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Schillstraße 9 10785 Berlin

Youth wing Young Alternative for Germany

Membership (2017) 29,000[1]

Ideology

German nationalism[2][3][4] Right-wing populism[5] Euroscepticism[6] National conservatism[7][8] Anti-Islam[9][10][11] Anti-immigration[12] Antifeminism[13] Direct democracy[14][15]

Historical - National liberalism[16]

Political position Right-wing[17] to far-right[18]

European affiliation None

European Parliament
European Parliament
group EFDD

Colours      Light blue      Red

Bundestag

92 / 709

State Parliaments

158 / 1,821

European Parliament

1 / 96

Website

www.afd.de

Politics of Germany Political parties Elections

Alternative for Germany
Germany
(German: Alternative für Deutschland, AfD) is a right-wing[19] to far-right[18] political party in Germany. Founded in April 2013, the AfD narrowly missed the 5% electoral threshold to sit in the Bundestag
Bundestag
during the 2013 federal election. In 2014 the party won seven seats in the European election as a member of the European Conservatives and Reformists. After securing representation in 14 of the 16 German state parliaments by October 2017, the AfD became the third-largest party in Germany
Germany
after the 2017 federal election, claiming 94 seats in the Bundestag, a major breakthrough for the party as it was the first time the AfD had won any seats in the Bundestag. The party is chaired by Jörg Meuthen; its lead candidates in the 2017 elections were AfD Co-Vice Chairman Alexander Gauland
Alexander Gauland
and Alice Weidel
Alice Weidel
who now serves as the party group leader in the Bundestag. AfD is the largest opposition party in the Bundestag. The party has been described as a German nationalist,[2][3][4] right-wing populist,[20] and Eurosceptic[6] party. Since about 2015, the AfD has been increasingly open to working with far-right extremist groups such as Pegida.[21] Parts of the AfD have racist,[22] Islamophobic,[23] anti-Semitic[24][25] and xenophobic[11][26][27] tendencies linked to far-right movements such as Neo-Nazism[28][25] and identitarianism.[29][30]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Founding 1.2 2013 federal election 1.3 2013 state elections 1.4 2014 European Parliament
European Parliament
election 1.5 2014 state elections 1.6 2015 state elections 1.7 Petry assumes leadership, Lucke quits 1.8 Co-operation with FPÖ and exclusion from ECR group 1.9 2016 state elections 1.10 2016 party congress 1.11 2017 federal election

2 Ideology and policies

2.1 German nationalism 2.2 Homosexuality and feminism 2.3 Environment 2.4 Conscription 2.5 Foreign policy

3 Party finances 4 European affiliations 5 Public image

5.1 Relationship with far-right groups 5.2 Pegida 5.3 Antisemitism 5.4 Junge Alternative youth organisation

6 Elections

6.1 Federal Parliament (Bundestag) 6.2 European Parliament 6.3 State Parliament (Landtag)

7 See also 8 References 9 External links

History[edit] Founding[edit] In September 2012, Alexander Gauland, Bernd Lucke, and journalist Konrad Adam, founded the political group Electoral Alternative 2013 (German: Wahlalternative 2013) in Bad Nauheim, to oppose German federal policies concerning the eurozone crisis. Their manifesto was endorsed by several economists, journalists, and business leaders, and stated that the eurozone had proven to be "unsuitable" as a currency area and that southern European states were "sinking into poverty under the competitive pressure of the euro".[31]

"Wahlalternative 2013" logo

Some candidates of what would become the AfD sought election in Lower Saxony as part of the Electoral Alternative 2013 in alliance with the Free Voters, an association participating in local elections without specific federal or foreign policies, and received 1% of the vote.[31][32] In February 2013 the group decided to found a new party to compete in the 2013 federal elections. The Free Voters leadership declined to join forces, according to a leaked email from Bernd Lucke.[33] Advocating the abolition of the Euro, Alternative for Germany
Germany
(AfD) took a more radical stance than the Free Voters.[34] Likewise, the Pirate Party of Germany
Germany
opposed any coalition with the AfD at their 2013 spring convention.[35]

Konrad Adam (left), Frauke Petry
Frauke Petry
and Bernd Lucke
Bernd Lucke
during the first AfD convention on 14 April 2013 in Berlin

The AfD's initial supporters were the same prominent economists, business leaders and journalists who had supported the Electoral Alternative 2013, including former members of the Christian Democratic Union, who had previously challenged the constitutionality of the German government's eurozone policies at the Federal Constitutional Court.[36][37]

Second vote share percentage for AfD in the 2013 federal election in Germany, final results

Representations of AfD in the federal states of Germany

On 14 April 2013, the AfD announced its presence to the wider public when it held its first convention in Berlin, elected the party leadership and adopted a party platform. Bernd Lucke,[38] entrepreneur Frauke Petry
Frauke Petry
and Konrad Adam were elected as speakers.[39] The AfD federal board also chose three deputy speakers, Alexander Gauland, Roland Klaus and Patricia Casale. The party elected treasurer Norbert Stenzel and the three assessors Irina Smirnova, Beatrix Diefenbach and Wolf-Joachim Schünemann. The economist Joachim Starbatty, along with Jörn Kruse, Helga Luckenbach, Dirk Meyer and Roland Vaubel were elected to the party's scientific advisory board. Between 31 March and 12 May 2013 the AfD founded affiliates in all 16 German states in order to participate in the federal elections. On 15 June 2013 the Young Alternative for Germany
Young Alternative for Germany
was founded in Darmstadt
Darmstadt
as the AfD's youth organisation.[40] In April 2013, during David Cameron's visit to Germany, the British Conservative Party was reported to have contacted both AfD and the Free Voters to discuss possible cooperation, supported by the European Conservatives and Reformists
European Conservatives and Reformists
(ECR) group of the European Parliament.[41] In June 2013, Bernd Lucke
Bernd Lucke
gave a question and answer session organised by the Conservative Party-allied Bruges Group think tank in Portcullis House, London.[42] In a detailed report in the conservative Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
in April 2013, the paper's Berlin-based political correspondent Majid Sattar revealed that the SPD and CDU had conducted opposition research to blunt the growth and attraction of the AfD.[43] The party was created by Bernd Lucke, Alexander Gauland, and Konrad Adam to confront German-supported bailouts for poorer southern European countries.[44] 2013 federal election[edit] Further information: German federal election, 2013 On 22 September 2013, the AfD won 4.7% of the votes in the 2013 federal election, missing the 5% barrier to enter the Bundestag. The party won about 2 million party list votes and 810,000 constituency votes, which was 1.9% of the total of these votes cast across Germany.[45] 2013 state elections[edit] The AfD did not participate in the 2013 Bavaria
Bavaria
state election held on 15 September 2013. The AfD gained its first representation in the state parliament of Hesse
Hesse
with the defection of Jochen Paulus from the Free Democratic Party (FDP) to the AfD in early May 2013,[46] who was not re-elected and left office in January 2014.[47] In the 2013 Hesse state election held on 22 September 2013, the same day as the 2013 federal election, the AfD failed to gain representation in the parliament with 4.0% of the vote. 2014 European Parliament
European Parliament
election[edit] Further information: European Parliament election, 2014
European Parliament election, 2014
(Germany)

