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_ALICE\'S ADVENTURES IN WONDERLAND_ (commonly shortened to _ALICE IN WONDERLAND_) is an 1865 fantasy novel written by English mathematician Charles Lutwidge Dodgson under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
. It tells of a girl named Alice
Alice
falling through a rabbit hole into a fantasy world populated by peculiar, anthropomorphic creatures. The tale plays with logic , giving the story lasting popularity with adults as well as with children. It is considered to be one of the best examples of the literary nonsense genre. Its narrative course and structure, characters and imagery have been enormously influential in both popular culture and literature, especially in the fantasy genre.

CONTENTS

* 1 Background * 2 Plot

* 3 Characters

* 3.1 Lists of characters * 3.2 Character allusions

* 4 Poems and songs

* 5 Writing style and themes

* 5.1 Symbolism * 5.2 Eating and devouring

* 6 Illustrations * 7 Reception by reviewers

* 8 Publication history

* 8.1 Publication timeline

* 9 Adaptations

* 9.1 Cinema and television * 9.2 Comic Strips and Comic Books * 9.3 Electronic media * 9.4 Live performances * 9.5 Music * 9.6 Parodies * 9.7 Radio * 9.8 Works influenced * 9.9 Illustrations by different artists

* 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Bibliography * 13 External links

BACKGROUND

_ Page from the original manuscript copy of Alice's Adventures Under Ground_, 1864

_Alice_ was published in 1865, three years after Charles Lutwidge Dodgson and the Reverend Robinson Duckworth rowed a boat up the Isis on 4 July 1862 (this popular date of the "golden afternoon" might be a confusion or even another Alice-tale, for that particular day was cool, cloudy, and rainy ) with the three young daughters of Henry Liddell (the Vice-Chancellor of Oxford
Oxford
University and Dean of Christ Church ): Lorina Charlotte Liddell (aged 13, born 1849, "Prima" in the book's prefatory verse); Alice
Alice
Pleasance Liddell (aged 10, born 1852, "Secunda" in the prefatory verse); Edith Mary Liddell (aged 8, born 1853, "Tertia" in the prefatory verse).

The journey began at Folly Bridge in Oxford
Oxford
and ended 3 miles (5 km) north-west in the village of Godstow . During the trip, Dodgson told the girls a story that featured a bored little girl named Alice
Alice
who goes looking for an adventure. The girls loved it, and Alice
Alice
Liddell asked Dodgson to write it down for her. He began writing the manuscript of the story the next day, although that earliest version no longer exists. The girls and Dodgson took another boat trip a month later when he elaborated the plot to the story of Alice, and in November he began working on the manuscript in earnest.

To add the finishing touches, he researched natural history for the animals presented in the book, and then had the book examined by other children—particularly the children of George MacDonald . It was also MacDonald, and Henry Kingsley , who encouraged him to publish the story. Carroll added his own illustrations but approached John Tenniel to illustrate the book for publication, telling him that the story had been well liked by children.

On 26 November 1864, he gave Alice
Alice
the handwritten manuscript of _ALICE\'S ADVENTURES UNDER GROUND_, with illustrations by Dodgson himself, dedicating it as "A Christmas Gift to a Dear Child in Memory of a Summer's Day". Some, including Martin Gardner , speculate that there was an earlier version that was destroyed later by Dodgson when he wrote a more elaborate copy by hand.

But before Alice
Alice
received her copy, Dodgson was already preparing it for publication and expanding the 15,500-word original to 27,500 words, most notably adding the episodes about the Cheshire Cat and the Mad Tea-Party.

PLOT

The White Rabbit
White Rabbit

CHAPTER ONE – DOWN THE RABBIT HOLE: Alice
Alice
is feeling bored and drowsy while sitting on the riverbank with her older sister, who is reading a book with no pictures or conversations. She then notices a White Rabbit
White Rabbit
wearing a waistcoat and pocket watch, talking to itself as it runs past. She follows it down a rabbit hole, but suddenly falls a long way to a curious hall with many locked doors of all sizes. She finds a small key to a door too small for her to fit through, but through it she sees an attractive garden. She then discovers a bottle on a table labelled "DRINK ME", the contents of which cause her to shrink too small to reach the key, which she has left on the table. She eats a cake with "EAT ME" written on it in currants as the chapter closes.

CHAPTER TWO – THE POOL OF TEARS: Chapter Two opens with Alice growing to such a tremendous size that her head hits the ceiling. Alice
Alice
is unhappy and, as she cries, her tears flood the hallway. After shrinking down again due to a fan she had picked up, Alice
Alice
swims through her own tears and meets a Mouse , who is swimming as well. She tries to make small talk with him in elementary French (thinking he may be a French mouse) but her opening gambit "_Où est ma chatte?_" ("Where is my cat?") offends the mouse and he tries to escape her.

CHAPTER THREE – THE CAUCUS RACE AND A LONG TALE: The sea of tears becomes crowded with other animals and birds that have been swept away by the rising waters. Alice
Alice
and the other animals convene on the bank and the question among them is how to get dry again. The Mouse gives them a very dry lecture on William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
. A Dodo decides that the best thing to dry them off would be a Caucus
Caucus
-Race, which consists of everyone running in a circle with no clear winner. Alice
Alice
eventually frightens all the animals away, unwittingly, by talking about her (moderately ferocious) cat.

