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v t e

Ayurveda
Ayurveda
(/ˌɑːjʊərˈveɪdə/ or /ˌɑːjʊərˈviːdə/[1]) is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.[2] Globalized and modernized practices derived from Ayurveda
Ayurveda
traditions are a type of complementary or alternative medicine.[3][4] In countries beyond India, Ayurveda
Ayurveda
therapies and practices have been integrated in general wellness applications and in some cases in medical use.[5] The main classical Ayurveda
Ayurveda
texts begin with accounts of the transmission of medical knowledge from the Gods to sages, and then to human physicians.[6] In Sushruta Samhita
Sushruta Samhita
(Sushruta's Compendium), Sushruta
Sushruta
wrote that Dhanvantari, Hindu
Hindu
god of Ayurveda, incarnated himself as a king of Varanasi and taught medicine to a group of physicians, including Sushruta.[7][8] Ayurveda
Ayurveda
therapies have varied and evolved over more than two millennia.[2] Therapies are typically based on complex herbal compounds, minerals and metal substances (perhaps under the influence of early Indian alchemy or rasa shastra). Ancient Ayurveda
Ayurveda
texts also taught surgical techniques, including rhinoplasty, kidney stone extractions, sutures, and the extraction of foreign objects.[9][10] Although laboratory experiments suggest it is possible that some substances used in Ayurveda
Ayurveda
might be developed into effective treatments, there is no scientific evidence that any are effective as currently practiced.[11] Ayurveda
Ayurveda
medicine is considered pseudoscientific.[12] Other researchers consider it a protoscience, or trans-science system instead.[13][14] In a 2008 study, close to 21% of Ayurveda
Ayurveda
U.S. and Indian-manufactured patent medicines sold through the Internet were found to contain toxic levels of heavy metals, specifically lead, mercury, and arsenic.[15] The public health implications of such metallic contaminants in India are unknown.[15] Some scholars assert that Ayurveda
Ayurveda
originated in prehistoric times,[16][17] and that some of the concepts of Ayurveda
Ayurveda
have existed from the time of the Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
or even earlier.[18] Ayurveda
Ayurveda
developed significantly during the Vedic period
Vedic period
and later some of the non-Vedic systems such as Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism
Jainism
also developed medical concepts and practices that appear in the classical Ayurveda
Ayurveda
texts.[18][19] Doṣa balance is emphasized, and suppressing natural urges is considered unhealthy and claimed to lead to illness.[20] Ayurveda
Ayurveda
treatises describe three elemental doṣas viz. vāta, pitta and kapha, and state that equality (Skt. sāmyatva) of the doṣas results in health, while inequality (viṣamatva) results in disease. Ayurveda
Ayurveda
treatises divide medicine into eight canonical components. Ayurveda
Ayurveda
practitioners had developed various medicinal preparations and surgical procedures from at least the beginning of the common era.[21]

Contents

1 Eight components 2 Principles and terminology 3 Practice

3.1 Diagnosis 3.2 Treatment and prevention 3.3 Substances used 3.4 Panchakarma

4 Current status

4.1 India 4.2 Other countries on the Indian subcontinent 4.3 Outside the Indian subcontinent

5 Classification and efficacy

5.1 Research

5.1.1 Use of toxic metals

6 History

6.1 Main texts 6.2 Illnesses portrayed 6.3 Further development and spread

7 Footnotes 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Eight components The earliest classical Sanskrit works on Ayurveda
Ayurveda
describe medicine as being divided into eight components (Skt. aṅga).[22][23] This characterization of the physicians' art, "the medicine that has eight components" (Skt. cikitsāyām aṣṭāṅgāyāṃ चिकित्सायामष्टाङ्गायाम्), is first found in the Sanskrit epic the Mahābhārata, ca 4th century BCE.[24] The components are:[25][need quotation to verify], [26]

Kāyacikitsā: general medicine, medicine of the body Kaumāra-bhṛtya: the treatment of children, paediatrics Śalyatantra: surgical techniques and the extraction of foreign objects Śālākyatantra: treatment of ailments affecting ears, eyes, nose, mouth, etc. ("ENT") Bhūtavidyā: pacification of possessing spirits, and the people whose minds are affected by such possession Agadatantra: toxicology Rasāyanatantra: rejuvenation and tonics for increasing lifespan, intellect and strength Vājīkaraṇatantra: aphrodisiacs and treatments for increasing the volume and viability of semen and sexual pleasure.