Former "Courage [to stand up] for the truth! The euro is dividing Europe!" tagline on election placard 2013

In early 2014, the Federal Constitutional Court
Federal Constitutional Court
of Germany
Germany
ruled the proposed 3% vote hurdle for representation in the European elections unconstitutional, and the 2014 European Parliament
European Parliament
election became the first run in Germany
Germany
without a barrier for representation.[48] The AfD held a party conference on 25 January 2014 at Frankenstolz Arena, Aschaffenburg, northwest Bavaria. The conference chose the slogan Mut zu Deutschland ("Courage [to stand up] for Germany") to replace the former slogan Mut zur Wahrheit (lit. "Courage [to speak] the truth" or, more succinctly, "Telling it as it is"),[49] which prompted disagreement among the federal board that the party could be seen as too anti-European. Eventually a compromise was reached by using the slogan "MUT ZU D*EU*TSCHLAND, with the "EU" in "DEUTSCHLAND" encircled by the 12 stars of the European flag.[50] The conference elected the top six candidates for the European elections on 26 January 2014 and met again the following weekend to choose the remaining euro candidates.[49][50][51] Candidates from 7th–28th place on the party list were selected in Berlin
Berlin
on 1 February.[52] Party chairman Bernd Lucke
Bernd Lucke
was elected as lead candidate. In February 2014, AfD officials said they had discussed alliances with Britain's anti-EU UK Independence Party
UK Independence Party
(UKIP), which Bernd Lucke
Bernd Lucke
and the federal board of AfD opposed, and also with the ECR group, to which the British Conservative Party belongs.[53] In April 2014 Hans-Olaf Henkel, AfD's second candidate on the European election list, ruled out forming a group with UKIP after the 2014 European election.[54] stating that he saw the British Conservatives as the preferred partner in the European Parliament.[54] On 10 May 2014 Bernd Lucke had been in talks with the Czech and Polish member parties of ECR group.[55] In the 25 May 2014 European election, the AfD came in fifth place in Germany, with 7.1% of the national vote (2,065,162 votes), and seven members of the EU parliament.[56] On 12 June 2014 it was announced that the AfD had been accepted into the European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) group in the European Parliament.[57] The official vote result was not released to the public, but figures of 29 votes for and 26 against were reported by the membership.[57] 2014 state elections[edit] On 31 August 2014, the AfD scored 9.7% of the vote in the Saxony state election,[58] winning 14 seats in the Landtag of Saxony.[59] and on 14 September 2014 they obtained 10.6% of the vote in the Thuringian and 12.2% in the Brandenburg state election, winning 11 seats in both state parliaments.[60] 2015 state elections[edit] On 15 February 2015 AfD won 6.1% of the vote in the 2015 Hamburg state election, gaining the mandate for eight seats in the Hamburg Parliament,[61] winning their first seats in a western German state. On 10 May the AfD secured in the 5.5% of the vote in the Bremen
Bremen
state election, 2015 gaining representation in their 5th state parliament on a 50% turnout.[62] Petry assumes leadership, Lucke quits[edit] After months of factional infighting and a cancelled party gathering in June 2015, on 4 July 2015 Frauke Petry
Frauke Petry
was elected as the de facto principal speaker of the party with 60% of the member votes ahead of Bernd Lucke
Bernd Lucke
at a party congress in Essen.[63] Petry was a member of the national-conservative faction of the AfD.[64] Her leadership was widely seen as heralding a shift of the party to the right, to focus more on issues such as migration, Islam and strengthening ties to Russia,[65] a shift which was claimed by Lucke as turning the party into a " Pegida
Pegida
party".[66] In the following week, five MEPs exited the party on 7 July, the only remaining MEPs being Beatrix von Storch
Beatrix von Storch
and Marcus Pretzell[67] and on 8 July 2015, Lucke announced that he was resigning from the AfD, citing the rise of xenophobic and pro-Russian sentiments in the party.[68] At a meeting of members of the Wake-up call (Weckruf 2015) group on 19 July 2015, the founder of the AfD Bernd Lucke
Bernd Lucke
and former AfD members announced they would form a new party, the Alliance for Progress and Renewal (ALFA), under the founding principles of the AfD.[69] Co-operation with FPÖ and exclusion from ECR group[edit] In February 2016, the AfD announced a cooperation pact with the Freedom Party of Austria
Freedom Party of Austria
(FPÖ).[70] On 8 March 2016, the bureau of the ECR Group began motions to exclude the AfD from their group due to its links with the far-right FPÖ,[71] inviting the two remaining AfD MEPs to leave the group by 31 March, with a motion of exclusion to be tabled on 12 April if they refuse to leave voluntarily.[72] While MEP Beatrix von Storch
Beatrix von Storch
left the ECR group on 8 April to join the Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy group,[73][74] Marcus Pretzell
Marcus Pretzell
let himself be expelled on 12 April 2016.[75] 2016 state elections[edit] With the migrant debate remaining the dominant national issue, on 13 March 2016 elections held in the three states of Baden-Württemberg, Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
and Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
saw the AfD receiving double-digit percentages of the vote in all three states.[76][77] In the 2016 Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
state election, the AfD reached second place in the Landtag, receiving 24.2% of the vote. In the 2016 Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
state election, the AfD achieved third place with 15.1% of the vote. In the 2016 Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
state election, the AfD again reached third place with 12.6% of the vote. In Angela Merkel's home state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
her CDU was beaten into third place following a strong showing of the AfD who contested at state level for the first time, to claim the second-highest polling with 20.8% of the vote in the 2016 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
state election.[78][79] However AfD voter support in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania appears to have come from both left and right wing parties with support for the SPD down 4.9%, CDU down 4.1%, The Left down 5.2%, Alliance '90/The Greens
Alliance '90/The Greens
down 3.9% and support for the National Democratic Party of Germany
Germany
halved, dropping 3.0%. Rising support for the AfD meant that The Greens and the NDP failed to reach the 5% threshold to qualify for seats in the Landtag of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
and consequently lost their seats. In the 2016 Berlin
Berlin
state election, which the AfD also contested for the first time,[80] they achieved a vote of 14.2%, making them the fifth largest party represented in the state assembly. Their vote seems to have come equally from the SPD and CDU, whose votes declined 6.7% and 5.7% respectively.[81] 2016 party congress[edit] At the party congress held on 30 April to 1 May 2016, the AfD adopted a policy platform based upon opposition to Islam, calling for the ban of Islamic symbols including burkhas, minarets and the call to prayer, using the slogan "Islam is not a part of Germany".[82][83][84][85] 2017 federal election[edit] Further information: German federal election, 2017

