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The Allegheny River
River
(/ˌæləˈɡeɪni/ AL-ə-GAY-nee) is a principal tributary of the Ohio River; it is located in the Eastern United States. The Allegheny River
River
joins with the Monongahela River
Monongahela River
to form the Ohio River
Ohio River
at the "Point" of Point State Park
Point State Park
in Downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Allegheny River
River
is, by volume, the main headstream of the Ohio River.

Contents

1 Geography 2 Etymology 3 Course

3.1 Tributaries

4 River
River
modifications

4.1 Navigation 4.2 Flood
Flood
control 4.3 Crossings

5 History 6 Settlements along the river

6.1 New York 6.2 Pennsylvania

7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Geography[edit]

The Allegheny River
River
drainage basin covers parts of New York and Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
in the United States.

Further information: Geography of Pennsylvania The river is approximately 325 miles (523 km) long, running through the U.S. states of New York and Pennsylvania.[2] It drains a rural dissected plateau of 11,580 square miles (30,000 km2) in the northern Allegheny Plateau, providing the northeastern most drainage in the watershed of the Mississippi River. Its tributaries reach to within 8 miles (13 km) of Lake Erie
Lake Erie
in southwestern New York. The Allegheny Valley
Valley
has been one of the most productive areas of fossil fuel extraction in United States
United States
history, with its extensive deposits of coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Etymology[edit]

The Allegheny River
River
is named as Ohio on a sketch by George Washington.

The name Allegheny probably comes from Lenape welhik hane[3][4] or oolikhanna, which means 'best flowing river of the hills' or 'beautiful stream'.[5] There is a Lenape legend of a tribe called "Allegewi" who used to live along the river.[6] The following account of the origin of the name Allegheny was given in 1780 by Moravian missionary David Zeisberger: "All this land and region, stretching as far as the creeks and waters that flow into the Alleghene the Delawares called Alligewinenk, which means 'a land into which they came from distant parts'. The river itself, however, is called Alligewi Sipo. The whites have made Alleghene out of this, the Six Nations calling the river the Ohio."[7] Indians, including the Lenni Lenape
Lenni Lenape
and Iroquois, considered the Allegheny and Ohio rivers as the same, as is suggested by a New York State road sign on Interstate 86 that refers to the Allegheny River also as Ohiːyo'.[6] The Geographic Names Information System
Geographic Names Information System
lists O-hee-yo and O-hi-o as variant names.[2] The river is called Ohi:'i:o` (river beautiful) in the Seneca language.[8] In New York, areas around the river are often named with the alternate spelling Allegany in reference to the river; for example, the Village of Allegany and Allegany State Park. Port Allegany, located along the river in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
near the border with New York, also follows this pattern. Course[edit]

Much of the Allegheny River's course is through hilly woodlands.

The Allegheny River
River
rises in north central Pennsylvania, on Cobb Hill in central Potter County, approximately 10 miles (16 km) south of the New York border. It flows west past Coudersport then turns north at Port Allegany and proceeds into western New York, looping westward across southern Cattaraugus County for approximately 30 miles (48 km), past Portville, Olean, St. Bonaventure University and Salamanca and flowing through Seneca Indian Nation lands close to the northern boundary of Allegany State Park
Allegany State Park
before re-entering northwestern Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
approximately 20 miles (32 km) southeast of Jamestown, New York. It flows in a broad zigzag course generally southward across Western Pennsylvania; first flowing southwest past Warren, Tidioute, Tionesta, Oil City, and Franklin, forming much of the northwestern boundary of Allegheny National Forest. South of Franklin it turns southeast across Clarion County in a meandering course, then turns again southwest across Armstrong County, flowing past Kittanning, Ford City, Clinton, and Freeport.

The Highland Park Bridge
Highland Park Bridge
crosses the Allegheny River
River
at Aspinwall, Pennsylvania, just above Allegheny River
River
Lock and Dam No. 2.

