Ayrton Senna da Silva (Brazilian Portuguese: [aˈiʁtõ ˈsẽnɐ
dɐ ˈsiwvɐ] ( listen); 21 March 1960 – 1 May 1994) was a
Brazilian racing driver who won three
Formula One world championships
McLaren in 1988, 1990 and 1991, and is widely regarded as one of
Formula One drivers of all time. He died in an
accident while leading the
1994 San Marino Grand Prix
1994 San Marino Grand Prix for Williams.
Senna began his motorsport career in karting, moved up to open-wheel
racing in 1981, and won the 1983 British
Formula Three Championship.
He made his
Formula One debut with Toleman-Hart in 1984, before moving
to Lotus-Renault the following year and winning six Grands Prix over
the next three seasons. In 1988, he joined Frenchman
Alain Prost at
McLaren-Honda. Between them, they won all but one of the 16 Grands
Prix that year, and Senna claimed his first World Championship. Prost
claimed the championship in 1989, and Senna his second and third
championships in 1990 and 1991. In 1992, the Williams-Renault
combination began to dominate Formula One. Senna nonetheless managed
to finish the 1993 season as runner-up, winning five races and
negotiating a move to Williams in 1994.
Senna has often been voted as the best and most influential Formula
One driver of all time in various motorsport polls. He was
recognised for his qualifying speed over one lap, and from 1989 until
2006 he held the record for most pole positions. He was also acclaimed
for his wet weather performances, such as the 1984
Monaco Grand Prix,
the 1985 Portuguese Grand Prix, and the 1993 European Grand Prix. He
holds a record six victories at the
Monaco Grand Prix, and is the
fifth-most successful driver of all time in terms of race wins. Senna
courted controversy throughout his career, particularly during his
turbulent rivalry with Prost. In the Japanese Grands Prix of 1989 and
1990, each of which decided the championship of that year, collisions
between Senna and Prost determined the eventual winner.
1 Early life and career
Formula One career
2.2 Lotus (1985–1987)
2.4 Williams (1994)
2.4.1 Season controversies and end
3.1 Racing crash
3.3 Italian prosecution
4 Personal life
4.1 Non-racing commercial activities
6 Helmet design
6.1 Third-party adaptations
7 Racing record
Formula One results
Formula One records
8 See also
10 External links
Early life and career
Senna at age 3.
Senna was born in the Pro-Matre Maternity Hospital of Santana, a
neighbourhood of São Paulo. The middle child of wealthy Brazilian
landowner and factory owner Milton da Silva and his wife Neide Senna
da Silva, he had an older sister, Viviane and a younger brother,
Leonardo. He was left-handed.
The house where Senna spent the first four years of his life belonged
to Neide's father, João Senna. It was located on the corner of
Avenida Aviador Guilherme with Avenida Gil Santos Dumont, less than
100 meters from Campo de Marte, a large area where they operated the
Aeronautics Material park and an airport. Senna was highly athletic,
excelling in gymnastics and other sports, and developed an interest in
cars and motor racing at the age of four. He also suffered from poor
motor coordination and had trouble climbing stairways by the age of
three. An electroencephalogram (EEG) found that Senna was not
suffering from any problems. His parents gave Senna the nickname
"Beco". At the age of seven, Senna first learned to drive a Jeep
around his family's farm and gained the advantage of changing gears
without the use of a clutch.
Senna attended Colegio Rio Branco in the
São Paulo neighbourhood of
Higienópolis and graduated in 1977 with a grade 5 in physics along
with other grades in mathematics, chemistry, and English. He later
enrolled in a college that specialised in business administration, but
dropped out after three months. Overall, his grades amounted up to
Senna began racing go-karts in
Brazil at the age of 13.
Senna's first kart was built by his father using a small 1-HP
lawnmower engine. Senna started racing at
Interlagos and entered a
karting competition at the age of 13. He started his first race on
pole position, facing rivals who were some years older than him;
despite this, he managed to lead most of the race before retiring
after colliding with a rival. His father supported his son and Lucio
Pascal Gascon soon managed the developing talent.
Senna went on to win the South American Kart Championship in 1977. He
Karting World Championship each year from 1978 to 1982,
finishing runner-up in 1979 and 1980. In 1978, he was the teammate
of Terry Fullerton, from whom Senna later felt was the rival he got
the most satisfaction racing against also because of the lack of money
and politics at that level.
In 1981, Senna moved to England to begin single-seater racing, winning
the RAC and Townsend-Thoreson
Formula Ford 1600 Championships that
year with the
Van Diemen team.
21-year old Senna in his British
Formula Ford 1600 single seater.
Despite this, Senna initially did not believe he would continue in
motorsport. At the end of that season, under pressure from his parents
to take up a role in the family business, Senna announced his
Formula Ford and returned to Brazil. Before
leaving England, however, Senna was offered a drive with a Formula
Ford 2000 team for £10,000. Back in Brazil, he decided to take this
offer and returned to live in England. As da Silva is the most common
Brazilian surname, he instead adopted his mother's maiden name,
Senna. Senna went on to win the 1982 British and European Formula
Ford 2000 championships. For that season, Senna arrived with
sponsorship from Banerj and Pool.
In 1983, Senna drove in the British
Formula Three Championship for the
West Surrey Racing
West Surrey Racing team. He dominated the first half of the season
until Martin Brundle, driving a similar car for Eddie Jordan Racing,
closed the gap in the second part of the championship. Senna won the
title at the final round after a closely fought and, at times,
acrimonious battle with the Briton. In November that year, Senna
also triumphed at the inaugural Macau Formula 3 Grand Prix with Teddy
Yip's Toyota-powered Theodore Racing Team.
Formula One career
See also: List of
Formula One Grand Prix wins by Ayrton Senna
Toleman TG184 from 1984 on display in the Donington Grand Prix
In 1983, Senna tested for
Formula One teams Williams, McLaren,
Brabham, and Toleman.
Peter Warr of Lotus,
Ron Dennis of McLaren, and
Bernie Ecclestone of
Brabham made offers for testing in 1984 and
presented long-term contracts that tied Senna to driving later on.
During his test for Williams at the 3.149-km (1.957-mi) Donington Park
circuit, Senna completed 40 laps and was quicker than the other
drivers, including Williams's reigning World Champion Keke
Rosberg. Neither Williams nor
McLaren had a vacancy for the 1984
season. Both Williams boss Frank Williams and
McLaren boss Ron
Dennis noted that Senna insisted that he got to run their cars before
anyone else (other than their regular drivers such as Rosberg) so that
he would have the best chance of a good showing by having a fresh car.
Peter Warr actually wanted to replace
Nigel Mansell with Senna at
Lotus, but their British-based title sponsor,
Imperial Tobacco (John
Player & Sons), wanted a British driver. Senna, however, was
determined to drive that season and certainly on his own terms.
Senna's test for
Brabham occurred at
Circuit Paul Ricard
Circuit Paul Ricard in November
1983, and he set lap times two seconds slower than the team's lead
driver, Nelson Piquet, who allegedly gave Senna the nickname "the São
Paulo taxi driver". Senna impressed the
and was linked to their second seat. However, the team's main sponsor,
Italian dairy company Parmalat, wanted an Italian driver. Brabham's
second car was eventually shared by brothers Teo and Corrado Fabi,
while Piquet convinced Ecclestone to sign his friend
Roberto Moreno as
the test driver. Consequently, he joined Toleman, a relatively
new team, using less competitive
Pirelli tyres. Venezuelan
Johnny Cecotto, a former
Grand Prix motorcycle racing
Grand Prix motorcycle racing world champion,
was his teammate. During 1984, Senna hired Nuno Cobra to assess
his physical condition. Senna had been worried about his condition due
to low weight.
Senna made his debut at the
1984 Brazilian Grand Prix
1984 Brazilian Grand Prix in Rio de
Janeiro, where he qualified 17th, but had the dubious honour of being
the first retirement of the season when the Hart 415T engine blew its
turbo on lap 8. He scored his first World Championship point in his
second race at the South African Grand Prix at
Kyalami with severe
muscle spasms, replicating that result two weeks later at the Belgian
A combination of tyre issues and a fuel-pressure problem resulted in
his failure to qualify for the
San Marino Grand Prix, the only time
this happened during his career.
Toleman decided not to run both cars
during Friday qualifying at Imola due to a dispute with tyre supplier
Toleman were in the process of switching from
Michelin). Senna then suffered a fuel-pressure problem in the wet
Saturday session at Tosa (the furthest point on the circuit from the
pits) and did not have enough time for it to be fixed to allow him to
make the grid. Senna's best result of the season came at the
Monaco Grand Prix, the first wet-weather race of the season.
Qualifying 13th on the grid, he made steady progress in climbing
through the field, passing
Niki Lauda for second on lap 19. He quickly
began to cut the gap to race leader Alain Prost, but before he could
attack Prost, the race was stopped on lap 31 for safety reasons, as
the rain had grown even heavier. At the time the race was stopped,
Senna was catching Prost by about 4 seconds per lap (while the
Stefan Bellof was catching both at the same rate).
Senna passed Prost when Prost stopped in front of the red flag, before
the end of the 32nd lap. According to the rules, the positions counted
were those from the last lap completed by every driver, lap 31, at
which point Prost was still leading. Senna's second place was his
first podium in Formula One. The popular belief was that with
Prost's McLaren-TAG having major brake troubles (they were regularly
locking up due to not generating enough heat in the conditions), the
premature ending of the race had robbed Senna of his maiden Grand Prix
Renowned throughout his career for his capacity to provide very
specific technical details about the performance of his cars and track
conditions long before the advent of telemetry, this characteristic
led Senna's first F1 race engineer, Pat Symonds, to regard the US
Grand Prix in Dallas as the initial highlight of Senna's debut season,
instead of the more popular Monaco, where Senna and
their first podium finish. This is by reference to the following
recollection given by Symonds in an interview in 2014, to mark the
20th anniversary of Senna's death:
The car was reasonably competitive there, so we expected to have a
good race but Ayrton spun early in the race. He then found his way
back through the field in a quite effective way and we were looking
for a pretty good finish but then he hit the wall, damaged the rear
wheel and the driveshaft and retired, which was a real shame. The real
significance of that was that when he came back to the pits he told me
what happened and said "I'm sure that the wall moved!" and even though
I've heard every excuse every driver has ever made, I certainly hadn't
heard of that one! But Ayrton being Ayrton, with his incredible belief
in himself, the absolute conviction, he then talked me into going with
him, after the race, to have a look at the place where he had crashed.
And he was absolutely right, which was the amazing thing! Dallas being
a street circuit the track was surrounded by concrete blocks and what
had happened – we could see it from the tyre marks – was that
someone had hit at the far end of the concrete block and that made it
swivel slightly, so that the leading edge of the block was standing
out by a few millimetres. And he was driving with such precision that
those few millimetres were the difference between hitting the wall and
not hitting the wall. While I had been, at first, annoyed that we had
retired from the race through a driver error, when I saw what had
happened, when I saw how he had been driving, that increased my
respect for the guy by quite a lot.
Senna won the saloon exhibition race to celebrate the opening of the
Nürburgring in 1984.
That season, Senna took two more podium finishes—third at the
British and Portuguese Grands Prix—and placed 9th in the Drivers'
Championship with 13 points overall. He did not take part in the
Italian Grand Prix
Italian Grand Prix after he was suspended by
Toleman for being in
breach of his contract by signing for Lotus for 1985 without informing
Toleman team first. Senna became the first driver Lotus had
signed not personally chosen by team founder Colin Chapman, who had
died in 1982.
Senna also raced in two high-profile non-
Formula One races in 1984:
the ADAC 1000-km
Nürburgring where, alongside
Henri Pescarolo and
Stefan Johansson, he co-drove a
Porsche 956 to finish
8th, as well as an exhibition race to celebrate the opening of the new
Nürburgring before the European Grand Prix. Notably, this race
involved several past and present Formula 1 drivers, including
Stirling Moss and past World Champions Jack Brabham,
Denny Hulme and
Alan Jones, driving identical Mercedes 190E 2.3–16 sports cars.
Alain Prost started from pole position, but Senna took the lead in the
first corner of the first lap, winning ahead of
Niki Lauda and Carlos
Reutemann. After the race, Senna was quoted as saying, "Now I know
I can do it." Senna was a last-minute inclusion in the Mercedes
race, taking over from Emerson Fittipaldi.
Senna driving the
Team Lotus 97T at the 1985 European Grand Prix.
Senna was partnered in his first year at Lotus-Renault by Italian
driver Elio de Angelis. At the second round of the season, the
Portuguese Grand Prix, Senna took the first pole position of his
Formula 1 career. He converted it into his first victory in the race,
which was held in very wet conditions, winning by over a minute from
Michele Alboreto and lapping everyone up to and including 3rd
placed Patrick Tambay. The race was the first 'Grand Slam' of Senna's
career, as he also set the fastest lap of the race.
