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Aruba
Aruba
(/əˈruːbə/ ə-ROO-bə; Dutch: [aːˈrubaː], Papiamento: [aˈruba])) is an island and a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
in the southern Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea, located about 1,600 kilometres (990 mi) west of the main part of the Lesser Antilles
Lesser Antilles
and 29 kilometres (18 mi)[5] north of the coast of Venezuela. It measures 32 kilometres (20 mi) long from its northwestern to its southeastern end and 10 kilometres (6 mi) across at its widest point.[5] Together with Bonaire
Bonaire
and Curaçao, Aruba
Aruba
forms a group referred to as the ABC islands. Collectively, Aruba
Aruba
and the other Dutch islands in the Caribbean
Caribbean
are often called the Dutch Caribbean. Aruba
Aruba
is one of the four countries that form the Kingdom of the Netherlands, along with the Netherlands, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten; the citizens of these countries are all Dutch nationals. Aruba
Aruba
has no administrative subdivisions, but, for census purposes, is divided into eight regions. Its capital is Oranjestad. Unlike much of the Caribbean
Caribbean
region, Aruba
Aruba
has a dry climate and an arid, cactus-strewn landscape. This climate has helped tourism as visitors to the island can reliably expect warm, sunny weather. It has a land area of 179 km2 (69.1 sq mi) and is densely populated, with a total of 102,484 inhabitants at the 2010 Census. It lies outside Hurricane Alley.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Move towards independence

3 Geography

3.1 Cities and towns 3.2 Fauna 3.3 Flora 3.4 Climate

4 Demographics

4.1 Language 4.2 Religion 4.3 Regions

5 Government

5.1 Politics

6 Education 7 Economy

7.1 Tourism

8 Military 9 Culture 10 Infrastructure

10.1 Utilities 10.2 Communications

11 Places of interest 12 Notable people 13 See also 14 References 15 External links

Etymology[edit] The name Aruba
Aruba
may have different origins:[6]

From the Spanish Oro huba which means "there was gold" From the Indian word Oruba which means "well-placed" From the Indian words Ora ("shell") and Oubao ("island")

History[edit] Main article: History of Aruba

The capital, Oranjestad

Aruba's first inhabitants are thought to have been Caquetío Amerindians from the Arawak tribe, who migrated there from Venezuela to escape attacks by the Caribs. Fragments of the earliest known Indian settlements date back to 1000 AD. As sea currents made canoe travel to other Caribbean
Caribbean
islands difficult, Caquetio culture remained more closely associated with that of mainland South America. Europeans first learned of Aruba
Aruba
following the explorations for Spain by Amerigo Vespucci
Amerigo Vespucci
and Alonso de Ojeda
Alonso de Ojeda
in the summer of 1499. Both described Aruba
Aruba
as an "island of giants", remarking on the comparatively large stature of the native Caquetíos compared to Europeans. Gold was not discovered on Aruba
Aruba
for another 300 years. Vespucci returned to Spain with stocks of cotton and brazilwood from the island and described houses built into the ocean. Vespucci and Ojeda's tales spurred interest in Aruba, and Spaniards soon colonized the island.[7][8] Because it had low rainfall, Aruba
Aruba
was not considered profitable for the plantation system and the economics of the slave trade.[citation needed] Aruba
Aruba
was colonized by Spain for over a century. Simas, the Cacique, or chief, in Aruba, welcomed the first Catholic priests in Aruba, who gave him a wooden cross as a gift. In 1508, the Spanish Crown appointed Alonso de Ojeda
Alonso de Ojeda
as its first Governor of Aruba, as part of Nueva Andalucía. Arawaks spoke the "broken Spanish" which their ancestors had learned on Hispaniola.[citation needed] Another governor appointed by Spain was Juan Martínez de Ampiés. A cédula real decreed in November 1525 gave Ampiés, factor of Española, the right to repopulate Aruba. In 1528, Ampiés was replaced by a representative of the House of Welser
Welser
of Augsburg. The Netherlands
Netherlands
seized Aruba
Aruba
from Spain in 1636 in the course of the Thirty Years' War. Since 1636, Aruba
Aruba
has been under Dutch administration, initially governed by Peter Stuyvesant, later appointed to New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
(New York City). Stuyvesant was on a special mission in Aruba
Aruba
in November and December 1642. The island was included under the Dutch West India Company
Dutch West India Company
(W.I.C.) administration, as " New Netherland
New Netherland
and Curaçao", from 1648 to 1664. In 1667 the Dutch administration appointed an Irishman as "Commandeur" in Aruba. The Dutch took control 135 years after the Spanish, leaving the Arawaks to farm and graze livestock, and used the island as a source of meat for other Dutch possessions in the Caribbean.[citation needed] Aruba's proximity to South America
South America
resulted in interaction with cultures of the coastal areas more than a century after independence of Netherlands
Netherlands
from Spain; architectural similarities can be seen between the 19th-century parts of Oranjestad and the nearby Venezuelan city of Coro in Falcón State. Historically, Dutch was not widely spoken on the island outside of colonial administration; its use increased in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[9] Students on Curaçao, Aruba, and Bonaire
Bonaire
were taught predominantly in Spanish until the late 19th century, when the British took Curaçao, Aruba, and Bonaire. Teaching of Spanish was restored when Dutch rule resumed in 1815. Also, efforts were made to introduce bilingual popular education in Dutch and Papiamentu in the late 19th century.[10] During the Napoleonic wars, the British Empire
British Empire
took control over the island, between 1799 and 1802, and between 1804 and 1816, before handing it back to the Dutch.[11] During World War II with the occupation of the Netherlands
Netherlands
in 1940 the oil facilities in Aruba
Aruba
came under the administration of the Dutch government-in-exile in London, and Aruba
Aruba
continued to supply oil to the British and their allies. Move towards independence[edit]