CHAPTER FOUR – THE RABBIT SENDS A LITTLE BILL: The White Rabbit appears again in search of the Duchess's gloves and fan. Mistaking her for his maidservant, Mary Ann, he orders Alice
Alice
to go into the house and retrieve them, but once she gets inside she starts growing. The horrified Rabbit orders his gardener, Bill the Lizard , to climb on the roof and go down the chimney. Outside, Alice
Alice
hears the voices of animals that have gathered to gawk at her giant arm. The crowd hurls pebbles at her, which turn into little cakes. Alice
Alice
eats them, and they make her smaller again.

CHAPTER FIVE – ADVICE FROM A CATERPILLAR: Alice
Alice
comes upon a mushroom; sitting on it is a blue Caterpillar smoking a hookah . The Caterpillar questions Alice
Alice
and she admits to her current identity crisis, compounded by her inability to remember a poem. Before crawling away, the caterpillar tells Alice
Alice
that one side of the mushroom will make her taller and the other side will make her shorter. She breaks off two pieces from the mushroom. One side makes her shrink smaller than ever, while another causes her neck to grow high into the trees, where a pigeon mistakes her for a serpent. With some effort, Alice
Alice
brings herself back to her normal height. She stumbles upon a small estate and uses the mushroom to reach a more appropriate height. The Cheshire Cat

CHAPTER SIX – PIG AND PEPPER: A Fish-Footman has an invitation for the Duchess of the house, which he delivers to a Frog-Footman. Alice observes this transaction and, after a perplexing conversation with the frog, lets herself into the house. The Duchess's Cook is throwing dishes and making a soup that has too much pepper, which causes Alice, the Duchess, and her baby (but not the cook or grinning Cheshire Cat ) to sneeze violently. Alice
Alice
is given the baby by the Duchess and to her surprise, the baby turns into a pig. The Cheshire Cat appears in a tree, directing her to the March Hare 's house. He disappears, but his grin remains behind to float on its own in the air, prompting Alice
Alice
to remark that she has often seen a cat without a grin but never a grin without a cat.

CHAPTER SEVEN – A MAD TEA-PARTY: Alice
Alice
becomes a guest at a "mad" tea party along with the March Hare , the Hatter , and a very tired Dormouse who falls asleep frequently, only to be violently woken up moments later by the March Hare and the Hatter. The characters give Alice
Alice
many riddles and stories, including the famous "Why is a raven like a writing desk ? ". The Hatter reveals that they have tea all day because Time has punished him by eternally standing still at 6 pm (tea time). Alice
Alice
becomes insulted and tired of being bombarded with riddles and she leaves, claiming that it was the stupidest tea party that she had ever been to. Alice
Alice
trying to play croquet with a Flamingo
Flamingo
.

CHAPTER EIGHT – THE QUEEN\'S CROQUET GROUND: Alice
Alice
leaves the tea party and enters the garden, where she comes upon three living playing cards painting the white roses on a rose tree red because The Queen of Hearts hates white roses. A procession of more cards, kings and queens and even the White Rabbit
White Rabbit
enters the garden. Alice
Alice
then meets the King and Queen. The Queen, a figure difficult to please, introduces her trademark phrase "Off with her head!", which she utters at the slightest dissatisfaction with a subject. Alice
Alice
is invited (or some might say ordered) to play a game of croquet with the Queen and the rest of her subjects, but the game quickly descends into chaos. Live flamingos are used as mallets and hedgehogs as balls, and Alice
Alice
once again meets the Cheshire Cat. The Queen of Hearts then orders the Cat to be beheaded, only to have her executioner complain that this is impossible since the head is all that can be seen of him. Because the cat belongs to the Duchess, the Queen is prompted to release the Duchess from prison to resolve the matter.

CHAPTER NINE – THE MOCK TURTLE\'S STORY: The Duchess is brought to the croquet ground at Alice's request. She ruminates on finding morals in everything around her. The Queen of Hearts dismisses her with the threat of execution and she introduces Alice
Alice
to the Gryphon , who takes her to the Mock Turtle
Mock Turtle
. The Mock Turtle
Mock Turtle
is very sad, even though he has no sorrow. He tries to tell his story about how he used to be a real turtle in school, which the Gryphon interrupts so that they can play a game.

CHAPTER TEN – LOBSTER QUADRILLE: The Mock Turtle
Mock Turtle
and the Gryphon dance to the Lobster Quadrille, while Alice
Alice
recites (rather incorrectly) "\ 'Tis the Voice of the Lobster ". The Mock Turtle
Mock Turtle
sings them "Beautiful Soup" during which the Gryphon drags Alice
Alice
away for an impending trial.

CHAPTER ELEVEN – WHO STOLE THE TARTS?: Alice
Alice
attends a trial in which the Knave of Hearts is accused of stealing the Queen's tarts. The jury is composed of various animals, including Bill the Lizard ; the White Rabbit
White Rabbit
is the court's trumpeter; and the judge is the King of Hearts . During the proceedings, Alice
Alice
finds that she is steadily growing larger. The dormouse scolds Alice
Alice
and tells her she has no right to grow at such a rapid pace and take up all the air. Alice scoffs and calls the dormouse's accusation ridiculous because everyone grows and she cannot help it. Meanwhile, witnesses at the trial include the Hatter, who displeases and frustrates the King through his indirect answers to the questioning, and the Duchess's cook.

