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Rank Captain Rear admiral (post retirement)

Commands held USS Chicago

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Alfred Thayer Mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan
[məˈhæn] (September 27, 1840 – December 1, 1914) was a United States
United States
naval officer and historian, whom John Keegan called "the most important American strategist of the nineteenth century."[1] His book The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660–1783 (1890) won immediate recognition, especially in Europe, and with its successor, The Influence of Sea Power Upon the French Revolution and Empire, 1793–1812 (1892), made him world-famous and perhaps the most influential American author of the nineteenth century.[2]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Early career 3 Naval War College
Naval War College
and writings 4 Origin and limitation of strategic views 5 Sea power 6 Impact

6.1 Germany 6.2 Great Britain 6.3 France 6.4 Japan 6.5 United States

7 Later career 8 Religious life 9 Death and commemoration 10 Family 11 Dates of rank 12 Awards 13 In fiction 14 Works 15 See also 16 References 17 Bibliography 18 Further reading 19 External links

Early life[edit] Mahan was born on September 27, 1840, at West Point, New York, to Dennis Hart Mahan
Dennis Hart Mahan
(a professor at the United States
United States
Military Academy) and Mary Helena Okill Mahan (1815–1893), daughter of John Okill and Mary Jay (daughter of Sir James Jay). Mahan's middle name honors "the father of West Point", Sylvanus Thayer. Mahan attended Saint James School, an Episcopal college preparatory academy in western Maryland. He then studied at Columbia for two years, where he was a member of the Philolexian Society
Philolexian Society
debating club. Against the better judgment of his father, Mahan then entered the Naval Academy, where he graduated second in his class in 1859.[3] Early career[edit] Commissioned as a lieutenant in 1861, Mahan served the Union in the American Civil War
American Civil War
as an officer on USS Worcester, Congress, Pocahontas, and James Adger, and as an instructor at the Naval Academy. In 1865, he was promoted to lieutenant commander, and then to commander (1872), and captain (1885). As commander of the USS Wachusett he was stationed at Callao, Peru, protecting US interests during the final stages of the War of the Pacific.[4][5]

