Canada was a Canadian aircraft manufacturing company. It started
in 1945 as an aircraft plant and within thirteen years became the
third-largest company in Canada, one of the largest 100 companies in
the world, and directly employing over 50,000.
Canada was best
known for the highly advanced CF-105 Arrow, but through growth and
acquisition, it rapidly became a major, integrated company that had
Following the cancellation of the CF-105 Arrow the company ceased
operations in 1962.
1 A.V. Roe Canada
1.3 Expansion and Diversification
1.4 Management Team
2.1 CF-100 Canuck
2.2 C102 Jetliner
2.4 C104 Advanced Fighter
2.5 CF-105 Arrow Mk.1 and Mk.2
Aircraft Experimental Designs
3.1 Arrow Mk.3
3.2 Long Range Arrow
3.3 Arrow Mk.4
3.4 Supersonic Avrodynes
Avro STAT (SST)
3.7 Space Threshold Vehicle
3.9 Other Designs
4 Orenda Engines
5 Canadian Steel Improvement
6 Canadian Car and Foundry
8 Canadian Applied Research
9 Other subsidiaries
11 Corporate demise
13 External links
A.V. Roe Canada
During the Second World War, Victory
Aircraft in Malton, Ontario, was
Canada's largest aircraft manufacturer. Prior to 1939, as a part of
National Steel Car Ltd. of Hamilton, the concern had been one of a
number of "shadow factories" set up in
Canada to produce British
aircraft designs in safety.
National Steel Car had turned out Avro
Handley Page Hampden
Handley Page Hampden bombers, Hawker Hurricane
Westland Lysander army cooperation aircraft. National
Steel Car Corporation of Malton,
Ontario was formed in 1938 and
Aircraft Limited in 1942 when the Canadian government
took over ownership and management of main plant. During the Second
World War, Victory
Avro (UK) aircraft: 3,197 Anson
trainers, 430 Lancaster bombers, six Lancastrian, one Lincoln bomber
and one York transport.
(L–R) Sir Roy Dobson and
Crawford Gordon Jr.
Crawford Gordon Jr. Note:
Avro Arrow in
background, c. 1957
In 1944, an Advisory Committee on
Aircraft Manufacture was established
by the Canadian government, the Canadian Director of Aircraft
Production wrote to Minister of Munitions and Supply
C.D. Howe in 1944
to express the "utmost importance to Canada" of the establishment of a
Canadian aircraft industry, and UK-based
Avro also established in 1944
a company searching for post-war opportunities. Bob Leckie of the
RCAF was a strong advocate over many years, for a wholly domestic
"end-to-end" industry, that would design and build aircraft (and their
engines) in Canada. However, the Department of National Defense,
according to Avro's Roy Dobson, gave "a cold reception" to doing any
more than the fabrication and assembly of aircraft and engines under
licence. Howe, as Minister of Reconstruction and Minister of Munitions
and Supply (later Reconstruction and Supply), brokered the deal with
Hawker Siddeley Group
Hawker Siddeley Group to take over the Victory
Aircraft plant in
1945 with Frederick T. Smye hired by HSG's Roy Dobson as its first
employee. Smye, born in Hamilton, Ontario, had risen through the ranks
of the government's departments overseeing wartime aircraft
production, to Assistant General Manager of Federal
the Crown Corporation managing production of the
Avro Anson at the
National Steel Car/Victory
In 1945, the UK-based
Hawker Siddeley Group
Hawker Siddeley Group purchased Victory Aircraft
from the Canadian government, creating A.V. Roe
Canada Ltd. as the
wholly owned Canadian branch of its aircraft manufacturing subsidiary,
UK-based A.V. Roe and Company.
Canada began operations in the
former Victory plant.
Aircraft (Canada), their first (and, at the
time, only) division, turned to the repair and servicing of a number
of Second World War-era aircraft, including
Hawker Sea Fury
Hawker Sea Fury fighters,
North American B-25 Mitchell
North American B-25 Mitchell and
Avro Lancaster bombers. From the
outset, the company invested in research and development and embarked
on an ambitious design program with a jet engine and a jet-powered
fighter and airliner on the drawing boards.