Principles and terminology Further information: Mahābhūta

Shown in the image is Nagarjuna, known chiefly for his doctrine of the Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
(middle path). He wrote the medical works The Hundred Prescriptions and The Precious Collection, among others.[27]

The three doṣhas and the five elements from which they are composed.

The word "ayurveda" is Sanskrit: आयुर्वेद, Āyurveda, meaning "life-knowledge".[citation needed] The central theoretical ideas of Ayurveda
Ayurveda
developed in the mid-first millennium BCE, and show parallels with Sāṅkhya
Sāṅkhya
and Vaiśeṣika philosophies, as well as with Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism.[28][29] Balance is emphasized, and suppressing natural urges is considered unhealthy and claimed to lead to illness.[20] For example, to suppress sneezing is said to potentially give rise to shoulder pain.[30] However, people are also cautioned to stay within the limits of reasonable balance and measure when following nature's urges.[20] For example, emphasis is placed on moderation of food intake,[31] sleep, and sexual intercourse.[20] Ayurveda
Ayurveda
names seven basic tissues (dhatu), which are plasma (rasa), blood (rakta), muscles (māmsa), fat (meda), bone (asthi), marrow (majja), and semen (shukra). Like the medicine of classical antiquity, Ayurveda
Ayurveda
has historically divided bodily substances into five classical elements (Sanskrit [maha]panchabhuta, viz. earth, water, fire, air and ether.[32] There are also twenty gunas (qualities or characteristics) which are considered to be inherent in all substances. These are organized in ten pairs: heavy/light, cold/hot, unctuous/dry, dull/sharp, stable/mobile, soft/hard, non-slimy/slimy, smooth/coarse, minute/gross, and viscous/liquid.[33] Ayurveda
Ayurveda
also names three elemental substances, the doshas (called Vata, Pitta and Kapha), and states that a balance of the doshas results in health, while imbalance results in disease. One Ayurvedic view is that the doshas are balanced when they are equal to each other, while another view is that each human possesses a unique combination of the doshas which define this person's temperament and characteristics. In either case, it says that each person should modulate their behavior or environment to increase or decrease the doshas and maintain their natural state. In medieval taxonomies of the Sanskrit knowledge systems, Ayurveda
Ayurveda
is assigned a place as a subsidiary Veda
Veda
(upaveda).[34] Some medicinal plant names from the Atharvaveda
Atharvaveda
and other Vedas
Vedas
can be found in subsequent Ayurveda
Ayurveda
literature.[35] The earliest recorded theoretical statements about the canonical models of disease in Ayurveda
Ayurveda
occur in the earliest Buddhist Canon.[36] Practice Ayurvedic doctors regard physical existence, mental existence, and personality as a unit, with each element being able to influence the others.[clarification needed] This is a holistic approach used during diagnosis and therapy, and is a fundamental aspect of Ayurveda. Another part of Ayurvedic treatment says that there are channels (srotas) which transport fluids, and that the channels can be opened up by massage treatment using oils and Swedana (fomentation). Unhealthy channels are thought to cause disease.[37] Diagnosis Ayurveda
Ayurveda
has eight ways to diagnose illness, called Nadi (pulse), Mootra (urine), Mala (stool), Jihva (tongue), Shabda (speech), Sparsha (touch), Druk (vision), and Aakruti (appearance).[38] Ayurvedic practitioners approach diagnosis by using the five senses.[39] For example, hearing is used to observe the condition of breathing and speech.[32] The study of the lethal points or marman marma is of special importance.[33]

An Ayurvedic practitioner applying oils using head massage.