Second vote share percentage for AfD in the 2017 federal election in Germany, final results

National party convention in Cologne
Cologne
in April 2017

At the party conference in April 2017, Frauke Petry
Frauke Petry
announced that she would not run as the party's main candidate for the 2017 federal election. This announcement grew out of internal power struggle as the party's support had fallen in polls from 15% in the summer of 2016 to 7% just before the conference. Björn Höcke
Björn Höcke
from the far-right wing of the party and Petry were attempting to push each other out of the party. Petry's decision was partly seen as a step to avoid a vote at the conference on the issue of her standing.[86] The party chose Alexander Gauland, a strong conservative who worked as a lawyer and was a former member of the CDU,[87] to lead the party in the elections. Gauland supported the retention of Höcke's party membership. Alice Weidel, who is more perceived as moderate and business-oriented, was elected as his running mate.[88] The party approved a platform that, according to the Wall Street Journal: "urges Germany
Germany
to close its borders to asylum applicants, end sanctions on Russia
Russia
and to leave the EU if Berlin
Berlin
fails to retrieve national sovereignty from Brussels, as well as to amend the country's constitution to allow people born to non-German parents to have their German citizenship revoked if they commit serious crimes.[88] In the 2017 German federal elections the AfD won 12.6% of the vote and received 94 seats; this was the first time it had won seats in the Bundestag.[89][90] At a press conference held by AfD the day after the election, Petry said that she would participate in the Bundestag
Bundestag
as an independent; she said she did this because extremist statements by some members made it impossible for AfD to function as a constructive opposition, and to make clear to voters that there is internal dissent in the AfD. She also said that she would be leaving the party at some future date.[91][92] Four members of the AfD in the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
legislature also left the AfD to form their own group.[91] Ideology and policies[edit]

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2016)