Expansion and Diversification
Canada Ltd. was restructured in 1954 as a holding company
with two aviation subsidiaries:
Aircraft Ltd. and Orenda Engines
Ltd., which began operating under these names on 1 January 1955.
Each companies' facilities were located across from each other in a
complex at the perimeter of Malton Airport. The total labour force of
both aviation companies reached 15,000 in 1958.
During the same period, with
Crawford Gordon as president, A.V. Roe
Canada Ltd. purchased a number of companies, including Dominion Steel
and Coal Corporation,
Canada Car and Foundry (1957), and Canadian
Steel Improvement. By 1958, A. V. Roe
Canada Ltd. was an industrial
giant with over 50,000 employees in a far-flung empire of 44 companies
involved in coal mining, steel making, railway rolling stock, aircraft
and aero-engine manufacturing, as well as computers and electronics.
In 1956 the companies generated 45% of the revenue of the Hawker
Siddeley Group. In 1958, annual sales revenue was approximately
$450 million, ranking A.V. Roe
Canada as the third largest corporation
Canada by capitalization. By the time of the cancellation of the
Arrow and Iroquois, aircraft-related production amounted to
approximately 40% of the company's activities with 60% industrial and
In 1956, 500,000 shares were issued to the public at a total value of
$8 million. By 1958, 48% of the shares of A.V. Roe
publicly traded on the stock exchange. Although controlled and
largely owned by UK-based
Hawker Siddeley Group, all profits from A.V.
Canada Ltd. were retained within the company to fund development
and growth. Management of the Canadian companies remained in Canadian
Fred Smye served as director of Canadian
Aircraft Production during
the Second World War, in 1944 joined Federal
Aircraft Limited in
Montreal (later Victory Aircraft). When
Hawker Siddeley purchased
Aircraft in 1945, Smye became the first employee of A.V. Roe
Canada Limited and later that year he became assistant general manager
Aircraft Limited. He later served as president of Canadian
Applied Research Limited and Canadian Steel Improvement Limited.
Crawford Gordon Jr.
Crawford Gordon Jr. left the Department of Defense Production in 1951
to take over as President and General Manager of A. V. Roe
assist with problems in development and production of the
CF-100 Canuck. Gordon oversaw
Avro Canada's restructuring and
expansion during the 1950s into the third largest corporation in
A CF-100 Mk 3 painted as the CF-100 prototype, on display at the
Calgary AeroSpace Museum
Canada CF-100 Canuck
In 1946, A.V. Roe Canada's next design, the
Avro XC-100, Canada's
first jet fighter, started at the end of the era of propeller-driven
aircraft and the beginning of the jet age. Although the design of
the large, jet-powered all-weather interceptor, renamed the CF-100
Canuck, was largely complete by the next year, the factory was not
tooled for production until late 1948 due to ongoing repair and
maintenance contracts. The CF-100 would have a long gestation period
before finally entering
RCAF service in 1952, initially with the Mk 2
and Mk 3 variants. The CF-100 Canuck operated under
NORAD to protect
airspace from Soviet threats such as nuclear-armed bombers during all
weather and day/night conditions. Although not designed for speeds
over Mach 0.85, it was taken supersonic during a dive by test pilot
Janusz Żurakowski in December 1952.
A small number of CF-100s served with the
RCAF until 1981 in
reconnaissance, training and electronic warfare (ECM) roles. In its
lifetime, a total of 692 CF-100s of different variants, including 53
aircraft for the Belgian Air Force, were produced.
Model of the C102 Jetliner.
Canada C102 Jetliner
Work was also underway on a jet-powered civilian short- to
medium-range transport known as the C102 Jetliner. It nearly
became the first jet transport in the world when it first flew in
August 1949, a mere 13 days following the first flight of the de
Havilland Comet. The Jetliner represented a new type of regional jet
airliner that would not see comparable designs until the late 1950s.
