decided
to break off the engagement, and led four French ships, his flagship
the 80-gun Formidable , the 74-gun ships Scipion , Duguay Trouin and
Mont Blanc away from the fighting. He headed at first for the Straits
of Gibraltar, intending to carry out Villeneuve's original orders and
make for Toulon. On 22 October he changed his mind, remembering a
powerful British squadron under Rear-Admiral
Thomas Louis was
patrolling the straits, and headed north, hoping to reach one of the
French Atlantic ports. With a storm gathering in strength off the
Spanish coast, he sailed westwards to clear
Cape St Vincent , prior to
heading north-west, swinging eastwards across the
Bay of Biscay
Cosmao And MacDonnell Sortie
The gale after Trafalgar, depicted by
Thomas Buttersworth . In
Only eleven ships escaped to Cádiz, and, of those, only five were considered seaworthy. The seriously wounded Admiral Gravina passed command of the remainder of the fleet over to Captain Julien Cosmao on 23 October. From shore, the allied commanders could see an opportunity for a rescue mission existed. Cosmao claimed in his report that the rescue plan was entirely his idea, but Vice-Admiral Escano recorded a meeting of Spanish and French Commodores at which a planned rescue was discussed and agreed upon. Enrique MacDonell and Cosmao were of equal rank and both raised commodore's pennants before hoisting anchor. Both sets of mariners were determined to make an attempt to recapture some of the prizes. Cosmoa ordered the rigging of his ship, the 74-gun Pluton , to be repaired and reinforced her crew (which had been depleted by casualties from the battle), with sailors from the French frigate Hermione . Taking advantage of a favourable northwesterly wind, Pluton, the 80-gun Neptune and Indomptable, the Spanish 100-gun Rayo and 74-gun San Francisco de Asis , together with five French frigates and two brigs, sailed out of the harbour towards the British.
The British Cast Off The Prizes
Soon after leaving port, the wind shifted to west-southwest, raising a heavy sea with the result that most of the British prizes broke their tow ropes, and drifting far to leeward , were only partially resecured. The combined squadron came in sight at noon, causing Collingwood to summon his most battle-ready ships to meet the threat. In doing so, he ordered them to cast off towing their prizes. He had formed a defensive line of ten ships by three o'clock in the afternoon and approached the Franco-Spanish squadron, covering the remainder of their prizes which stood out to sea. The Franco-Spanish squadron chose not to approach within gunshot and then declined to attack. Collingwood also chose not to seek action, and in the confusion of the powerful storm, the French frigates managed to retake two Spanish ships of the line which had been cast off by their British captors, the 112-gun Santa Ana and 80-gun Neptuno , taking them in tow and making for Cádiz. On being taken in tow, the Spanish crews rose up against their British prize crews, putting them to work as prisoners.
Despite this initial success the Franco-Spanish force, hampered by
battle damage, struggled in the heavy seas. The Neptuno was eventually
wrecked off Rota in the gale, while the Santa Ana reached port. The
French 80-gun ship Indomptable was wrecked on the 24th or 25th off the
town of Rota on the northwest point of the bay of Cádiz. At the time
the Indomptable had 1,200 men on board, but no more than 100 were
saved. The San Francisco de Asís was driven ashore in
Observing that some of the leewardmost of the prizes were escaping
towards the Spanish coast, Leviathan asked for and was granted
permission by Collingwood to try to retrieve the prizes and bring them
to anchor. Leviathan chased the Monarca , but on 24 October she came
across the Rayo, dismasted but still flying Spanish colours, at anchor
off the shoals of San-Lucar. At this point the 74-gun HMS Donegal ,
en route from
In the aftermath of the storm, Collingwood wrote:
The condition of our own ships was such that it was very doubtful what would be their fate. Many a time I would have given the whole group of our capture, to ensure our own... I can only say that in my life I never saw such efforts as were made to save these ships, and would rather fight another battle than pass through such a week as followed it. — Vice-Admiral Cuthbert Collingwood to the Admiralty , November 1805.
On balance, the allied counter-attack achieved little. In forcing the British to suspend their repairs to defend themselves, it influenced Collingwood's decision to sink or set fire to the most damaged of his remaining prizes. Cosmao retook two Spanish ships of the line, but it cost him one French and two Spanish vessels to do so. Fearing their loss, the British burnt or sank the Santisima Trinidad, Argonauta, San Antonio and Intrepide . Only four of the British prizes, the French Swiftsure and the Spanish Bahama, San Ildefonso and San Juan Nepomuceno survived to be taken to Britain. After the end of the battle and storm only nine ships of the line were left in Cádiz.
RESULTS OF THE BATTLE
Nelson's overwhelming triumph over the combined Franco-Spanish
fleet ensured Britain's protection from invasion for the remainder of
When Rosily arrived in Cádiz, he found only five French ships,
rather than the 18 he was expecting. The surviving ships remained
bottled up in
The battle took place the day after the
Battle of Ulm , and Napoleon
did not hear about it for weeks—the
Vice-Admiral Villeneuve was taken prisoner aboard his flagship and taken back to Britain. After his parole in 1806, he returned to France, where he was found dead in his inn room during a stop on the way to Paris, with six stab wounds in the chest from a dining knife. It was officially recorded that he had committed suicide.