The AfD was founded as a centre-right conservative party of the middle class with a tendency toward 'soft' Euroscepticism, being generally supportive of Germany's membership in the European Union
European Union
but critical of further European integration, the existence of the euro currency, and the bailouts by the eurozone for countries such as Greece.[93][94][95] At that time, the party also advocated support for Swiss-style direct democracy, dissolution of the Eurozone, opposition to immigration, and opposed gay marriage.[15] By May 2015, the party became polarised into two factions, one centred around Lucke and his core economic policies and another group led by Petry, which favoured an anti-immigration approach. The result was that Lucke's faction left to found a new party: the Alliance for Progress and Renewal,[96] later renamed the Liberal Conservative Reformers in November 2016. AfD also supports the privatization of social programs and state owned enterprises.[97][98] German nationalism[edit] The party was founded on opposition to Germany's financial support of other Eurozone
Eurozone
states and the third main point of its initial platform called for Germany
Germany
to cede no further elements of its sovereignty to the EU without approval via a referendum.[31] Over time, a focus on German nationalism, on reclaiming Germany's sovereignty and national pride, especially in repudiation to Germany's culture of shame with regard to its Nazi past, became more central in AfD's ideology and a central plank in its populist appeals.[2][3][4] For example, Petry, who led the moderate wing of the party, said that Germany
Germany
should reclaim the German word "völkisch" from its Nazi connotations,[99] while Höcke, who is an example of the more right-wing views, regularly speaks of the "Fatherland" and "Volk."[2] In January 2017, Höcke drew heavy criticism for a speech in which he stated, in reference to the Berlin
Berlin
Holocaust Memorial, "Germans are the only people in the world who plant a monument of shame in the heart of the capital," and criticized the "laughable policy of coming to terms with the past."[100][101] Höcke continued that Germany
Germany
should make a "180 degree" turn with regard to its sense of national pride.[2] The party also describes German national identity as under threat both from European integration
European integration
and from the presence and accommodation of immigrants and refugees within Germany; its anti-immigration message is often articulated in this way, especially with regard to Islam.[3][4] Homosexuality and feminism[edit] According to its interim electoral manifesto, the party is against same-sex marriage and favours civil unions. The party is also against adoption for same-sex couples.[102] The left-leaning newspaper Die Tageszeitung described the group as advocating 'old gender roles'.[103] Wolfgang Gedeon, an elected AfD representative, has included feminism, along with "sexualism," and "migrationism", in an ideology he calls "green communism" that he opposes, and argues for family values as part of German identity.[104] As AfD has campaigned for traditional roles for women. It has taken stances and aligned itself with groups opposed to modern feminism.[105] The youth wing of the party has used social media to campaign against aspects of modern feminism, with the support of party leadership.[106] Environment[edit] The party has a platform of climate change scepticism,[102][107] and therefore criticizes the energy transformation policies (Energiewende) that have promoted renewable energy. The party wants to restrict "uncontrolled expansion of wind energy", for instance.[102] Conscription[edit] AfD wants a reinstatement of conscription, starting for men at the age of 18.[108][102] Foreign policy[edit] In foreign policy, as of 2015 the party platform was pro-NATO and pro-United States, but the party was significantly divided on whether to support Russia, and had opposed sanctions on Russia
Russia
supported by NATO and the United States.[109] It is also divided on free trade agreements.[109] Party finances[edit] Further information: Party finance in Germany Because the 2013 federal election was the first attempt to join by the party, the AfD had not received any federal funds in the run-up to it,[110] but after receiving 2 million votes it crossed the threshold for party funding and was expected to receive an estimated 1.3 to 1.5 million Euros per year of state subsidies.[111] European affiliations[edit] Following the 2014 European Parliament
European Parliament
elections, on 12 June 2014 the AfD was accepted into the European Conservatives and Reformists
European Conservatives and Reformists
(ECR) group in the European Parliament.[57] In February 2016, the AfD announced a closer cooperation with the right-wing populist party Freedom Party of Austria
Freedom Party of Austria
(FPÖ), which is a member of the Europe of Nations and Freedom
Europe of Nations and Freedom
(ENF) group.[70] On 8 March 2016, the bureau of the ECR Group began motions to exclude AfD MEPs from their group due to the party's links with the far-right FPÖ and controversial remarks by two party leader, about shooting immigrants.[71][72] MEP Beatrix von Storch
Beatrix von Storch
pre-empted her imminent expulsion by leaving the ECR group to join the Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy group on 8 April,[73][74] and Marcus Pretzell
Marcus Pretzell
was expelled from the ECR group on 12 April 2016.[75] During the AfD party convention on 30 April 2016, Pretzell announced his intention to join the Europe of Nations and Freedom
Europe of Nations and Freedom
group.[112][113] Public image[edit] At the outset AfD presented itself as conservative and middle-class, catering to a well-educated demographic; around two-thirds of supporters listed on its website in the early days held doctorates, leading to AfD being nicknamed the "professors' party" in those early days.[114][115][116] The party was described as professors and academics who dislike the compromises inflicted on their purist theories by German party politics.[117] 86% of the party's initial supporters were male.[46] Relationship with far-right groups[edit] Outside the Berlin
Berlin
hotel where the party held its inaugural meeting, it has been alleged that copies of Junge Freiheit, a weekly that is also popular with the far-right were being handed out.[118] The Rheinische Post
Rheinische Post
pointed out that some AfD members and supporters write for the conservative paper Junge Freiheit.[43][119] There was also a protest outside the venue of the party’s inaugural meeting by Andreas Storr, a National Democratic Party of Germany
National Democratic Party of Germany
(NPD) representative in the Landtag of Saxony, as the NPD sees the AfD as a rival for Eurosceptic votes.[120] In 2013 Alternative for Germany
Germany
party organisers sent out the message that they are not trying to attract right-wing radicals, and toned down rhetoric on their Facebook
Facebook
page following media allegations that it too closely evoked the language of the far-right.[114][121] At that time the AfD checked applicants for membership to exclude far-right and former NPD members who support the anti- Euro
Euro
policy (as other mainstream German political parties do).[114][115][122] The former party chairman Bernd Lucke
Bernd Lucke
initially defended the choice of words, citing freedom of opinion, and a right to use "strong words", meanwhile he has also said that "The applause is coming from the wrong side" in regards to praise his party gained from the National Democratic Party of Germany
Germany
(NPD).[114] A 2013 investigation conducted by the internet social analytic company Linkfluence showed little to no similarities in Facebook
Facebook
likes of AfD followers and those of the NPD supporter base.[123] AfD members interests tended towards euroscepticism and direct democracy, while NPD supporters showed interests in anti-Islamification, right-wing rock bands and the German military.[123] An evaluation between the hyperlinks included on AFD local party websites also showed few similarities, with the company's German chief-executive stating "The AfD supporter base and the right-wing extremist scene are digitally very far removed from one another".[123] The analysis did point to AfD members favouring links with right-wing populist reactionary conservative content.[123] The AfD's desire to break consensus-based politics and oppose political correctness as undermining freedom of speech, does lend it kudos as a legitimate mouthpiece for right-wing populism among some of the party membership and on regional AfD websites, which contrasts with the intellectual character of the party hierarchy.[123] Left-wing criticism of the party took a more hardened tone over the late summer 2013,[citation needed] with an array of political activists from far-left anti-fascist anarchists to the mainstream Green Party accusing it of pandering to xenophobic and nationalistic sentiments.[124] This ultimately led to the AfD complaining over incidents of verbal abuse and violence to its campaigners in Berlin, Lübeck, Nuremberg
Nuremberg
and the university city of Göttingen.[124] Incidents in Göttingen
Göttingen
flared after a party conference on 1 August, with police intervening later in the month in an attempted garage arson attack (in which there was said to be a car filled with AfD campaign literature) and to break up a dispute between the AfD and members of the Green Youth.[124] Party leader Bernd Lucke
Bernd Lucke
described the events as a "slap in the face for every person who supports democracy" with the party in Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
left questioning whether to abandon their campaign in the state as local pub and restaurant owners denied the party access to their venues fearing for their businesses.[124] On 24 August 2013, Lucke and 16 other party members were reported to have been attacked in Bremen
Bremen
by opponents who used pepper spray and pushed Lucke from the stage. Initial reports by party officials and the police suggested that they were left-wing extremists and that about eight out of 20–25 attackers had succeeded in getting onto the stage. It was reported that a campaign worker had been cut with a knife. Later the police indicated that the number of people was probably around 10, of whom only two were known to have gained access to the stage, that only one of the opponents was known to be a left wing activist, and that the minor cut sustained by a campaign worker was probably not caused by a knife and was incurred later when attempting to apprehend a fleeing attacker.[125] Following the German Federal Election 2013 the anti-Islam party Die Freiheit unilaterally pledged to support Alternative for Germany
Germany
in the 2014 elections and concentrate its efforts on local elections only.[126] Bernd Lucke
Bernd Lucke
responded by saying the recommendation was unwelcome and sent a letter to party associations recommending a hiring freeze.[127] Earlier in September, Lucke described the Freedom Party members as coming from two camps, one of extreme Islam critics and populists, the other, ordinary democrats who were joining the AfD.[126] Co-operation with the Freedom Party remains controversial within the ranks of the AfD,[127] with some German state associations conducting vetting interviews with former Freedom Party members.[126] Referring to an initiative for an LGBT
LGBT
specific sex education in elementary school, Petry had asked on her social media presence if homophobia was such a common prejudice among third and fourth grade children, that it would be necessary to confront them with it. An article in the German LGBT
LGBT
magazine Queer interpreted her statement as a demand to protect ″normal" (allegedly referring to heterosexual) families in elementary school.[128] AfD MEP Beatrix von Storch
Beatrix von Storch
is a known opponent of same-sex marriage.[129] She has accused school gay youth networks of using "forced sexualization" on their students. In November 2015, a leading Berlin
Berlin
theatre, the Schaubühne, was brought into legal conflict with members of the AfD over a piece, Falk Richter's FEAR, that parodied them as zombies and mass murderers.[130] AfD vice-president Beatrix von Storch
Beatrix von Storch
is depicted facing retribution for her maternal grandfather's role as a minister in Hitler's government.[131] AfD Spokesperson, Christian Lüth, responded by interrupting a performance and filming it. Beatrix von Storch, and Conservative spokesperson Hedwig von Beverfoerde, then requested and obtained a preliminary injunction against the theatre, prohibiting it from using images of them in the production. They charged that the images' use violated their human dignity protected under the Constitution.[132] On 15 December 2015, the court ruled against the complainants in favour of the theatre's freedom of expression and lifted the injunctions against using the images. The judges commented that 'any audience member can recognize that this is just a play'.[133] In November 2015 Markus Pretzell said that German borders should be defended "with armed force as a measure of last resort,"[75] and in January 2016, Frauke Petry
Frauke Petry
twice said similar things.[134] Petry told the regional newspaper Mannheimer Morgen in an interview, but she later denied this and claimed that the press lied about her statement. Rhein-Zeitung has offered the audio-recording of the interview in which she advocates firing on refugees.[135] Stern reports that among 396 AfD candidates for the 2017 Bundestag, 47 candidates have not distanced themselves from right extremism. Although a large proportion of the candidates are not openly racist, some relativize Germany's role in World War II or call for the recognition of a "Cult of Guilt". 30 candidates tolerate right-wing friends in their profile or are themselves members of groups associated with such people. Others mourn the German Reich
German Reich
or use their symbols.[136] Pegida[edit] In response to the Pegida
Pegida
movement and demonstrations, members of AfD have expressed different views, with Lucke describing the movement as "a sign that these people do not feel their concerns are understood by politicians."[137] In response to the CDU Interior Minister Thomas de Maiziere alleging an "overlap" between Pegida
Pegida
rallies and the AfD, Alexander Gauland
Alexander Gauland
stated that the AfD are "natural allies of this movement".[138] However, Hans-Olaf Henkel
Hans-Olaf Henkel
asked members of the party not to join the demonstrations, telling Der Tagesspiegel
Der Tagesspiegel
that he believed it could not be ruled out that they had "xenophobic or even racist connotations".[137] A straw poll by The Economist
The Economist
found that nine out of ten Pegida
Pegida
protesters would back the AfD.[139] Antisemitism[edit] See also: National memory and German collective guilt Björn Höcke, one of the founders of AfD,[140][141][142][143] gave a speech in Dresden in January 2017, in which, referring to the Holocaust memorial in Berlin, he stated that "we Germans are the only people in the world who have planted a memorial of shame in the heart of their capital"[144] and suggested that Germans "need to make a 180 degree change in their politics of commemoration."[145] The speech was widely criticized as antisemitic, among others by Jewish leaders in Germany.[144][146] Within the AfD, he was described by his party chairwoman, Frauke Petry, as a "burden to the party" while other members of the party, such as Alexander Gauland, said that they found no anti-semitism in the speech.[144] As a result of his speech, the leaders of the AfD have asked in February 2017 that Björn Höcke
Björn Höcke
be expelled from the party. The arbitration committee of the AfD in Thuringia is set to rule on the leaders' request.[147] As of August 2017, Höcke remains "a part of the soul of the AfD".[148] Junge Alternative youth organisation[edit] Main article: Young Alternative for Germany The Young Alternative for Germany
Young Alternative for Germany
(German: Junge Alternative für Deutschland or JA), was founded in 2013 as the youth organisation of the AfD, while remaining legally independent from its mother party.[40] In view of the JA's independence it has been regarded by some in the AfD hierarchy as being somewhat wayward,[149] with the JA repeatedly accused of being "too far right,"[150] politically regressive and anti-feminist by the German media.[149][151][152] Elections[edit] Federal Parliament (Bundestag)[edit]