Despite an aggressive marketing campaign directed at U.S. airlines and
the USAF, the sales prospects of the Jetliner floundered after the
launch customer, Trans-
Canada Airlines, reneged on a letter of intent
in 1948. The company was still attempting to get the CF-100 into
production at the time and, consequently, the Canadian government
cancelled any further work on the C102 due to
Korean War priorities:
C. D. Howe
C. D. Howe demanded the project be stopped to increase production of
the CF-100, so the second C102 prototype was scrapped in the plant
in 1951, with the first relegated to photographic duties in the Flight
Test Department. After a lengthy career as a camera platform and
company "hack," CF-EJD-X was broken up in 1956. The nose section now
resides in the
Canada Aviation Museum in Ottawa.
In 1951, during production of the CF-100 Canuck, a design was explored
for a revised version with swept wings and tail modifications. Known
as the CF-103, it offered transonic performance with supersonic
abilities in a dive. However, the basic CF-100 continued to improve
through this period, and the advantages of the new design were greatly
eroded. It was considered an interim aircraft between the CF-100 and
the more advanced C-104 project, and as such development did not
progress beyond creation of a full-size wooden mock-up and separate
C104 Advanced Fighter
By 1950, several design proposals for a supersonic interceptor were
explored which included versions with swept wings, a tail-less delta
wing (similar to the Dassault Mirage IV), side-body engine intakes,
in-nose engine intakes (similar to the Mig-21), turbine engines and
rocket engines, and combinations of several.
In 1952, two versions of a design for a delta-wing fighter known as
C104 were submitted to the RCAF: the single engine C104/4 and
twin-engined C104/2. The designs were otherwise similar, using a
low-mounted delta-wing; the primary advantages of the C104/2 were a
larger overall size which offered a much larger internal weapons bay
and gave twin-engine reliability. Subsequent discussions between the
Avro examined a wide range of alternatives for a supersonic
interceptor, culminating in
RCAF "Specification AIR 7-3" in April
1953. Avro's response became the CF-105.
CF-105 Mk 1 interceptor
CF-105 Arrow Mk.1 and Mk.2
Canada CF-105 Arrow
The need for a newer and much more powerful interceptor aircraft was
clear even before the CF-100 entered service. The CF-105 Arrow was
rolled out on 4 October 1957, coincidentally the very same day the
Sputnik 1 into orbit, heralding the dawn of the space
age and potentially the end of the Arrow's main target, the long-range
bomber. The design was a development of the C104, but with the delta
wing raised to the top of the fuselage allowing for simplified
structure, easier access to the engines and the weapons bay in the
belly, as well as a weapons bay larger than that of the B-24 Liberator
or Lancaster bombers. The aircraft was very advanced, powerful, and
broke numerous records. Many "firsts" were included, such as
fly-by-wire technology, and simultaneous development of a new weapons
fire control system and the advanced
Orenda Iroquois engine. The
weapons were stored in an interchangeable pod in the internal weapons
bay, allowing for ease of re-arming and switching from missiles to
other kinds of weapons. Only the Mark 1 model (with lower-powered
American engines) flew, including one that reached Mach 1.98. A
total of five Mark 1 aircraft were completed with several of the 29
Mark 2 models (with more powerful Iroquois engines) on the production
line nearing completion. The sudden cancellation of the Arrow project
by the Canadian government on 20 February 1959 led to a massive
corporate downsizing and an attempt to further diversify. Many Avro
Aircraft Ltd. engineers who remained were reassigned to marine, truck
and automobile projects. Numerous engineering and technical staff left
Canada primarily for the United Kingdom and the United States in
a rapid "brain drain".
Aircraft Experimental Designs
Additional developments of the Arrow were explored by Avro's Project
Research Group under the leadership of Mario Pesando.
Even before the Arrow first flew,
Avro was designing a future version,
the Mark 3. Originally designed for Mach 2.5, later revised to an
estimated Mach 3 with a combat ceiling of 70,500 feet, it carried more
fuel, weighed over 25% more than the Mk.2, and made greater use of CNC
machining and high-temperature aluminum alloys. Also proposed was a
heat shield forming an ablative insulation made from carbon fibre or
fiberglass in a honeycomb matrix, later used on NASA's Mercury and
Gemini programs. The engine was to be the Iroquois Mk.3, which Orenda
estimated would provide 40,000 lbs of wet thrust (with
afterburner). Images of the design show revised engine intakes
projecting out from the fuselage to swallow the supersonic shock wave
to reduce drag and increase thrust. Also proposed was capability for
"probe and drogue" aerial refuelling made possible by the Arrow's
revolutionary flight stability systems.