He would not finish in the points again until coming second at the
Austrian Grand Prix, despite taking pole three more times in the
intervening period. (His determination to take pole at the Monaco
Grand Prix had infuriated Alboreto and Niki Lauda; Senna had set a
fast time early and was accused of deliberately baulking the other
drivers by running more laps than necessary, a charge he rejected,
though the accusations would continue in
Canada when drivers accused
him of running on the racing line when on his slow down lap forcing
others on qualifiers to move off line and lose time). Two more
podiums followed in the
Netherlands and Italy, before Senna added his
second victory, again in wet conditions, at the Circuit de
Spa-Francorchamps in Belgium. Senna's relationship with De Angelis
soured over the season, as both drivers demanded top driver status
within Lotus and, after spending six years at the team, De Angelis
Brabham at the end of the year, convinced that Lotus were
becoming focused around the Brazilian. Senna and De Angelis
finished the season 4th and 5th respectively in the driver rankings,
separated by five points in the quick but unreliable 97T. In terms of
qualifying, however, Senna had begun to establish himself as the
quickest in the field: his tally of seven poles that season was far
more than that of any of the other drivers (Renault's V6 qualifying
engines were reported to be producing over 1,000 bhp
(746 kW; 1,014 PS)).
Senna driving the
Lotus 98T at the 1986 British Grand Prix.
De Angelis was replaced at Lotus by Scotland's
Johnny Dumfries after
Derek Warwick from joining the team, saying that Lotus
could not run competitive cars for two top drivers at the same time.
Senna allegedly pushed for his former flatmate and fellow Brazilian
Maurício Gugelmin to join the team as a pure number two driver, but
the team's major sponsor John Player & Sons (JPS) insisted on a
British driver which led to the signing of Dumfries. Senna later
admitted "It was bad, bad. Until then I had a good relationship with
Derek." Senna started the season well, coming second in Brazil
behind the Williams-Honda of Nelson Piquet, and winning the Spanish
Grand Prix by just 0.014s from Piquet's teammate
Nigel Mansell in one
of the closest finishes in
Formula One history to find himself leading
the World Championship after two races. However, poor reliability,
particularly in the second half of the season, saw him drift behind
the Williams pairing of Mansell and Piquet, as well as defending and
eventual champion, Alain Prost. Nonetheless, Senna was once more the
top qualifier with eight poles, with a further six podium finishes
included another win at the Detroit Grand Prix, thus finishing the
season fourth in the driver's standings again, with a total of 55
After winning the Detroit Grand Prix – which took place one day
Brazil was eliminated from the
1986 FIFA World Cup
1986 FIFA World Cup – Senna
asked a trackside supporter for the
Brazilian flag and he drove one
lap waving it. Thereafter, he repeated this ritual every time he won a
race. Senna also had a brief foray into rallying where he tried
out a Vauxhall Nova, a MG Metro 6R4, a
Ford Sierra RS Cosworth
Ford Sierra RS Cosworth and a
Ford Escort on a stretch of land closed to the public.
Lotus 99T raced by Senna in 1987.
Team Lotus had a new engine deal in 1987, running the same
turbocharged Honda V6 engines as Williams had used to win the previous
year's Constructors' Championship, and with them came a new teammate,
34-year-old Japanese driver, Satoru Nakajima. The team guaranteed
Senna contractually preferential treatment over Nakajima in the
allocation of equipment. Senna started the season with mixed
fortunes: a podium at the
San Marino Grand Prix was tempered by
controversy at the following race at Spa-Francorchamps, where he
collided with Mansell, and afterward in the pits an angered Englishman
grabbed Senna by the throat and had to be restrained by Lotus
mechanics. Senna then won two races in a row, which helped him
take the lead in the World Championship: the ensuing
Monaco Grand Prix
(the first of his record six victories at the Principality) and the
Detroit Grand Prix, his second victory in two years at the Michigan
street circuit and the first ever for an active suspension F1
car. As the championship wore on however, it became evident that
the Williams cars had the advantage over the rest of the field, the
gap between the Honda-engined teams made most obvious at the British
Grand Prix, where Mansell and Piquet lapped the Lotuses of Senna and
Nakajima who finished 3rd and 4th respectively. Senna became
dissatisfied with his chances at Lotus and at Monza it was announced
that he would be joining
McLaren for 1988. Senna finished the
season strongly, coming second in the final two races in
Australia, however post-race scrutineering at the final race found the
brake ducts of his Lotus to be wider than permitted by the rules and
he was disqualified, bringing his last and most successful season with
Lotus to a sour end. Senna was classified third in the final
standings, with 57 points, with six podium finishes and only one pole
position. This season marked a turning point in Senna's career as,
throughout the year, he built a deep relationship with Honda, one
which would pay big dividends, as
McLaren had secured Williams's
supply of Honda's V6 turbo engines for 1988.
Senna won his first world title in 1988 driving that season's dominant
In 1988, due to the relationship he had built up with Honda throughout
the 1987 season with Lotus, and with the approval of McLaren's
number-one driver and then-double world champion, Alain Prost, Senna
McLaren team. The foundation for a fierce competition
between Senna and Prost was laid, culminating in a number of dramatic
race incidents between the two over the next five years. However,
the experienced pair also quickly realized, despite their personal
rivalry, they had to work together, especially in testing, to keep
ahead of their main opposition from Ferrari, Williams, Benetton,
Lotus, and March.
One notable incident of the year was at the
Monaco Grand Prix, where
Senna outqualified Prost by 1.4 seconds and led for most of the race
before crashing on lap 67. Instead of returning to the pit lane,
Senna went back to his apartment and did not contact the team until he
walked into the pit garage as they were packing up later that night.
As the television cameras had not captured his crash, team boss Ron
Dennis did not know what had caused his DNF until then, though Prost
speculated that judging from the tyre marks, it appeared as though
Senna had clipped the inside barrier at Portiers, which pitched him
into the outside guard rail. At the 1988 Portuguese Grand Prix, Prost
made a slightly faster start than Senna, but the Brazilian dived into
the first corner ahead. Prost responded and went to pass Senna at the
end of the first lap. Senna swerved to block Prost, forcing the
Frenchman to nearly run into the pit wall at 290 km/h
(180 mph). Prost kept his foot down and soon edged Senna into the
first corner and started pulling away. Though Prost was angered by
Senna's manoeuvre, the Brazilian got away with a warning from the FIA.
At the postrace team debrief, Prost voiced his anger at the move which
prompted Senna to apologize to Prost for the incident. Ultimately, the
pair won 15 of 16 races in the
McLaren MP4/4 in 1988 with Senna coming
out on top, winning his first
Formula One world championship title by
taking eight wins to Prost's seven. Prost scored more points over the
season, but had to drop three second places as only the 11 best scores
However, the biggest incident of the year happened at the Italian
Grand Prix at Monza. With two laps remaining, Senna held a five-second
lead over the Ferraris of
Gerhard Berger and Michele Alboreto, who
were closing in on the
McLaren (Prost had earlier retired with a badly
misfiring engine). Going into the Rettifilo Chicane, Senna closed on
the Williams of
Jean-Louis Schlesser (standing in for a sick Nigel
Mansell). Schlesser steered wide, attempting to give Senna room to lap
him, losing then regaining control to avoid going into the sand trap.
Unfortunately, Senna did not give the Williams room and took his
normal racing line. Subsequently, Senna's
McLaren was T-boned and
ended up beached on a curb with broken rear suspension. Ferrari would
go on to an emotional 1–2 finish, the first in an Italian Grand Prix
since the death of the team's founder Enzo Ferrari. This would prove
to be the only race
McLaren did not win in 1988.
During the season, Senna rewrote the record books. His eight wins beat
the old record of seven jointly held by
Jim Clark (1963) and Prost
(1984). His 13 pole positions also beat the record of nine held by
Nelson Piquet (1984).
Senna driving the
McLaren MP4/5 in 1989.
The following year, the rivalry between Senna and Prost intensified
into numerous battles on the track and a psychological war off it.
Tension and mistrust between the two drivers increased when Senna
overtook Prost at the restart of the
San Marino Grand Prix, a move
which Prost claimed violated a prerace agreement (Senna denied the
existence of any agreement, though Prost's story was backed up by John
Hogan of the team's major sponsor, Marlboro). Senna took an early lead
in the championship with victories in San Marino, Monaco, and Mexico.
Senna also achieved the feat of leading every lap of those races which
was not equalled until
Sebastian Vettel in 2012. Senna also
managed to win in Germany, Belgium, and Spain. However, unreliability
in Phoenix, Canada, France, Britain, and Italy, together with
Brazil and Portugal, swung the title in Prost's
Prost took the 1989 world title after a collision with Senna at the
Suzuka Circuit in Japan, the penultimate race of the season, which
Senna needed to win to remain in contention for the title. Prost had
managed to leave the grid faster than Senna by removing the gurney
flap from his car, which was unbeknownst to Senna. This reduction
in aerodynamic downforce made Prost's car faster on the straights, but
slower through corners- a clever choice to make it even harder for
Senna to pass on a circuit already difficult on which to pass. On lap
46, Senna had finally come next to Prost and attempted a pass on the
inside at the last chicane. Prost turned right into the upcoming
corner, cutting Senna off and tangling wheels with him. The collision
caused both McLarens to slide to a standstill into the escape road
ahead. Prost abandoned the race at that point, whereas Senna urged
marshals for a push-start, which he received, then proceeding with the
race after a pit stop to replace the damaged nose on his car. He took
the lead from the Benetton of
Alessandro Nannini and went on to claim
victory, only to be disqualified following a stewards meeting after
the race. Senna was disqualified for receiving a push start, cutting
the chicane after the collision with Prost, and for crossing into the
pit lane entry which was not part of the track. A large fine
and temporary suspension of his
FIA Super License followed in the
winter of 1989, and an irate Senna engaged in a bitter war of words
with the FIA and its then-president, Jean-Marie Balestre, whom he
blamed for his disqualification in Japan. Senna claimed that Balestre
had forced the race stewards to disqualify him so his fellow Frenchman
Prost could win the championship, though the stewards of the meeting
denied that Balestre forced their decision, claiming that he was not
present when the decision was made. Senna finished the season
second with six wins and one second place. Prost left
rivals Ferrari for the following year.
McLaren MP4/5B raced by Senna in 1990.
In 1990, Senna took a commanding lead in the championship with six
wins, two second places, and three thirds. With Prost gone to Ferrari,
he also had a new teammate in Austrian driver Gerhard Berger. Among
his victories were the opening round in Phoenix, in which he diced for
the lead for several laps with a then-unknown
Jean Alesi before coming
out on top, and in Germany, where he fought Benetton driver Alessandro
Nannini throughout the race for the win. As the season reached its
final quarter, however,
Alain Prost in his Ferrari rose to the
challenge with five wins, including a crucial victory in
he and teammate
Nigel Mansell finished 1–2 for the Scuderia. Senna
had gone out with a damaged radiator, and the gap between Senna and
Prost was now reduced to 9 points with two races remaining.
At the penultimate round of the championship in
Japan at Suzuka, where
Senna and Prost collided the previous year, Senna took pole ahead of
Prost. Before qualifying, Senna had sought assurances from the
organisers to move pole position left onto the clean side of the
racetrack. After qualifying, FIA president Balestre denied Senna's
request, leaving Senna to start on the dirty right side, thus
favouring Prost on the left. In addition, as revealed by F1 journalist
Maurice Hamilton, the FIA had warned that crossing the yellow line
of the pit exit on the right to better position oneself at the first
corner would have not been appropriate, further infuriating Senna. At
the beginning of the race, Prost pulled ahead of Senna, who
immediately tried to repass Prost at the first corner. While Prost
turned in, Senna kept his foot on the accelerator and the cars
collided at 270 km/h (170 mph) and spun out of the race,
making Senna world champion.
Following the second championship-deciding collision in two years,
Jackie Stewart interviewed Senna at the 1990 Australian Grand Prix
(where Senna won pole and led for 61 laps before gearbox trouble
forced him to slide off into a tyre barrier) and brought up a number
of controversial collisions in which Senna had been involved over the
last few years, stating that Senna had made more contact with other
cars and drivers in the last four years than all the champions before
him. An irritated Senna questioned how someone like Stewart, himself a
triple world champion, could ask questions like he did, knowing the
pressure under which drivers raced.
A year later, after taking his third world championship, Senna
explained to the press his actions of the previous year in Suzuka. He
maintained that prior to qualifying fastest, he had sought and
received assurances from race officials that pole position would be
changed to the left, clean side of the track (where the racing line
was), only to find this decision reversed by
Jean-Marie Balestre after
he had taken pole. Senna said that he was not going to accept what
he saw as unfair decision-making by Balestre, including his 1989
disqualification and the incorrect pole position in 1990 (though some
in the F1 paddock noted that the pole position at Suzuka was actually
on the same side of the track it had been since F1 returned to Japan
in 1987, and many privately wondered why Senna was suddenly making a
fuss about it, considering he had been on pole there in both 1988 and
1989, when he was also fighting Prost for the championship). Senna
stated that no matter what happened, he would not yield the corner and
that Prost taking his normal racing line would result in an accident.