This section's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (April 2013)

In August 1947, Aruba
Aruba
presented its first Staatsreglement (constitution), for Aruba's status aparte as an autonomous state within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. By 1954, the Charter of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
was established, providing a framework for relations between Aruba
Aruba
and the rest of the Kingdom.[12] In 1972, at a conference in Suriname, Betico Croes
Betico Croes
(MEP), a politician from Aruba, proposed a sui-generis Dutch Commonwealth of four states: Aruba, the Netherlands, Suriname
Suriname
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles, each to have its own nationality. C. Yarzagaray, a parliamentary member representing the AVP political party, proposed a referendum so that the people of Aruba
Aruba
could choose whether they wanted total independence or Status Aparte as a full autonomous state under the Crown. Croes worked in Aruba
Aruba
to inform and prepare the people of Aruba
Aruba
for independence. In 1976, he appointed a committee that chose the national flag and anthem, introducing them as symbols of Aruba's sovereignty and independence. He set 1981 as a target date for independence. In March 1977, the first Referendum
Referendum
for Self Determination was held with the support of the United Nations; 82% of the participants voted for independence.[13] The Island Government of Aruba
Aruba
assigned the Institute of Social Studies in The Hague
The Hague
to prepare a study for independence; it was titled Aruba
Aruba
en Onafhankelijkheid, achtergronden, modaliteiten en mogelijkheden; een rapport in eerste aanleg ( Aruba
Aruba
and independence, backgrounds, modalities and opportunities; a preliminary report) (1978). At the conference in The Hague
The Hague
in 1981, Aruba's independence was set for the year 1991. In March 1983, Aruba
Aruba
reached an official agreement within the Kingdom for its independence, to be developed in a series of steps as the Crown granted increasing autonomy. In August 1985 Aruba
Aruba
drafted a constitution that was unanimously approved. On 1 January 1986, after elections were held for its first parliament, Aruba
Aruba
seceded from the Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles; it officially became a country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Full independence was projected in 1996. After his death in 1986, Croes was proclaimed Libertador di Aruba. At a convention in The Hague
The Hague
in 1990, at the request of Aruba's Prime Minister, the governments of Aruba, the Netherlands, and the Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles postponed indefinitely its transition to full independence. The article scheduling Aruba's complete independence was rescinded in 1995, although the process could be revived after another referendum. Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Aruba

A map of Aruba

Map of Aruba
Aruba
from the Encyclopaedie van Nederlandsch West-Indië 1914-1917.

Natural bridge in Aruba
Aruba
(collapsed 2 September 2005)

Aruba
Aruba
is a generally flat, riverless island in the Leeward Antilles island arc of the Lesser Antilles
Lesser Antilles
in the southern part of the Caribbean. It has white sandy beaches on the western and southern coasts of the island, relatively sheltered from fierce ocean currents.[14] This is where most tourist development has occurred.[14] The northern and eastern coasts, lacking this protection, are considerably more battered by the sea and have been left largely untouched by humans. The hinterland of the island features some rolling hills, the best known of which are called Hooiberg
Hooiberg
at 165 meters (541 ft) and Mount Jamanota, the highest on the island at 188 meters (617 ft) above sea level. Oranjestad, the capital, is located at 12°19′N 70°1′W / 12.317°N 70.017°W / 12.317; -70.017. To the east of Aruba
Aruba
are Bonaire
Bonaire
and Curaçao, two island territories which once formed the southwest part of the Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles. This group of islands is sometimes called the ABC islands. They are located on the South American continental shelf and therefore geographically listed as part of South America. The Natural Bridge was a large, naturally formed limestone bridge on the island's north shore. It was a popular tourist destination until its collapse in 2005. Cities and towns[edit] Main article: List of cities in Aruba The island, with a population of just over 100,000 inhabitants, does not have major cities. However, most of the island's population resides in or surrounding the two major city-like districts of Oranjestad (Capital) and San Nicolaas. Furthermore, the island is divided into six districts, which are:

