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Almaty

Алматы
Almaty
City
Panfilov Street.jpg
Abai Theatre.jpg
Accession Cathedral, Almaty (1).jpg
KBTU, Almaty (cropped).jpg
Kok Tobe cablecar.jpg
View of Almaty from the hills.png
Clockwise from top: Panfilov Street Esplanade, Ascension Cathedral, Kok Tobe cable car, Skyline of Almaty, KBTU Building, Abay Opera House.
Flag of Almaty
Flag
Coat of arms of Almaty
/ˈælməti/; Kazakh pronunciation: [ɑlmɑˈtə]; Cyrillic: Алматы), formerly known as Alma-Ata and Verny (Russian: Верный), is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of about 2,000,000 people, about 11% of the country's total population,[5] and more than 2.7 million in its built-up area that encompasses Talgar, Boraldai, Otegen Batyr and many other suburbs. It served as capital of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic and later independent Kazakhstan from 1929 to 1997.[6] In 1997, the government relocated the capital to Astana (renamed Nur-Sultan in 2019) in the north of the country.

Almaty is still the major commercial and cultural centre of Kazakhstan, as well as its most populous and most cosmopolitan city.[7] The city is located in the mountainous area of southern Kazakhstan near the border with Kyrgyzstan in the foothills of the Trans-Ili Alatau at an elevation of 700–900 m (2,300–3,000 feet), where the Large and Small Almatinka rivers run into the plain.[8]

The city has been part of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network in the area of music since November 2017.[9] The city was the host for a 1978 international conference on Primary Health Care where the Alma Ata Declaration was adopted, marking a paradigm shift in global public health.

Status

From 1929 to 1936, Almaty was the capital of the Kazakh ASSR. From 1936 to 1991 it was the capital of the Kazakh SSR. After Kazakhstan became independent in 1991, Almaty continued as the capital until 1997, when Astana (renamed Nur-Sultan in 2019) was designated a return to the historic capital.

Almaty remains the largest, most developed, and most ethnically and culturally diverse city in Kazakhstan. Due to development by the Soviet Union and relocation of workers and industries from European areas of the Soviet Union during World War II, the city has a high proportion of ethnic Russians and Ukrainians. The city lies in the foothills of Trans-Ili Alatau (or Zailiysky Alatau) in the extreme south-east.

It has a relatively mild climate with warm and dry summers and quite cold winters. Since the city is in a tectonically active area, it has an endemic risk of earthquakes. Although most tremors do not cause any significant damage, Almaty has suffered some large destructive earthquakes.

In 1997 the capital was moved to Astana (renamed Nur-Sultan in 2019) in the north-central part of the country. Since then Almaty has been referred to as the 'southern capital' of Kazakhstan.

Etymology

The name Almaty has its roots in the medieval settlement Almatu, that existed near the present-day city.[10] A disputed theory holds that the name is derived from the Kazakh word for 'apple' (алма), and is often translated as "full of apples". Originally it was Almatau which means Apple Mountain. The Russian version of the name was Alma-Ata (Kaz. Father of Apples). Since gaining its independence from the Soviet Union, the use of the Kazakh Almaty is accepted.

There is great genetic diversity among the wild apples in the region surrounding Almaty; the region is thought to be the apple's ancestral home. The wild Malus sieversii is considered a likely candidate for the ancestor of the modern domestic apple.[11]

The city's name was written as آلماتی Ālmātī in Persian and Urdu written with the Perso-Arabic script.