Prost would later go on record criticising Senna's actions as
"disgusting", saying that he seriously considered retiring from the
sport after that incident.
Ayrton Senna during the race in Spa-Francorchamps on 25 August 1991
In 1991, Senna became the youngest ever three-time world champion,
taking seven wins and increasing his pole position record to 60 from
127 events. Prost, because of the downturn in performance at Ferrari,
the likes of which littered the team's history, was no longer a
serious competitor. In preseason testing, Senna made public misgivings
about the car's competitiveness with the new Honda V12, stating that
the engine was not as powerful as the prior year's V10. Senna won
the first four races as his rivals struggled to match his pace and
reliability. By midseason,
Nigel Mansell in the Williams-Renault was
able to put up a challenge. Before the Mexican Grand Prix, Senna was
injured in a jet-skiing accident near
São Paulo for which he required
stitches on the back of his head. During qualifying for that Grand
Prix, he attempted to take the banked 180-degree Peraltada corner
(Mexico City circuit's fastest corner) faster than normal, ending up
spinning off the track and rolling over the car after crashing into a
tyre barrier. At the British Grand Prix at Silverstone, Senna's
car had come to a halt on the final lap, but he was not left stranded
out on the circuit, as race-winner Mansell pulled over on his parade
lap and allowed the Brazilian to ride on the Williams side-pod back to
the pits. During the Spanish Grand Prix, Senna and Mansell went
wheel-to-wheel with only centimetres to spare, at over 320 km/h
(200 mph) down the main straight, a race which the Briton
Though Senna's consistency, the car's competitiveness and the
Williams's unreliability at the beginning of the season gave him an
early advantage, Senna insisted that Honda step up their engine
development program and demanded further improvements to the car
before it was too late. These modifications enabled him to make a
late-season push, and he won three more races to secure the
championship, which was settled in
Japan when Mansell (who needed to
win), went off at the first corner while running third and beached his
Williams in the gravel trap. Senna finished second, handing the
victory to teammate
Gerhard Berger at the last corner as a thank-you
gesture for his support over the season. Senna was planning to
move to the Williams team for the 1992 season, but Honda's CEO,
Nobuhiko Kawamoto, personally requested that he remain at
McLaren-Honda, which Senna did out of a sense of loyalty.
That year, as had been the case in 1988 and 1990, Senna won the
prestigious "International Racing Driver Award" granted by British
Autosport annually. The award was presented by Stirling Moss
and Senna was interviewed on stage by Formula 1 commentator, Murray
Walker. During the interview, Senna confirmed that at the Fédération
Internationale du Sport Automobile (FISA) gala dinner in
Paris the day
before, under the auspices of Jackie Stewart, Senna had gifted one of
his helmets to his renowned foe, Jean-Marie Balestre, because of the
sincere atmosphere that presented itself.
Senna won the 1992
Monaco Grand Prix
Monaco Grand Prix in his
In 1992, Senna's determination to win manifested itself in dismay at
McLaren's inability to challenge Williams's all-conquering FW14B
car. McLaren's new car for the season had several shortcomings. A
delay occurred in getting the new model running (it debuted in the
third race of the season, the Brazilian Grand Prix) and in addition to
lacking active suspension, the new car suffered from reliability
issues and was unpredictable in fast corners, while its Honda V12
engine was no longer the most powerful on the circuit. During
practice for the second race of the season in Mexico on a circuit
Senna was heavily critical of, his car hit a bump that caused a loss
of downforce and hard crash into a concrete retaining wall. He had to
be extricated from the car by circuit doctors; although he raced the
next day, albeit retiring from the race due to gearbox failure. Senna
scored wins in Monaco, Hungary, and
Italy that year. During qualifying
for the Belgian Grand Prix, French driver
Érik Comas crashed heavily
and Senna was the first to arrive at the scene. He got out of his car
and ran across the track to help the Frenchman, disregarding his own
safety in an effort to aid a fellow driver. He later went to visit
Comas in the hospital. His actions won universal praise from those in
Formula One and seemed to soften his hard-nosed image. Senna finished
fourth overall in the championship, behind the Williams duo of Mansell
and Riccardo Patrese, and Benetton's Michael Schumacher.
Senna's relationship with Schumacher had deteriorated throughout 1992.
At the Brazilian Grand Prix, Schumacher accused Senna of 'playing
around' while attempting to overtake Senna, who had a problem with his
engine. At the French Grand Prix, Schumacher collided with Senna,
resulting in Senna's retirement. Senna later confronted Schumacher,
who admitted responsibility for the accident. At a test session for
the German Grand Prix, Senna and Schumacher had a confrontation in the
pits, with Senna grabbing Schumacher by the collar and accusing him of
endangering him by blocking him on the track.
Questions about Senna's intentions for the upcoming 1993 season
lingered throughout 1992, as he did not have a contract with any team
by the end of that year. Ferrari had offered him a contract which
Senna discussed with Niki Lauda, but decided to decline the offer.
He felt the
McLaren cars were becoming less competitive than in
previous years, especially given Honda's decision to abandon the sport
at the end of 1992 and McLaren's lack of active suspension relating to
Given this scenario, Senna secured an IndyCar testing session with the
support of conpatriot and Penske driver, Emerson Fittipaldi. In
December 1992, in fact, Senna visited Firebird International Raceway
in Chandler, Arizona, to test a 1992 Penske PC-21 racer.
Unlike the more advanced F1 cars, this IndyCar was powered by a turbo
Ilmor V8, had a traditional transmission with clutch pedal
and iron brakes, and was markedly heavier due to its bigger physical
size in comparison to a smaller
Formula One car. To familiarise
himself, Senna initially ran 14 relatively slow laps before completing
a further 10 laps on the same tyres and setting a best time of 49.09
seconds. By comparison, Fittipaldi had set a best time of 49.70
seconds, which he later improved to 48.5 seconds, only by using the
Penske PC-22 at his disposal during this test session.
Senna won the
1993 European Grand Prix
1993 European Grand Prix in changing conditions, in what
many considered one of the best drives of his career.
For 1993, attempts by
Ron Dennis to secure a supply of
the dominant Renault V10 engines failed. Similarly, Senna's offers
to drive for Williams-Renault for free also failed, given that Alain
Prost (who was returning to the sport after a sabbatical year)
succeeded in obtaining the inclusion of a clause in his contract with
Williams vetoing Senna from joining as a teammate. Faced with this,
during a press conference at the season-opening test session at the
Estoril Circuit in Portugal, an infuriated Senna called Prost a
coward, leading to some commentators stating that what Prost had done
was no different from Senna vetoeing
Derek Warwick from joining Lotus
By this time,
McLaren was forced to take a customer supply of Ford V8
engines, which were two specifications behind that of Ford's then
factory team, Benetton.
McLaren hoped to make up for the inferior
horsepower with mechanical sophistication, including an effective
active suspension system – though the system itself proved difficult
at times, especially for new teammate Michael Andretti. With this
plan, Dennis finally persuaded Senna to stay with McLaren. The
Brazilian, however, agreed to do so only for the first race in South
Africa, where he would assess whether McLaren's equipment was
competitive enough for him to put in a good season. After driving
McLaren's 1993 car, the
McLaren MP4/8, Senna concluded that the new
car had a surprising potential, albeit with a Ford
V8 engine down on
power relative to Prost's Renault V10. Senna thus extended his
McLaren on a race-by-race basis instead of a full-year
contract, ending up staying for the whole of 1993 in any event.
Reportedly, this engagement was on a $1 million per race basis
and, despite midseason testing with a
Lamborghini V12 proved
McLaren then signing an engine supply deal with
Peugeot for the 1994 season, it all proved insufficient to continue to
retain Senna past 1993.
Senna came from the back of the field to finish fourth at the 1993
German Grand Prix at
Hockenheim on his
In the opening race in South Africa, Senna finished in second place
after surviving a collision with Schumacher. Senna won in changing
Brazil and Donington. The latter has often been regarded
as one of Senna's greatest victories, in the process setting a
record for the fastest lap in an F1 race driving through the then
speed-unrestricted pit lane. He was fifth at the first corner and led
the race at the end of the first lap going on to lap all but second
place in a race where up to seven pit stops were required by some
drivers for rain or slick tyres. Senna then scored a
second-place finish in
Spain and a record-breaking sixth win at
Monaco. After Monaco, the sixth race of the season, Senna
unexpectedly led the championship from Prost in the
Williams-Renault. As the season progressed,
Alain Prost and Damon
Hill asserted the superiority of their Williams-Renault cars, while
Senna suffered mechanical failures in Imola, Canada, Britain, Hungary,
and Portugal. Senna won the penultimate race of the season in Japan,
which was marked by an incident involving Jordan's rookie Eddie
Irvine, twice unlapping himself against Senna. Immediately after the
race, Senna attended at Jordan's garage and, following a lengthy and
heated discussion, punched the Irishman in the face.
The season concluded in Australia, with what would be Senna's 41st and
last F1 career win, as well as the last win for an active-suspension
F1 car (ironically, 1987 had the first victory for such cars also at
the hands of Senna in Monaco). The win in
Adelaide was an emotional
one due to Senna ending his successful career with
defeating his biggest rival, Prost, for the last time. Because of the
Frenchman's imminent retirement from the sport, Senna surprised the F1
community by openly welcoming Prost on the top step of the podium,
which many considered a sign of pacification between the duo. Overall,
Senna finished the championship second to Prost.
During Tina Turner's after-race concert in Adelaide, Senna surprised
everyone, including Turner, when he appeared on-stage midway through
the night. With the crowd cheering, Turner admitted she was a fan of
the Brazilian and resang her hit "The Best" as a tribute to Senna and
his Australian Grand Prix win earlier in the day.
Williams FW16 was the last car raced by Senna.
For 1994, Senna was able to finally join the Williams team given the
retirement of Prost and was reportedly paid a $20 million
salary. With Prost's retirement at the end of 1993, and
Williams's consequential lack of a defending World Champion carrying
race number 1 for a second year running, Senna would race in 1994 with
number 2 and teammate
Damon Hill would race with number 0 for the
second year in a row.
Rule changes for 1994 had banned active suspension, traction control,
and ABS. During preseason testing, the new
Williams FW16 car exhibited
none of the superiority of the FW15C and FW14B cars that preceded it,
and Senna found himself in close running with the
Benetton B194 of
Schumacher. Senna expressed his discomfort with the handling of his
car, stating, "I have a very negative feeling about driving the car
and driving it on the limit and so on ... Some of that is down to
the lack of electronic change. Also, the car has its own
characteristics which I'm not fully confident in yet." Senna
further added, "It's going to be a season with lots of accidents, and
I'll risk saying that we'll be lucky if something really serious
The first race of the season was at
Interlagos in Brazil, where Senna
took pole position. He took an early lead, but Schumacher's Benetton
was never far behind. Schumacher took the race lead for good after
passing Senna in the pits. While trying for a win, he pushed too hard
and spun the car coming out of Junção on lap 56, stalling it and
retiring from the race. The second race was the inaugural Pacific
Grand Prix at Aida, where Senna again placed the car on the pole.
However, after being beaten to the first corner by second-qualifier
Schumacher, he was hit from behind in the first corner by Mika
Häkkinen and his race came to a definitive end when, while spinning
backwards into the first corner's gravel trap, the Ferrari driven by
Nicola Larini T-boned the Williams. Both drivers retired with
front-suspension damage. Hill also retired with transmission problems,
while Schumacher took the victory again.
It was Senna's worst start to a
Formula One season, failing to finish
or score points in the first two races, despite taking pole position
both times. Schumacher was leading Senna in the Drivers' Championship
by 20 points. In occasion of the 20th anniversary of Senna's
death, Ferrari president
Luca Cordero di Montezemolo
Luca Cordero di Montezemolo revealed that, on
27 April 1994, he had held discussions at his home in
Senna about a future Ferrari engagement.
Season controversies and end
The 1994 season was the subject of sweeping rule changes, most notably
banning the use of electronic "driver aids" such as active suspension,
anti-lock brakes, traction control and launch control. From the start,
suspicion of foul play mainly involving the Benetton team was said to
have troubled Senna. For example, instead of returning to the pit area
after his first lap retirement at the Pacific Grand Prix, Senna opted
to stand near the first corner and watch the cars complete the race to
see if he could detect whether any now banned traction control system
was being used. He returned to the Williams box after the race
suspicious that the Benetton car was illegal. Indeed, in an
interview for the 20th anniversary of Ayrton Senna's death, his then
teammate, Damon Hill, revealed that Senna had "concluded that there
was, what he regarded, as unusual noises from the engine" with
"special tweak" giving Benetton an advantage.
The season ended at the Australian Grand Prix in Adelaide, where the
first-corner chicane at the
Adelaide Street Circuit was renamed the
"Senna Chicane". Schumacher went on to win the driver's world
championship title controversially after a collision that forced his
retirement and that of his rival, and Senna teammate, Damon Hill. At
the official FIA conference after the race, the German dedicated his
title to Senna.