Treatment and prevention Two of the eight branches of classical Ayurveda
Ayurveda
deal with surgery (Śalya-cikitsā and Śālākya-tantra), but contemporary Ayurveda tends to stress attaining vitality by building a healthy metabolic system and maintaining good digestion and excretion.[33] Ayurveda
Ayurveda
also focuses on exercise, yoga, and meditation.[40] One type of prescription is a Sattvic diet. Ayurveda
Ayurveda
follows the concept of Dinacharya, which says that natural cycles (waking, sleeping, working, meditation etc.) are important for health. Hygiene, including regular bathing, cleaning of teeth, skin care, and eye washing, is also a central practice.[32] Substances used Plant-based treatments in Ayurveda
Ayurveda
may be derived from roots, leaves, fruits, bark, or seeds such as cardamom and cinnamon. In the 19th century, William Dymock and co-authors summarized hundreds of plant-derived medicines along with the uses, microscopic structure, chemical composition, toxicology, prevalent myths and stories, and relation to commerce in British India.[41] Animal products used in Ayurveda
Ayurveda
include milk, bones, and gallstones. In addition, fats are prescribed both for consumption and for external use. Consumption of minerals, including sulphur, arsenic, lead, copper sulfate and gold, are also prescribed.[32] The addition of minerals to herbal medicine is called rasa shastra. Ayurveda
Ayurveda
uses alcoholic beverages called Madya,[42] which are said to adjust the doshas by increasing Pitta and reducing Vatta and Kapha.[42] Madya are classified by the raw material and fermentation process, and the categories include: sugar-based, fruit-based, cereal-based, cereal-based with herbs, fermentated with vinegar, and tonic wines. The intended outcomes can include causing purgation, improving digestion or taste, creating dryness, or loosening joints. Ayurvedic texts describe Madya as non-viscid and fast-acting, and say that it enters and cleans minute pores in the body.[42] Purified opium[43] is used in eight Ayurvedic preparations[44] and is said to balance the Vata and Kapha doshas and increase the Pitta dosha.[43] It is prescribed for diarrhea and dysentery, for increasing the sexual and muscular ability, and for affecting the brain. The sedative and pain-relieving properties of opium are not considered in Ayurveda. The use of opium is not found in the ancient Ayurvedic texts, and is first mentioned in the Sarngadhara Samhita (1300-1400 CE), a book on pharmacy used in Rajasthan
Rajasthan
in Western India, as an ingredient of an aphrodisiac to delay male ejaculation.[45] It is possible that opium was brought to India along with or before the Mohammedan conquest.[44][46] The book Yoga
Yoga
Ratnakara (1700-1800 CE, unknown author), which is popular in Maharashtra, uses opium in a herbal-mineral composition prescribed for diarrhea.[45] In the Bhaisajya Ratnavali, opium and camphor are used for acute gastroenteritis. In this drug, the respiratory depressant action of opium is counteracted by the respiratory stimulant property of Camphor.[45] Later books have included the narcotic property for use as analgesic pain reliever.[45] Cannabis indica
Cannabis indica
is also absent from the ancient Ayurveda
Ayurveda
books, and is first mentioned in the Sarngadhara Samhita as a treatment for diarrhea.[45] In the Bhaisajya Ratnavali it is named as an ingredient in an aphrodisiac.[45] Ayurveda
Ayurveda
says that both oil and tar can be used to stop bleeding,[32] and that traumatic bleeding can be stopped by four different methods: ligation of the blood vessel, cauterisation by heat, use of preparations to facilitate clotting, and use of preparations to constrict the blood vessels. Oils are also used in a number of ways, including regular consumption, anointing, smearing, head massage, application to affected areas,[47][not in citation given] and oil pulling. Liquids may also be poured on the patient's forehead, a technique called shirodhara.

Cataract
Cataract
in human eye – magnified view seen on examination with a slit lamp. Cataract
Cataract
surgery is mentioned in the Sushruta
Sushruta
Samhita, as a procedure to be performed with a jabamukhi salaka, a curved needle used to loosen the obstructing phlegm and push it out of the field of vision. The eye would later be soaked with warm butter and then bandaged.[48]

Panchakarma Further information: Panchakarma According to Ayurveda, the technique of panchakarma (Devanāgarī: पंचकर्म‌)) eliminates toxic elements from the body.[49] Panchakarma includes Vamana, Virechana, Basti, Nasya and Raktamokshana. It is preceded by Poorvakarma as a preparatory step, and is followed by Paschatkarma and Peyadikarma. Current status

A typical Ayurvedic pharmacy, Rishikesh.