Culture

Almaty is largely considered to be the heart and soul of Kazakhstan's classical and popular cultures.[12] The Almaty region and city have a distinct vibe and pace compared to other regions and cities in Kazakhstan. Contemporary Almaty has a more European vibe due to more cafes and restaurants with outdoor seating and public green space.[13]Kazakh culture and zeitgeist identify as the genetic origin, or fatherland, of the wild apple (Malus siversii). [14] Almaty is the historical and contemporary capital of intellectualism in Kazakhstan as a result of Almaty's location along the Ancient Silk Road and that many Russian intellectuals were exiled to the region and to Karlag.[15] The Abai Kazakh State Opera and Ballet Theatre has anchored the city's theater scene since 1934 and was founded around a community of local performance artists.[16] The Kasteyev State Museum of Arts was founded in 1935, is the largest museum in Kazakhstan, and has the largest collection of artworks by Kazakh classic and contemporary artists.[17] Almaty is still the major commercial and cultural centre of Kazakhstan, as well as its most populous and most cosmopolitan city.[7] The city is located in the mountainous area of southern Kazakhstan near the border with Kyrgyzstan in the foothills of the Trans-Ili Alatau at an elevation of 700–900 m (2,300–3,000 feet), where the Large and Small Almatinka rivers run into the plain.[8]

The city has been part of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network in the area of music since November 2017.[9] The city was the host for a 1978 international conference on Primary Health Care where the Alma Ata Declaration was adopted, marking a paradigm shift in global public health.

From 1929 to 1936, Almaty was the capital of the Kazakh ASSR. From 1936 to 1991 it was the capital of the Kazakh SSR. After Kazakhstan became independent in 1991, Almaty continued as the capital until 1997, when Astana (renamed Nur-Sultan in 2019) was designated a return to the historic capital.

Almaty remains the largest, most developed, and most ethnically and culturally diverse city in Kazakhstan. Due to development by the Soviet Union and relocation of workers and industries from European areas of the Soviet Union during World War II, the city has a high proportion of ethnic Russians and Ukrainians. The city lies in the foothills of Trans-Ili Alatau (or Zailiysky Alatau) in the extreme south-east.

It has a relatively mild climate with warm and dry summers and quite cold winters. Since the city is in a tectonically active area, it has an endemic risk of earthquakes. Although most tremors do not cause any significant damage, Almaty has suffered some large destructive earthquakes.

In 1997 the capital was moved to Astana (renamed Nur-Sultan in 2019) in the north-central part of the country. Since then Almaty has been referred to as the 'southern capital' of Kazakhstan.

Etymology

The name Almaty has its roots in the medieval settlement Almatu, that existed near the present-day city.[10] A disputed theory holds that the name is derived from the Kazakh word for 'apple' (алма), and is often translated as "full of apples". Originally it was Almatau which means Apple Mountain. The Russian version of the name was Alma-Ata (Kaz. Father of Apples). Since gaining its independence from the Soviet Union, the use of the Kazakh Almaty is accepted.

There is great genetic diversity among the wild apples in the region surrounding Almaty; the region is thought to be the apple's ancestral home. The wild Malus sieversii is considered a likely candidate for the ancestor of the modern domestic apple.[11]

The city's name was written as آلماتی Ālmātī in Persian and Urdu written with the Perso-Arabic script.

Culture

Almaty is largely considered to be the heart and soul of Kazakhstan's classical and popular cultures.[12] The Almaty region and city have a distinct vibe and pace compared to other regions and cities in Kazakhstan. Contemporary Almaty has a more European vibe due to more cafes and restaurants with outdoor seating and public green space.[13]Kazakh culture and zeitgeist identify as the genetic origin, or fatherland, of the wild apple (Malus siversii). [14] Almaty is the historical and contemporary capital of intellectualism in Kazakhstan as a result of Almaty's location along the Ancient Silk Road and that many Russian intellectuals were exiled to the region and to Karlag.[15] The Abai Kazakh State Opera and Ballet Theatre has anchored the city's theater scene since 1934 and was founded around a community of local performance artists.[16] The Kasteyev State Museum of Arts was founded in 1935, is the largest museum in Kazakhstan, and has the largest collection of artworks by Kazakh classic and contemporary artists.[17]