CHAPTER TWELVE – ALICE\'S EVIDENCE: Alice
Alice
is then called up as a witness. She accidentally knocks over the jury box with the animals inside, and the King orders the animals to be placed back into their seats before the trial continues. The King and Queen order Alice
Alice
to be gone, citing Rule 42 ("All persons more than a mile high must leave the court"), but Alice
Alice
disputes their judgement and refuses to leave. She argues with the King and Queen of Hearts over the ridiculous proceedings, eventually refusing to hold her tongue. The Queen shouts her familiar "Off with her head!" but Alice
Alice
is unafraid, calling them out as just a pack of cards, just as they start to swarm over her. Alice's sister wakes her up from a dream, brushing what turns out to be some leaves, and not a shower of playing cards, from Alice's face. Alice
Alice
leaves her sister on the bank to imagine all the curious happenings for herself.

CHARACTERS

LISTS OF CHARACTERS

Further information: List of minor characters in the Alice series

The following is a list of main characters in _Alice's Adventures in Wonderland_.

* Alice
Alice
* Bill the Lizard * Pat * The Caterpillar * The Cheshire Cat * The Dodo * The Dormouse * The Duchess * The Duck * The Eaglet * The Gryphon * The Hatter * The King of Hearts * The Knave of Hearts * The Lory * The March Hare * The Mock Turtle
Mock Turtle
* The Mouse * The Puppy * The Queen of Hearts * The White Rabbit
White Rabbit

CHARACTER ALLUSIONS

Mad tea party. Theophilus Carter has been suggested as a model for the Hatter. Illustration by Charles Robinson 1907

In _ The Annotated Alice _, Martin Gardner provides background information for the characters. The members of the boating party that first heard Carroll 's tale show up in Chapter 3 ("A Caucus-Race and a Long Tale"):

* Alice Liddell (portrayed as the character ALICE) herself is there * Carroll is caricatured as THE DODO (Dodgson stuttered when he spoke, and common lore suggests that he sometimes pronounced his last name as _Dodo-Dodgson_) * THE DUCK refers to Canon Duckworth * THE LORY AND EAGLET refer to Alice
Alice
Liddell's sisters Lorina and Edith. * BILL THE LIZARD may be a play on the name of British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli . One of Tenniel's illustrations in _ Through the Looking-Glass
Through the Looking-Glass
_ — the 1871 sequel to _Alice_ — depicts the character referred to as the "Man in White Paper" (whom Alice
Alice
meets as a fellow passenger riding on the train with her) as a caricature of Disraeli, wearing a paper hat. * The illustrations of THE LION and THE UNICORN (also in _Looking-Glass_) bear a striking resemblance to Tenniel's _Punch _ illustrations of Gladstone and Disraeli. * It has been suggested by some writers that THE HATTER is a reference to Theophilus Carter , a furniture dealer known in Oxford
Oxford
. Tenniel apparently drew the Hatter to resemble Carter, on a suggestion of Carroll's. However, it is unlikely that Carter was the model for The Hatter, and there is no evidence that Carroll ever invited Tenniel to Oxford
Oxford
for any purpose. * The Dormouse tells a story about three little sisters named ELSIE, LACIE, AND TILLIE. These are the Liddell sisters: Elsie is L.C. (Lorina Charlotte), Tillie is Edith (her family nickname is Matilda), and Lacie is an anagram of Alice. * The Mock Turtle
Mock Turtle
speaks of a DRAWLING-MASTER, "AN OLD CONGER EEL", who came once a week to teach "Drawling, Stretching, and Fainting in Coils". This is a reference to art critic John Ruskin , who came once a week to the Liddell house to teach the children _drawing_, _sketching_, and _painting in oils_. (The children did, in fact, learn well; Alice
Alice
Liddell, for one, produced a number of skillful watercolours.)

POEMS AND SONGS

Carroll wrote multiple poems and songs for _Alice's Adventures in Wonderland_, including:

* "All in the golden afternoon..."—the prefatory verse, an original poem by Carroll that recalls the rowing expedition on which he first told the story of Alice's adventures underground * "Beautiful Soup" also known as "Turtle Soup", sung by the Mock Turtle—a parody of James M. Sayles's song "Star of the Evening, Beautiful Star", which was performed as a trio by Lorina, Alice, and Edith Liddell for Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
in the Liddell home during the same summer in which he first told the story of _Alice's Adventures Under Ground_. * " How Doth the Little Crocodile "—a parody of Isaac Watts ' nursery rhyme, "Against Idleness and Mischief" * "Speak roughly to your little boy..."—the Duchess' lullaby, is a parody of David Bates ' "Speak Gently" * " The Lobster Quadrille "—a parody of Mary Botham Howitt 's "The Spider and the Fly" * "The Mouse\'s Tale "—an example of concrete poetry * "The Queen of Hearts "—an actual nursery rhyme * "They told me you had been to her..."—the White Rabbit's evidence * "\ 'Tis the Voice of the Lobster "—a parody of Isaac Watts ' "The Sluggard" * " Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Bat "—a parody of Jane Taylor 's " Twinkle Twinkle Little Star " * " You Are Old, Father William "—a parody of Robert Southey 's "The Old Man\'s Comforts and How He Gained Them"

WRITING STYLE AND THEMES

SYMBOLISM

Some of the book's adventures may have been based on or influenced by people, situations, and buildings in Oxford
Oxford
and at Christ Church. For example, the "Rabbit Hole" might have been inspired by the actual stairs in the back of the main hall in Christ Church. A carving of a griffon and rabbit may have provided inspiration for the tale, as seen in Ripon Cathedral , where Carroll's father was a canon.