Long Range Arrow
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In early 1957, studies began on how the Arrow Mk.2 might be developed
into a "Long Range Arrow" to meet the requirements for the USAF's Long
Range Interceptor Experimental (LRIX) program. This was thought to be
suitable as under the terms of various agreements, statements, and
promises to Allied and in particular Commonwealth nations, the U.S.
would buy weapons from an ally if they were the best available and the
Arrow seemed to fit this description. Shortly in advance of the USAF
Avro in 1955 to review the Arrow's development, a contract
was granted to North American Aviation for design studies for the
LRIX, designated the North American XF-108 Rapier. Performance
requirements were for a range of 1,000 miles, Mach 3, and combat
altitude of 60,000 feet. In September 1957, Avro's Project Studies
PS-1 and PS-2 were released. PS-1 included addition of wingtip-mounted
ramjets to supplement the main engines and a canard mounted above and
behind the cockpit. PS-2 included wing extensions, an extended nose
with retractable canard, two additional vertical stabilizers mounted
on the wings, and four large ramjets. Estimated performance included
sustained speeds of Mach 3 at 95,000 feet and vertical climb rate
above 40,000 feet of Mach 2.5. The thrust-to-weight ratio would have
been double the F-108 and over double the SR-71.
At the request of USAF Chief Scientist, a less radical modification of
the Arrow than the PS-2 was pursued which became the Mark 4. The
revised intakes of the Mark 3 were retained, but with smaller
Curtiss-Wright ramjets, without the canards and nose extension, and
with a titanium skin instead of a heat shield. Performance was reduced
to Mach 3 and maximum combat altitude of 80,000 feet.
Avro Chief Designer John Frost selected a group of eight
engineers and draftsmen to create the
Special Projects Group. In
its intense exploration of radical aeronautical design ideas and
development of new technology, as well as security, the SPG resembled
Lockheed's "Skunk Works". Initial projects included research and
development work on a series of "flying saucer"-like vehicles. The
only design that materialized beyond mock-up was the VZ-9-AV Avrocar,
funded entirely by the U.S. military from 1956.
* Project Y1: "the Spade"
Project Y mock-up in the Experimental Flight Hangar c. 1954.
Design reports from early 1952 outlined key features of a new gas
turbine propelled engine and disc-shaped vehicle: an inner disc with
central eye intake with an outer, counter-rotating disc, with
rear-directed thrust nozzles, later refined to include controlling the
aeroplane by thrust vectoring and stabilizing the vehicle by having
the large engine rotor act as a gyroscope. The aircraft was
designed for vertical take-off and landing which was thought to be
hazardous and required an electronic flight-stabilization system, then
not-yet available. Financed largely by Avro, the Canadian government
deemed these problems too expensive to finance beyond an initial
funding of $400,000. A USAF-led delegation to
Avro in December 1953
Avro the opportunity to discuss their projects, but Y-1 was not
deemed worthy of financing.
* Project Y2
In mid-1954, Frost proposed "Project Y-2: Flat Vertical Take-Off
Gyroplane" in response to requests by the US Air Force and US Navy for
"vertical rising point-defense fighters". In late 1954, the USAF
purchased the development rights to this saucer-shaped VTOL vehicle
powered by more conventional engines than, and designed to avoid many
of the problems with, the Y-1. The USAF designated it Project MX-1794
and studies of the
Avro saucer designs Project Silver Bug. Through
Avro spent $2.5 million and the USAF $5.4 million funding the
project. Numerous models were constructed and wind-tunnel testing was
undertaken at MIT and Wright Patterson Air Force Base (where Roswell
UFO studies were reportedly undertaken).
The design included eight
Armstrong Siddeley Viper
Armstrong Siddeley Viper turbojet engines, a
very large centre rotor/impeller with Lundstrom compressor turbines,
with the cockpit mounted in the top/centre. Control was achieved
through eight small exhausts at the outer edge, directed either
through the top or bottom, in addition to the main turbine exhaust
through the bottom/centre of the craft. A multi-engine test rig was
built and tested in 1956, resulting in powerful thrust and a great
deal of noise, and vibration. One
Special Projects Group member
reported that the prototype was secretly removed by the US Navy for
further testing in California.