Noord Oranjestad (33,000 in 2006), divided in two districts Paradera San Nicolaas, divided in two districts Santa Cruz Savaneta

Fauna[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2015)

The island of Aruba, being isolated from the main land of South America, has fostered the evolution of multiple endemic animals. The island provides a habitat for the endemic Aruban Whiptail and Aruba Rattlesnake, as well as an endemic subspecies of Burrowing Owl and Brown-throated Parakeet. The rattlesnake and the owl are printed on the Aruban currency. Flora[edit]

Yatu cactus growing in Aruba

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (October 2015)

The flora of Aruba
Aruba
differs from the typical tropical island vegetation. Xeric scrublands
Xeric scrublands
are common, with various forms of cacti, thorny shrubs and evergreens. The most known plant is the Aloe
Aloe
vera, which has a place on the Coat of Arms of Aruba. Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Aruba By the Köppen climate classification, Aruba
Aruba
has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh).[15] Mean monthly temperature in Oranjestad varies little from 26.7 °C (80.1 °F) to 29.2 °C (84.6 °F), moderated by constant trade winds from the Atlantic Ocean, which come from the north-east. Yearly rainfall barely exceeds 470 millimetres or 18.5 inches in Oranjestad, although it is extremely variable[16] and can range from as little as 150 millimetres or 5.91 inches during strong El Niño
El Niño
years (e.g. 1911/1912, 1930/1931, 1982/1983, 1997/1998) to over 1,000 millimetres or 39.37 inches in La Niña years like 1933/1934, 1970/1971 or 1988/1989.

Climate data for Oranjestad, Aruba
Oranjestad, Aruba
(1981–2010, extremes 1951–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 32.5 (90.5) 33.0 (91.4) 33.9 (93) 34.4 (93.9) 34.9 (94.8) 35.2 (95.4) 35.3 (95.5) 36.1 (97) 36.5 (97.7) 35.4 (95.7) 35.0 (95) 34.8 (94.6) 36.5 (97.7)

Average high °C (°F) 30.0 (86) 30.4 (86.7) 30.9 (87.6) 31.5 (88.7) 32.0 (89.6) 32.2 (90) 32.0 (89.6) 32.6 (90.7) 32.7 (90.9) 32.1 (89.8) 31.3 (88.3) 30.4 (86.7) 31.5 (88.7)

Daily mean °C (°F) 26.7 (80.1) 26.8 (80.2) 27.2 (81) 27.9 (82.2) 28.5 (83.3) 28.7 (83.7) 28.6 (83.5) 29.1 (84.4) 29.2 (84.6) 28.7 (83.7) 28.1 (82.6) 27.2 (81) 28.1 (82.6)

Average low °C (°F) 24.5 (76.1) 24.7 (76.5) 25.0 (77) 25.8 (78.4) 26.5 (79.7) 26.7 (80.1) 26.4 (79.5) 26.8 (80.2) 26.9 (80.4) 26.4 (79.5) 25.8 (78.4) 25.0 (77) 25.9 (78.6)

Record low °C (°F) 21.3 (70.3) 20.6 (69.1) 21.4 (70.5) 21.5 (70.7) 21.8 (71.2) 22.7 (72.9) 21.2 (70.2) 21.3 (70.3) 22.1 (71.8) 21.9 (71.4) 22.0 (71.6) 20.5 (68.9) 20.5 (68.9)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 39.3 (1.547) 20.6 (0.811) 8.7 (0.343) 11.6 (0.457) 16.3 (0.642) 18.7 (0.736) 31.7 (1.248) 25.8 (1.016) 45.5 (1.791) 77.8 (3.063) 94.0 (3.701) 81.8 (3.22) 471.8 (18.575)

Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 8.4 5.0 1.8 1.9 2.2 2.8 4.9 4.3 3.9 7.4 10.6 11.4 64.6

Average relative humidity (%) 77.5 76.1 75.7 77.1 77.9 77.4 77.8 76.2 76.8 78.6 79.1 78.4 77.4

Source: DEPARTAMENTO METEOROLOGICO ARUBA,[17] (extremes)[15]

Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Aruba

Population of Aruba
Aruba
1961–2003, according to the FAO in 2005; number of inhabitants given in thousands

Ethnic groups
Ethnic groups
of Aruba
Aruba
[18]