Carroll was a mathematician at Christ Church , and it has been suggested that there are many references and mathematical concepts in both this story and _ Through the Looking-Glass
Through the Looking-Glass
_; examples include:

* In chapter 1, "Down the Rabbit-Hole", in the midst of shrinking, Alice
Alice
waxes philosophical concerning what final size she will end up as, perhaps "_going out altogether, like a candle_"; this pondering reflects the concept of a limit . * In chapter 7, "A Mad Tea-Party", the March Hare, the Hatter, and the Dormouse give several examples in which the semantic value of a sentence A is not the same value of the converse of A (for example, "_Why, you might just as well say that 'I see what I eat' is the same thing as 'I eat what I see'!_"); in logic and mathematics, this is discussing an inverse relationship . * Also in chapter 7, Alice
Alice
ponders what it means when changing seats around the circular table places them back at the beginning. This echoes a classic circular combinatorics problem, possibly dating from antiquity. * Again in chapter 7, Alice
Alice
is asked whether she wants "more tea", and objects that she can't have more because she hasn't had any. The Hatter corrects her: "You mean you can't take _less_: it's very easy to take _more_ than nothing." This is a play on the allowability of inference in comparatives without "than" . * The Cheshire cat fades until it disappears entirely, leaving only its wide grin suspended in the air, leading Alice
Alice
to marvel and note that she has seen a cat without a grin, but never a grin without a cat. This echoes ancient questions in logic about substances and predicates .

There have been attempts to reinterpret _Alice's Adventures in Wonderland_ as having a coded submersive layer of meaning, as is common in other examples of children's literature (such as the _gold standard_ reading of _ The Wonderful Wizard of Oz _ (1900)). For example, literary scholar Melanie Bayley asserted in the magazine _New Scientist _ that Dodgson wrote _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ in its final form as a scathing satire on new modern mathematics that were emerging in the mid-19th century. However, such views are not widely held.

Several people (e.g., Martin Gardner and Selwyn Goodacre, ) have suggested that Dodgson had an interest in the French language, choosing to make references and puns about it in the story. It is most likely that these are references to French lessons—a common feature of a Victorian middle-class girl's upbringing. For example, in the second chapter, Alice
Alice
posits that the mouse may be French. She therefore chooses to speak the first sentence of her French lesson-book to it: "_Où est ma chatte?_" ("Where is my cat?"). In Henri Bué's French translation, Alice
Alice
posits that the mouse may be Italian and speaks Italian to it.

Pat's "Digging for apples" could be a cross-language pun , as _pomme de terre_ (literally; "apple of the earth") means potato and _pomme_ means apple, which little English girls studying French would easily guess.

In the second chapter, Alice
Alice
initially addresses the mouse as "O Mouse", based on her memory of the noun declensions "in her brother's Latin Grammar , 'A mouse – of a mouse – to a mouse – a mouse – O mouse!'" These words correspond to the first five of Latin's six cases, in a traditional order established by medieval grammarians: _mus_ (nominative ), _muris_ (genitive ), _muri_ (dative ), _murem_ (accusative ), _(O) mus_ (vocative ). The sixth case _mure_ (ablative ) is absent from Alice's recitation.

In the eighth chapter, three cards are painting the roses red on a rose tree, because they had accidentally planted a white-rose tree that The Queen of Hearts hates. Red roses symbolised the English House of Lancaster , while white roses were the symbol for their rival, the House of York . This scene is an allusion to the Wars of the Roses .

EATING AND DEVOURING

Carina Garland notes how the world is "expressed via representations of food and appetite", naming Alice's frequent desire for consumption (of both food and words) her "Curious Appetites". Often, the idea of eating coincides to make gruesome images. After the riddle "Why is a raven like a writing-desk?", the Hatter claims that Alice
Alice
might as well say, "I see what I eat… I eat what I see" and so the riddle's solution, put forward by Boe Birns, could be that "A raven eats worms; a writing desk is worm-eaten"; this idea of food encapsulates the idea of life feeding on life, for the worm is being eaten and then becomes the eater – a horrific image of mortality.

Nina Auerbach discusses how the novel revolves around eating and drinking, which "motivates much of behaviour", for the story is essentially about things "entering and leaving her mouth". The animals of Wonderland are of particular interest, for Alice's relation to them shifts constantly because, as Lovell-Smith states, Alice's size-changes continually reposition her in the food chain, serving as a way to make her acutely aware of the "eat or be eaten" attitude that permeates Wonderland.

ILLUSTRATIONS

One of the author's own illustrations.

The manuscript was illustrated by Dodgson himself who added 37 illustrations—printed in a facsimile edition in 1887. John Tenniel provided 42 wood engraved illustrations for the published version of the book. The first print run was destroyed (or sold to the United States ) at Carroll's request because he was dissatisfied with the quality. The book was reprinted and published in 1866.

Neither Dodgson's nor John Tenniel
John Tenniel
's illustrations of Alice
Alice
portray the real Alice Liddell , who had dark hair and a short fringe as in the Charles Robinson illustration pictured above.