Based on the World Health Assembly resolution on traditional medicine (WHA62.13, compare as well the 2008 Beijing declaration on traditional medicine[50]), the WHO has established a traditional medicine strategy, which involves, among other complementary health systems, Ayurveda.[51][page needed] The first previous global strategy was published in 2002 and dealt especially with herbal medicines. The current version (2014-2023) is beginning to consider aspects of T&CM practices and practitioners and whether and how they should be integrated into overall health service delivery.[51] It is as well part of the 2013 WHO, WIPO, WTO TRIPS study on health innovation and access to medicines.[52] The WTO[53] mentions Ayurveda
Ayurveda
in its intellectual property strategy. Traditional medicine, including Ayurveda, contributes significantly to the health status of many communities, and is increasingly used within certain communities in developed countries. Traditional medicine
Traditional medicine
has a long history of use in health maintenance and in disease prevention and treatment, particularly for chronic diseases.[citation needed] Suitable recognition of traditional medicine is an important element of national health policies and has as well important basis for new products with significant export potential.[53] WTO, WIPO and WHO ask for respect for both the economic value and the social and cultural significance of traditional knowledge and supports documentation of traditional medical knowledge and enhanced regulation of quality, safety and efficacy of such products. The WHO paper asks to integrate traditional and complementary medicine services, where appropriate, into health care service delivery and self-health care and to promote an improved universal health coverage by doing so.[51] India See also: Healthcare in India

Tulsi-flower (holy basil), an Ayurvedic herb

According to some sources, up to 80 percent of people in India use some form of traditional medicine, a category which includes Ayurveda.[54][55] In 1970, the Indian Medical Central Council Act which aimed to standardise qualifications for Ayurveda
Ayurveda
practitioners and provide accredited institutions for its study and research was passed by the Parliament of India.[56] In 1971, the Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM) was established under the Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, to monitor higher education in Ayurveda
Ayurveda
in India.[57] The Indian government supports research and teaching in Ayurveda
Ayurveda
through many channels at both the national and state levels, and helps institutionalise traditional medicine so that it can be studied in major towns and cities.[58] The state-sponsored Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS) is designed to do research on Ayurveda.[59] Many clinics in urban and rural areas are run by professionals who qualify from these institutes.[56] As of 2013[update], India has over 180 training centers offer degrees in traditional Ayurvedic medicine.[40][60] To fight biopiracy and unethical patents, in 2001 the government of India set up the Traditional Knowledge Digital Library as a repository for formulations of various systems of Indian medicine, such as Ayurveda, Unani
Unani
and Siddha.[61][62] The formulations come from over 100 traditional Ayurveda
Ayurveda
books.[63] An Indian Academy of Sciences document quoting a 2003-04 report states that India had 432,625 registered medical practitioners, 13,925 dispensaries, 2,253 hospitals and a bed strength of 43,803. 209 under-graduate teaching institutions and 16 post-graduate institutions.[64] Insurance companies cover expenses for Ayurvedic treatments in case of conditions such as spinal cord disorders, bone disorder, arthritis and cancer. Such claims comprise 5-10 percent of the country's health insurance claims.[65] Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Andhashraddha Nirmoolan Samiti, an organisation dedicated to fighting superstition in India, considers Ayurveda
Ayurveda
to be pseudoscience.[66] Other countries on the Indian subcontinent About 75%-80% of the population of Nepal use Ayurveda,[67][68] and it is the most practiced form of medicine in the country.[69]

Ayurveda
Ayurveda
spas are common in Sri Lanka, and some functions as home-based income generating activity.