The river enters both Allegheny and Westmoreland counties, the Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
suburbs, and the City of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
from the northeast. It passes Sligo, Karns, and Natrona in Harrison Township; Metcalf, Braeburn, Lower Burrell, and New Kensington; Brackenridge, Tarentum, Creighton, Clyde, Springdale, Harmarville, Plum Borough, Oakmont, Verona, PennHills, Blawnox, O'hara Township, Aspinwall, Sharpsburg, Etna, Millvale, Lawrenceville, Highland Park, the North Side, Downtown Pittsburgh, and Point State Park. The Allegheny joins with the Monongahela River
Monongahela River
at the "Point" in Downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to form the Ohio River. Water from the Allegheny River
River
eventually flows into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. Tributaries[edit] Main article: List of tributaries of the Allegheny River In its upper reaches, the Allegheny River
River
is joined from the south by Potato Creek 1.7 miles (2.7 km) downstream of Coryville, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and from the north by Olean Creek at Olean, New York. Tunungwant "Tuna" Creek joins the river from the south in Carrollton, New York (flowing north from Bradford, Pennsylvania); the Great Valley Creek and Little Valley
Valley
Creek join the river from the north at Salamanca, New York before becoming the Allegheny Reservoir. After re-entering Pennsylvania, the river is joined from the east by Kinzua Creek
Kinzua Creek
10 miles (16 km) upstream of Warren; from the north by Conewango Creek
Conewango Creek
at Warren; from the west by Brokenstraw Creek; from the east by East Hickory Creek at East Hickory; from the east by Tionesta Creek
Tionesta Creek
at Tionesta; from the north by Oil Creek at Oil City; from the west by French Creek at Franklin; from the east by the Clarion River, a principal tributary, at Parker; from the east by Crooked Creek southeast of Kittanning; and from the east by the Kiskiminetas River, another principal tributary, at Schenley. Buffalo Creek enters at Freeport, Chartiers Run enters at Lower Burrell, Bull Creek enters at Tarentum, Pucketa Creek enters near New Kensington, Riddle Run enters at Springdale, and Girtys Run enters at Millvale. Many additional streams enter or join with the Allegheny River
River
along its course. River
River
modifications[edit]

The eastern part of Allegheny Islands State Park
Allegheny Islands State Park
and the C. W. Bill Young Lock and Dam (No. 3) on the Allegheny River

Navigation[edit] The Allegheny River
River
has eight locks and dams (numbered two through nine), which form corresponding pools.

Allegheny River
River
Lock and Dam No. 2 Allegheny River
River
Lock and Dam No. 3 Allegheny River
River
Lock and Dam No. 4 Allegheny River
River
Lock and Dam No. 5 Allegheny River
River
Lock and Dam No. 6 Allegheny River
River
Lock and Dam No. 7 Allegheny River
River
Lock and Dam No. 8 Allegheny River
River
Lock and Dam No. 9

Flood
Flood
control[edit] The river is also impounded by the Kinzua Dam
Kinzua Dam
in northwestern Pennsylvania, resulting in the Allegheny Reservoir. The Seneca Pumped Storage Generating Station is associated with Kinzua Dam. Crossings[edit] Main article: List of crossings of the Allegheny River Numerous bridges and tunnels span the river throughout its course. The Allegheny River
River
Tunnel, utilized by Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Light Rail, went into service in 2012. History[edit] In the 16th century, control of the river valley passed back-and-forth between Algonquian-speaking Shawnee
Shawnee
and the Iroquois. By the time of the arrival of the French in the early 18th century, the Shawnee
Shawnee
were once again in control and formed an alliance with the French against the incursion of British settlement across the Allegheny Mountains. The conflict over the expansion of British settlement into the Allegheny Valley
Valley
and the surrounding Ohio Country
Ohio Country
was a primary cause of the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
in the 1750s.[9] During the war, the village of Kittanning – the principal Shawnee
Shawnee
settlement on the river – was completely destroyed by British reprisal raids from Central Pennsylvania. Nevertheless, the British, after gaining control of the area in the 1763 Treaty of Paris, kept the area closed to white settlement, in part to repair and maintain relations with the Native Americans. The pressure to open the river valley and the surrounding area to settlement is considered by historians to be one of the root causes of the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
in the following decade. After the war, the entire river valley became part of the United States
United States
of America. During the 19th century, the river became a principal means of navigation in the upper Ohio valley, especially for the transport of coal. Although the building of the railroads lessened the importance of the river somewhat, the lower river (navigable as far as East Brady, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
through locks) has continued to serve as route of commercial transportation until the present day. In 1859, the first U.S. petroleum was drilled north of the river at Titusville. One of the underlying premises of the Genesee Valley
Valley
Canal was its connection to the river, opening a trade route from Rochester, New York to the west. The advent of the railroads destroyed any interest that Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
might have had in participating by improving navigation on the river.