Avro also decided to internally fund development of a radial-flow gas
turbine engine vehicle, designated PV-704, which proposed no central
impeller or exhaust, but rather a large spinning turbo-disc directing
all thrust to the outer rim. Funding enabled continued development but
was insufficient for a prototype.
In 1957, the USAF provided additional funding to extend the project,
by then highly classified and designated as Weapon System 606A. The
concept developed was for a circular-winged, supersonic aircraft. Over
1,000 hours of wind-tunnel testing were performed. Drawings developed
Avro show an aircraft that appears to be a merging of flying saucer
with more conventional fuselage shapes, in other words a tailless
aircraft with circular wings (when viewed from above or below).
Canada VZ-9 Avrocar
Avro VZ-9-AV Avrocar.
The Avrocar was proposed to the U.S. Army as a type of "flying Jeep"
that could also serve as a proof-of-concept test vehicle for a later
supersonic flying saucer designs, PV-704 and Weapon System 606A. Two
Avrocars were built, one for wind-tunnel testing at NASA Ames and the
other for flight testing. The designs were underpowered and only
operated in a ground-cushion effect, much like a hovercraft. When the
Avrocar prototypes failed to perform at heights above three feet off
the ground, the U.S. Army and USAF cancelled the project, in 1961.
Both Avrocars were on public display, one in Building 22 of the
Smithsonian Paul E. Garber facility, the other at the U.S. Army
Transportation Museum, Ft. Eustis, Virginia. The latter Avrocar was
dismantled and put into storage c. 2002, due to increasing
deterioration (it was displayed outside, and the museum is very close
to the ocean). The curator of the U.S. Army Transportation Museum
stated in 2008 that it would take between US$500,000 and US$600,000 to
entirely restore it. Furthermore, because it is at a federal
(military) installation, the work must be done by contractors, rather
than volunteers. A grant of US$80,000 was received to begin
restoration, however this amount was only enough to restore one piece
approximately five ft by five ft.
Avro STAT (SST)
Space Threshold Vehicle
Developed by the Advanced Projects Group, a June 1958 report by Avro's
Engineering Department described a Space Threshold Vehicle intended to
"get a man into the threshold of space and recover him, flying back
through the corridor", where winged flight was possible between
maximum altitude that could sustain lift from a winged vehicle and
maximum tolerable structural temperature. This was estimated to be
an altitude of between 150,000 and 200,000 feet. The STV would be
single-stage-to-orbit aircraft, similar to Lockheed's X-30 and the
HOTOL proposals of the 1980s, with capability for in-flight
refueling, and an expected speed of 6,000 mph (Mach 8.5+). Avro's
computer capacities provided capability in developing theories and
methods similar to modern 3-dimensional modeling of fluid dynamics.
Avro envisioned a delta-shaped vehicle with downward winglets (similar
to the TSR-2's), varying engine nacelle positions, titanium skin, and
first flight of a research vehicle in 1962. It should be noted that
many engineers involved in this and similar
Avro designs were later
heavily involved in NASA Projects Mercury Gemini, and Apollo.
This group of vehicle designs were variations on what later became
known as hovercrafts.
Avro P470 Mobile Ground Effect Vehicle
Canada TS-140, A Mach-2 VTOL fighter proposed to the US Navy.
XA-20 and XA-92 Bobcat, similar to designs for later armoured tracked
Turbine-powered trucks, monorail transit.
Orenda OT-4 turbine powered White 7000 transport truck with an Allison
Orenda OT-4 turbine powered M-84 Patton tank. The American M1 Abrams
would be the first main battle tank in production (1980) powered by a
Hydrofoil Warships: When the Arrow and related programs were
terminated, 12 key engineers from this team departed for De Havilland
Canada Ltd. to work on what became HMCS Bras d'Or,
possibly the world's fastest warship to present day (2011).