Death of Ayrton Senna
Death of Ayrton Senna and 1994
San Marino Grand Prix
Senna died aged 34 after succumbing to fatal injuries sustained during
his final race at the
San Marino Grand Prix, on 1 May 1994.
1994 San Marino Grand Prix
1994 San Marino Grand Prix was held on the "Autodromo Enzo e Dino
Ferrari" circuit located in Imola, Italy, between 28 April, and 1 May
1994. Senna stayed in room no. 200 at the Hotel Castello in Castel San
The European leg of the F1 season, starting at Imola, was
traditionally considered the beginning of the yearly competition.
Senna, who did not finish the two opening races of the season,
declared that this was where his season would start, with 14 races, as
opposed to 16, in which to win the title. Williams brought
modified FW16s to Imola in an attempt to improve the car's handling.
On Friday, Senna placed the car on the pole for a then-record 65th and
final time, but he was upset by events unfolding that race weekend.
Senna complained about the FW16's handling and reported that the car's
performance was generally worse after the engineers' latest
adjustments. During the afternoon qualifying session, Senna's
compatriot and protégé
Rubens Barrichello was involved in a serious
accident when his Jordan became airborne at the Variante Bassa chicane
and hit the tyre-wall and fence. Barrichello suffered a broken nose
and arm, and withdrew from the event. Barrichello reported that Senna
was the first person he saw upon regaining consciousness.
During Saturday qualifying, Austrian rookie
Roland Ratzenberger was
killed after the front wing of his Simtek-Ford broke entering the
310 km/h (190 mph) Villeneuve corner, sending the car into a
concrete wall. Senna immediately visited the accident scene and
medical centre. There he was met by FIA Medical Chief Professor Sid
Watkins, who suggested to a tearful Senna that he should retire from
racing and go fishing (a hobby they both shared), to which Senna
replied that he could not stop racing. Senna was later called in
front of the stewards for commandeering an official car and climbing
the medical centre fence, and a row ensued, although Senna was not
Senna spent his final morning on the Sunday talking to former teammate
Alain Prost to discuss the re-establishment of the Grand
Prix Drivers' Association, with the aim of improving safety in Formula
One. Prost had retired from the sport at the end of the 1993 season,
and was now a media presenter. As the most senior driver in
competition, Senna offered to take the role of leader, starting from
the next race in Monaco. During the drivers' briefing, concerns had
been raised about the mainly promotional use of a Porsche 911 lead car
for the warm-up lap, with organizers agreeing to abandon the
practice. It is said that Williams Chief Engineer Patrick Head
had pranked Senna on the grid by advising him that the lead car would
not be excluded from the warm-up lap after all.
At the start of the Grand Prix, Senna retained the lead from
Schumacher, but proceedings soon became interrupted by a startline
accident. JJ Lehto's Benetton-Ford had stalled and was hit by the
Lotus-Mugen Honda of Pedro Lamy. A wheel and debris landed in the main
grandstand, injuring eight fans and a police officer. The safety car,
a sporty version of the
Opel Vectra medium family saloon, was deployed
for several laps. The Vectra's slow pace was later questioned because
of the consequential drop in tyre pressures on the
Formula One cars.
Senna had pulled alongside the Vectra and gestured to the driver, Max
Angelelli, to increase his speed. On lap 6, the race resumed and
Senna immediately set a quick pace with the third-quickest lap of the
race, followed by Schumacher.
As Senna rounded the high-speed Tamburello corner on lap 7, his car
left the racing line at around 307 km/h (191 mph), ran in a
straight line off the track, and hit the concrete retaining wall at
around 233 km/h (145 mph), after what telemetry showed to be
an application of the brakes for around two seconds. The red flag was
shown as a consequence of the accident.
Within two minutes of crashing, Senna was extracted from his race car
by Watkins and his medical team, including intensive care anaesthetist
Giovanni Gordini. Initial treatment took place by the side of the car,
with Senna having a weak heartbeat and significant blood loss (around
4.5 liters). Because of Senna's poor neurological condition, Watkins
performed an on-site tracheotomy and requested the immediate
airlifting of Senna to Bologna's Maggiore Hospital under the
supervision of Gordini.
At 18:40, the head of the hospital's emergency department, Maria
Teresa Fiandri made the announcement that Senna had died, but
said the official time of death under Italian law was 14:17, which is
when he impacted the wall and his brain stopped working. Watkins
later said that as soon as he saw Senna's fully dilated pupils, he
knew that his brainstem was inactive and that he would not
The right-front wheel and suspension are believed to have been sent
back into the cockpit, striking Senna on the right side of his helmet,
forcing his head back against the headrest. In addition, a piece of
the upright assembly, most likely a tie rod, penetrated the helmet
visor, which was a new, thinner version, above his right eye. Senna
sustained fatal skull fractures, brain injuries and a ruptured
As later revealed, when the medical staff examined Senna, a furled
Austrian flag was found in his car—a flag that he had intended to
raise in honour of Ratzenberger after the race. Photographs of
Senna being treated on the track by emergency medical personnel were
taken by Senna's friend and Autosprint's picture editor, Angelo Orsi.
Out of respect, those photographs have never been made public.
On 27 April 2014, as part of commemorating Senna on the 20th
anniversary of his death, a three-journalist panel composed of Murray
Walker, Maurice Hamilton, and David Tremayne interviewed by Sky
Sports' Simon Lazenby concurred that, at his final F1 Grand Prix race,
Senna was under extreme pressure due to:
the serious crash of his young compatriot,
Rubens Barrichello during
Friday practice, whom Senna visited in hospital;
the death of F1 rookie
Roland Ratzenberger during Saturday qualifying;
being 20 points behind in the Drivers' Championship;
suspicion of the rival
Benetton B194 car using an illegal traction
the poor performance of his Williams FW16;
family disapproval of his then-girlfriend, Adriane Galisteu.
Ayrton Senna's resting place at the Morumbi cemetery in São Paulo,
with an inscription in Portuguese that reads "Nothing can separate me
from the love of God"
Senna's death was considered by many of his Brazilian fans to be a
national tragedy, and the Brazilian government declared three days of
national mourning. The
Italian Air Force
Italian Air Force offered to fly the coffin
back to Brazil, but the Senna family wished that it return home in a
Brazilian plane. Contrary to airline policy and out of respect,
Senna's coffin was allowed to be flown back to his home country in the
passenger cabin of a
McDonnell-Douglas MD-11 airliner,
accompanied by his distraught younger brother, Leonardo, and close
friends. The plane was escorted by fighter jets into São
Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport on 4 May 1994, where it was
met by São Paulo's mayor, Paulo Maluf, and state governor, Luís
Antônio Fleury. The coffin was carried by soldiers from the Air Force
Police to a fire engine, where eight cadets from the Military Police
Academy mounted guard as it carried the coffin on the 20-mile journey
into the city. Leading the motorcade were 17 police motorbikes, and
2,500 policemen lined the route to keep the crowds at bay.
An estimated three million people flocked to the streets of Senna's
São Paulo to offer him their salute. This is widely
accepted as the largest recorded gathering of mourners in modern
times. Over 200,000 people filed past as his body lay in state at
the Legislative Assembly building in Ibirapuera Park. After the public
21-gun salute was fired by the 2nd Artillery Brigade and
Brazilian Air Force
Brazilian Air Force jets flew in a diamond formation as the
funeral procession made its way to Morumbi Cemetery. Many prominent
motor-racing figures attended Senna's state funeral, such as team
managers Ken Tyrrell, Peter Collins, Ron Dennis, and Frank Williams,
and driver Jackie Stewart. The pallbearers included drivers Gerhard
Berger, Michele Alboreto, Alain Prost, Thierry Boutsen, Damon Hill,
Rubens Barrichello, Roberto Moreno, Derek Warwick, Maurício Gugelmin,
Hans Stuck, Johnny Herbert, Pedro Lamy, Maurizio Sala, Raul Boesel,
Emerson Fittipaldi, Wilson Fittipaldi, and Christian Fittipaldi.
Sid Watkins nor Jo Ramírez, the
McLaren team coordinator,
could bear to attend because they were so grief-stricken. Senna's
family did not allow FOM president Bernie Ecclestone, a friend of
Senna's, to attend the ceremony, after an altercation between
Ecclestone and Senna's brother Leonardo at Imola regarding
Ecclestone's misconstrued reaction to the news of Ayrton's death and
the fact that the race had not been abandoned after his accident.
Max Mosley instead attended the funeral of Ratzenberger,
which took place on 7 May 1994, in Salzburg, Austria. Mosley said
in a press conference 10 years later, "I went to his funeral because
everyone went to Senna's. I thought it was important that somebody
went to his." Senna's grave bears the epitaph "Nada pode me
separar do amor de Deus", which means "Nothing can separate me from
the love of God" (a reference to Romans 8:38–39).
A testament to the adulation he inspired among fans worldwide was the
scene at the Tokyo headquarters of Honda, where the
McLaren cars were
typically displayed after each race. Upon his death, so many floral
tributes were received, they overwhelmed the large exhibition
lobby. This was despite the fact Senna no longer drove for
McLaren and that
McLaren in the preceding seasons did not use Honda
power. Senna had a special relationship with company founder Soichiro
Honda and was beloved in Japan, where he achieved a near mythic
status. For the next race at Monaco, the FIA decided to leave the
first two grid positions empty and painted them with the colours of
the Brazilian and the Austrian flags, to honour Senna and
Italian law requires that accidents resulting in a fatality must be
investigated for any criminal culpability, with the associated scene
of the accident secured and the activities that led to the fatality,
suspended forthwith. Senna's death was thus the subject of criminal
proceedings in Italy, which saw key Williams team members investigated
and charged with manslaughter. The original trial in 1997 concluded
with acquittals on the grounds that the prosecution had failed to
prove its case. This prosecution culminated with verdict no.
15050 handed down by the Italian Supreme Court of Cassation on 13
April 2007, which stated: "It has been determined that the accident
was caused by a steering column failure. This failure was caused by
badly designed and badly executed modifications. The responsibility of
this falls on Patrick Head, culpable of omitted control". Head,
however, was never arrested because the Italian statute of limitation
for manslaughter is 7 years and 6 months, and the final verdict was
pronounced 13 years after the accident.
The criminal charges focused on the car's steering column, which was
found to have sheared off at a point where a modification had been
made. The prosecution alleged that the column had failed causing the
accident and the Williams team conceded to this failure, but only as
caused by the impact at the Tamburello corner. Senna had not liked the
position of his FW16's steering wheel relative to the seating position
and had asked for the former to be changed. Head and Adrian Newey
satisfied Senna's request by having the existing column cut and
extended with a smaller-diameter piece of tubing, which was welded
together with reinforcing plates. The modification was carried out in
this manner as there was no time to manufacture a new longer steering
column in time for the race.
Senna at home in his native Brazil.
Senna was a devout Catholic, once saying: "Just because I believe in
God, just because I have faith in God, it doesn't mean that I'm
immune. It doesn't mean that I'm immortal" (1989). He often read
the Bible on long flights from
São Paulo to Europe.
According to sister Viviane, Senna had sought strength from the Bible
on the morning of his death after the events of the race weekend: "On
that final morning, he woke and opened his Bible and read a text that
he would receive the greatest gift of all, which was God
As his profile rose, Senna expressed concern over the poor in Brazil.
After his death, he was discovered to have quietly donated millions of
his personal fortune (estimated at around $400 million) to help
poor children. Shortly before his death, he created the framework
for an organisation dedicated to Brazilian children, which later
Instituto Ayrton Senna
Instituto Ayrton Senna (IAS).
Senna was often quoted as using driving as a means for self-discovery
and racing as a metaphor for life: "The harder I push, the more I find
within myself. I am always looking for the next step, a different
world to go into, areas where I have not been before. It's lonely
driving a Grand Prix car, but very absorbing. I have experienced new
sensations, and I want more. That is my excitement, my
Towards the end of his career, Senna became increasingly preoccupied
with the dangers of his profession. On the morning of his death, he
initiated the reformation of the GPDA safety organisation, with which
he had intended to work to improve the safety of his sport.
Senna owned several properties, including an organic farm in Tatuí,
Brazil (where he built a go-kart track in 1991), a beach house in
Angra dos Reis, Brazil, an apartment in São Paulo, Brazil, an
apartment in Monaco, and a house in Algarve, Portugal. In 1994,
the latter residence is where Senna let his last girlfriend, Adriane
Galisteu, stay for the start of the European leg of the F1 season. The
pair had met the year before at an hospitality event by McLaren
sponsor, Shell, as part of the Brazilian Grand Prix for which Galisteu
had to audition through a model agency, to work as a hostess.
Senna's own "BAe-125" private jet (top) and passing time with a model
Senna enjoyed a range of physical activities including running,
waterskiing, jet skiing, and paddleboarding. He also had several
hobbies, such as flying real and model planes and helicopters,
boating, fishing, and riding his favourite
Ducati motorbikes. His
private jet was a British Aerospace 125, and he also piloted his own
helicopter between his residences in
Brazil along with travelling to
races. For his 29th birthday in 1989, the Brazilian Air Force
gifted Senna a flight on one of their jet fighters (a Dassault Mirage
III), which bears commemorative livery and is now exhibited at the
Aerospace Museum of Rio de Janeiro.