Ethnic groups

percent

Dutch

82.1%

Colombian

6.6%

Other

5.5%

Venezuelan

2.2%

Dominican

2.2%

Haitian

1.2%

Unspecified

0.1%

The population is estimated to be 82.1% Dutch, 6.6% Colombian, 5.5% Black, mestizo (mixed African, European, and Arawak), and other ethnicities, 2.2% Venezuelan, 2.2% Dominican, 1.2% Haitian, & 0.1% unspecified. The population is estimated to be 75% mixed European/Amerindian/African, 15% Black and 10% other ethnicities. The Arawak heritage is stronger on Aruba
Aruba
than on most Caribbean
Caribbean
islands, and a quite big portion of Arubans who claim their ethnicity as Dutch possess Arawak blood. Although no full-blooded Aboriginals remain, the features of the islanders clearly indicate their genetic Arawak heritage. Most of the population is descended from Caquetio Indians and Dutch and to a lesser extent of Africans, Spanish, Portuguese, English, French, and Sephardic Jewish ancestors. Aruba
Aruba
is a home of Chinese, and Indo Caribbeans and Javanese, who descend largely from workers contracted from India and the island of Java
Java
in the former Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
(modern Indonesia). Recently, there has been substantial immigration to the island from neighboring American and Caribbean
Caribbean
nations, possibly attracted by the higher paid jobs. In 2007, new immigration laws were introduced to help control the growth of the population by restricting foreign workers to a maximum of three years residency on the island. Demographically, Aruba
Aruba
has felt the impact of its proximity to Venezuela. Many of Aruba's families are descended from Venezuelan immigrants. There is a seasonal increase of Venezuelans
Venezuelans
living in second homes. As Aruba
Aruba
has a little proximity to Colombia, Colombian residents and their children are found here. Language[edit] Main article: Languages of Aruba The official languages are Dutch and Papiamento. However, Dutch is the sole language for all administration and legal matters,[19] Papiamento is the predominant language on Aruba. It is a creole language, spoken on Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao, that incorporates words from Portuguese, West African languages, Dutch, and Spanish. English is known by many; its usage has grown due to tourism. Other common languages spoken, based on the size of their community, are Portuguese, Chinese, German, Spanish, and French. In recent years, the government of Aruba
Aruba
has shown an increased interest in acknowledging the cultural and historical importance of its native language. Although spoken Papiamento
Papiamento
is fairly similar among the several Papiamento-speaking islands, there is a big difference in written Papiamento. The orthography differs per island and even per group of people. Some are more oriented towards Portuguese and use the equivalent spelling (e.g. "y" instead of "j"), where others are more oriented towards Dutch. The book The Buccaneers of America, first published in 1678, states through eyewitness account that the natives on Aruba
Aruba
spoke Spanish already. Spanish became an important language in the 18th century due to the close economic ties with Spanish colonies in what are now Venezuela
Venezuela
and Colombia,[20] and several Venezuelan TV networks are received, and the fact that Aruba
Aruba
has a presence of Venezuelan and Colombian residents. The oldest government official statement written in Papiamento
Papiamento
dates from 1803. Around 12.6% of the population today speaks Spanish.[21] Use of English dates to the early 19th century, when the British took Curaçao, Aruba
Aruba
and Bonaire. When Dutch rule resumed in 1815, officials already noted wide use of the language.[9] Aruba
Aruba
has four newspapers published in Papiamento: Diario, Bon Dia, Solo di Pueblo and Awe Mainta; and three in English: Aruba
Aruba
Daily, Aruba
Aruba
Today and The News. Amigoe is a newspaper published in Dutch. Aruba
Aruba
also has 18 radio stations (two AM and 16 FM) and two local television stations (Telearuba, and Channel 22). Aruba
Aruba
is a polyglot society. Most of Aruba's population is able to converse in at least two of the languages of Papiamentu, Dutch, English, and Spanish. Religion[edit]

Religions of Aruba
Aruba
[22]

Religions

percent

Roman Catholic

75.3%

Other

12%

None

5.5%

Protestant

4.9%

Other Christian

3.4%

Jehovah's Witness

1.7%

Unspecified

0.5%

Three-quarters of the population is Roman Catholic. Regions[edit] For census purposes, Aruba
Aruba
is divided into eight regions, which have no administrative functions:

Name Area (km²) Population 1991 Census Population 2000 Census Population 2010 Census

Noord
Noord
/ Tanki Leendert 34.62 10,056 16,944 21,495

Oranjestad West 9.29 8,779 12,131 13,976

Oranjestad Oost 12.88 11,266 14,224 14,318

Paradera 20.49 6,189 9,037 12,024

San Nicolas Noord 23.19 8,206 10,118 10,433

San Nicolas Zuid 9.64 5,304 5,730 4,850

Santa Cruz 41.04 9,587 12,326 12,870

Savaneta 27.76 7,273 9,996 11,518

Total Aruba 178.91 66,687 90,506 101,484

Government[edit] Main article: Politics of Aruba

Map of the European Union
European Union
in the world with overseas countries and territories and outermost regions