Election year Constituency votes

Party list votes

% of party list votes

Seats won +/– Status

2013[153] 810,915 2,056,985 4.7

0 / 631

0 Extra-parliamentary

2017[89][90] 5,316,095 5,877,094 12.6

94 / 709

+94 Opposition

European Parliament[edit]

Election year Votes % of vote Rank Seats won +/–

2014[154] 2,070,014 7.1 #5

7 / 96

+7

State Parliament (Landtag)[edit]

State election, year Votes % of vote

Rank Seats won +/– Status

Hesse, 2013[155] 126,906 4.1 #6

0 / 110

0 Extra-parliamentary

Saxony, 2014[156] 159,611 9.7 #4

14 / 126

+14 Opposition

Thuringia, 2014[157] 99,548 10.6 #4

11 / 91

+11 Opposition

Brandenburg, 2014[158] 119,989 12.2 #4

11 / 88

+11 Opposition

Hamburg, 2015[159] 214,833 6.1 #6

8 / 121

+8 Opposition

Bremen, 2015[160] 64,368 5.5 #6

5 / 83

+5 Opposition

Baden-Württemberg, 2016[161] 809,311 15.1 #3

23 / 143

+23 Opposition

Rhineland-Palatinate, 2016[162] 267,813 12.6 #3

14 / 101

+14 Opposition

Saxony-Anhalt, 2016[163] 271,646 24.4 #2

25 / 87

+25 Opposition

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, 2016[164] 167,453 20.8 #2

18 / 71

+18 Opposition

Berlin, 2016[165] 231,325 14.2 #5

25 / 160

+25 Opposition

Saarland, 2017[166] 32,971 6.2 #4

3 / 51

+3 Opposition

Schleswig-Holstein, 2017[167] 86,275 5.9 #5

5 / 73

+5 Opposition

North Rhine-Westphalia, 2017[168] 624,552 7.4 #4

16 / 199

+16 Opposition

Lower Saxony, 2017[169] 235,840 6.2 #5

9 / 137

+9 Opposition

See also[edit]