Alfred T. Mahan as a captain

While in actual command of a ship, his skills were not exemplary; and a number of vessels under his command were involved in collisions, with both moving and stationary objects. He had an affection for old square-rigged vessels rather than the smoky, noisy steamships of his time; and he tried to avoid active sea duty.[6] Naval War College
Naval War College
and writings[edit] In 1885, he was appointed as a lecturer in naval history and tactics at the Naval War College. Before entering on his duties, College President Rear Admiral Stephen B. Luce
Stephen B. Luce
pointed Mahan in the direction of writing his future studies on the influence of sea power. During his first year on the faculty, he remained at his home in New York City researching and writing his lectures. Though he was prepared to become a professor in 1886, Luce was given command of the North Atlantic Squadron, and Mahan became President of the Naval War College by default (June 22, 1886 – January 12, 1889, July 22, 1892 – May 10, 1893).[7] There, in 1888, he met and befriended future president Theodore Roosevelt, then a visiting lecturer.[8] Mahan's lectures, based on secondary sources and the military theories of Jomini, became his sea-power studies: The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660–1783 (1890); The Influence of Sea Power upon the French Revolution and Empire, 1793–1812 (2 vols., 1892); Sea Power in Relation to the War of 1812 (2 vols., 1905), and The Life of Nelson: The Embodiment of the Sea Power of Great Britain (2 vols., 1897). Mahan stressed the importance of the individual in shaping history and extolled the traditional values of loyalty, courage, and service to the state. Mahan sought to resurrect Horatio Nelson
Horatio Nelson
as a national hero in Britain and used his biography as a platform for expressing his views on naval strategy and tactics. Mahan was criticized for so strongly condemning Nelson's love affair with Lady Emma Hamilton, but it remained the standard biography until the appearance of Carola Oman's Nelson, 50 years later.[9] Mahan struck up a friendship with pioneering British naval historian Sir John Knox Laughton, the pair maintaining the relationship through correspondence and visits when Mahan was in London. Mahan was later described as a "disciple" of Laughton, but the two were at pains to distinguish between each other's line of work. Laughton saw Mahan as a theorist while Mahan called Laughton "the historian".[10] Origin and limitation of strategic views[edit] Mahan's views were shaped by 17th-century conflicts between the Dutch Republic, England, France and Spain, and by the nineteenth-century naval wars between France and Great Britain. British naval superiority eventually defeated France, consistently preventing invasion and an effective blockade. Mahan emphasized that naval operations were chiefly to be won by decisive battles and blockades.[11] In the 19th-century the United States
United States
sought greater control over its seaborne commerce in order to protect its economic interests which relied heavily on exports bound mainly for Europe. Mahan's emphasis on sea power as the most important cause of Britain's rise to world power neglected diplomacy and land arms. Furthermore, theories of sea power do not explain the rise of land empires, such as Bismarck's Germany.[12] Sea power[edit] Mahan believed that national greatness was inextricably associated with the sea, with its commercial use in peace and its control in war; and he used history as a stock of examples to exemplify his theories, arguing that the education of naval officers should be based on a rigorous study of history. Mahan's framework derived from Antoine-Henri Jomini, and emphasized strategic locations (such as choke points, canals, and coaling stations), as well as quantifiable levels of fighting power in a fleet. Mahan also believed that in peacetime, states should increase production and shipping capacities and acquire overseas possessions, though he stressed that the number of coal fueling stations and strategic bases should be limited to avoid draining too many resources from the mother country.[13] The primary mission of a navy was to secure the command of the sea, which would permit the maintenance of sea communications for one's own ships while denying their use to the enemy and, if necessary, closely supervise neutral trade. Control of the sea could be achieved not by destruction of commerce but only by destroying or neutralizing the enemy fleet. Such a strategy called for the concentration of naval forces composed of capital ships, not too large but numerous, well-manned with crews thoroughly trained, and operating under the principle that the best defense is an aggressive offense.[14] Mahan contended that with a command of the sea, even if local and temporary, naval operations in support of land forces could be of decisive importance. He also believed that naval supremacy could be exercised by a transnational consortium acting in defense of a multinational system of free trade. His theories, expounded before the submarine became a serious factor in warfare, delayed the introduction of convoys as a defense against German U-boats during World War I. By the 1930s, the US Navy had built long-range submarines to raid Japanese shipping; but in World War II, the Japanese, still tied to Mahan, designed their submarines as ancillaries to the fleet and failed to attack American supply lines in the Pacific. Mahan believed first, that good political and naval leadership was no less important than geography when it came to the development of sea power. Second, Mahan's unit of political analysis insofar as sea power was concerned was a transnational consortium, rather than a single nation state. Third, his economic ideal was free trade rather than autarchy. Fourth, his recognition of the influence of geography on strategy was tempered by a strong appreciation of the power of contingency to affect outcomes.[15] In 1890 Mahan prepared a secret contingency plan for war between Britain and the United States. Mahan believed that if the British blockaded the eastern ports, the US Navy should be concentrated in one of them, preferably New York, with its two widely separated exits, and employ torpedo boats to defend the other harbors. This concentration of the US fleet would force the British to tie down such a large proportion of their navy to watch the New York exits that other American ports would be relatively safe. Detached American cruisers should wage "constant offensive action" against the enemy's exposed positions; and if the British were to weaken their blockade force off New York to attack another American port, the concentrated US fleet could capture British coaling ports in Nova Scotia, thereby seriously weakening British ability to engage in naval operations off the American coast. This contingency plan was a clear example of Mahan's application of his principles of naval war, with a clear reliance on Jomini's principle of controlling strategic points.[16] Impact[edit] Timeliness contributed no small part to the widespread acceptance of Mahan's theories. Although his history was relatively thin, based as it was on secondary sources, his vigorous style and clear theory won widespread acceptance of navalists and supporters of the New Imperialism in Africa and Asia. Given the rapid technological changes underway in propulsion (from coal to oil and from reciprocating engines to turbines), ordnance (with better fire directors, and new high explosives), and armor and the emergence of new craft such as destroyers and submarines, Mahan's emphasis on the capital ship and the command of the sea came at an opportune moment.[14] Germany[edit] Mahan's name became a household word in the German navy after Kaiser Wilhelm II ordered his officers to read Mahan, and Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz (1849–1930) used Mahan's reputation to finance a powerful surface fleet.[17] Tirpitz, an intense navalist who believed ardently in Mahan's dictum that whatever power rules the sea also ruled the world, had The Influence of Sea Power Upon History