King Willem-Alexander is the head of state of Aruba

Parliament of Aruba
Aruba
in Oranjestad

As a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Aruba's politics take place within a framework of a 21-member Parliament and an eight-member Cabinet. The governor of Aruba
Aruba
is appointed for a six-year term by the monarch, and the prime minister and deputy prime minister are elected by the Staten (or "Parlamento") for four-year terms. The Staten is made up of 21 members elected by direct, popular vote to serve a four-year term.[23] Together with the Netherlands, the countries of Aruba, Curaçao
Curaçao
and Sint Maarten
Sint Maarten
form the Kingdom of the Netherlands. As they share the same Dutch citizenship, these four countries still also share the Dutch passport as the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
passport. As Aruba, Curaçao
Curaçao
and Sint Maarten
Sint Maarten
have small populations, the three countries had to limit immigration. To protect their population, they have the right to control the admission and expulsion of people from the Netherlands. Aruba
Aruba
is designated as a member of the Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT) and is thus officially not a part of the European Union, though Aruba
Aruba
can and does receive support from the European Development Fund.[24][25] Politics[edit] The Aruban legal system is based on the Dutch model. In Aruba, legal jurisdiction lies with the Gerecht in Eerste Aanleg (Court of First Instance) on Aruba, the Gemeenschappelijk Hof van Justitie van Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten
Sint Maarten
en van Bonaire, Sint Eustatius
Sint Eustatius
en Saba
Saba
(Joint Court of Justice of Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten, and of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius
Sint Eustatius
and Saba) and the Hoge Raad der Nederlanden
Hoge Raad der Nederlanden
(Supreme Court of Justice of the Netherlands).[26] The Korps Politie Aruba ( Aruba
Aruba
Police Force) is the island's law enforcement agency and operates district precincts in Oranjestad, Noord, San Nicolaas, and Santa Cruz, where it is headquartered.[27] Deficit spending
Deficit spending
has been a staple in Aruba's history, and modestly high inflation has been present as well. By 2006, the government's debt had grown to 1.883 billion Aruban florins.[28] Aruba
Aruba
received some development aid from the Dutch government each year through 2009, as part of a deal (signed as "Aruba's Financial Independence") in which the Netherlands
Netherlands
gradually reduced its financial help to the island each successive year. In 2006, the Aruban government changed several tax laws to reduce the deficit. Direct taxes have been converted to indirect taxes as proposed by the IMF. A 3% tax has been introduced on sales and services, while income taxes have been lowered and revenue taxes for business reduced by 20%. The government compensated workers with 3.1% for the effect that the B.B.O. would have on the inflation for 2007. Education[edit] Aruba's educational system is patterned after the Dutch system of education.[29] The Government of Aruba
Aruba
finances the public national education system.[citation needed] There are mostly public schools, and there are private schools, including the International School of Aruba
International School of Aruba
and Schakel College.[citation needed] There are two medical schools, Aureus University School of Medicine and Xavier University School of Medicine,[30][31] as well as its own national university, the University of Aruba. Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Aruba Aruba
Aruba
has one of the highest standards of living in the Caribbean region. There is a low unemployment rate.[32] The GDP per capita for Aruba
Aruba
was estimated to be $28,924 in 2014; among the highest in the Caribbean
Caribbean
and the Americas.[21] Its main trading partners are Colombia, the United States, Venezuela, and the Netherlands.

A graphical breakdown of Aruba's economy by exports

The island's economy has been dominated by three main industries: tourism, aloe export, and petroleum refining (The Lago Oil and Transport Company and the Arend Petroleum Maatschappij Shell Co.).[citation needed] Before the "Status Aparte" (a separate completely autonomous country/state within the Kingdom), oil processing was the dominant industry in Aruba
Aruba
despite expansion of the tourism sector. Today, the influence of the oil processing business is minimal[further explanation needed]. The size of the agriculture and manufacturing sectors also remains minimal. The official exchange rate of the Aruban florin
Aruban florin
is pegged to the US dollar at 1.79 florins to 1 USD.[33][34] Because of this fact, and due to a large number of American tourists, many businesses operate using US dollars instead of florins, especially in the hotel and resort districts. Tourism[edit] About three quarters of the Aruban gross national product is earned through tourism or related activities.[35] Most tourists are from the United States
United States
(predominantly from the north-east US), the Netherlands and South America, mainly Venezuela
Venezuela
and Colombia.[citation needed] As part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, citizens of the Netherlands can travel with relative ease to Aruba
Aruba
and other islands of the Dutch Antilles. No visas are needed for Dutch citizens, only a passport, and although the currency used in Aruba
Aruba
is different (the Netherlands
Netherlands
uses the Euro), money can be easily exchanged at a local bank for Aruban Florins. For the facilitation of the passengers whose destination is the United States, the United States Department of Homeland Security
United States Department of Homeland Security
(DHS), U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) full pre-clearance facility in Aruba
Aruba
has been in effect since 1 February 2001 with the expansion in the Queen Beatrix Airport. United States
United States
and Aruba
Aruba
have had the agreement since 1986. It began as a USDA and Customs post. Since 2008, Aruba
Aruba
has been the only island to have this service for private flights.[36][citation needed] Military[edit] See also: Military of Aruba Defense on Aruba
Aruba
is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Netherlands
Netherlands
Military forces that protect Aruba include the Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Navy, the Netherlands
Netherlands
Marine Corps and the Netherlands
Netherlands
Coastguard. There is also a small indigenous "Arubaanse Militie" (ARUMIL) of about platoon strength. All forces are stationed at Marines Barracks Savaneta. Furthermore, in 1999 the U.S. Department of Defense established a Forward Operating Location (FOL) at the airport.[37] Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Aruba See also: Music of Aruba
Aruba
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles

Ornate buildings in Oranjestad, Aruba

On 18 March, Aruba
Aruba
celebrates its National Day. In 1976, Aruba presented its National Anthem ( Aruba
Aruba
Dushi Tera) and Flag. Aruba
Aruba
has a varied culture. According to the Bureau Burgelijke Stand en Bevolkingsregister (BBSB), in 2005 there were ninety-two different nationalities living on the island. Dutch influence can still be seen, as in the celebration of "Sinterklaas" on 5 and 6 December and other national holidays like 27 April, when in Aruba
Aruba
and the rest of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
the King's birthday or "Dia di Rey" (Koningsdag) is celebrated.

Iguanas on a rooftop in Aruba

Christmas and New Year's Eve
New Year's Eve
are celebrated with the typical music and songs for gaitas for Christmas and the Dande[clarification needed] for New Year, and ayaca, ponche crema, ham, and other typical foods and drinks. Millions of florins worth of fireworks are burnt at midnight on New Year's Eve. On 25 January, Betico Croes' birthday is celebrated. Dia di San Juan is celebrated on 24 June. Besides Christmas, the religious holy days of the Feast of the Ascension and Good Friday
Good Friday
are holidays on the island. The holiday of Carnaval is also an important one in Aruba, as it is in many Caribbean
Caribbean
and Latin American countries, and, like Mardi Gras, that goes on for weeks. Its celebration in Aruba
Aruba
started, around the 1950s, influenced by the inhabitants from Venezuela
Venezuela
and the nearby islands (Curaçao, St. Vincent, Trinidad, Barbados, St. Maarten and Anguilla) who came to work for the Oil refinery. Over the years the Carnival
Carnival
Celebration has changed and now starts from the beginning of January till the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday with a large parade on the last Sunday of the festivities (Sunday before Ash Wednesday). Tourism from the United States
United States
has recently increased the visibility of American culture on the island, with such celebrations as Halloween and Thanksgiving Day in November. Infrastructure[edit]

Palm Beach

Aruba's Queen Beatrix International Airport
Queen Beatrix International Airport
is located near Oranjestad. According to the Aruba
Aruba
Airport Authority, almost 1.7 million travelers used the airport in 2005, 61% of whom were Americans. Aruba
Aruba
has two ports, Barcadera and Playa, which are located in Oranjestad and Barcadera. The Port of Playa services all the cruise-ship lines, including Royal Caribbean, Carnival
Carnival
Cruise Lines, NCL, Holland America Line, Disney Cruise Line
Disney Cruise Line
and others. Nearly one million tourists enter this port per year. Aruba
Aruba
Ports Authority, owned and operated by the Aruban government, runs these seaports. Arubus is a government-owned bus company. Its buses operate from 3:30 a.m. until 12:30 a.m., 365 days a year. Small private vans also provide transportation services in certain areas such Hotel Area, San Nicolaas, Santa Cruz and Noord. A street car service runs on rails on the Mainstreet.[38] Utilities[edit] Water-en Energiebedrijf Aruba, N.V. (W.E.B.) produces potable industrial water at the world's third largest desalination plant.[39] Average daily consumption in Aruba
Aruba
is about 37,000 long tons (38,000 t).[40] Communications[edit] There are three telecommunications providers: Setar, a government-based company, Mio Wireless and Digicel, both of which are privately owned. Setar is the provider of services such as internet, video conferencing, GSM
GSM
wireless technology and land lines.[41] Digicel
Digicel
is Setar's competitor in wireless technology using the GSM platform, and Mio Wireless provides wireless technology and services using CDMA.[42] Places of interest[edit]

Alto Vista Chapel

Alto Vista Chapel Arikok National Park Ayo and Casibari Rock Formations Bushiribana and Balashi California Lighthouse Frenchman's Pass Hooiberg

Lourdes Grotto Mount Jamanota Natural Bridge, Aruba
Natural Bridge, Aruba
– collapsed 2 September 2005[43] Natural Pool Quadiriki Caves Sint Nicolaas, Aruba Tierra Del Sol Golf Course