Right-wing populism
Right-wing populism
portal

References[edit] Notes

^ "Alle Parteien gewinnen - nur nicht die Union". AfD (in German). 29 December 2017.  ^ a b c d e Taub, Amanda; Fisher, Max (18 January 2017). "Germany's Extreme Right Challenges Guilt Over Nazi Past". The New York Times.  ^ a b c d "Understanding the 'Alternative for Germany': Origins, Aims and Consequences" (PDF). University of Denver. 16 November 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2017.  ^ a b c d Beyer, Susanne; Fleischhauer, Jan (30 March 2016). "AfD Head Frauke Petry: 'The Immigration of Muslims Will Change Our Culture'". Der Spiegel.  ^ "Germany's populist AfD: from anti-euro to anti-migrant". France 24. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 13 March 2016.  ^ a b

Tom Lansford, ed. (2014). Political Handbook of the World 2014. SAGE Publications. p. 532. ISBN 978-1-4833-3327-4.  Kemal Dervis; Jacques Mistral (2014). "Overview". In Kemal Dervis; Jacques Mistral. Europe's Crisis, Europe's Future. Brookings Institution Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-8157-2554-1.  Robert Ladrech (2014). "Europeanization of National Politics: the centrality of politics parties". In José M. Magone. Routledge Handbook of European Politics. Routledge. p. 580. ISBN 978-1-317-62836-1.  William T. Daniel (2015). Career Behaviour and the European Parliament: All Roads Lead Through Brussels?. Oxford University Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-19-871640-2. 

^ "Parties and Election in Europe". 2014.  ^ Simon Franzmann (2015). "The Failed Struggle for Office Instead of Votes". In Gabriele D'Ottavio; Thomas Saalfeld. Germany
Germany
After the 2013 Elections: Breaking the Mould of Post-Unification Politics?. Ashgate. pp. 166–167. ISBN 978-1-4724-4439-4.  ^

"Thousands rally in Hanover against anti-Islam AfD party". Al Jazeera.com. Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
Media Network. Retrieved 22 January 2018. ...rally in Hanover against anti-Islam AfD party  Ellyatt, Holly. "Germany's far-right AfD party: 5 things you need to know". CNBC. CNBC
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LLC; a Division of NBCUniversal. Retrieved 22 January 2018. Nowadays, the AfD is mainly known for its anti-immigration (namely, anti-Islamic)  Dancygier, Rafaela. "The anti-Muslim AfD just scored big in Germany's election. What does this mean for German Muslims?". The Washington Post. The Washington Post
The Washington Post
Company. Retrieved 22 January 2018.  Pfaffenbach, Kai. "German Election: Anti-Islam AfD Party That Worked With U.S. Ad Agency Predicted To Take Third Place". Newsweek. Newsweek LLC. Retrieved 22 January 2018. "Sunday’s election in Germany
Germany
is expected to bring big gains for the hard-right, anti-Islam Alternative for Germany
Germany
(AfD) party, 

^ Zeller, Frank. "Anti-migrant, anti-Muslim and anti-Merkel, Germany's AfD set to enter parliament". The Times of Israel. The Times of Israel. Retrieved 22 January 2018.  ^ a b Horn, Heather. "The Voters Who Want Islam Out of Germany". The Atlantic. The Atlantic
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Monthly Group. Retrieved 22 January 2018. The AfD’s founder Bernd Lucke, an economics professor, left the party last summer, condemning rising xenophobia.   ^ "German election: Why this vote matters". BBC News. 2017-09-15. Retrieved 2017-09-20. [better source needed] ^

Thomas Gesterkamp: Männerpolitik und Antifeminismus. Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, 1/2015. "Anti-euro party turns anti-feminist". Thelocal.de. 2014-03-31. Retrieved 2017-03-17.  Baureithel, Ulrike (9 April 2014). "Die AfD-Jugend under der Antifeminismus". Freitag.de.  "Anti-euro party turns anti-feminist". Thelocal.de. 2014-03-31. Retrieved 2017-03-17.  Haeusler, Alexander (2016). Die Alternative für Deutschland: Programmatik, Entwicklung und politische Verortung. Wiesbaden: Springer VS. p. 205. Retrieved 22 January 2018.  Flemming, Gilloz & Hairy, Matilda, Oriane & Nima (8 May 2017). "Getting to know you: mapping the anti-feminist face of right-wing populism in Europe". Open Democracy.  Eul, Alexandra (30 September 2017). "Germany's nationalist party is an ugly sexist one, too". The Globe and Mail. The Globe and Mail INC.  Dancygier, Rafaela. "The anti-Muslim AfD just scored big in Germany's election. What does this mean for German Muslims?".  Missing or empty url= (help)

^

"Germany's far-right AfD party: 5 things you need to know". cnbc.com. Consumer News and Business Channel. Retrieved 25 September 2017. Let's take the slightly controversial side about what the AfD wants to do about culture and immigration, which has been vastly misrepresented by their opponents, then everything else is small government, direct democracy, low regulation and low taxes, support for the family... 

^ a b Wayne C. Thompson, ed. (2015). Nordic, Central, and Southeastern Europe 2015–2016. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 246. ISBN 978-1-4758-1883-3.  ^

Simon Franzmann (2015). "The Failed Struggle for Office Instead of Votes". In Gabriele D'Ottavio; Thomas Saalfeld. Germany
Germany
After the 2013 Elections: Breaking the Mould of Post-Unification Politics?. Ashgate. pp. 166–167. ISBN 978-1-4724-4439-4.  "AfD ǀ Die populistische Versuchung — der Freitag" (in German). Freitag.de. 2013-04-15. Retrieved 2017-07-20.  "Politologe analysiert Landtagswahl: "Den Sachsen geht es zu gut"". tagesschau.de. 2014-09-01. Retrieved 2017-07-20. 