History

Prehistoric Almaty

During 1000–900 BC in the Bronze Age, the first farmers and cattle-breeders established settlements in the territory of Almaty.[18] During the Saka period (from 700 BC to the beginning of the Christian era), these lands were occupied by the Saka and later Wusun tribes, who inhabited the territory north of the Tian Shan mountain range. Evidence of these times can be found in the numerous burial mounds (tumuli) and ancient settlements, especially the giant burial mounds of the Saka tsars. The most famous archaeological finds have been "The Golden Man", also known as "The Golden Warrior", from the Issyk Kurgan; the Zhalauly treasure, the Kargaly diadem, and the Zhetysu arts bronzes (boilers, lamps and altars). During the period of Saka and Wusun governance, Almaty became an early education centre.[18]

Middle Ages

15th–18th centuries

In the 15th–18th centuries, the city was in decline as trade activities were decreasing on this part of the Silk Road. European nations were conducting more trade by shipping overseas. This period was one of crucial ethnic and political transformations. The Kazakh state and nation were founded here, close to Almaty.[citation needed]

The Dzungar invaded, dominating the Kazakh people for a period. The Kazakh fought to protect their land and preserve independence. In 1730 the Kazakh defeated the Dzungar in the Anyrakay mountains, 70 kilometres (43 miles) north-west of Almaty. During the eighteenth century, the city and region was roughly on the border between t

Almaty remains the largest, most developed, and most ethnically and culturally diverse city in Kazakhstan. Due to development by the Soviet Union and relocation of workers and industries from European areas of the Soviet Union during World War II, the city has a high proportion of ethnic Russians and Ukrainians. The city lies in the foothills of Trans-Ili Alatau (or Zailiysky Alatau) in the extreme south-east.

It has a relatively mild climate with warm and dry summers and quite cold winters. Since the city is in a tectonically active area, it has an endemic risk of earthquakes. Although most tremors do not cause any significant damage, Almaty has suffered some large destructive earthquakes.

In 1997 the capital was moved to Astana (renamed Nur-Sultan in 2019) in the north-central part of the country. Since then Almaty has been referred to as the 'southern capital' of Kazakhstan.

The name Almaty has its roots in the medieval settlement Almatu, that existed near the present-day city.[10] A disputed theory holds that the name is derived from the Kazakh word for 'apple' (алма), and is often translated as "full of apples". Originally it was Almatau which means Apple Mountain. The Russian version of the name was Alma-Ata (Kaz. Father of Apples). Since gaining its independence from the Soviet Union, the use of the Kazakh Almaty is accepted.

There is great genetic diversity among the wild apples in the region surrounding Almaty; the region is thought to be the apple's ancestral home. The wild Malus sieversii<

There is great genetic diversity among the wild apples in the region surrounding Almaty; the region is thought to be the apple's ancestral home. The wild Malus sieversii is considered a likely candidate for the ancestor of the modern domestic apple.[11]

The city's name was written as آلماتی Ālmātī in Persian and Urdu written with the Perso-Arabic script.

Almaty is largely considered to be the heart and soul of Kazakhstan's classical and popular cultures.[12] The Almaty region and city have a distinct vibe and pace compared to other regions and cities in Kazakhstan. Contemporary Almaty has a more European vibe due to more cafes and restaurants with outdoor seating and public green space.[13]Kazakh culture and zeitgeist identify as the genetic origin, or fatherland, of the wild apple (Malus siversii). [14] Almaty is the historical and contemporary capital of intellectualism in Kazakhstan as a result of Almaty's location along the Ancient Silk Road and that many Russian intellectuals were exiled to the region and to Karlag.[15] The Abai Kazakh State Opera and Ballet Theatre has anchored the city's theater scene since 1934 and was founded around a community of local performance artists.[16] The Kasteyev State Museum of Arts was founded in 1935, is the largest museum in Kazakhstan, and has the largest collection of artworks by Kazakh classic and contemporary artists.[17]

History

During 1000–900 BC in the Bronze Age, the first farmers and cattle-breeders established settlements in the territory of Almaty.[18] During the Saka period (from 700 BC to the beginning of the Christian era), these lands were occupied by the Saka and later Wusun tribes, who inhabited the territory north of the Tian Shan mountain range. Evidence of these times can be found in the numerous burial mounds (tumuli) and ancient settlements, especially the giant burial mounds of the Saka tsars. The most famous archaeological finds have been "The Golden Man", also known as "The Golden Warrior", from the Issyk Kurgan; the Zhalauly treasure, the Kargaly diadem, and the Zhetysu arts bronzes (boilers, lamps and altars). During the period of Saka and Wusun governance, Almaty became an early education centre.[18]