The Sri Lankan tradition of Ayurveda
Ayurveda
is similar to the Indian tradition. Practitioners of Ayurveda
Ayurveda
in Sri Lanka refer to Sanskrit texts which are common to both countries. However, they do differ in some aspects, particularly in the herbs used. In 1980, the Sri Lankan government established a Ministry of Indigenous Medicine to revive and regulate Ayurveda.[70] The Institute of Indigenous Medicine (affiliated to the University of Colombo) offers undergraduate, postgraduate, and MD degrees in Ayurveda Medicine and Surgery, and similar degrees in unani medicine.[71] In the public system, there are currently 62 Ayurvedic hospitals and 208 central dispensaries, which served about 3 million people (about 11% of Sri Lanka's population) in 2010. In total, there are about 20,000 registered practitioners of Ayurveda
Ayurveda
in the country.[72][73] According to the Mahavamsa, an ancient chronicle of Sinhalese royalty from the sixth century C.E., King Pandukabhaya of Sri Lanka (reigned 437 BCE to 367 BCE) had lying-in-homes and Ayurvedic hospitals (Sivikasotthi-Sala) built in various parts of the country. This is the earliest documented evidence available of institutions dedicated specifically to the care of the sick anywhere in the world.[74][75] Mihintale
Mihintale
Hospital is the oldest in the world.[76] Outside the Indian subcontinent See also: Ayurveda
Ayurveda
in America Ayurveda
Ayurveda
is a system of traditional medicine developed during antiquity and the medieval period, and as such is comparable to pre-modern Chinese and European systems of medicine. However, beginning in the 1960s, Ayurveda
Ayurveda
has been advertised as alternative medicine in the Western world. Due to different laws and medical regulations in the rest of the world, the unregulated practice and commercialisation of Ayurveda
Ayurveda
has raised ethical and legal issues. In some instances, Ayurvedic practices or terminology have also been adapted specifically for Western consumption, notably in the case of "Maharishi Ayurveda" in the 1980s. In some cases, this involved active fraud on the part of proponents of Ayurveda
Ayurveda
in an attempt to falsely represent the system as equal to the standards of modern medical research.[77][78][79] Baba Hari Dass
Baba Hari Dass
was an early proponent who helped bring Ayurveda
Ayurveda
to the US in the early 1970s. He taught classes derived from the Suśrutha Saṃhitā and the Charaka
Charaka
Saṃhitha, leading to the establishment of the Mount Madonna Institute, College of Ayurveda, Ayurveda
Ayurveda
World, and Ayurvedic pharmacy.[clarification needed] He invited several notable Ayurvedic teachers, including Vasant Lad, Sarita Shrestha, and Ram Harsh Singh. The Ayurvedic practitioner Michael Tierra wrote that "[t]he history of Ayurveda
Ayurveda
in North America will always owe a debt to the selfless contributions of Baba Hari Dass."[80] In the United States, the practice of Ayurveda
Ayurveda
is not licensed or regulated by any state. Practitioners of Ayurveda
Ayurveda
can be licensed in other healthcare fields such as massage therapy or midwifery, and a few states have approved schools teaching Ayurveda.[81] Classification and efficacy Although laboratory experiments suggest it is possible that some substances in Ayurveda
Ayurveda
might be developed into effective treatments, there is no evidence that any are effective in themselves.[11] According to Cancer Research UK, no significant scientific evidence has shown effectiveness of Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of any disease, although massage and relaxation are often beneficial for some cancer patients and there are indications from animal studies that some herbal products used in Ayurveda
Ayurveda
might be explored further.[60] Today, ayurvedic medicine is considered pseudoscientific on account of its confusion between reality and metaphysical concepts.[12] Other researchers debate whether it should be considered a protoscience, an unscientific, or trans-science system instead.[13][14][82] A review of the use of Ayurveda
Ayurveda
for cardiovascular disease concluded that the evidence is not convincing for the use of any Ayurvedic herbal treatment for heart disease or hypertension, but that many herbs used by Ayurvedic practitioners could be appropriate for further research.[83] Research into ayurveda has been characterized as pseudoscience. Both the lack of scientific soundness in the theoretical foundations of ayurveda and the quality of research have been criticized.[82][84][85][86] Research In India, research in Ayurveda
Ayurveda
is undertaken by the Ministry of AYUSH, an abbreviation for the Department of Ayurveda, Yoga
Yoga
and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy, through a national network of research institutes.[87] In Nepal, the National Ayurvedic Training and Research Centre (NATRC) researches medicinal herbs in the country.[88] In Sri Lanka, the Ministry of Health, Nutrition and Indigenous Medicine looks after the research in Ayurveda
Ayurveda
through various national research institutes. Use of toxic metals Rasa shastra, the practice of adding metals, minerals or gems to herbal preparations, may include toxic heavy metals such as lead, mercury and arsenic.[15] The public health implications of metals in rasa shastra in India is unknown.[15] Adverse reactions to herbs are described in traditional Ayurvedic texts, but practitioners are reluctant to admit that herbs could be toxic and that reliable information on herbal toxicity is not readily available. There is a communication gap between practitioners of modern medicine and Ayurveda.[89] Some traditional Indian herbal medicinal products contain harmful levels of heavy metals, including lead.[90] A 1990 study on Ayurvedic medicines in India found that 41% of the products tested contained arsenic, and that 64% contained lead and mercury.[54] A 2004 study found toxic levels of heavy metals in 20% of Ayurvedic preparations made in South Asia and sold in the Boston area, and concluded that Ayurvedic products posed serious health risks and should be tested for heavy-metal contamination.[91] A 2008 study of more than 230 products found that approximately 20% of remedies (and 40% of rasa shastra medicines) purchased over the Internet from U.S. and Indian suppliers contained lead, mercury or arsenic.[15][92][93] A 2015 study of users in the United States found elevated blood lead levels in 40% of those tested, leading physician and former U.S. Air Force flight surgeon Harriet Hall to say that " Ayurveda
Ayurveda
is basically superstition mixed with a soupçon of practical health advice. And it can be dangerous." [94][95] Heavy metals
Heavy metals
are thought of as active ingredients by advocates of Indian herbal medicinal products.[90] According to ancient Ayurvedic texts, certain physico-chemical purification processes such as samskaras or shodhanas (for metals) 'detoxicify' the heavy metals in it.[96][97] These are similar to the Chinese pao zhi, although the Ayurvedic techniques are more complex and may involve physical pharmacy techniques as well as mantras. However, these products have nonetheless caused severe lead poisoning and other toxic effects.[92] Between 1978 and 2008, "more than 80 cases of lead poisoning associated with Ayurvedic medicine use [were] reported worldwide".[98] In 2012, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) linked Ayurvedic drugs to lead poisoning, based on cases where toxic materials were found in the blood of pregnant women who had taken Ayurvedic drugs.[99] Ayurvedic practitioners argue that the toxicity of bhasmas comes from improper manufacturing processes, contaminants, improper use of Ayurvedic medicine, quality of raw materials and that the end products and improper procedures are used by charlatans.[97] In India, the government ruled that Ayurvedic products must be labelled with their metallic content.[100] However, in Current Science, a publication of the Indian Academy of Sciences, M. S. Valiathan said that "the absence of post-market surveillance and the paucity of test laboratory facilities [in India] make the quality control of Ayurvedic medicines exceedingly difficult at this time".[100] In the United States, most Ayurvedic products are marketed without having been reviewed or approved by the FDA. Since 2007, the FDA has placed an import alert on some Ayurvedic products in order to prevent them from entering the United States.[101] History