^ Germany's populist AfD seeks to turn online 'censorship' to its advantage. Deutsche welle. Published 2 January 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2018. Germany's right-wing AfD party surges to new high amid concern over refugees. 'Germany’s eurosceptic right-wing party has hit a new all-time high in the opinion polls as concern about migration rises in the country'. Independent. Author – Jon Stone. Published 13 January 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2016. New poll shows Alternative for Germany
Germany
gaining support. 'The right-wing Alternative for Germany
Germany
(AfD) has garnered some of its best numbers yet in a nationwide poll'. Deutsche Welle. Author – Brandon Conradis. Published 23 September 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2016. Germany's Right-Wing Challenge. 'All of that is now changing fast, thanks mostly to the rise of the right-wing Alternative for Germany
Germany
(AfD) party, which is capitalizing on widespread discontent with Merkel’s refugee policy'. Foreign Affairs. Author – Thorsten Benner. Published 26 September 2016. Retrieved 26 December 2016. Right-wing German party Alternative for Germany
Germany
adopts anti-Islam policy. 'The right-wing Alternative for Germany
Germany
party declared that "Islam does not belong in Germany" as it passed its new party manifesto on Sunday'. Author – Anne-Beatrice Clasmann. The Sydney Morning Herald. Published 2 May 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2016. Germany
Germany
AfD conference: party adopts anti-Islam policy. 'The German right-wing party Alternative für Deutschland (AfD) has adopted an explicitly anti-Islam policy'. BBC News. Published 1 May 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2016. ^ a b

Germany’s far-right party will make the Bundestag
Bundestag
much noisier. The Economist. Published 24 August 2017. Retrieved 24 September 2017. Ehrhardt, Sabine (2 December 2017). "Germany's far-right AfD chooses nationalist as co-leader". Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved 22 January 2018.  "German election: How right-wing is nationalist AfD?". BBC.com. The BBC. 13 October 2017. Is it far-right? Yes.  Eddy, Melissa (24 October 2017). "Far Right Upsets Tradition of Consensus in New German Parliament". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. the Alternative for Germany, the first far-right party to enter Parliament in decades  Chase, Jefferson Chase (24 September 2017). "AfD: What you need to know about Germany's far-right party". DW.com. Deutsche Welle.  Schuetz, Simon (10 Oct 2017). "The 'Very Different' Leaders Of Germany's Far-Right AfD Party". NPR.com. National Public Radio.  Rainer, Buergin (19 November 2017). "German Far-Right AfD Is in Parliament. Now What?". Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg L.P.  Farand, Chloe (21 November 2017). "Germany's far-right AfD says it is 'ready' to take advantage of political stalemate". The Independent.  Oltermann, Philip (3 Dec 2017). "Germany's far-right AfD sidelines moderates as police and protesters clash". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 22 January 2018.  Ellyatt, Holly (25 September 2017). "Germany's far-right AfD party: 5 things you need to know". CNBC. CNBC
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LLC; a Division of NBCUniversal.  Kamran Khan; Tim McNamara (2017). "Citizenship, immigration laws, and language". In Suresh Canagarajah. The Routledge Handbook of Migration and Language. Taylor & Francis. p. 464. ISBN 978-1-317-62434-9.  Jon Nixon (2017). "Introduction: Thinking Within, Against, and Beyond Austerity". In Jon Nixon. Higher Education in Austerity Europe. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-4742-7727-3. 

^ Germany's populist AfD seeks to turn online 'censorship' to its advantage. Deutsche welle. Published 2 January 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2018. Germany's right-wing AfD party surges to new high amid concern over refugees. 'Germany’s eurosceptic right-wing party has hit a new all-time high in the opinion polls as concern about migration rises in the country'. Independent. Author – Jon Stone. Published 13 January 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2016. New poll shows Alternative for Germany
Germany
gaining support. 'The right-wing Alternative for Germany
Germany
(AfD) has garnered some of its best numbers yet in a nationwide poll'. Deutsche Welle. Author – Brandon Conradis. Published 23 September 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2016. Germany's Right-Wing Challenge. 'All of that is now changing fast, thanks mostly to the rise of the right-wing Alternative for Germany
Germany
(AfD) party, which is capitalizing on widespread discontent with Merkel’s refugee policy'. Foreign Affairs. Author – Thorsten Benner. Published 26 September 2016. Retrieved 26 December 2016. Right-wing German party Alternative for Germany
Germany
adopts anti-Islam policy. 'The right-wing Alternative for Germany
Germany
party declared that "Islam does not belong in Germany" as it passed its new party manifesto on Sunday'. Author – Anne-Beatrice Clasmann. The Sydney Morning Herald. Published 2 May 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2016. Germany
Germany
AfD conference: party adopts anti-Islam policy. 'The German right-wing party Alternative für Deutschland (AfD) has adopted an explicitly anti-Islam policy'. BBC News. Published 1 May 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2016. ^

Johannes Kiess; Oliver Decker; Elmar Brähler (2016). "German perspectives on right-wing extremism: challenges for comparative analysis". In Johannes Kiess; Oliver Decker; Elmar Brähler. German Perspectives on Right-Wing Extremism: Challenges for Comparative Analysis. Routledge. pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-1-317-23184-4.  Frank Decker (2015). "Follow-up to the Grand Coalition: The Germany Party System before and after the 2013 Federal Election". In Eric Langenbacher. The Merkel Republic: An Appraisal. Berghahn Books. pp. 34–39. ISBN 978-1-78238-896-8.  Hans-Jürgen Bieling (2015). "Uneven development and 'European crisis constitutionalism', or the reasons for and conditions of a 'passive revolution in trouble'". In Johannes Jäger; Elisabeth Springler. Asymmetric Crisis in Europe and Possible Futures: Critical Political Economy and Post-Keynesian Perspectives. Routledge. p. 110. ISBN 978-1-317-65298-4.  Egbert Jahn (2015). German Domestic and Foreign Policy: Political Issues Under Debate -. Springer. p. 30. ISBN 978-3-662-47929-2. 

^

"AfD embraces Pegida
Pegida
ahead of German election". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2017-12-20.  Meaker, Morgan. "How Two Cities Encapsulate the Battle for Germany's Identity". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2017-12-20.  "Waving German flag, far-right and anti-Islam groups rally together bef". Reuters. 19 September 2017. Retrieved 2017-12-20. 

^

(www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. "AfD's Alice Weidel
Alice Weidel
called German government 'pigs' in racist email News DW 20.09.2017". DW.COM. Retrieved 2017-10-24.  "Meet the far-right party that's bringing racism and xenophobia back to Germany". Vox. Retrieved 2017-10-24. 

^

Ellyatt, Holly. "Germany's far-right AfD party: 5 things you need to know". CNBC. CNBC
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LLC; a Division of NBCUniversal. Retrieved 22 January 2018. "The German far right is running Islamophobic ads starring women in bikinis". Vox. Retrieved 2017-10-24.  Eddy, Melissa (2017-09-25). "Alternative for Germany: Who Are They, and What Do They Want?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-20. 