Beaches

Arashi Beach Baby Beach, Aruba Caves of Aruba Eagle Beach Palm Beach, Aruba Palm Island, Aruba Rodgers Beach, Aruba

Notable people[edit]

Xander Bogaerts, MLB shortstop of the Boston Red Sox Rachel Brathen, yoga teacher Betico Croes, political activist Henny Eman, first prime minister of Aruba Bobby Farrell, musician Dave Benton, Aruban-Estonian musician Jossy Mansur, editor of the Papiamento
Papiamento
language newspaper, Diario Nelson Oduber, prime minister Sidney Ponson, MLB pitcher Fredis Refunjol, governor Julia Renfro, newspaper editor and photographer Jeannette Richardson-Baars, Deputy Police Commissioner Fred Jüssi, Estonian biologist, nature writer and photographer

See also[edit]

Geography portal North America
North America
portal Caribbean
Caribbean
portal Aruba
Aruba
portal Netherlands
Netherlands
portal

Bibliography of Aruba Central Bank of Aruba Index of Aruba-related articles List of monuments of Aruba Military of Aruba Outline of Aruba SS Pedernales

References[edit]

^ Migge, Bettina; Léglise, Isabelle; Bartens, Angela (2010). Creoles in Education: An Appraisal of Current Programs and Projects. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 268. ISBN 978-90-272-5258-6.  ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ Aruba, The World Factbook. ^ An update of the estimation of Aruba’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for 2011, 2012 and 2013. Central Bank of Aruba ^ a b "Aruba". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 10 August 2014.  ^ "History". Visitaruba.com. Retrieved 23 March 2018.  ^ Sullivan, Lynne M. (2006). Adventure Guide to Aruba, Bonaire
Bonaire
& Curaçao. Edison, NJ: Hunter Publishing, Inc. pp. 57–58.  ^ Sauer, Carl Ortwin (1966). The Early Spanish Main. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 112.  ^ a b Dede pikiña ku su bisiña: Papiamentu-Nederlands en de onverwerkt verleden tijd. van Putte, Florimon., 1999. Zutphen: de Walburg Pers ^ Van Putte 1999. ^ "British Empire: Caribbean: Aruba".  ^ Robbers, Gerhard (2007). Encyclopedia of World Constitutions. 1. New York City: Facts on File, Inc. p. 649. ISBN 0-8160-6078-9.  ^ "BBC News — Aruba
Aruba
profile — Timeline". Bbc.co.uk. 5 November 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2014.  ^ a b Canoe
Canoe
inc. (22 June 2011). "Aruba: the happy island". Slam.canoe.ca. Retrieved 15 July 2014.  ^ a b "Climate Data Aruba". Departamento Meteorologico Aruba. Retrieved 15 October 2012.  ^ Dewar, Robert E. and Wallis, James R; ‘Geographical patterning in interannual rainfall variability in the tropics and near tropics: An L-moments approach’; in Journal of Climate, 12; pp. 3457–3466 ^ "Summary Climatological Normals 1981–2010" (PDF). Departamento Meteorologico Aruba. Retrieved 15 October 2012.  ^ "Central America and Caribbean ::ARUBA". CIA The World Factbook.  ^ "About Us". DutchCaribbeanLegalPortal.com. Retrieved 2014-05-20.  ^ Dede pikiña ku su bisiña: Papiamentu-Nederlands en de onverwerkt verleden tijd. van Putte, Florimon., 1999. Zutphen: de Walburg Pers ^ a b Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(2009). "Aruba". The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2011.  ^ " The World Factbook
The World Factbook
— Central Intelligence Agency". Cia.gov. Retrieved 25 August 2017.  ^ "Political Stability". Aruba
Aruba
Department of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 7 June 2011.  ^ "EU Relations with Aruba". European Union. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2011.  ^ "Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT)". European Union. Retrieved 6 June 2011.  ^ Aruba.com Archived 15 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Korps Politie Aruba: district precincts". Aruba
Aruba
Police Force. Retrieved 11 September 2010.  ^ Central Bureau of Statistics. "Key Indicators General Government, 1997–2006". Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2011.  ^ "Bogaerts: USA TODAY Sports' Minor League Player of Year". Usatoday.com. 3 September 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2014.  ^ "Aureus University School of Medicine". Aureusuniversity.com. Retrieved 25 August 2017.  ^ " Caribbean
Caribbean
Medical School - Xavier University". Caribbean
Caribbean
Medical School - Xavier University. Retrieved 25 August 2017.  ^ Aruba. un.org ^ "Convert Dollars to Aruba
Aruba
Florin USD to AWG Currency Converter". Currency.me.uk. Retrieved 15 July 2014.  ^ "Convert United States
United States
Dollar to Aruban Florin
Aruban Florin
USD to AWG Currency Converter". Themoneyconverter.com. Retrieved 15 July 2014.  ^ " The World Factbook
The World Factbook
— Central Intelligence Agency". Cia.gov. Retrieved 12 October 2016.  ^ "Aruba". HighEnd-traveller.com. 2016-05-31. Retrieved 2017-12-08.  ^ " Aruba
Aruba
Foreign Affairs". www.arubaforeignaffairs.com.  ^ Street car is up and running The Morning News, 27 February 2013 ^ " Aruba
Aruba
Hosts International Desalination Conference 2007". Aruba Tourism Authority. 18 July 2007. Archived from the original on 15 February 2013. Retrieved 13 May 2015.  ^ "History". W.E.B. Aruba
Aruba
NV. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2011.  ^ "Setar N.V." Setar N.V.  ^ "Mio Wireless Products". Mio Wireless. Archived from the original on 19 June 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.  ^ "Coral bridge, natural Aruba
Aruba
tourist spot, collapses". USA Today. Associated Press. 2 September 2005. Retrieved 11 September 2010. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aruba.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Aruba.