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The origins of Ayurveda
Ayurveda
have been traced to around 5,000 BCE,[102][103][104][105][106][107] when they originated as an oral tradition.[dubious – discuss] Some of the concepts of Ayurveda
Ayurveda
have existed since the times of Indus Valley Civilization.[105][108] The first recorded forms of Ayurveda
Ayurveda
as medical texts evolved from the Vedas.[103][104] Ayurveda
Ayurveda
is a discipline of the upaveda or "auxiliary knowledge" in Vedic tradition. The origins of Ayurveda
Ayurveda
are also found in Atharvaveda,[109][110] which contains 114 hymns and incantations described as magical cures for disease. There are various legendary accounts of the origin of Ayurveda, e.g. that it was received by Dhanvantari
Dhanvantari
(or Divodasa) from Brahma.[8][32][111] Tradition also holds that the writings of Ayurveda
Ayurveda
were influenced by a lost text by the sage Agnivesa.[112] Ayurveda
Ayurveda
is one of the few systems of medicine developed in ancient times that is still widely practiced in modern times.[3] As such, it is open to the criticism that its conceptual basis is obsolete and that its contemporary practitioners have not taken account of the developments of modern medicine.[113][114] Responses to this situation led to an impassioned debate in India during the early decades of the twentieth century, between proponents of unchanging tradition (śuddha "pure" ayurveda) and those who thought ayurveda should modernise and syncretize (aśuddha "impure, tainted" ayurveda).[115][116][117] The political debate about the place of ayurveda in contemporary India has continued to the present (2015), both in the public arena and in government.[118] Debate about the place of Ayurvedic medicine in the contemporary internationalized world also continues today (2015).[119][120]