Senna was close friends with
McLaren teammate Gerhard Berger, and the
two were always playing practical jokes on each other.[full
citation needed] Berger is quoted as saying, "He taught me a lot about
our sport, I taught him to laugh."[full citation needed] In the
documentary film The Right to Win, made in 2004 as a tribute to Senna,
Frank Williams notably recalls that as good a driver as Senna was,
ultimately "he was an even greater man outside of the car than he was
Senna was married to Lilian de Vasconcelos Souza from 1981 until 1982.
Vasconcelos, whom he had known since childhood, had difficulty
adapting to her husband's racing life in England. Vasconcelos later
said: "I was his second passion. His first passion was racing... There
was nothing more important in the world for him, not family, not wife,
nothing." Though he did not have much of an income early in his
racing career, Senna insisted on supporting his wife with no help from
his father out of a sense of pride. The marriage ended in
divorce. Senna then courted Adriane Yamin, daughter of an entrepreneur
from São Paulo, who was 15 years old when they began the relationship
in 1985 and often chaperoned by her mother during meetings with Senna.
They were briefly engaged, but the relationship was broken off by
Senna in late 1988. Senna dated Brazilian TV star
Xuxa from late
1988 until 1990. He then dated Christine Ferracciu, who lived with him
at his homes in
Monaco and Portugal, on and off between 1990 and
1991. Senna also had an affair with American model Carol
Alt, and briefly dated models Marjorie Andrade and Elle
Macpherson. At the time of his death, Senna was in a
relationship with Brazilian model, and later TV personality, Adriane
One of the most extravagant claims involving Senna's past partners was
made by Edilaine de Barros, a former model better known as Marcella
Praddo. She alleged that the couple dated from 1992 to 1994. Weeks
after Senna's death, de Barros' child, Victoria, was born and claims
that Senna was the father were soon made but abandoned following
rejection of those claims by the Senna family. Years later, after
joining a religious sect, the former model was convinced to sue
against the estate of Senna. In 2000, DNA tests of hair and saliva
samples given by Senna's parents conclusively proved that he was not
the father of de Barros' child.
In his early years in Formula One, Senna was the subject of a smear
campaign orchestrated by Nelson Piquet, ranging from Senna being
regarded a taxi driver to being homosexual given his failed
marriage. According to a 1990 interview by Brazilian edition of
Playboy, Senna declared that he lost his virginity at 13 years of age
to a prostitute arranged by his cousin, and he also insinuated having
had a relationship with Piquet's would-be wife (hence Piquet's
Formula One driver
Bruno Senna is the nephew of Senna (being
his sister Viviane's son) of whom he said in 1993: "If you think I'm
fast, just wait until you see my nephew Bruno." Due to the death
of his uncle, Bruno initially gave up motor racing at his family's
insistence. He eventually raced in F1 between 2010 and 2012, in
the latter year for the Williams team, which was a decision that,
reportedly, had a significant emotional impact on the Senna family and
was seen by some as a signing only resulting from Bruno's big name and
the money it could bring.
Non-racing commercial activities
In the late 1980s, to take advantage of the close relationship Honda
had formed with Senna, the Japanese company asked him to help
fine-tune the Honda NSX's suspension setting during its final
development stages. Test runs were conducted at various circuits,
including five sessions with prototypes at the
Suzuka Circuit where
chief NSX engineer
Shigeru Uehara and his team were present to gather
Senna's direct input. Senna found the prototype NSX initially
lacked chassis stiffness to the level to which he was accustomed, so
the final production version was further reinforced to his
Senna reportedly had access to three of these cars: a black 1993 NSX
in Brazil, which he ordered to his specifications, bearing license
plate BSS-8888, which represents his initials for "Beco" – his
childhood nickname – "Senna da Silva" and 8 to commemorate his first
F1 championship in 1988; a red one with licence plate SX-25-59, which
was loaned to him by Honda Portugal; a black one purchased by Antonio
Carlos de Almeida Braga, who was a close personal friend, manager, and
mentor of Ayrton Senna.
Senna was also instrumental in bringing
Audi cars into his native
country, both as an import and manufacturing business.
Brazil in 1994 via Senna's company, Senna Import, founded in 1993.
Sales began in April that year, just a month before his untimely
death. In 1999,
Audi Senna was created as a joint venture of
Senna Import. Aside from the black NSX mentioned above, Senna's
other personal car in 1994 was a silver
Audi 100 S4 Avant.
In the early 1990s, Senna developed his own merchandise brand
represented by a logo with a double S, after his full surname, "Senna
da Silva". This logo is meant to represent an S chicane on a
racing circuit. The Senna brand was on apparel, watches, bicycles
(Carraro), motorcycles and boats. Hublot, TAG Heuer, and
Universal Genève have created limited-edition watches to honor
Senna, both during his lifetime and after his death.
A statue of
Ayrton Senna at the Parco delle Acque Minerali by the
Tamburello corner of the
Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari
Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari in Italy.
Many safety improvements were made in the sport following Senna's and
Ratzenberger's deaths and Barrichello's crash. These include improved
crash barriers, redesigned tracks, higher crash safety standards (such
as larger sills along the driver cockpit) and major cuts to engine
power. The Tamburello corner and other parts of the Imola circuit were
altered for 1995. This was despite calls for action in 1989, after a
serious high-speed crash in which Senna's friend, Gerhard Berger,
suffered burns to his hand. No action took place after that crash
because, following an inspection by Senna and Berger, they ended up
siding with officials who had, for years, claimed that the wall could
not be moved further back due to a river nearby. Revised on-track
medical procedures also saw personnel hold up curtains at crash sites,
to prevent the public from viewing distressing images as had occurred
on live television with Senna.
In July 1994, the
Brazil national football team dedicated their World
Cup victory to Senna, and collectively held a banner on the field
Italy in the final. Senna had met various
members of the squad, including Ronaldo and Leonardo, three
months earlier in Paris, telling them "this is our year".
Throughout the rest of the 1994 season, Senna was commemorated in
various ways. Damon Hill, along with Michael Schumacher, dedicated
their individual success to Senna with Hill's victory in the Spanish
Grand Prix and Schumacher's world-championship victory in the
Australian Grand Prix.
A few months before his death, Senna had discussed with his sister the
foundation of a charitable organization, based on a desire to
contribute to those less fortunate in a more organised and effective
manner. After his death, Viviane Senna set up the IAS in his honor,
which has invested nearly US$80 million over the last 12 years in
social programs and actions in partnership with schools, government,
NGOs, and the private sector, aimed at offering children and teenagers
from low-income backgrounds the skills and opportunities they need to
develop their full potential as persons, citizens, and future
professionals. The foundation is officially advised by Bernie
Ecclestone, Frank Williams, Alain Prost, and Gerhard Berger. The
Senninha ("Little Senna") cartoon character, born in 1993/94, was
another means by which Senna extended his role-model status in favour
of Brazilian children.
A monument dedicated to Senna's Formula 1 racing, located at the
entrance of the tunnel under
Ibirapuera Park in São Paulo, Brazil.
In his home country of Brazil, the main freeway from the international
São Paulo and a tunnel along route to the heart of the
city are named in his honour. Also, one of the most important freeways
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro is named after Senna ("Avenida Ayrton Senna"). The
main road in Senna's Portuguese resort at Quinta do Lago, Algarve, was
also dedicated to him, because his villa there was very near (but not
on) this road. A portion of the
Interlagos circuit in
São Paulo is
named the "Senna Esses Chicane" in his honor and decorated with
commissioned art from beloved Brazilian artist Luciana Bermelho. In
the English town of Reading, Berkshire, where Senna lived for a short
period of time, an avenue in the suburb of Tilehurst was named after
In April 2000, Senna was inducted into the International Motorsports
Hall of Fame. That year, the UK public also voted Senna's opening
lap of the 1993 European Grand Prix, the 43rd in the list of the 100
Greatest Sporting Moments.
In 2004, a book called Ayrton: The Hero Revealed (original title:
Ayrton: O Herói Revelado) was published in
Brazil for the 10th
anniversary of his death. Senna remains a national hero in
his grave attracts more visitors than the graves of John F. Kennedy,
Marilyn Monroe, and Elvis Presley combined.
In addition, to mark the 10th anniversary of Senna's death, on 21
April 2004, over 10,000 people attended a charity match in a football
stadium near Imola. The game was organised by several devoted Italian
and Canadian fans of Senna, bringing the
Brazil team that won the 1994
World Cup to face the "Nazionale Piloti", an exhibition team composed
exclusively of top race car drivers. Senna had been a part of the
latter in 1985. Michael Schumacher, Jarno Trulli, Rubens Barrichello,
Fernando Alonso, and many others faced the likes of Dunga, Careca,
Taffarel, and several of the team that won the
FIFA World Cup in the
United States 10 years earlier. The match finished 5–5 and the money
was donated to the IAS. Viviane Senna, the president of the IAS, was
also involved in the kick-off of this match. That same weekend, Bernie
Ecclestone revealed that he still believed Senna was and remained the
best F1 driver he had ever seen.
Since his death, Senna has been the subject of several songs (either
wholly dedicated to him or simply referring to him) including by:
Lucio Dalla (song titled "Ayrton") and
rock band The Rock Alchemist (tribute song "Live or Die"); Jazz
pianist Kim Pensyl; Japanese jazz-fusion guitarist and T-square
Masahiro Andoh (references in songs such as "Faces" and
subsequent revisions, like "The Face");
Chris Rea (on his song
"Saudade"); Spanish band Delorean (2009 extended play entitled Ayrton
Senna); British acid jazz band Corduroy (1994 song "Ayrton Senna").
Between 1996 and 1998, to pay tribute to Senna, the Italian motorcycle
Ducati produced three special "Senna" editions of their
Ducati was at the time owned by Claudio Castiglioni, a
personal friend of Senna who was an avid
Ducati owner and endorsed the
release of this 916 in March 1994. In 2002, under the presidency of
MV Agusta also released the special-edition F4 750 Senna
motorbike followed by the F4 Senna 1000 in 2006. In both instances,
each edition was limited to 300 units and, just like with the Ducati,
all profits from sales were donated to the Ayrton Senna
Foundation. In 2013,
Ducati also released a special edition of
their new top-of-the-range sportbike, the 1199 Panigale S Senna.
In 2014, the IAS commissioned a commemorative
Vespa that was auctioned
for charity. It was custom-painted in the colours of Ayrton Senna's
helmet by Alan Mosca, the son of Senna's helmet design creator, Sid,
based on more than 50 "T5 Pole Position" models of the PX125 scooter
that Ayrton won as part of the award to Formula 1 polesitters
Piaggio in 1985.
The "Senna Chicane" at the
Adelaide Street Circuit, South Australia
The organisers of the former
Formula One Grand Prix street circuit in
Adelaide, South Australia, renamed the first chicane the "Senna
Chicane" in his honour in 1994, and also a road in the
of Wingfield is named "Senna Road". A shortened version of the
Adelaide circuit (which remains the site of Senna's last Formula One
win) and the chicane remain in use for local motorsport events, and a
commemorative concrete plaque installed in 1995, bearing Senna's
signature and hand prints, is also located there. The Adelaide
circuit was said to be a favourite of Senna's, and he was reportedly
unhappy about the upcoming shift of venue from
Adelaide to Melbourne
in 1996. Other motorsports circuits have similarly named sections
of their track after Senna, such as the
Circuito de Jerez
Circuito de Jerez in Spain,
Circuit Gilles Villeneuve
Circuit Gilles Villeneuve in Canada.
He has been voted the best driver of all time in various motorsport
F1 Racing magazine's 2004 poll, and German newspaper
Bild am Sonntag's poll of current drivers in 2010. In 2009, a
poll of 217 current and former
Formula One drivers conducted by
Autosport magazine named Senna as "the greatest
Formula One driver who
ever lived". In 2012,
BBC Sport journalists voted Senna as
Formula One driver of all time, after naming their top 20
greatest drivers in a countdown on their website. In 1993, a poll
of F1 drivers gave Senna a near-unanimous vote as the best driver in
In 2006, the Japanese public ranked Senna 22nd in a survey of their
favorite persons in history. The results were part of The Top 100
Historical Persons in
Japan program broadcast by
Nippon TV on 7 May
In 2007, Prince Albert of
Monaco unveiled a plaque in honour of Senna
in a ceremony that was attended by Vivane Senna. An exhibition also
took place that showcased Senna's victories around Monaco, along with
his helmets that were borrowed from Senna's family and a selection of
McLaren cars raced by Senna that were brought over from Motegi.