Main article: Orenda Engines
Orenda engine on display at Carleton University
Founded in 1944 as crown corporation Turbo Research Ltd., it was
established to conduct research and cold-weather testing of jet
engines for the
RCAF during the Second World War. Initial studies were
undertaken into centrifugal-flow engine design, which later were
eclipsed by a new axial-flow design, the TR.4, later known as the
Chinook, the first Canadian-designed jet engine. In 1948, Turbo
Research was sold to A.V. Roe
Canada Ltd. and merged with its Gas
Turbine Division. The Chinook was developed into the TR.5 Orenda
designed for the CF-100 Canuck, but was also installed in several
variants of the
Canadair Sabre. In 1954
Canada was re-organized
and the Gas Turbine Division became
Orenda Engines Limited. To power
the CF-105 Arrow supersonic interceptor, Orenda developed the PS.13
Iroquois engine between 1953 and 1954. The Iroquois program was
cancelled, along with the Arrow, on 20 February 1959. The company
continued building jet engines, under licence, for the
RCAF from Avro
Aircraft Ltd in the 1960s. In 1962, it was transferred to
Hawker Siddeley Canada
Hawker Siddeley Canada and continued as a major repair and overhaul
business. In the 1980s Orenda was purchased by Magellan Aerospace,
which is now known as Magellan Repair, Overhaul & Industrial.
Canadian Steel Improvement
In 1951, Canadian Steel Improvement, Ltd. was established. When the
Korean War broke out in 1950, the Canadian Defense Production Ministry
initiated establishment of a turbine and compressor blade production
forge plant, with The Steel Improvement and Forge Company being the
successful bidder. Plant construction and operation started in 1951 in
Toronto suburb near Malton, Ontario. Steel Improvement
provided the necessary technical and management expertise and the
Canadian government funded construction of the plant, which was leased
to Steel Improvement. In its first year, the plant produced more than
a million precision forged turbine and compressor blades for Avro's
Orenda engine. In 1954, the Canadian government decided to sell the
Canada agreed to purchase it to maintain production of
the Orenda and Iroquois engines.The company employed over 400 in the
production of precision forgings, blades, jet engine components,
close-tolerance forging, and operation of aluminum and magnesium
Canadian Car and Foundry
Main article: Canadian Car and Foundry
Canadian Car and Foundry
Canadian Car and Foundry ("Can Car") was purchased by A.V.
Canada Ltd. In 1957, its foundry division was spun off as a
separate A.V. Roe
Canada Ltd. subsidiary named Canadian Steel
Foundries Ltd.. The company produced rail car rolling stock,
streetcars for most large Canadian cities as well as the Brazilian
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, and the Canadian Car-Brill
buses and trolleys. It also controlled Canadian General Transit, a
supplier of railway tank cars for petroleum and chemical
Dominion Steel and Coal Corporation
Dominion Steel and Coal Corporation and Dominion Steel
and Coal Corporation § DOSCO subsidiaries
DOSCO was one of the largest private employers in
Canada when it was
purchased as a subsidiary of A.V. Roe
Canada Company Ltd. The company
was dissolved in 1968 after the majority of its coal mining and steel
mill industrial assets in Industrial Cape Breton were expropriated and
nationalized by the federal and provincial governments (see Sydney
Steel Corporation and DEVCO). Other subsidiaries included mining,
engineering, shipping, rail car manufacturing and shipbuilding:
Cumberland Railway and Coal Company.
Sydney and Louisburg Railway, an historic railway in Cape Breton
Canadian Applied Research
In 1957, A.V. Roe
Canada Ltd. acquired PSC Applied Research Ltd., a
manufacturer of flight navigation computers, and renamed it Canadian
Applied Research, Ltd.. It was later divested by Hawker Siddeley
Canada and merged with de Havilland Canada’s
division to form SPAR
Aerospace Ltd. (
Special Products and Applied
Research), developer of the
Canadarm remote manipulator system for the
Space Shuttle. It is today a part of MacDonald Dettwiler as MD
Robotics, a subsidiary of its MDA Space Missions division.