_Alice_ has provided a challenge for other illustrators, including those of 1907 by Charles Pears and the full series of colour plates and line-drawings by Harry Rountree published in the (inter-War) Children's Press (Glasgow) edition. Other significant illustrators include: Arthur Rackham
Arthur Rackham
(1907), Charles Robinson (1907) Willy Pogany (1929), Mervyn Peake (1946), Ralph Steadman (1967), Salvador Dalí (1969), Graham Overden (1969), Max Ernst
Max Ernst
(1970), Peter Blake (1970), Tove Jansson
Tove Jansson
(1977), Anthony Browne (1988), Helen Oxenbury (1999), Lisbeth Zwerger (1999), DeLoss McGraw (2001), Robert Ingpen (2009) and Yayoi Kusama
Yayoi Kusama
(2012).

RECEPTION BY REVIEWERS

The book _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ failed to be named in an 1888 poll of the most popular children's stories. Generally, it received poor reviews, with reviewers giving more credit to Tenniel's illustrations than to Carroll's story. At the release of _Through the Looking-Glass_, the first Alice
Alice
tale gained in popularity and, by the end of the 19th century, Sir Walter Besant wrote that _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ "was a book of that extremely rare kind which will belong to all the generations to come until the language becomes obsolete".

PUBLICATION HISTORY

Title page of the original edition (1865)

Dodgson's tale was published in 1865 as _Alice's Adventures in Wonderland_ by " Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
" with illustrations by John Tenniel
John Tenniel
. The first print run of 2,000 was held back because Tenniel objected to the print quality. A new edition was quickly printed, released in December of the same year but carrying an 1866 date. The text blocks of the original edition were removed from the binding and sold with Dodgson's permission to the New York publishing house of D. Appleton & Company . The binding for the Appleton _Alice_ was virtually identical to the 1866 Macmillan _Alice_, except for the publisher's name at the foot of the spine. The title page of the Appleton _Alice_ was an insert cancelling the original Macmillan title page of 1865, and bearing the New York publisher's imprint and the date 1866.

The entire print run sold out quickly. _Alice_ was a publishing sensation, beloved by children and adults alike. Among its first avid readers were Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
and the young Oscar Wilde
Oscar Wilde
. The book has never been out of print. _Alice's Adventures in Wonderland_ has been translated into at least 174 languages. There have now been over a hundred English-language editions of the book, as well as countless adaptations in other media, especially theatre and film.

The book is commonly referred to by the abbreviated title _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_, which has been popularised by the numerous stage, film, and television adaptations of the story produced over the years. Some printings of this title contain both _Alice's Adventures in Wonderland_ and its sequel _Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There _.

PUBLICATION TIMELINE

The following list is a timeline of major publication events related to _Alice's Adventures in Wonderland_:

* 1865: First UK edition (the second printing). * 1865: First US edition (the first printing of above). * 1869: _Alice's Abenteuer im Wunderland_ is published in German translation by Antonie Zimmermann. * 1869: _Aventures d' Alice
Alice
au pays des merveilles_ is published in French translation by Henri Bué. * 1870: _Alice’s äfventyr i sagolandet_ is published in Swedish translation by Emily Nonnen. * 1871: Dodgson meets another Alice
Alice
during his time in London, Alice Raikes, and talks with her about her reflection in a mirror, leading to another book, _Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice
Alice
Found There _, which sells even better. * 1872: _Le Avventure di Alice
Alice
nel Paese delle Meraviglie_ is published in Italian translation by Teodorico Pietrocòla Rossetti. * 1879: Соня в царстве Дива. First Russian edition of "Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" – in Russian. * 1882: Selchow ">_ Cover of the 1898 edition

* 1899: 鏡世界_. First Japanese edition of an Alice
Alice
in Wonderland novel. Despite being the first Japanese version of an Alice
Alice
in Wonderland novel, it is actually a translation of _Through the Looking-Glass _. * 1905: Mrs J. C. Gorham publishes _Alice\'s Adventures in Wonderland retold in words of one syllable _ in a series of such books published by A. L. Burt Company, aimed at young readers. * 1906: First translation into Finnish by Anni Swan (_Liisan seikkailut ihmemaailmassa_). * 1907: Copyright on _Alice's Adventures in Wonderland_ expires in UK, and so the tale enters the public domain . At least 8 new editions are published in that year alone. * 1910: _La Aventuroj de Alicio en Mirlando_ is published in Esperanto translation by E. L. Kearney. * 1916: Publication of the first edition of the _Windermere Series_, _Alice's Adventures in Wonderland_. Illustrated by Milo Winter . * 1923: _Аня в стране чудес_. ("Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland") is published in Russian translation by Vladimir Nabokov. * 1928: The manuscript of _Alice's Adventures Under Ground_ that Carroll wrote and illustrated and that he had given to Alice
Alice
Liddell was sold at Sotheby's on 3 April. It sold to Philip Rosenbach for £15,400, a world record for the sale of a manuscript at the time. * 1945: The animated picture book of Alice
Alice
in Wonderland, with illustrations and paper engineering by Julian Wehr is published. * 1960: American writer Martin Gardner publishes a special edition, _ The Annotated Alice _, incorporating the text of both _Alice's Adventures in Wonderland_ and _Through the Looking-Glass_. It has extensive annotations explaining the hidden allusions in the books, and includes full texts of the Victorian era poems parodied in them. Later editions expand on these annotations. * 1961: The Folio Society
Folio Society
publication with 42 illustrations by John Tenniel . * 1988: Carroll and Anthony Browne , illustrator of a new edition from Julia MacRae Books, win the Kurt Maschler Award , or the Emil, for the year's best British "work of imagination for children, in which text and illustration are integrated so that each enhances and balances the other." * 1998: Lewis Carroll's own copy of Alice, one of only six surviving copies of the 1865 first edition, is sold at an auction for US$1.54 million to an anonymous American buyer, becoming the most expensive children's book (or 19th-century work of literature) ever sold, up to that time. * 1999: Carroll and Helen Oxenbury , illustrator of a new edition from Walker Books , win the Kurt Maschler Award for integrated writing and illustration, as did Anthony Browne and the 1988 Julia MacRae edition. * 2007: For the 50th anniversary of the British Kate Greenaway Medal (1955–2005), a panel of experts names the 1999 Walker Books edition illustrated by Helen Oxenbury one of the top ten Medal-winning works, composing the ballot for a public election of the all-time favourite. * 2008: Folio _Alice's Adventures Under Ground_ facsimile edition (limited to 3,750 copies, boxed with _The Original Alice_ pamphlet). * 2009: Children's book collector and former American football player Pat McInally reportedly sold Alice
Alice
Liddell's own copy at auction for $115,000.