Despite the British victory over the Franco-Spanish navies, Trafalgar
had negligible impact on the remainder of the War of the Third
Coalition . Less than two months later,
Nelson's body was preserved in a barrel of brandy for the trip home to a hero's funeral. A broadside from the 1850s recounts the story
Detail from a modern reproduction of an 1805 poster commemorating the battle
Following the battle, the
Nelson became – and remains – Britain's greatest naval war hero,
and an inspiration to the Royal Navy, yet his unorthodox tactics were
seldom emulated by later generations. The first monument to be erected
in Britain to commemorate Nelson may be that raised on Glasgow Green
in 1806, albeit possibly preceded by a monument at
Taynuilt , near
Oban in Scotland dated 1805, both also commemorating the many Scots
crew and captains at the battle. The 144-foot-tall (44 m) Nelson
Glasgow Green was designed by David Hamilton and paid for
by public subscription. Around the base are the names of his major
victories: Aboukir (1798), Copenhagen (1801) and Trafalgar (1805). In
1808, Nelson\'s Pillar was erected by leading members of the
Anglo-Irish aristocracy in
London's famous Trafalgar Square was named in honour of Nelson's victory, and his statue on Nelson\'s Column , finished in 1843, towers triumphantly over it. The statue of Lord Nelson in Bridgetown, Barbados, in what was also once known as Trafalgar Square, was erected in 1813.
The disparity in losses has been attributed by some historians less to Nelson's daring tactics than to the difference in fighting readiness of the two fleets. Nelson's fleet was made up of ships of the line which had spent a considerable amount of sea time during the months of blockades of French ports, whilst the French fleet had generally been at anchor in port. However, Villeneuve's fleet had just spent months at sea crossing the Atlantic twice, which supports the proposition that the main difference between the two fleets' combat effectiveness was the morale of the leaders. The daring tactics employed by Nelson were to ensure a strategically decisive result. The results vindicated his naval judgement.
In 1905, there were events up and down the country to commemorate the
centenary, although none were attended by any member of the Royal
Family, apparently to avoid upsetting the French, with whom the United
Kingdom had recently entered the
Entente cordiale . King Edward VII
did support the Nelson Centenary Memorial Fund of the British and
Foreign Sailors Society , which sold Trafalgar centenary souvenirs
marked with the
Wikimedia Commons has media related to TRAFALGAR 200 .
In 2005 a series of events around the UK, part of the Sea Britain
theme, marked the bicentenary of the Battle of Trafalgar. The 200th
anniversary of the battle was also commemorated on six occasions in
On 28 June, the Queen was involved in the largest Fleet Review in modern times in the Solent , in which 167 ships from 35 nations took part. The Queen inspected the international fleet from the Antarctic patrol ship HMS Endurance . The fleet included six aircraft carriers – (modern capital ships): Charles De Gaulle , Illustrious , Invincible , Ocean , Príncipe de Asturias and Saipan . In the evening a symbolic re-enactment of the battle was staged with fireworks and various small ships playing parts in the battle.
Lieutenant John Lapenotière 's historic voyage in HMS Pickle
bringing the news of the victory from the fleet to Falmouth and thence
by post chaise to the
On the actual anniversary day, 21 October, naval manoeuvres were
conducted in Trafalgar Bay near
IN POPULAR CULTURE
* Le Chevalier de Sainte-Hermine (1869), by
* List of
* ^ Adkin 2007 , p. 524. * ^ A B Adkins 2004 , p. 190. * ^ "Napoleonic Wars". Westpoint.edu. U.S. Army. Retrieved 1 July 2017. * ^ Bennet, Geoffrey (2004). The Battle of Trafalgar. England: Pen & Sword Books Limited, CPI UK, South Yorkshire. * ^ Kongstam, Angus (2003) . "The New Alexander". Historical Atlas of the Napoleonic Era. London: Mercury Books. p. 46. ISBN 1904668046 .
* ^ Stilwell (Ed.) (2005) pp. 22–24
* ^ Willis (2013) p. 247
* ^ Adkins you cannot choose wrong" (Allen 1853 , p. 210).