On 21 March 2010, on the day that would have marked Senna's 50th
birthday, the football team Corinthians played a tape in memory of
Senna which was also part of the theme played at the
São Paulo Motor
On 25 July 2010, the BBC motoring show, Top Gear paid an emotional
tribute to Senna with British
Formula One World Champion, Lewis
Hamilton driving Senna's original MP4/4, with which he won the 1988
title. This was prior to the release of the
BAFTA Award winning
documentary named after him, Senna, directed by Asif Kapadia. In this
documentary broadcast only once by the BBC, Senna is named the number
one driver ever, by fellow racing drivers. A StudioCanal, Working
Title Films, and Midfield Films documentary production, Senna was
released to critical acclaim.
Since Senna's death, every Williams F1 car has incorporated a small
Senna 'S' logo in its Formula 1 car to honour their former driver and
in support of the IAS. A revised logo was featured in 2014 for the
20th anniversary of Senna's death.
In July 2013, Honda released a video of an audio-visual tribute on the
Suzuka circuit in the dark, titled "Sound of Honda – Ayrton Senna
1989". Using the telemetry and sound of the Honda-powered McLaren
MP4/5 driven by the Brazilian driver, Honda recreated the then lap
record lap of 1:38.041 minutes by positioning speakers and lights
along the 5.8 km track and activating them in synchronization
with the race car's position during that lap. In May of that
year, Honda also reconfirmed its return to the sport as McLaren's
engine supplier from 2015, with both companies again leveraging on
Senna's legend as part of their advertising campaign since.
On 25 October 2013, a holiday
PlayStation 3 bundle with Gran Turismo 6
was announced which is dedicated to his memory, with some of the
proceeds of this bundle going to help the IAS. This was not the
first time that Senna was immortalized in a video game since, in 1992,
Sega launched "Ayrton Senna's Super
Monaco GP II" for its game
consoles at the time. Apart from featuring advice from Senna himself,
the tracks included Senna's own farm circuit in Tatuí,
São Paulo and
it was based on the 1991 F1 World Championship (albeit, with
fictitious rival drivers and teams due to licensing restrictions).
In March 2014, during the
Brazilian Carnival celebrations, the samba
group Unidos da Tijuca paid tribute to Senna in one of their parades
in Rio de Janeiro. The group showcased his
McLaren car along with
other characters associated with speed, such as Sonic, The Flash, and
Usain Bolt. The school won the coveted trophy for the best parade of
On 21 March 2014, Google had a special Doodle to honor Senna's 54th
birthday that day.
In occasion of the 20th anniversary of Senna's death, on 29 April
2014, in partnership with the IAS, the Brazilian regional airline Azul
Linhas Aereas paid tribute by baptizing its Embraer ERJ-195
(registration no. PR-AYU (cn 19000434)) with a new name and livery.
The airplane, which was formerly called "Azultec", has been renamed
"#sennasempre" ("Senna always") and features the IAS logo on the rear
side of the fuselage and the graphics of Senna's F1 helmet at the
front, making it appear as though it is wearing the iconic
Tributes were also made at the Imola circuit to mark the 20th
anniversary of Senna's death. On 1 May 2014, thousands of
fans from around the world gathered at the Tamburello corner, at the
exact scene where Senna suffered his fatal crash 20 years earlier, to
hold a minute's silence. Various current and former F1 drivers were in
attendance, including: Ferrari drivers
Fernando Alonso and Kimi
Ferrari Driver Academy member Jules Bianchi; Senna's
close friend and
McLaren teammate, Gerhard Berger; and the Italians
Jarno Trulli, Ivan Capelli, Pierluigi Martini, Andrea de Cesaris, and
Emanuele Pirro. Flowers and other cherishable items were also
placed around the statue of Senna, situated directly adjacent to the
In May and July 2014, the Republic of
San Marino issued 70,008
commemorative EUR 2,50 stamps as well as 8,000 silver proof
coins in Eur 5,00 denomination. In December 2014, a French
company also produced 520 commemorative coins designed by a Brazilian
artist. The American firm
Rosland Capital collaborated with the
Ayrton Senna Institute to produce a commemorative coin collection in
In February 2015, international footballer Alessandro Del Piero
inaugurated the "AYRTON" exhibition held in
Turin until May 2015. It
is a tribute to Senna curated by, and with tickets proceeds going to,
In July 2015, an update to
Angry Birds Go!
Angry Birds Go! added
Ayrton Senna as a
Various Madame Tussauds's wax museums around the world exhibit a
full-sized figure of Senna in racing overalls.
On 10 June 2017, after qualifying on pole for the Canadian Grand Prix
Lewis Hamilton was presented with a Senna helmet that had been worn by
Senna during a race. It was given by Senna's family in recognition of
Hamilton's 65th pole position, matching Senna's tally.
On 9 December 2017,
McLaren unveiled the
McLaren Senna, a 789bhp
track-focused hypercar, named after Senna.
Senna's helmet bearing the colours of the Brazilian national flag.
In his karting days, Senna's helmet consisted of a plain white
background with notable features absent. He experimented with several
designs to satisfy him, such as a white, yellow, and green
helmet, before settling on a design by Sid Mosca that included a
yellow background with a green stripe surrounding the upper visor and
a light metallic blue stripe surrounding the lower visor (both stripes
are delineated in the other stripe's color) that was first seen in
1979; Mosca also painted helmets for
Emerson Fittipaldi and Nelson
According to Mosca, the blue and green stripes symbolised movement and
aggression, while the overall yellow colour symbolised youth; the
three colors were also identifiable with the Flag of Brazil. The
helmet never had significant changes, apart from sponsorship. One such
change was that Senna would occasionally alter the stripe from blue to
black. The tone of yellow changed a number of times, while usually a
rich sunburst yellow, in 1985 and 1986 in some races, he used a
fluorescent neon yellow colour. In 1994, the helmet was a lighter,
paler yellow to complement the blue and white of the Williams car. He
used a number of helmet brands throughout his career. From 1977 to
1989, he used Bell (Star – '77 to '82, XFM-1 – '83 to '89), from
1990 to 1991 Honda's own Rheos brand, 1992 to 1993 he used Shoei (X-4)
and for 1994 he returned to using Bell (M3 Kevlar). The helmet
worn by Senna in the fatal race was returned to Bell in 2002 and was
incinerated while family members watched.
Bruno Senna's helmet design is an adaptation of his uncle's (seen here
parading the 1985
Lotus 97T at the 2010 Japanese Grand Prix).
His nephew Bruno wore a modified version of his helmet design (a
yellow helmet with a green and blue stripe) during his Formula One
career, but the stripes are shaped after an S rather than being
straight, under the chin area it has a green stripe, and it has a blue
rounded rectangle in the top area. Bruno sported a modified helmet
design for the final three races of the 2011 season to honour the 20th
anniversary of Ayrton winning his last world championship.
At the 1995 Brazilian Grand Prix,
Rubens Barrichello incorporated part
of Senna's helmet design into his own. For the 2011 Brazilian
Grand Prix, another variant of Senna's helmet was used by Lewis
Hamilton and by Barrichello too. Hamilton used the design with
permission from Senna's sister Viviane and the helmet was later sold
in support of the IAS. At the 2015 Brazilian Grand Prix, Hamilton
again varied his helmet design (this time, the rear only given FIA
restrictions on design changes in force from 2015) accompanied with a
Twitter announcement stating "Just for you, Brazil!! A tribute to the
Outside of motor racing, Brazilian cyclist
Murilo Fischer wore a
helmet based on Senna's helmet colour scheme of yellow with green and
blue stripes on stage 11 of the 2015 Giro d'Italia, which finished on
the Imola circuit.
Formula One results
(key) (Races in bold indicate pole position; races in italics indicate
Toleman Group Motorsport
Hart 415T 1.5 L4t
John Player Special
John Player Special Team Lotus
Renault EF15 1.5 V6t
John Player Special
John Player Special Team Lotus
Renault EF15B 1.5 V6t
Team Lotus Honda
Honda RA166E 1.5 V6t
Honda Marlboro McLaren
Honda RA168E 1.5 V6t
Honda Marlboro McLaren
Honda RA109A 3.5 V10
Honda Marlboro McLaren
Honda RA109E 3.5 V10
Honda Marlboro McLaren
Honda RA121E 3.5 V12
Honda Marlboro McLaren
Honda RA121E 3.5 V12
Honda RA122E/B 3.5 V12
Ford HBE7 3.5 V8
Ford HBA8 3.5 V8
Rothmans Williams Renault
Renault RS6 3.5 V10
‡ Half points awarded as less than 75% of race distance was
† Driver did not finish the Grand Prix, but was classified as he
completed over 90% of the race distance.
Formula One records
Senna holds these
Formula One records:
Most wins leading throughout a Grand Prix
1990 Italian Grand Prix
Most consecutive pole positions
1988 Spanish Grand Prix – 1989
United States Grand Prix
Most consecutive front row starts
1988 German Grand Prix –1989 Australian Grand Prix
Most consecutive wins at the same Grand Prix
Monaco Grand Prix
Monaco Grand Prix 1989–1993
Most pole positions at the same Grand Prix
San Marino Grand Prix 1985–1991, 1994[N 1]
Most consecutive pole positions at the same Grand Prix
San Marino Grand Prix 1985–1991
Highest percentage of front row starts in a season
^ record shared with Michael Schumacher, who took 8 poles at the
Japanese Grand Prix.
^ record shared with
Alain Prost (1993) and
Damon Hill (1996), who
also started from the front row in every race of a season.
Formula One Grand Prix wins by Ayrton Senna
^ a b Up until 1990, not all points scored by a driver contributed to
their final World Championship tally (see list of points scoring
systems for more information). Numbers without parentheses are
Championship points; numbers in parentheses are total points scored.
^ "Alonso, Massa, Schumacher say Senna is "greatest" on Top
Murray Walker lists Senna as number one".
^ "Ayrton Senna: Brazilian takes his place among our 10 best F1
^ "Obituary: Ayrton Senna". 2 May 1994.
^ "Formula 1's Greatest Drivers – AUTOSPORT.com – Ayrton Senna".
F1greatestdrivers.autosport.com. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
^ "Drivers vote Senna the greatest ever – F1 news". Autosport.Com.
10 December 2009. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
^ "Alonso voted best driver". Sify.com. 23 July 2010. Retrieved 1 May
^ a b talent, Formula (20 November 2012). "Formula 1's greatest
drivers. Number 1: Ayrton Senna". BBC Sport. Retrieved 22 November
^ "Gafisa presta homenagem a Ayrton Senna: "morador ilustre a gente
não esquece"". Senna.globo.com. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
^ "Ayrton Senna: Tragic Hero". History and Legends of Grand Prix
Racing. Archived from the original on 1 October 2012. Retrieved 30
^ "Do left-handers make better drivers?". Metro. 12 August 2008.
Retrieved 1 April 2014.
^ a b c d e Williams, Richard (2010) . The Death of Ayrton
Senna. Penguin Books.
^ Kapadia, Behram (2004). Formula One: The Story of Grand Prix Racing.
Silverdale Books. p. 66. ISBN 1-85605-899-9.
^ "100 years in 34" (in Portuguese). Veja. 3 May 1994. Retrieved 24
^ a b c "
Ayrton Senna – The Right to Win (2004)
^ Ayrton Senna: Racing in My Blood, Official Video Biography (Kultur
Ayrton Senna – Racing Career". MotorSports Etc.
^ a b c Calkin, Jessamy (20 May 2011). "Senna: the driver who lit up
Formula One". London: The Telegraph. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
^ Hilton 1999 pp. 38–40
^ Hilton (2005), pp. 9, 33–43, 154.
^ "From the Vault: F1 is robbed one of its most dazzling talents".
London: The Guardian. 30 April 2008. Archived from the original on 5
May 2008. Retrieved 30 April 2008.
^ Hilton, Christopher, Ayrton Senna – The Complete Story
(2004), pp. 99–116.
^ Hilton (2005), pp. 43–47, 154.
^ Greg Girard, Ian Lambot, and Philip Newsome, Macau Grand Prix: The
Road To Success (Watermark Surrey, 1998).
^ a b Benson, Andrew (1 May 2009). "Senna Remembered". BBC Sport.
Archived from the original on 3 May 2009. Retrieved 1 May 2009.
^ Clarkson, Tom (18 October 2012). "When Senna drove for Brabham". F1
Racing. Haymarket Publications. 201 (November 2012): 62–67.
^ Rubython, Tom, The Life of Senna (2004), p. 90
^ Hilton (2004), pp. 121–122.
^ Drackett, Phil (1985). Brabham : Story of a racing team. Arthur
Barker. ISBN 0-213-16915-0. pp. 134–135
^ "Happy birthday to Johnny Cecotto". 25 January 2010. Archived from
the original on 4 November 2013.
^ Hilton (2004), p 138.
^ Mark Hughes and Simon Arron, The Complete Book of Formula One
(Motorbooks International, 2003), p. 310.
^ Hamilton, Maurice (1984) Autocourse 1984–85 p.141 Hazleton
publishing ISBN 0-905138-32-5
^ "ESPN Profile". ESPN.