Aruba.com – official tourism site of Aruba Aruba
Aruba
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Wikimedia Atlas of Aruba Aruba
Aruba
Esso News from the National Library of Aruba, openly and freely available in the Digital Library of the Caribbean

v t e

Aruba articles

History

Geography

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Sport

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See also

Kingdom of the Netherlands Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles

Outline Index Bibliography

Category Portal

Geographic locale

v t e

Islands of the Dutch Caribbean, the former Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles

Aruba1 Bonaire
Bonaire
(Klein Bonaire) Curaçao
Curaçao
(Klein Curaçao) Saba Sint Eustatius Sint Maarten

The Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles was dissolved on 10 October 2010 1 Aruba
Aruba
seceded from the Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles on 1 January 1986

v t e

Countries and dependencies of North America

Sovereign states

Entire

Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama St. Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago United States

In part

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v t e

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Members

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Associate members

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Observers

Aruba Colombia Curaçao Dominican Republic Mexico Puerto Rico Sint Maarten Venezuela

Institutions

Common Fund for Commodities (CFC) Court of Justice (CCJ) Disaster Emergency Management (CDEMA) Examinations Council (CXC) Meteorological Institute (CMI) Meteorological Organisation (CMO) Public Health Agency (CARPHA) Single Market and Economy (CSME)

Related organizations

CARIFORUM Organisation of Eastern Caribbean
Caribbean
States (OECS)

1 Member of the Community but not of the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) 2 British overseas territory awaiting entrustment to join the CSME

v t e

Outlying territories of European countries

Territories under European sovereignty but closer to or on continents other than Europe
Europe
(see inclusion criteria for further information).

Denmark

Greenland

France

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Adélie Land Crozet Islands Île Amsterdam Île Saint-Paul Kerguelen Islands Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean

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Italy

Pantelleria Pelagie Islands

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Netherlands

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Curaçao Sint Maarten

Norway

Bouvet Island Peter I Island Queen Maud Land

Portugal

Azores Madeira

Spain

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Chafarinas Islands Alhucemas Islands Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera

United Kingdom

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v t e

Dutch Empire

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Governorate General

Batavia

Governorates

Ambon Banda Islands Cape Colony Celebes Ceylon Coromandel Formosa Malacca Moluccas Northeast coast of Java

Directorates

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Commandments

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Residencies

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Opperhoofd settlements

Myanmar Canton Dejima Mauritius Siam Timor Tonkin

Colonies and trading posts of the Dutch West India Company (1621–1792)

Colonies in the Americas

Berbice 1 Brazil Cayenne Curaçao
Curaçao
and Dependencies Demerara Essequibo New Netherland Pomeroon Sint Eustatius
Sint Eustatius
and Dependencies Surinam 2 Tobago Virgin Islands

Trading posts in Africa

Arguin Gold Coast Loango-Angola Senegambia Slave Coast

1 Governed by the Society of Berbice 2 Governed by the Society of Suriname

Settlements of the Noordsche Compagnie
Noordsche Compagnie
(1614–1642)

Settlements

Jan Mayen Smeerenburg

Colonies of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
(1815–1962)

Until 1825

Bengal Coromandel Malacca Suratte

Until 1853

Dejima

Until 1872

Gold Coast

Until 1945

Dutch East Indies

Until 1954

Curaçao
Curaçao
and Dependencies 3 Surinam 3

Until 1962

New Guinea

3 Became constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; Suriname
Suriname
gained full independence in 1975, Curaçao
Curaçao
and Dependencies was renamed to the Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles, which was eventually dissolved in 2010.

Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
(1954–present)

Constituent countries

Aruba Curaçao Netherlands Sint Maarten

Public bodies of the Netherlands

Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius

Coordinates: 12°30′N 69°58′W / 12.500°N 69.967°W / 12.500; -69.967

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 151257487 LCCN: n79063

.