Charaka

Main texts There are three principal early texts on Ayurveda, the Charaka Samhita, the Sushruta Samhita
Sushruta Samhita
and the Bhela Samhita. The Sushruta Samhita is based on an original from the 6th century BCE,[121][122] and was updated by the Buddhist scholar Nagarjuna
Nagarjuna
in the 2nd century CE.[123] The Charaka
Charaka
Samhita, written by Charaka, and the Bhela Samhita, attributed to Atreya
Atreya
Punarvasu, are also dated to the 6th century BCE.[124][125][126] The Charaka Samhita
Charaka Samhita
was also updated by Dridhabala
Dridhabala
during the early centuries of the Common Era.[127] The Bower Manuscript
Bower Manuscript
includes of excerpts from the Bheda Samhita[128] and its description of concepts in Central Asian Buddhism. In 1987, A. F. R. Hoernle identified the scribe of the medical portions of the manuscript to be a native of India using a northern variant of the Gupta script, who had migrated and become a Buddhist monk in a monastery in Kucha. The Chinese pilgrim Fa Hsien
Fa Hsien
(c. 337–422 AD) wrote about the healthcare system of the Gupta empire (320–550) and described the institutional approach of Indian medicine. This is also visible in the works of Charaka, who describes hospitals and how they should be equipped.[129] Other early texts are the Agnivesha Samhita, Kasyapa Samhita and Harita Samhita. The original edition of the Agnivesha Samhita, by Agnivesa, is dated to 1500 BCE,[130] and it was later modified by Charaka.[131] Kasyapa Samhita includes the treatise of Jivaka Kumar Bhaccha[132] and is dated to the 6th century BCE.[133][134] While Harita Samhita is dated to an earlier period, it is attributed to Harita, who was a disciple of Punarvasu Atreya.[135] Some later texts are Astanga nighantu (8th Century) by Vagbhata, Paryaya ratnamala (9th century) by Madhava, Siddhasara nighantu (9th century) by Ravi Gupta, Dravyavali (10th Century), and Dravyaguna sangraha (11th century) by Cakrapanidatta, among others.[136] Illnesses portrayed Underwood and Rhodes state that the early forms of traditional Indian medicine identified fever, cough, consumption, diarrhea, dropsy, abscesses, seizures, tumours, and leprosy,[32] and that treatments included plastic surgery, lithotomy, tonsillectomy,[137] couching (a form of cataract surgery), puncturing to release fluids in the abdomen, extraction of foreign bodies, treatment of anal fistulas, treating fractures, amputations, cesarean sections,[Vagbhata 1][137][disputed – discuss] and stitching of wounds.[32] The use of herbs and surgical instruments became widespread.[32] During this period, treatments were also prescribed for complex ailments, including angina pectoris, diabetes, hypertension, and stones.[139][140] Further development and spread Ayurveda
Ayurveda
flourished throughout the Indian Middle Ages. Dalhana (fl. 1200), Sarngadhara (fl. 1300) and Bhavamisra (fl. 1500) compiled works on Indian medicine.[141] The medical works of both Sushruta
Sushruta
and Charaka
Charaka
were also translated into the Chinese language in the 5th century,[142] and during the 8th century, they were translated into the Arabic and Persian language.[143] The 9th-century Persian physician Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi
Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi
was familiar with the text.[144][145] The Arabic works derived from the Ayurvedic texts eventually also reached Europe by the 12th century.[146][147] In Renaissance Italy, the Branca family of Sicily and Gaspare Tagliacozzi (Bologna) were influenced by the Arabic reception of the Sushruta's surgical techniques.[147] British physicians traveled to India to observe rhinoplasty being performed using native methods, and reports on Indian rhinoplasty were published in the Gentleman's Magazine
Gentleman's Magazine
in 1794.[148] Instruments described in the Sushruta Samhita
Sushruta Samhita
were further modified in Europe.[149] Joseph Constantine Carpue
Joseph Constantine Carpue
studied plastic surgery methods in India for 20 years and, in 1815, was able to perform the first major rhinoplasty surgery in the western world, using the "Indian" method of nose reconstruction.[150] In 1840 Brett published an article about this technique.[151] During the period of colonial British rule of India, the practice of Ayurveda
Ayurveda
was neglected by the British Indian Government, in favor of modern medicine. After Indian independence, there was more focus on Ayurveda
Ayurveda
and other traditional medical systems. Ayurveda
Ayurveda
became a part of the Indian National health care system, with state hospitals for Ayurveda
Ayurveda
established across the country. However, the treatments of traditional medicines were not always integrated with others.[152] Footnotes