^ Vasconcelos, Luis (1 May 2014). "
Pat Symonds remembers Senna: Ayrton
moved the goal posts!". Retrieved 10 October 2014. [permanent
^ Hilton (2004), pp. 149–152.
^ "FIA World Endurance Championship 1984". wsrp.ic.cz. Archived from
the original on 30 December 2006. Retrieved 14 January 2007.
^ Hilton (2004), p 140.
^ Timothy Collings and Sarah Edworthy, The
Formula One Years: A
Season-by-Season Account of the World's Premier Motor Racing
Championship from 1950 to the Present Day (Carlton Books, 2002), p.
^ Hamilton, Maurice (ed.) (1985) Autocourse 1985 – 1986
Hazleton publishing pp.74 & 104 ISBN 0-905138-38-4
^ Hilton (2004), p 427
^ Hilton (2004), p 163
^ "Mansell after Grand Prix mark". Rome News-Tribune. 3 November 1985.
^ Hilton (2004), p. 170.
^ Hilton (2004), p 428
^ "Ayrton Senna, Lotus 98T". Thomson Studio.
^ "Senna: The rally driver!". wrc.com. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 30
^ Fábio Seixas: O contrato de Senna em 1987, Folha de S.Paulo, 10
July 2013, retrieved 13 July 2013
^ "Motor Racing: Testy times for Senna and Schumacher". The
Independent. London. 17 July 1992.
^ Hilton (2004), p 432
^ Jones F., Robert (29 June 1987). "Street Smart In Motown". Sports
Illustrated. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
^ "Banned! Active suspension". F1 Fanatic. Retrieved 4 June
^ Hilton (2004), p 186
^ Hilton (2004), p 188
^ "Engines: Honda Motor Company". grandprix.com. Retrieved 22 April
^ a b "
Ayrton Senna by Alain Prost". prostfan.com. Retrieved 2 October
^ Hughes and Arron (2003), p. 340.
^ McGowan, Tom (25 May 2011). "The fast and the furious: Ayrton
Senna's greatest F1 moments". CNN. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
^ Bruce Jones, ed. 50 Years of the
Formula One World Championship
(Carlton, 1999). pp. 221–222.
^ Christopher Hilton, Ayrton Senna: The Whole Story (Haynes, 2004)
^ Tremayne, David (29 October 2012). "
Sebastian Vettel wins Ayrton
Senna-style to extend title advantage". London: The Independent.
Retrieved 29 October 2012.
^ "Hall of Fame –
Ayrton Senna 1989–1994". Marshall GP. Archived
from the original on 24 March 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
^ "Senna Journalists
Special – Maurice Hamilton's commentary".
SpySportsF1. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
^ "Drama in Suzuka: Senna disqualified, Prost 'wins' world title". New
Straits Times. p. 28.
^ Jones, ed. (1999), pp. 227–228.
^ "F1 – Grandprix.com > Features > News Feature > McLaren
versus Jean-Marie Balestre". Grandprix.com. 1 December 1989. Retrieved
2 October 2010.
^ "I'm Leaving
McLaren says Prost". New Straits Times. 9 August 1989.
^ "1990 – Senna's Revenge". F1 Fanatic.
^ "Senna Journalists Special". SpySportsF1. Retrieved 1 May
^ Menard and Vassal (2003), pp. 106–107.
Ayrton Senna at Suzuka revisited". Motorsport magazine. Retrieved
18 November 2013.
^ "Ayrton Senna's Famous interview with Jackie Stewart". YouTube. 21
September 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
^ Menard and Vassal(2003), p. 107.
^ "Senna blows his top at Suzuka". autosport.com. Retrieved 30 May
^ Codling, Stuart; Mann, James; Windsor, Peter; Murray, Gordon (2010).
Art of the Formula 1 Race Car. Motorbooks. p. 177.
^ "Senna returns to the front of the pack". New Straits Times. 6 July
1991. p. 47.
^ "Senna gives up win for driver's title". Boca Raton News. 21 October
1991. p. 11.
^ Ernesto Rodrigues, Ayrton: The Hero Revealed (1994)
^ "EXCLUSIVE: Watch
Ayrton Senna at the 1991 AUTOSPORT Awards".
Autosport. 31 October 2011. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
^ Menard and Vassal (2003), pp. 129–130.
^ Menard and Vassal (2003), pp. 128–129.
^ Jones (1999), pp. 253, 257.
^ Collings and Edworthy (2002), pp. 244–247.
^ "Motor Racing: Testy times for Senna and Schumacher". London: The
Independent. 17 July 1992. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
^ "Ferrari fail in attempt to recurit Senna". New Straits Times. 21
August 1992. p. 45.
^ "F1 Biography: Senna Gets Penske Test". f1b. 4 October 2011.
Retrieved 9 November 2014.
^ Menard and Vassal (2003), p. 132.
^ "Penske test in Indy".
Ayrton Senna Official. Archived from the
original on 25 December 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
^ Fagnan, René (27 August 2012). "Penske engineer recalls the day
Ayrton Senna drove an Indy Car". Auto123.com. Retrieved 9 November
^ Menard and Vassal (2003), p. 130.
^ Menard and Vassal (2003), pp. 129–132.
^ Collings and Edworthy (2002), p. 239, 250.
McLaren International". GP Encyclopedia. Retrieved 30
^ a b "History of McLaren: Time Line – the 1990s". mclaren.com.
Retrieved 30 May 2007.
^ Menard and Vassal (2003), p. 133.
^ Collings and Edworthy (2002), p. 250.
^ "Fangio: all-time great and gentleman". The Independent. 18 July
^ "Grand Prix Results: South African GP, 1993". GP Encyclopedia.
Retrieved 30 May 2007.
^ Collings and Edworthy (2002), p. 250
^ "1993 European Grand Prix". Formula 1. Archived from the original on
6 June 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2011.
^ Menard and Vassal (2003), p. 134.
^ Thomsen, Ian (24 May 1993). "Senna, Hill and Monaco: Roaring Through
the Ghost of a Winner Past". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved
28 May 2007.
^ Menard and Vassal (2003), pp. 134–135.
Ayrton Senna Suzuka 1993". ayrton-senna.com. Retrieved 19 March
^ Collings and Edworthy (2002), pp. 251–253.
^ a b Lopes, Rafael; Murgel, Leonardo; Grünwald, Alexander (1 May
2009). "Ayrton Senna: o período na Williams". Globo. Retrieved 21
^ Newman, Bruce (9 May 1994). "The Last Ride". Sports Illustrated.
Retrieved 13 October 2012.
Autosport 24 January 1994 Vol 134 No. 4 p.28
Ayrton Senna 1960–1994: In his own words". ESPN. Retrieved 21
^ "Pacific GP, 1994 Race Report". grandprix.com.
^ "Senna retrospective". BBC News. 21 April 2004. Retrieved 26 April
Ayrton Senna wanted to sign for Ferrari before his tragic death at
Imola, reveals Luca di Montezemolo". The Telegraph. Retrieved 1 May
^ "Grand Prix Results: Pacific GP, 1994". GrandPrix.com. Inside F1.
Archived from the original on 5 September 2008. Retrieved
^ Saward, Joe (1994-08-11). "Globetrotter: Rocking the boat".
GrandPrix.com. Inside F1. Archived from the original on 29 September
2008. Retrieved 2008-08-28.
^ a b The Last Teammate (1994
San Marino Grand Prix's 20th Anniversary
documentary) @ 8'25". SkySportsF1. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
1994 Australian Grand Prix
1994 Australian Grand Prix Press Conference with Michael Schumacher.
FIA. 13 November 1994. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
^ "Hotel Castello Suite 200, where Senna stayed in his last night".
^ "Ayrton Senna's interview by Murray Walker, 28 May 1994".
^ Senna film (2010)
^ Hilton (2004), p. 341
^ "The incredible journey of F1 legend
Ayrton Senna is released in UK
cinemas". London: Daily Mail. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
^ "Ayrton, Prof & Me". Institute Quarterly. Archived from the
original on 26 November 2012.
^ a b c d Jones, Dylan (22 April 2011). "The last 96 hours of Ayrton
Senna". 8wforix. Archived from the original on 31 October 2012.
Retrieved 9 September 2012.
^ "History of the F1 Safety Car". enterF1.com. 21 April 2009.
Retrieved 10 August 2010.
^ Lorenzini, Tommaso (23 April 2014). "Ayrton Senna, il racconto della
dottoressa: "Così mi morì in braccio"". Libero Quotidiano. Retrieved
12 December 2014.
^ Hilton (1994), p. 386
^ Longer, Andrew (31 October 1994). "Ayrton Senna: The Last Hours".
The Times. p. 30. Back at the track, in the shattered remains of
Senna's car, they discovered a furled
Austrian flag Senna had intended
to dedicate his 42nd Grand Prix victory to Ratzenberger's
^ "Senna – Journalist Special". SkySportF1. 27 April 2014.
^ Rubython (2004), p. 422
^ Margolis, Mac (10 May 1994). "Death of Speeding Star Pains a Nation
Looking for Heroes : Ayrton Senna's fatal crash shattered Brazil,
fueling anger and sadness". Los Angeles Times.
^ a b "Senna would have beaten Schumacher in equal cars". The
Independent. UK. 22 April 2004. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
^ David Tremayne; Mark Skewis; Stuart Williams; Paul Fearnley (5 April
1994). "Track Topics". Motoring News. News Publications Ltd.
^ "Max went to Roland's funeral". f1racing.net. 23 April 2004.
Retrieved 28 October 2006.
^ "Romans 8:38–39". Bible Gateway.
^ アイルトン・セナの去った夜 (in Japanese). Archived from
the original on 11 July 2011.
^ "Grand Prix Insider". P1MAG.
^ "Auto Racing: Schumacher captures
Monaco Grand Prix". Times Daily.
16 May 1994. p. 2C.
^ "Top designers acquitted on Senna". BBC News. 27 May 2005.
^ "Senna, Head Responsabile". Gazzetta dello Sport.
^ a b Pandey, Manish (1 August 2011). "Ayrton Senna: The Faith Of The
Man Who Could Drive On Water". The Huffington Post.
^ a b Philip, Robert (17 October 2007). "Spirit of
Ayrton Senna is
Lewis Hamilton's spur". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Archived from the
original on 13 July 2010. Retrieved 27 July 2010.
^ "Hamilton visits Senna's grave". ESPN. 16 October 2009. Retrieved 27
^ "Top 50 Richest Athletes". Celebrity Net Worth. Retrieved 1 May
^ "The Official Formula 1 Website". Formula1.com. Archived from the
original on 9 June 2009. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
^ Widdows, Rob (2 February 2008). "Instituto Ayrton Senna: Gone but
not forgotten". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 24 June
^ Collings and Edworthy (2002), p. 238.
^ "The F1 FAQ". Atlas F1.
^ "Europe House of the Day". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from
the original on 25 January 2011. Retrieved 23 December 2010.
^ "'Remembering Ayrton': His biggest hobby ..." richardsf1.
Archived from the original on 7 April 2014.
^ Moses, Sam (18 March 1991). "Still Head of the Class". Sports
Illustrated. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
^ "MUSAL – Página inicial".
^ Menard and Vassal (2003), p. 70.
^ Rubython, p. 267
^ Kleber Tomaz Do G1 SP. "G1 – Primeira mulher de Senna lamenta não
aparecer em filme sobre piloto – notícias em São Paulo".
G1.globo.com. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
^ "Ayrton, the Hero Revealed – a biography of the Brazilian pilot".
^ a b c Rodrigues, Ernesto (2004). Ayrton: o herói revelado (in
Portuguese). Objetiva. p. 639. ISBN 978-85-7302-602-3.
^ "Carol Alt: i primi cinquant'anni di un'americana un po' italiana
– Panorama" (in Italian). Societa.panorama.it. 24 November 2010.
Retrieved 1 May 2014.
^ "The Body Beautiful Exploited? Not Supermodel Elle Macpherson". The
^ "Adriane Galisteu: "
Ayrton Senna está no meu coração e na minha
cabeça"" [Adriane Galisteu: "Ayrton Senna's in my heart and in my
head"]. Quem (in Portuguese). 7 November 2010. Retrieved 30 May
^ Atlas F1 (11 August 2000). "Senna Cleared by DNA Tests in Patrimony
Case". Autosport.com. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
^ a b "Formula One's Greatest Driver Lost His Virginity To A
Prostitute When He Was 13". Jalopnik. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
^ "Formula 1 – The Official F1 Website". Formula1.com. 12 November
2009. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
^ Miranda, Charles (25 April 2014). "The two decades since the death
Ayrton Senna have passed quickly, says the F1 legend's nephew". The
Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
^ Phelps, James (15 March 2012). "Ayrton Senna's nephew Bruno reunites
two of Formula One's most famous names". The Daily Telegraph. London.
Retrieved 11 March 2015.
^ Frankel, Andrew (1 September 2002). "Honda's NSX shows why Ayrton
was the greatest". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
^ "Honda NSX: Cult favourite resurrected". New Zealand Herald. 17
December 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
^ "Ayrton Senna". Retrieved 9 February 2015.