Seneca Chief Cornplanter

In 1965, the completion of the federally sponsored Kinzua Dam
Kinzua Dam
for flood-control in northwestern Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
east of Warren created the long Allegheny Reservoir, part of which is included in the Allegheny National Recreation Area. The dam flooded parts of lands deeded "forever" to the Seneca Nation of Indians
Seneca Nation of Indians
by the 1794 Treaty of Canandaigua, and to lands given to Cornplanter
Cornplanter
and his descendants. The event was described in the Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
song "As Long as the Grass Shall Grow" from the 1964 album Bitter Tears: Ballads of the American Indian, which focused on the history of and problems facing Native Americans in the United States. The construction of the dam and the filling of the Allegheny Reservoir also necessitated the elimination of the small village of Corydon, which was located at the confluence of Willow Creek with the Allegheny River; and the small village of Kinzua, which was located at the confluence of Kinzua Creek
Kinzua Creek
with the Allegheny River. All residents of both villages were forced to move.

The Kinzua Dam
Kinzua Dam
and Allegheny Reservoir

Many prominent individuals opposed the construction of the dam at that time because of the damage it would do to Seneca lands, including Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Congressman John P. Saylor
John P. Saylor
of Johnstown, and Howard Zahniser, executive director of The Wilderness Society and native of Tionesta—a small settlement located along the Allegheny River several miles downstream from Warren. During the campaign for the 1960 United States
United States
presidential election, John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
assured the Seneca Nation that he would oppose the dam if elected. However, he failed to follow through on his pledge upon becoming president. In 1992, 86.6 miles (139.4 km) of the Allegheny River
River
was designated Wild and Scenic. This designation comprises three segments of the river located in Warren, Forest, and Venango counties.[10] In 2008, Katie Spotz
Katie Spotz
became the first person to swim the entire 325 miles (523 km) of the Allegheny River; she was accompanied by safety kayaker, James Hendershott.[11] The team began at the river's source in Raymond, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
on July 22 and finished at the "Point" in Downtown Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
on August 21.[12] In 2017, Rye Development received a licence from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to construct a hydroelectric plant to replace the Highland Park dam. Construction of the 17-megawatt plant was set to begin in 2018.[13] Settlements along the river[edit] New York[edit]

Allegany Carrollton Jimerson Town Olean Portville St. Bonaventure Salamanca Weston Mills

Pennsylvania[edit]

The Allegheny River
River
at Foxburg, Pennsylvania

The Allegheny (left) and Monongahela (right) join to form the Ohio River
River
at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Applewold Arnold Aspinwall Blawnox Brackenridge Cheswick Coudersport Creighton East Brady East Hickory Eldred Emlenton Etna Ford City Foxburg Franklin Freeport Harmarville Kennerdell Kittanning Lower Burrell Manorville Millvale Natrona New Kensington Oakmont Oil City Parker Penn Hills Pittsburgh Plum Port Allegany Roulette Schenley Sharpsburg Springdale Starbrick Tarentum Templeton Tidioute Tionesta Verona Warren West Hickory West Kittanning Woodland Heights Youngsville

See also[edit]

The headwaters of the Allegheny River
River
are in this meadow in Potter County

Allegheny Islands State Park Allegheny Riverfront Park List of rivers of New York List of rivers of Pennsylvania Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Flood
Flood
of 1936 Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Three Rivers Regatta

References[edit]