* ^ Stilwell (Ed.) (2005) p. 104
* ^ Best (2005) p. 97
* ^ A B Best (2005) p. 121
* ^ A B Lavery (2009) p. 171
* ^ Admirals of the time, due to the slowness of communications,
were given considerable autonomy to make strategic as well as tactical
* ^ Best (2005) p. 137
* ^ Best (2005) p. 141
* ^ Best (2005) p. 142
* ^ Stilwell (Ed.) (2005) p. 32
* ^ Best (2005) p. 157
* ^ Best (2005) p.145
* ^ Best (2005) pp. 161–62
* ^ Lee (2005) p. 268
* ^ Lee (2005) p. 273
* ^ Lee (2005) p. 283
* ^ Lee (2005) pp. 283–84
* ^ Best (2005) p. 170
* ^ A B Lee (2005) p. 288
* ^ Best (2005) p. 190
* ^ James p. 22
* ^ Lee (2005) p. 278
* ^ A B Fremont-Barnes (2007) p. 66
* ^ Ireland (2000) p. 52
* ^ Best (2005) p. 154
* ^ A B Best (2005) p. 182
* ^ A B White (2002) p. 238
* ^ A B White (2005) p. 174
* ^ White (2005) p. 173
* ^ Tracy (2008) p. 215
* ^ Willis (2013) p. 266
* ^ White (2002) p. 239
* ^ Best (2005) pp. 182–83
* ^ Stilwell (Ed.) (2005) pp. 115–16
* ^ Best (2005) p. 178
* ^ Best (2005) p. 179
* ^ Schom 1990 , pp. 301–06.
* ^ Lee (2005) pp. 289–90
* ^ Signal log of HMS Bellerophon, 21st October, 1805
* ^ "The Battle of Trafalgar: The Logbook of the Euryalus, 21st
October 1805". chasingnelson.blogspot.co.uk. 22 October 2013.
Retrieved 11 June 2017.
* ^ A B Adkins 2004a , p. .
* ^ A B "England Expects". aboutnelson.co.uk. Retrieved 16
* ^ "England Expects". The Nelson Society. Archived from the
original on 24 March 2005. Retrieved 24 March 2005.
* ^ "Auguste Mayer\'s picture as described by the official website
of the Musée national de la Marine (in French)". Musee-marine.fr.
Archived from the original on 26 May 2010. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
* ^ Fraser 1906 , pp. 114, 211–13.
* ^ Corbett 1919 , p. 440
* ^ A B C D Thiers 1850 , p. 45
* ^ A B Hibbert 1994 , p. 376.
* ^ Hayward , p. 63.
* ^ A B C Adkin 2007 , p. 530.
* ^ A B Craig, Phil; Clayton, Tim; Craig, Tim Clayton & Phil
(2012). Trafalgar: The men, the battle, the storm. Hodder & Stoughton.
ISBN 9781444719772 .
* ^ (Adkins , p. 235)
* ^ A B James , p. 363
* ^ James (Vol. IV) pp. 89–90
* ^ James (Vol. IV) p. 91
* ^ Tracy 2008 , p. 249.
* ^ Ward, Prothero & Leathers 1906 , p. 234.
* ^ Reeve's Naval General Service Medal with Trafalgar clasp and
Muster List for
* ACS staff (2009). "
Battle of Trafalgar
* This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Hanny, David (1911). "Trafalgar, Battle of". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica . 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 153–155.
* Clayton, Tim; Craig, Phil. Trafalgar: The Men, the Battle, the Storm. Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-83028-X . * Desbrière, Edouard, The Naval Campaign of 1805: Trafalgar, 1907, Paris. English translation by Constance Eastwick, 1933. * Cayuela Fernández, José Gregorio, Trafalgar. Hombres y naves entre dos épocas, 2004, Ariel (Barcelona) ISBN 84-344-6760-7 * Frasca, Francesco, Il potere marittimo in età moderna, da Lepanto a Trafalgar, 1 st ed. 2008, Lulu Enterprises UK Ltd, ISBN 978-1-4092-4348-9 , 2 nd ed. 2008, Lulu Enterprises UK Ltd, ISBN 978-1-84799-550-6 , 3 rd ed. 2009, Lulu Enterprises UK Ltd, ISBN 978-1-4092-6088-2 , 4th ed. 2009, Lulu Enterprises UK Ltd, ISBN 978-1-4092-7881-8 . * Gardiner, Robert (2006). The campaign of Trafalgar, 1803–1805. Mercury Books. ISBN 1-84560-008-8 . * Harbron, John D., Trafalgar and the Spanish Navy, 1988, London, ISBN 0-85177-963-8 . * Howarth, David, Trafalgar: The Nelson Touch, 2003, Phoenix Press, ISBN 1-84212-717-9 . * Huskisson, Thomas, Eyewitness to Trafalgar, reprinted in 1985 as a limited edition of 1000; Ellisons' Editions, ISBN 0-946092-09-5 —the author was half-brother of William Huskisson * Lambert, Andrew, War at Sea in the Age of Sail, Chapter 8, 2000, London, ISBN 1-55278-127-5 * Pocock, Tom, Horatio Nelson, Chapter XII, 1987, London, ISBN 0-7126-6123-9 * Pope, Dudley, England Expects (US title Decision at Trafalgar), 1959, Weidenfeld and Nicolson. * Warner, Oliver, Trafalgar. First published 1959 by Batsford – republished 1966 by Pan. * Warwick, Peter (2005). Voices from the Battle of Trafalgar. David & Charles Publishing. ISBN 0-7153-2000-9 .
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