Middle Ages

15th–18th centuries

In the 15th–18th centuries, the city was in decline as trade activities were decreasing

In the 15th–18th centuries, the city was in decline as trade activities were decreasing on this part of the Silk Road. European nations were conducting more trade by shipping overseas. This period was one of crucial ethnic and political transformations. The Kazakh state and nation were founded here, close to Almaty.[citation needed]

The Dzungar invaded, dominating the Kazakh people for a period. The Kazakh fought to protect their land and preserve independence. In 1730 the Kazakh defeated the Dzungar in the Anyrakay mountains, 70 kilometres (43 miles) north-west of Almaty. During the eighteenth century, the city and region was roughly on the border between the Khanate of Kokand and Qing Empire. It was then absorbed as part of the Russian Empire in the 1850s.

Dzungar invaded, dominating the Kazakh people for a period. The Kazakh fought to protect their land and preserve independence. In 1730 the Kazakh defeated the Dzungar in the Anyrakay mountains, 70 kilometres (43 miles) north-west of Almaty. During the eighteenth century, the city and region was roughly on the border between the Khanate of Kokand and Qing Empire. It was then absorbed as part of the Russian Empire in the 1850s.

To defend its empire, Russia built Fort Verniy near the Zailiysky Alatau mountain range between the Bolshaya and Malenkaya Almatinka rivers. Construction began on 4 February 1854 and was nearly completed by the autumn of that year. The fort was a wooden palisade, shaped like a pentagon, with one side built along the Malaya Almatinka. Later, the wood fence was replaced with a brick wall with embrasures. The main facilities were erected around the large square for training and parading.[20]

Cossack village) near the fortification. The inflow of migrants was increasing and led to the construction of the Malaya Almatinskaya Stanitsa and Tatarskaya (Tashkentskaya) sloboda. It was the place of settlement for Tatar merchants and craftsmen.[citation needed]

In 1867 Verniy Fort was developed as a town called Almatinsk; the town soon returned to the name Verniy.[21]

According to the First City Plan, developed by administrators of the Russian Empire, the city perimeters were 2 kilometres (1 mile) on the south along Almatinka river, and 3 kilometres (2 miles) on the west. The new city area was divided into residential parts, and the latter into districts. Three categories of city buildings were defined. Category I and II buildings were of one or two-storied construction with a high semi-basement; they were erected around and in the centre of the city, others on the outskirts.[citation needed]

World War II monument "Feat" in Park of the 28 Panfilov Guardsmen

On 28 May 1887, at 4 a.m., an earthquake almost totally destroyed Verniy in 11–12 minutes.[22] Brick buildings were damaged the most, as they broke apart because of lack of flexibility. As a result, people were afterward inclined to build one-storied buildings made of wood or adobe.&

In 1867 Verniy Fort was developed as a town called Almatinsk; the town soon returned to the name Verniy.[21]

According to the First City Plan, developed by administrators of the Russian Empire, the city perimeters were 2 kilometres (1 mile) on the south along Almatinka river, and 3 kilometres (2 miles) on the west. The new city area was divided into residential parts, and the latter into districts. Three categories of city buildings were defined. Category I and II buildings were of one or two-storied construction with a high semi-basement; they were erected around and in the centre of the city, others on the outskirts.[citation needed]

On 28 May 1887, at 4 a.m., an earthquake almost totally destroyed Verniy in 11–12 minutes.[22] Brick buildings were damaged the most, as they broke apart because of lack of flexibility. As a result, people were afterward inclined to build one-storied buildings made of wood or adobe.[citation needed]

By 1906 the population of the city had grown to 27,000, two-thirds of whom being Russians and Ukrainians.

Soviet era