^ USGS Data Report 2009 ^ a b "Allegheny River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2010-05-13.  ^ "welhik". Lenape Talking Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-12-14.  ^ "Heckewelder here does not give the strict meaning of hanne. The word in common use among Algonkin [i.e., Algonquian] tribes for river is sipu, and this includes the idea of 'a stream of flowing water'. But in the mountainous parts of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia sipu did not sufficiently convey the idea of a rapid stream, roaring down mountain gorges, and hanne takes its place to designate not a mere sipu, or flowing river, but a rapid mountain stream." Russell, Erret (1885). "Indian Geographical Names". The Magazine of Western History. 2 (1): 53–59. Retrieved 2011-12-14.  ^ Alleghany, or as some prefer to write it, Allegheny,—the Algonkin name of the Ohio River, but now restricted to one of its branches,—is probably (Delaware) welhik-hanné or [oo]lik-hanné, 'the best (or, the fairest) river.' Welhik (as Zeisberger wrote it) is the inanimate form of the adjectival, meaning 'best,' 'most beautiful.' In his Vocabulary, Zeisberger gave this synthesis, with slight change of orthography, as "Wulach'neü" [or [oo]lakhanne[oo], as Eliot would have written it,] with the free translation, "a fine River, without Falls." The name was indeed more likely to belong to rivers 'without falls' or other obstruction to the passage of canoes, but its literal meaning is, as its composition shows, "best rapid-stream," or "finest rapid-stream;" "La Belle Riviere" of the French, and the Oue-yo´ or O hee´ yo Gä-hun´-dä, "good river" or "the beautiful river," of the Senecas. For this translation of the name we have very respectable authority,—that of Christian Frederick Post, a Moravian of Pennsylvania, who lived seventeen years with the Muhhekan Indians and was twice married among them, and whose knowledge of the Indian languages enabled him to render important services to the colony, as a negotiator with the Delawares and Shawanese of the Ohio, in the French war. In his "Journal from Philadelphia to the Ohio" in 1758, after mention of the 'Alleghenny' river, he says: "The Ohio, as it is called by the Sennecas. Alleghenny is the name of the same river in the Delaware language. Both words signify the fine or fair river." La Metairie, the notary of La Salle's expedition, "calls the Ohio, the Olighinsipou, or Aleghin; evidently an Algonkin name,"—as Dr. Shea remarks. Heckewelder says that the Delawares "still call the Allegany (Ohio) river, Alligéwi Sipu,"—"the river of the Alligewi" as he chooses to translate it. In one form, we have wulik-hannésipu, 'best rapid-stream long-river;' in the other, wuliké-sipu, 'best long-river.' Heckewelder's derivation of the name, on the authority of a Delaware legend, from the mythic 'Alligewi' or 'Talligewi,'—"a race of Indians said to have once inhabited that country," who, after great battles fought in pre-historic times, were driven from it by the all-conquering Delawares,—is of no value, unless supported by other testimony. Trumbull, J. Hammond (1870). The Composition of Indian Geographical Names. Hartford, Conn. pp. 13–14. Retrieved 2011-12-14.  ^ a b Stewart, George R. (1967). Names on the Land. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 8. ISBN 0-938530-02-X.  ^ Zeisberger, David (1999). David Zeisberger's History of the Northern American Indians in 18th Century Ohio, New York and Pennsylvania. Wennawoods Publishing. p. 33. ISBN 1-889037-17-6.  ^ "Glossary of Seneca Words". Internet Sacred Text Archive.  ^ MacCorkle, William Alexander. "The historical and other relations of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
and the Virginias". Historic Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
General Text Collection. University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ Allegheny Wild and Scenic River
River
– Allegheny National Forest ^ Shuster, Patrick; Garrone, Francine (2008-08-18). "Ohio woman swimming length of Allegheny River". Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Tribune-Review. Tribune-Review Publishing Company. Archived from the original on 18 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-10.  ^ Nephin, Dan (2008-08-22). "Swimmer completes 325-mile swim of Allegheny". Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Tribune-Review. Tribune-Review Publishing Company. Archived from the original on 18 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-10.  ^ Tawnya Panizzi, "Feds issue license for proposed hydroelectric plant for Highland Park Dam at Aspinwall." The Valley
Valley
News Dispatch, Wednesday, April 12, 2017, 2:36 p.m. Retrieved from The Trib Live website http://triblive.com/local/valleynewsdispatch/12187680-74/feds-issue-license-for-proposed-hydroelectric-plant-for-highland-park-dam-at, on June 2, 2017.

Further reading[edit]

Schafer, Jim; Mike Sajna (1992). The Allegheny River: Watershed of the Nation. University Park, Pennsylvania, US: The Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
State University Press. ISBN 978-0-271-00836-3. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Allegheny River.

U.S. Geological Survey: PA stream gaging stations

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 234783

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