^ Vāgbhaṭa's Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā describes a procedure for the removal of a dead foetus from the womb of a living mother, and of a living child from the womb of a mother who has died (शारीरस्थान २, गर्भव्यापद्, २.२६-२७, २.५३).[138] Both these descriptions speak of removal of the fetus through the uterine passage. It's disputed to assert that early Indian Ayurvedic practitioner knew the caesarian section procedure. The earlier description of the Suśrutasaṃhitā (चिकित्सास्थान १५ "मूढगर्भ") is similar. A dead fetus is removed through the uterine passage and vagina. Although Suśruta does not describe removing a living child from a dead mother.

See also

Ayurvedic Acupressure Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery Bhaisajyaguru Clinical trials on Ayurvedic drugs Dhātu (Ayurveda) Georgian folk medicine History of alternative medicine List of ineffective cancer treatments Siddha medicine Siddhi Traditional Chinese medicine Traditional Tibetan medicine Ramuan Homeopathy Acupuncture

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Cited references

Chopra, Ananda S. (2003). "Āyurveda". In Selin, Helaine. Medicine across cultures: history and practice of medicine in non-western cultures. Kluwer Academic. pp. 75–83. ISBN 1-4020-1166-0.  Dwivedi, Girish; Dwivedi, Shridhar (2007). "History of Medicine: Sushruta – the Clinician – Teacher par Excellence" (PDF). Indian Journal of Chest Diseases and Allied Sciences. Delhi: Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi
University of Delhi
/ National College of Chest Physicians. 49: 243–244. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2008.  (Republished by National Informatics Centre, Government of India.) Finger, Stanley (2001). Origins of Neuroscience: A History of Explorations into Brain Function. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514694-8.  Kutumbian, P. (1999). Ancient Indian Medicine. Andhra Pradesh, India: Orient Longman. ISBN 978-81-250-1521-5.  Lock, Stephen (2001). The Oxford Illustrated Companion to Medicine. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-262950-6.  Underwood, E. Ashworth; Rhodes, P. (2008). "History of Medicine". Encyclopædia Britannica (2008 ed.).  Wujastyk, D. (2003). The Roots of Ayurveda: Selections from Sanskrit Medical Writings. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-044824-1. 

Further reading

Drury, Heber (1873). The Useful plants of India. William H Allen & Co., London. ISBN 1-4460-2372-9.  Dymock, William; et al. (1890). Pharmacographia Indica A history of principal drugs of vegetable origin in British India. 1. London.  Hoernle, Rudolf August Friedrich (1907). Studies in the Medicine of Ancient India: Part I: Osteology. Clarendon Press, Oxford.  Patwardhan, Kishore (2008). Pabitra Kumar Roy, ed. Concepts of Human Physiology in Ayurveda
Ayurveda
(PDF). Sowarigpa and Ayurveda. Samyak Vak Series-14. Sarnath, Varanasi: Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies. pp. 53–73. ISBN 978-81-87127-76-5.  Wise, Thomas T. (1845). Commentary on the Hindu
Hindu
System of Medicine. Calcutta: Thacker & Co.  Wujastyk, Dominik. "Indian Medicine". Oxford Bibliographies. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/obo/9780195399318-0035. Retrieved 16 October 2015. . A bibliographical survey of the history of Indian medicine. WHO guidelines on safety monitoring of herbal medicines in pharmacovigilance systems Use Caution With Ayurvedic Products - US Food and Drug Administration.

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