^ "Anti-Semitism row splits German party". BBC News. 2016-07-06. Retrieved 2017-10-24.  ^ a b Aderet, Ofer (2017-09-24). "'Nazis in the Reichstag': All Eyes on Far-right AfD Party as Germans Vote in National Election". Haaretz. Retrieved 2017-12-20.  ^

Zeller, Frank. "Anti-migrant, anti-Muslim and anti-Merkel, Germany's AfD set to enter parliament". The Times of Israel. The Times of Israel. Retrieved 22 January 2018. the AfD is an anti-establishment party that harnesses xenophobia and popular discontent about what it labels unaccountable political and media elites.  "Meet the far-right party that's bringing racism and xenophobia back to Germany". Vox. Retrieved 2017-10-24.  "Thousands rally in Hanover against anti-Islam AfD party". Al Jazeera. Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
Media Network. Retrieved 22 January 2018. Bernd Lucke, the AfD's first leader, resigned in 2015, citing concerns the party had become "Islamophobic and xenophobic". 

^ Ellyatt, Holly. "Germany's far-right AfD party: 5 things you need to know". CNBC.com. CNBC
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LLC; a Division of NBCUniversal. Retrieved 22 January 2018. Lucke told Reuters
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at the time that he was leaving amid rising xenophobia and Islamophobia
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Russia
to resolve problems in Eastern Europe. However, a resolution passed that calls for an end to European sanctions imposed on Russia, and to abstain from further measures designed to bind Ukraine and EU or Ukraine and Russia
Russia
closer together, has led some to charge the party with anti-Americanism.39 The debate about a more pro-American or pro-Russian course appears to divide the AfD deeply, and opinions differ significantly among even the party leadership, as a Die Welt
Die Welt
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'Alternative for Germany' Launches". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 13 May 2013.  ^ a b Nicholas Kulish and Melissa Eddy, German elites drawn to anti- Euro
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party, spelling trouble for Merkel The New York Times
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(in German). Retrieved 22 May 2013.  ^ Schneider, Theo. "Neo-Nazis rally against Alternative for Germany party congress". demotix.com. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2013.  ^ Alling, Daniel (13 March 2013). "Nytt eurokritiskt parti i Tyskland". Sveriges Radio (in Swedish). Retrieved 19 May 2013.  ^ Alexander, Harriet; Jeevan Vasagar (7 April 2013). "Bernd Lucke interview: 'Why Germany
Germany
has had enough of the euro'". The Sunday Telegraph. Retrieved 13 May 2013.  ^ a b c d e Heine, Friederike. "Popular with Populists: Euroskeptic Party Attracts Right Wing". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 30 August 2013.  ^ a b c d Heine, Friederike (14 August 2013). "Hard Knocks for Anti- Euro
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Der Spiegel
(in German). Retrieved 15 November 2013.  ^ a b Leber, Fabian (1 October 2013). "Alternative für Deutschland und "Die Freiheit" Islamkritiker empfehlen jetzt die AfD". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Retrieved 15 November 2013.  ^ dk (19 February 2015). " Frauke Petry
Frauke Petry
will an Schulen die "normale" Familie schützen". queer.de (in German). Retrieved 15 November 2013.  ^ Philip Oltermann. "Liberals quit Alternative for Germany
Germany
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Frauke Petry
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(in German).  ^ "AfD-Chefin Petry: "Höcke ist eine Belastung für die Partei"". Junge Freiheit
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Further reading

Spiegel Online's Guide to German Political Parties: Alternative for Germany

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alternative for Germany.

Official website (in German) Manifesto
Manifesto
for Germany: The Political Programme for the Alternative for Germany
Germany
(2017, English translation)

v t e

Political parties in Germany
Germany

Parties represented in the European Parliament
European Parliament
and in the Bundestag

AfD (92) Blue Party (1) CDU (200) CSU (46) FDP (80) SPD (153) The Greens (67) The Left (69)

Other parties represented in the European Parliament* or in state parliaments**

Citizens in Rage** Ecological Democratic Party* Family Party** Free Voters*/** LKR*/** NPD* Die PARTEI* Pirate Party* South Schleswig Voters' Association**

Minor parties (without representation above district level)

Anarchist Pogo Party Basic Income Alliance Bavaria
Bavaria
Party Centre Party Christian Centre Civil Rights Movement Solidarity Communist Party (Roter Morgen) Communist Party (1990) Feminist Party Die Friesen Human Environment Animal Protection German Communist Party German Freedom Party German Social Union Marxist–Leninist Party New Liberals Party for Health Research Party of Bible-abiding Christians Party of Reason Pro Germany
Germany
Citizens' Movement The Republicans Revolutionary Socialist League Social Equality Party Statt Party V-Partei³

Portal:Politics List of political parties Politics of Germany

v t e

The far right in post-war Germany

Political parties and groups

Action Front of National Socialists/National Activists Alternative for Germany Artgemeinschaft Autonome Nationalisten Deutsche Heidnische Front Deutsche Rechtspartei Deutsche Reichspartei Free German Workers' Party German Alternative German League for People and Homeland German People's Union German Social Union Gesinnungsgemeinschaft der Neuen Front Identitarian movement National Democratic Party of Germany National Offensive Nationalist Front Pegida The Republicans Socialist Reich Party Volkssozialistische Bewegung Deutschlands/Partei der Arbeit Wiking-Jugend

People

Bela Ewald Althans Holger Apfel Wilhelm Bittrich Friedhelm Busse Günter Deckert Sepp Dietrich Gerhard Frey Herbert Gille Wolf Rüdiger Hess Erich Kern Götz Kubitschek Michael Kühnen Otto Kumm Horst Mahler Hubert Meyer Kurt Meyer Armin Mohler Martin Mussgnug Harald Neubauer Frauke Petry Paul Hausser Otto Ernst Remer Jürgen Rieger Hans-Ulrich Rudel Franz Schönhuber Fritz Rössler Wilhelm Stäglich Felix Steiner Otto Strasser Michael Swierczek Adolf von Thadden Friedrich Thielen Udo Voigt Christian Worch

German law

Strafgesetzbuch section 86a

Related articles

Deutsche Nationalzeitung Fourth Reich HIAG Nation Europa Neue Rechte Stille Hilfe Strasserism Überfremdung Zuerst!

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 305931736 LCCN: no20150020

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