ADAPTATIONS

Play media Anti-drug film adaptation of Alice
Alice
in Wonderland from 1971 entitled 'Curious Alice'

CINEMA AND TELEVISION

Main article: Films and television programmes based on Alice
Alice
in Wonderland

The book has inspired numerous film and television adaptations which have multiplied as the original work is now in the public domain in all jurisdictions. The following list is of direct adaptations of _Adventures in Wonderland_ (sometimes merging it with _Through the Looking-Glass_), not other sequels or works otherwise inspired by the works (such as Tim Burton
Tim Burton
's 2010 film _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland _):

* _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ (1903) , a British silent film directed by Cecil Hepworth and Percy Stow, with May Clark as Alice
Alice
* _Alice\'s Adventures in Wonderland_ (1910) , a silent film directed by Edwin Stanton Porter * _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ (1915) , a silent film directed by W. W. Young * _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ (1931) , the first talkie adaptation, directed by Bud Pollard * _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ (1933) , a film version directed by Norman Z. McLeod , US * _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ (1937), a TV adaptation directed by George More O\'Ferrall * _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ (1937) TV adaptation again directed by George More O\'ferrall with Usula Henray as Alice
Alice
* _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ (1944) TV adaptation of Eva La Gaillenne's stage version of both books, USA. * _Alice_ (1946), a BBC
BBC
production starring Vivian Pickles directed by George More O\'Ferrall , UK * _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass_ (1948) BBC
BBC
TV broadcast. * _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ (1949) , a live-action/animated film with stop motion segments, directed by Dallas Bower * _Through the Crystal Ball: Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ (1949) US TV performance. * _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ (1950), televised on the CBS
CBS
Ford Theatre , with Iris Mann as Alice, directed by Franklin J. Schaffner
Franklin J. Schaffner
* _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ (1951) , a film version in traditional animation from Walt Disney Animation Studios
Walt Disney Animation Studios
. Arguably the most well known of the _Alice_ film adaptations, and today considered one of Disney's great classics. * _ Alice
Alice
au pays des Merveilles_ (1951) France TV broadcast of a stage version * _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ (1954) BBC
BBC
broadcast of a ballet version. * _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ (1955), a live television adaptation of the 1932 Eva LeGallienne / Florida Friebus
Florida Friebus
stage adaptation of the novel, directed for television by George Schaefer for the _Hallmark Hall of Fame _ * _The Adventures of Alice_ (1960) Televised opera * _The BP Super Show: Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ (1962) Australian TV series * _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ (1966) , a BBC
BBC
television play directed by Jonathan Miller * _ Alice
Alice
au pays des merveilles_ (1972), a version made for television, by Jean-Christophe Averty . * _Alice\'s Adventures in Wonderland_ (1972) , a musical film version starring Fiona Fullerton as Alice * _Nel Mondo Di Alice
Alice
(In the World of Alice)_ Italian TV series in 4 parts. * _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ (1976) , a porn-musical by Bud Townsend * _ Alice
Alice
Through the Looking-Glass_ (1973) BBC
BBC
TV special * _ Alice
Alice
through the Looking-Glass_ (1973) 12 part TV series by Thelmes TV. * _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ (1983) , a PBS
PBS
Great Performances presentation of a 1982 stage play which was in turn a revival of the 1932 LeGallienne production * _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ (1985) , a two-part made-for-TV special produced by Irwin Allen and featuring a large all-star cast * _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ (1986), a BBC
BBC
adaptation directed by Barry Letts and starring Kate Dorning * _Alice_ (1988 film) by Jan Švankmajer , stop motion and live action * _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ (1999) , a 1999 television movie first shown on NBC
NBC
and then shown on British television on Channel 4
Channel 4

COMIC STRIPS AND COMIC BOOKS

* _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ (1934-5) was a comic strip adaptation drawn by Edward D. Kuekes and written by Olive Ray Scott.This version also featured a "topper " strip, _Knurl the Gnome._ The strip was distributed by United Feature Syndicate .

The book has also inspired numerous comic book adaptations:

* _Walt Disney's Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ (1951), Dell Comics
Dell Comics
* _Walt Disney's Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ (1965), Gold Key Comics * _Walt Disney's Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ (1984), Whitman * _The Complete Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ (2005), Dynamite Entertainment * _Return to Wonderland_ (2009), Zenescope Entertainment * _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ (2011), Zenescope Entertainment * _Walt Disney's Alice
Alice
through the looking glass_ (2016), ?