Audi Brasil > Companhia >
Audi no Brasil". Audi.com.br. 21
September 2010. Archived from the original on 6 October 2010.
Retrieved 2 October 2010.
^ "Folha Online – Classificados – Veículos –
Audi expõe S4 de
Ayrton Senna no Salão do Automóvel – 20/10/2004".
.folha.uol.com.br. 20 October 2004. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
^ "Senna: aceleramos os carros do campeão". Car and Driver
(Portugal). 11 June 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
^ Rubython (2004), p. 497
Hublot Launches MP-06 Senna Act IV Timepiece". SuperYachts.com. 12
TAG Heuer / Ayrton Senna". Europa Star. 1 December 2001.
^ "Universal Geneve newsletter". universal.ch. 12 February 2016.
^ Alsop, Derick (12 May 1994). "Motor Racing: Hill confronts life on
the track after Senna". The Independent. London. Retrieved 16 August
^ "World Cup history: 1994". Times LIVE. 7 June 2010. Retrieved 13
FIFA World Cup USA '94 – Tournament Report" (PDF). FIFA. 17 March
2003. p. 23 (document page: 22). Retrieved 13 September 2010.
... while the proud and delighted Brazilians were unrolling a
banner on the pitch dedicating their win to the late Formula 1 world
champion Ayrton Senna, who died in Imola in May 1994 ...'
^ "Ronaldo publica foto antiga em homenagem a Ayrton Senna". 21 March
^ "Ayrton Senna". Chinadaily.com.cn. 3 May 2004. Retrieved 1 May
^ "Mansell wins battle, Schumacher the war". Toledo Blade. 14 November
1994. p. 22.
^ "Hill victory sparks Williams optimism". New Straits Times. 31 May
1994. p. 42.
^ "Instituto Ayrton Senna". Senna.globo.com. Archived from the
original on 9 October 2010. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
^ "Senna's World:SENNINHA". Senna's World.
Ayrton Senna a legend... but not in the garden' "
Ayrton Senna Road,
Tilehurst, Berkshire, RG41 4JQ"
International Motorsports Hall of Fame
International Motorsports Hall of Fame adds Andretti".
Herald-Journal. 2 November 1999. p. D2.
^ "100 Greatest sporting moments – results". Channel 4. Retrieved 28
^ written by Ernesto Rodrigues, Editora Objetiva
^ "Il mistico e la belva.
Ayrton Senna secondo Lucio Dalla".
ilfoglio.it. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015.
^ "Live or die – The Rock Alchemist Official Web Site".
Ducati 1098 Senna Tribute Bike". TopSpeed.
Ducati (8 October 2013). "
Ducati present "Senna" version of 1199
Panigale S exclusively in
Brazil from June 2014 (press
^ "Senna's relationship with
Vespa takes center stage in auction".
AIS. 30 June 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
^ "Google Maps". Google Maps.
^ UBC Web Design. "
Ayrton Senna – Monument Australia".
Ayrton Senna Blog – A Tribute to Life". Retrieved 8 February
^ "Alonso voted best driver". Sify.
Sify Technologies Ltd. 23 July
2010. Archived from the original on 26 July 2010. Retrieved 27 July
^ Straw, Edd (10 December 2009). "Drivers vote Senna the greatest
ever". autosport.com. Haymarket Publications. Archived from the
original on 13 December 2009. Retrieved 10 December 2009.
^ "Formula 1's Greatest Drivers: 1. AYRTON SENNA". autosport.com.
Haymarket Publications. 10 December 2009. Archived from the original
on 13 December 2009. Retrieved 10 December 2009.
^ Allsop, Derick (10 July 1993). "British Grand Prix: Guile confronts
genius on a grand scale". London: The Independent.
^ "10 Greatest Race Car Drivers of All Time". carophile.org. 7 May
2015. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
^ "The Top 100 Historical Persons in Japanの意味 – 英和辞典
Weblio辞書". Ejje.weblio.jp. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
^ "Principado de Mônaco exalta seu 'rei' Ayrton Senna" (in
Portuguese). Globo. 26 May 2007. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
^ "Brasil lembra os 50 anos de Ayrton Senna" (in Portuguese). UOL. 21
March 2010. Archived from the original on 8 October 2015. Retrieved 21
^ McCarthy, Todd (31 January 2011). "
Ayrton Senna rides again in
thrilling documentary". Reuters India. Retrieved 13 October
^ McCarthy, Todd (7 March 2014). "FW36 to have updated Senna logo for
2014". WilliamsF1. Archived from the original on 4 May 2014.
^ Padeanu, Andrew (26 July 2013). "Honda's tribute to
Ayrton Senna is
brilliant [video]". Motor1. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
Ayrton Senna hologram: Formula 1 legend recreated as hologram by
McLaren partner Tag Heuer, video". Fox Sports. 8 May 2015. Retrieved
14 November 2015.
^ Hurrellu, Stephen (14 August 2013). "F1 greats
Jenson Button and
Ayrton Senna star in stunning new 'space travel' Honda advert". Mirror
UK. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
^ "Playstation 3 Bundle". Sony Computer Entertainment.
^ "Unidos da Tijuca encerra Carnaval com desfile acelerado em tributo
a Senna". UOL. 4 March 2014.
Ayrton Senna Google Doodle". YouTube. 1 May 1994. Retrieved 1 May
^ de Menezes, Jack (20 March 2014). "Ayrton Senna: Senna in his own
Google Doodle honour F1 driver's 54th birthday". The
^ "Empresa aérea pinta bico de aeronave com desenho do capacete de
Senna". Globo News. 28 April 2014.
^ "Azul and
Ayrton Senna Institute team up to pay tribute to Ayrton
Senna with a new logo jet". World Airline News. 30 April 2014.
^ "Ayrton Senna: Imola circuit holds silence for Brazilian 20 years
on". BBC Sport. 1 May 2014.
Ayrton Senna to be remembered in Imola". The Guardian. 1 May
^ "20 years memorial Senna died at Imola". YouTube. 3 May 2014.
Ayrton Senna statue". Google Images. 1 May 2014.
^ "20/o Senna, francobollo da San Marino". ANSA. 8 May 2014. Retrieved
14 May 2015.
^ a b "VENT'ANNI SENZA IL GRANDE AYRTON SENNA". Il Giornale della
Numistica. 12 August 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
^ "Una moneta celebra il grande Ayrton Senna". Autosprint. 7 December
2014. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 14 May
Rosland Capital unveils special
Ayrton Senna gold and silver
coins". Overdrive. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
^ "Inauguration of the "Ayrton" exhibition". ADPLOG. 19 February
^ Angry Birds GO
Ayrton Senna Update Out Now! July 2, 2015
^ "Ayrton Senna". madametussauds.com. Archived from the original on 19
Lewis Hamilton given
Ayrton Senna helmet for matching F1 pole
McLaren Senna name confirmed for 789bhp track-focused
Rubens Barrichello shares an early helmet design for Ayrton Senna".
Anchor Fan. 24 October 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2012. [permanent
^ "Remembering Ayrton: That iconic helmet". richardsf1. 8 July 2011.
Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 16 August
^ Morrison, Mac (28 April 2014). "The Helmet". Autoweek. 64 (9):
^ "Senna wearing special helmet for anniversary". gpupdate.net. 13
October 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
^ Williams, Richard (27 March 1995). "Spirit of Senna in the air". The
Independent. London. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
^ "Friday practice – selected team and driver quotes". Formula1.com.
25 November 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
^ "Just for you, Brazil!
Lewis Hamilton unveils
Ayrton Senna tribute
helmet". Zee News. 13 November 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
^ "News Shorts: Küng shines in the rain, Fischer honours Senna".
cyclingnews.com. 22 May 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Ayrton Senna
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ayrton Senna.
Official website (in English) (in Portuguese)
A Tribute to Life Network – Home of European fans
Ayrton Senna Legacy Matters
Ayrton Senna career summary at DriverDB.com
Ayrton Senna driver statistics at Racing-Reference
Ayrton Senna on IMDb
Instituto Ayrton Senna
Formula One's Hall of Fame driver profile
BBC Sport: Formula 1's Greatest Drivers
Senna Documentary with Reviews and Discussion
21 March 1960 – 1 May 1994
Instituto Ayrton Senna
List of Grand Prix wins
Formula One teams
Ayrton Senna's Super
Monaco GP II
Ayrton Senna Kart Duel
Gran Turismo 6
In popular culture
Ayrton Senna EP
Rodovia Ayrton Senna
Jardim São Paulo-Ayrton Senna
Ayrton Senna (Caruaru)
Ayrton Senna (Goiânia)
Ayrton Senna (Londrina)
1988 F1 Season
1990 F1 Season
1991 F1 Season
San Marino Grand Prix
Tema da Vitória
Media • Quotes • Data
Ayrton Senna sporting positions
Formula Ford Champion
Formula Three Champion
Macau Grand Prix
Macau Grand Prix Winner
Formula One World Champion
Formula One World Champion
Latest Born F1 Champion To Die
1 May 1994 – present
Formula One fatal accidents
1 May 1994
Awards and achievements
International Racing Driver Award
International Racing Driver Award
L'Équipe Champion of Champions
Formula One World Drivers' Champions
1950 G. Farina
1951 J.M. Fangio
1952 A. Ascari
1953 A. Ascari
1954 J.M. Fangio
1955 J.M. Fangio
1956 J.M. Fangio
1957 J.M. Fangio
1958 M. Hawthorn
1959 J. Brabham
1960 J. Brabham
1961 P. Hill
1962 G. Hill
1963 J. Clark
1964 J. Surtees
1965 J. Clark
1966 J. Brabham
1967 D. Hulme
1968 G. Hill
1969 J. Stewart
1970 J. Rindt
1971 J. Stewart
1972 E. Fittipaldi
1973 J. Stewart
1974 E. Fittipaldi
1975 N. Lauda
1976 J. Hunt
1977 N. Lauda
1978 M. Andretti
1979 J. Scheckter
1980 A. Jones
1981 N. Piquet
1982 K. Rosberg
1983 N. Piquet
1984 N. Lauda
1985 A. Prost
1986 A. Prost
1987 N. Piquet
1988 A. Senna
1989 A. Prost
1990 A. Senna
1991 A. Senna
1992 N. Mansell
1993 A. Prost
1994 M. Schumacher
1995 M. Schumacher
1996 D. Hill
1997 J. Villeneuve
1998 M. Häkkinen
1999 M. Häkkinen
2000 M. Schumacher
2001 M. Schumacher
2002 M. Schumacher
2003 M. Schumacher
2004 M. Schumacher
2005 F. Alonso
2006 F. Alonso
2007 K. Räikkönen
2008 L. Hamilton
2009 J. Button
2010 S. Vettel
2011 S. Vettel
2012 S. Vettel
2013 S. Vettel
2014 L. Hamilton
2015 L. Hamilton
2016 N. Rosberg
2017 L. Hamilton
Macau Grand Prix
Macau Grand Prix (GP and F3) winners
António Félix da Costa
British Formula 3 &
Formula Junior champions
van der Merwe
Winners of Autosport's International Racing Driver Award
1982: Keke Rosberg
1983: Nelson Piquet
1984: Niki Lauda
1985: Alain Prost
1986–87: Nigel Mansell
1988: Ayrton Senna
1989: Jean Alesi
1990–91: Ayrton Senna
1992–93: Nigel Mansell
1994: Damon Hill
1995: Michael Schumacher
1996: Damon Hill
1997: Jacques Villeneuve
1998–99: Mika Häkkinen
2000–02: Michael Schumacher
2003: Juan Pablo Montoya
2004: Jenson Button
2005: Kimi Räikkönen
2006: Fernando Alonso
2007–08: Lewis Hamilton
2009: Jenson Button
2010–13: Sebastian Vettel
2014–15: Lewis Hamilton
2016: Nico Rosberg
2017: Lewis Hamilton
Williams Grand Prix Engineering
Sir Frank Williams
Sir Patrick Head
Sir Frank Williams
Claire Williams (deputy)
2018 Race drivers
18. Lance Stroll
35. Sergey Sirotkin
2018 Test and reserve drivers
Formula One cars
Formula Two cars
Le Mans prototypes
BMW V12 LM
BMW V12 LMR
Renault Laguna (BTCC)
McLaren Racing Ltd.
McLaren Technology Group
TAG Group (25%)
Éric Boullier (Racing Director)
Zak Brown (Executive Director)
2018 Race drivers
2. Stoffel Vandoorne
14. Fernando Alonso
2018 Test and reserve drivers
McLaren young driver programme
Nyck de Vries
Project Four Racing
Other notable drivers
Elio de Angelis
Formula One cars
Formula Two cars
Formula Three cars
Formula Junior cars
Formula Ford cars
Formula 5000 cars
Tasman Series cars
Indianapolis 500 cars
Sports racing cars
Formula One cars
ISNI: 0000 0000 8360 327X
BNF: cb121422741 (data)