Algoma Steel, minority ownership, acquired in 1957, divested in
Canadian Steel Wheel Ltd. (Associated Company), existed from 1957 to
Canadian Thermo Control Co. Ltd, existed from 1957 to 1983
Product list and details
Avro CF-100 Canuck
692 from Mk 1 to Mk 5 series
Avro C102 Jetliner
Prototype medium-range jet airliner
Never entered production
One flying prototype, one broken up
Cancelled in 1951
Only a wooden mock-up constructed
Avro CF-105 Arrow
Delta-wing supersonic interceptor aircraft
Cancelled during production run
Five Mk 1 flown, (29 Mk 2 airframes in production)
Avro VZ-9-AV Avrocar
Cancelled while in test phase in 1961
Two prototypes, (second prototype test flown)
In 1962, the
Hawker Siddeley Group
Hawker Siddeley Group formally dissolved A.V. Roe Canada
and transferred all A.V. Roe
Canada assets to its newly formed
Hawker Siddeley Canada.
Aircraft was closed.
Hawker Siddeley Canada, at that time, among its diverse holdings,
included major manufacturing units:
Canadian Car and Foundry
Canadian Car and Foundry (CC&F)
Dominion Steel and Coal Corporation
Dominion Steel and Coal Corporation (DOSCO)
Orenda Engines Limited
Avro aircraft factory in Malton was sold to de Havilland
Canada in the same year. This facility located on the north end of
Toronto Pearson International Airport (the village of Malton was
incorporated into the City of Mississauga in 1974), was subsequently
owned and operated by several others:
Canada (1963–1967): manufacturer of the aircraft
wings and tail sections (empennage) for the Douglas DC-9;
Canada (1967–1997): manufacturer of aircraft wings
and related components for the
KC-10 and MD-11,
MD-80 wings, empennage
and cabin floors, and
McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet
McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet side panels and
Toronto Limited (1997–2005): manufacturer of
wings, parts for the Delta rocket, the
Boeing C-17 transport and the
Boeing 737 jetliner.
By the late 1990s,
Hawker Siddeley Canada
Hawker Siddeley Canada had been diminished into a
holding company after divesting itself of almost everything other than
its pension fund. One of Hawkery Siddeley Canada's last aerospace
concerns the aircraft gas turbine repair and overhaul company Standard
Aero of Winnipeg was spun off to British Tire and Rubber at the time
(it is now part of Dubai
Aerospace Enterprises, an international
corporation with interests in aircraft leasing, MRO and aviation IT
DOSCO's assets were nationalized to become
DEVCO and SYSCO. CC&F
closed its operations and the plants demolished. CC&F's Thunder
Bay plant, after several changes of ownership, is now part of
Orenda Aerospace, as part of the Magellan
Aerospace Corporation, is
the only remaining original company from the A.V. Roe empire, although
greatly diminished in both the size and scope of its operations.
In mid-2005, with the completion of the last shipset of
Boeing Company discontinued its operations at the former
Avro plant.[N 1]
The Malton plant, which had comprised several very large buildings and
hangar-like structures, was demolished in progressive stages from 2004
onwards. The approximate 113 acres (46 ha) of land that the plant
resided on at the time of its closure was sold to the Greater Toronto
Airports Authority (owner of the
Toronto Pearson International
Airport) and the title was transferred after the property site had
completed its environmental soil remediation.
Some of the brickwork of the site's historic main "C" assembly
building, next to the high-bay doors that the Arrow, Jetliner, CF-100
and thousands of other aircraft and major assemblies emerged from, was
retained by the former
Canadian Air and Space Museum
Canadian Air and Space Museum in Downsview,
Toronto, for future use alongside a number of their
which include a full-scale replica of the CF-105 Arrow.
^ Referring to the article's last paragraph: "Note: ... On August 12,
2005 the last few CAW [union] Local 1967 represented employees, walked
out the plant gates for the last time."
^ a b Whitcomb 2008, p. 13.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Lombardi, Mike and Larry Merritt.
"Toronto's Long History of
Magazine (online), Volume 4, Issue 2, June 2005. Retrieved: 15 April
^ a b Whitcomb 2008, p. 34.
^ Whitcomb 2002, p. 61.
^ Whitcomb 2002, p. 13.
^ Campagna 1998, p. 62.
^ Campagna 1998, p. 63.
^ Whitcomb 2008, p. 89.
^ Floyd 1986, pp. 3–4.
Avro C.102 Jetliner." Avroland. Retrieved: 15 April 2009.
^ Floyd 1986, p. 45.
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