ELECTRONIC MEDIA

* _American McGee\'s Alice
Alice
_ (2000), a third-person psychological horror action video game released for PC on 6 December 2000. Set years after _Alice's Adventures in Wonderland_ and _Through the Looking-Glass_, the game features an older, more cynical and macabre incarnation of Alice. * _ Alice
Alice
for the iPad_ (2010), a popular adaptation by Atomic Antelope . * _Alice: Madness Returns _ (2011), The sequel to _American McGee\'s Alice
Alice
_ (2000), released on Xbox 360, PS3, and PC consoles * _Alice’s Adventures In Wonderland_ (2015), 150th anniversary interactive online edition released free of charge by The Public Domain Review and publishing platform Medium , with copyright-free text and illustrations, annotated by a dozen Carroll scholars. The site allows free remixes of the public domain and Creative Commons licensed resources with reader-supplied commentaries and artwork.

LIVE PERFORMANCES

University of Bielefeld , before the CITEC-building.

As the book and its sequel are Carroll's most widely recognised works, they have also inspired numerous live performances, including ballets, musicals, operas, plays, and traditional English pantomimes . These works range from fairly faithful adaptations to those that use the story as a basis for new works. Additionally, over the years, many notable people in the performing arts have been involved in _Alice_ productions.

* A relatively early example of a live performance is _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland _, a musical play by H. Saville Clark (book) and Walter Slaughter (music), which played in 1886 at the Prince of Wales Theatre in London. * The first production on Broadway premiered in 1915, adapted by Alice
Alice
Gerstenberg and starring Vivian Tobin. * Actress Eva Le Gallienne famously adapted both _Alice_ books for the stage in 1932; this production was revived in New York in 1947 and 1982. * One of the best-known American productions was Joseph Papp 's 1980 staging of _ Alice
Alice
in Concert_ at the Public Theater in New York City. Meryl Streep played Alice, the White Queen, and Humpty Dumpty. The cast also included Debbie Allen
Debbie Allen
, Michael Jeter , and Mark Linn-Baker . Performed on a bare stage with the actors in modern dress, the play is a loose adaptation, with song styles ranging the globe. Elizabeth Swados wrote the book, lyrics, and music. Based on both _Alice's Adventures in Wonderland_ and _Through the Looking-Glass_, Papp and Swados had previously produced a version of it at the New York Shakespeare Festival . * In 2001, Adrian Mitchell wrote a 2 act adaptation of both Alice novels for the RSC (Royal Shakespeare Company) , _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass_. It was a critical failure at the time, but has gained many amateur productions since, most notably with the 2010 Chichester festival theatre revival. * The operatic production _Alice_ (1992) uses both _Alice_ books as its inspiration and employs scenes with Charles Dodgson, a young Alice Liddell, and an adult Alice
Alice
Liddell, to frame the story. Paul Schmidt wrote the play, with Tom Waits
Tom Waits
and Kathleen Brennan writing the music. Although the original production in Hamburg
Hamburg
, Germany, received only a small audience, Tom Waits
Tom Waits
released the songs as the album _ Alice
Alice
_ (2002). * Michael Sirotta and Heather M. Dominick wrote a musical adaption of the novel, titled _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland, a Musical Adventure _ (1997), suitable for young actors as well as for adult performers.

* _The Eighth Square_, a murder mystery set in Wonderland, written by Matthew Fleming and music and lyrics by Ben J. Macpherson, is a goth-toned rock musical that premiered in 2006 at the New Theatre Royal in Portsmouth
Portsmouth
, England. * A ballet by Christopher Wheeldon and Nicholas Wright commissioned for The Royal Ballet , titled _Alice's Adventures in Wonderland_, premiered in February 2011 at the Royal Opera House
Royal Opera House
in Covent Garden, London. The ballet was based on the novel Wheeldon grew up reading as a child and is generally faithful to the original story, although some critics claimed it may have been too faithful. The ballet overall stays generally light hearted for its running time of an hour and 40 minutes. The ballet returned to the Royal Opera House in 2012. * The TA Fantastika, a popular Black light theatre in Prague, performs _Aspects of Alice_, written and directed by Petr Kratochvíl. This adaptation is not faithful to the books; rather, it explores Alice's journey into adulthood while incorporating allusions to the history of Czech Republic. * A community theatre production of Alice
Alice
was Olivia de Havilland 's first foray onto the stage. * A modern-set musical adaptation, _ Wonder.land _ premiered in 2015, with music by Damon Albarn and lyrics by Moira Buffini . The musical is a co-production between the Manchester International Festival , the Royal National Theatre and the Théâtre du Châtelet , Paris. * Gerald Barry\' s new one act opera, _Alice's Adventures Under Ground_ was premiered at the Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles in November 2016 by the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
New Music Group conducted by Thomas Adès with Barbara Hannigan singing the role of Alice.

_ José de Creeft , Statue of Alice_ in Central Park
Central Park
, 1959

MUSIC

_Alice_ has inspired numerous songs and albums, including:

* Jerome Kern 's " Alice
Alice
in Wonderland," from _ The Girl from Utah _ (1914). * " Alice
Alice
in Wonderland'" by Sammy Fain
Sammy Fain
and Bob Hilliard appears on the Bill Evans
Bill Evans
trio album _ Sunday at the Village Vanguard _ (1961). * Jefferson Airplane
Jefferson Airplane
's song " White Rabbit
White Rabbit
", written by Grace Slick and included on their psychedelic album _ Surrealistic Pillow _ (1967). An Arabic version of this song for the soundtrack of the American Hustle film (2013) was sung by Mayssa Karaa . * Chick Corea 's album _The Mad Hatter _ released in 1979, which is conceptually derived from events that unfold in the book. * Siouxsie and the Banshees named their label inside Polydor _Wonderland_ in 1983. * Tom Waits
Tom Waits
' album, _ Alice
Alice
_ (2002), is loosely based on Carroll's relationship with Alice Liddell and themes from the novels. * Marilyn Manson
Marilyn Manson
described his album _Eat Me, Drink Me_ (2007) as " version of _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_." * Egypt Central 's song "White Rabbit", written by Skidd Mills , was released on the studio album _ White Rabbit
White Rabbit
_ (completed 2010) and to radio stations on 15 February 2011 and made available on iTunes on 1 March 2011. * In 2011, Perttu Haapanen composed a vocal work entitled "Readymade Alice", which is described as "_ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ being reworked for cyber-space"; this work was commissioned by the 4th International Harald Andersén Competition and most recently performed on 30 September 2015 by the BBC
BBC
Singers at St. Giles, Cripplegate, London. * Taylor Swift
Taylor Swift
's song "Wonderland," from the deluxe edition of her _1989_ album. * AKB48
AKB48
's B-side song, "First Rabbit", which is later also performed by JKT48 * Australian composer Leon Coward 's "Beautiful Soup" (2014) a lament for piano and string orchestra, premiered by Camerata Academica of the Antipodes. * Melanie Martinez, "Mad Hatter" off the album _Cry Baby_. * Adam Lambert, "Down The Rabbit Hole" off the album _For Your Entertainment_. * Violinist Lindsey Stirling released a music video called "Hold My Heart" which was inspired by _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_ which was included in her album _ Brave Enough _. * "Her Name is Alice" by American rock band Shinedown .

PARODIES

The book has inspired several parodies, including:

* _The Westminster Alice
Alice
_ (1902) by Hector Hugh Munro ( Saki ), illustrated by Francis Carruthers Gould * _Alice's London Adventures in Wonderland_ (2015) by Lewis Carroll and Sarah Elizabeth Beaumont, illustrated by Sarah Elizabeth Beaumont after Sir John Tenniel
John Tenniel
(Two Monkeys Publishing, London)

RADIO

Several radio adaptations have been aired, including:

* _ Lux Radio Theater _ (1951), based on the Disney animated _Alice in Wonderland _ film of the same year * _ NBC
NBC
Star Playhouse _ (1953) * BBC
BBC
Radio 4 (2009), which was rebroadcast in 2011

WORKS INFLUENCED

Main article: Works based on Alice in Wonderland

Alice
Alice
and the rest of Wonderland continue to inspire or influence many other works of art to this day, sometimes indirectly via the 1951 Disney movie , for example. The character of the plucky yet proper Alice
Alice
has proven immensely popular and inspired similar heroines in literature and pop culture, many also named Alice
Alice
in homage.

ILLUSTRATIONS BY DIFFERENT ARTISTS

*

The cover illustration, by E. Gertrude Thomson *

_The White Rabbit_ by John Tenniel
John Tenniel
, coloured *

_Alice's Adventures in Wonderland_, John Tenniel, 1865 *

_Alice's Adventures in Wonderland_ by Arthur Rackham
Arthur Rackham
*

_Alice's Adventures in Wonderland_ by Gertrude Kay *

An illustration by Karl Beutel *

_The Pool of Tears_ by Arthur Rackham
Arthur Rackham
*

_The Pool of Tears_ by Milo Winter

SEE ALSO

* _Children\'s literature portal * Novels portal

* Illustrators of Alice\'s Adventures in Wonderland_ * Translations of _Alice\'s Adventures in Wonderland_ * Translations of _Through the Looking-Glass_

REFERENCES

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Alice
in Wonderland_" in _The mirror and the killer-queen: otherness in literary language_ Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana. ISBN 978-0-253-33037-6 . pp. 49–102 * ^ "Story Museum – The real Alice". www.storymuseum.org.uk. Archived from the original on 17 November 2010. Retrieved 24 April 2010. * ^ Lewis Carroll, " Alice
Alice
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Alice
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Lewis Carroll
invented Alice
Alice
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* ^ Gardner , p. 27 * ^ Brooker, Will (2004). _Alice's Adventures: Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
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BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Carpenter, Humphrey (1985). _Secret Gardens: The Golden Age of Children’s Literature_. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-35293-2 . * Gardner, Martin (2000). _The Annotated Alice: The Definitive Edition_. New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-04847-0 . * Goodacre, Selwyn (2015). _Elucidating Alice: A Textual Commentary on Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland_. Evertype: Portlaoise. ISBN 978-1-78201-105-7 . * Lindseth, Jon A.; Tannenbaum, Alan, eds. (2015). _ Alice
Alice
in a World of Wonderlands: The Translations of Lewis Carroll’s Masterpiece 1–3_. New Castle: Oak Knoll Press. ISBN 978-1-58456-331-0 . * Ray, Gordon Norton (1991). _The Illustrator and the Book
Book
in England from 1790 to 1914_. New York: Dover. ISBN 0-486-26955-8 . * Weaver, Warren (1964). _ Alice
Alice
in Many Tongues: The Translations of Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press.

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