The Influence of Sea Power Upon History
translated into German in 1898 and had 8000 copies distributed for free as a way of pressuring the Reichstag to vote for the First Navy Bill.[18] Tirpitz used Mahan not only as a way of winning over German public opinion but also as a guide to strategic thinking.[19] Before 1914, Tirpitz completely rejected commerce raiding as a strategy and instead embraced Mahan's ideal of a decisive battle of annihilation between two fleets as the way to win command of the seas.[18] Tirpitz always planned for the German High Seas Fleet
High Seas Fleet
to win the Entscheidungsschlacht (decisive battle) against the British Royal Navy somewhere in "the waters between Helgoland and the Thames", a strategy he based on his reading of The Influence of Sea Power Upon History.[18] Great Britain[edit] Mahan and British admiral John Fisher (1841–1920) both addressed the problem of how to dominate home waters and distant seas with naval forces unable to do both. Mahan argued for a universal principle of concentration of powerful ships in home waters with minimized strength in distant seas. Fisher instead decided to use submarines to defend home waters and mobile battle cruisers to protect imperial interests.[20] France[edit] Though in 1914 French naval doctrine was dominated by Mahan's theory of sea power, the course of World War I
World War I
changed ideas about the place of the navy. The refusal of the German fleet to engage in a decisive battle, the Dardanelles expedition of 1915, the development of submarine warfare, and the organization of convoys all showed the navy's new role in combined operations with the army. The navy's part in securing victory was not fully understood by French public opinion in 1918, but a synthesis of old and new ideas arose from the lessons of the war, especially by Admiral Raoul Castex (1878–1968) who synthesized in his five-volume Théories Stratégiques the classical and materialist schools of naval theory. He reversed Mahan's theory that command of the sea precedes maritime communications and foresaw the enlarged roles of aircraft and submarines in naval warfare.[21] Japan[edit] The Influence of Seapower Upon History, 1660–1783 was translated into Japanese[22] and was used as a textbook in the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN). That usage strongly affected the IJN's plan to end Russian naval expansion in the far east, which culminated in the Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
(1904–1905).[23] It has been argued that the IJN's pursuit of the "decisive battle" contributed to Imperial Japan's defeat in World War II.[24][25] because the development of the submarine and the aircraft carrier, combined with advances in technology, largely rendered obsolete the doctrine of the decisive battle between fleets.[26] Nevertheless, the IJN did not adhere strictly to Mahanian doctrine because its forces were often tactically divided, particularly during the attack on Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor
and the Battle of Midway. United States[edit] Mahan believed that if the United States
United States
were to build an isthmian canal, it would become a Pacific power, and therefore it should take possession of Hawaii to protect the West Coast.[27] Nevertheless, his support for American imperialism was more ambivalent than is often stated, and he remained lukewarm about American annexation of the Philippines.[28] Later career[edit] Between 1889 and 1892, Mahan was engaged in special service for the Bureau of Navigation, and in 1893 he was appointed to command the powerful new protected cruiser Chicago on a visit to Europe, where he was feted. He returned to lecture at the War College and then, in 1896, he retired from active service, returning briefly to duty in 1898 to consult on naval strategy during the Spanish–American War. Mahan continued to write, and he received honorary degrees from Oxford, Cambridge, Harvard, Yale, Columbia, Dartmouth, and McGill. In 1902, Mahan popularized the term "Middle East," which he used in the article "The Persian Gulf and International Relations," published in September in the National Review.[29] As a delegate to the 1899 Hague Convention, Mahan argued against prohibiting the use of asphyxiating gases in warfare on the ground that such weapons would inflict such terrible casualties that belligerents would be forced to end wars more quickly, thus providing a net advantage for world peace. [30] In 1902 Mahan was elected president of the American Historical Association, and his address, "Subordination in Historical Treatment," is his most explicit explanation of his philosophy of history. [31] In 1906, Mahan became rear admiral by an act of Congress that promoted all retired captains who had served in the American Civil War. At the outbreak of World War I, he published statements favorable to the cause of Great Britain, but in an attempt to enforce American neutrality, President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
ordered that all active and retired officers refrain from publicly commenting on the war.[32] Religious life[edit] Mahan was reared as an Episcopalian and became a devout churchman with High Church
High Church
sympathies. For instance, late in life he strongly opposed revision of the Book of Common Prayer.[33] Nevertheless, Mahan also appears to have undergone a conversion experience about 1871, when he realized that he could experience God’s favor, not through his own merits, but only through “trust in the completed work of Christ on the cross.”[34] Geissler called one of his religious addresses almost “evangelical, albeit of the dignified stiff-upper-lip variety.”[35] And Mahan never mentioned a conversion experience in his autobiography. In later life, Mahan often spoke to Episcopal parishes. In 1899, at Holy Trinity Church in Brooklyn, Mahan emphasized his own religious experience and declared that one needed a personal relationship with God given through the work of the Holy Spirit.[36] In 1909, Mahan published The Harvest Within: Thoughts on the Life of the Christian, which was "part personal testimony, part biblical analysis, part expository sermon."[37] Death and commemoration[edit]

The Mahan Hall at the United States
United States
Naval Academy is named for Mahan.

Mahan died in Washington, D.C., of heart failure on December 1, 1914, a few months after the outbreak of World War I.

Four ships have been named USS Mahan, including the lead vessel of a class of destroyers. The United States
United States
Naval Academy's Mahan Hall was named in his honor,[38] as was Mahan Hall at the Naval War College. (Mahan Hall at the United States
United States
Military Academy was named for his father, Dennis Hart Mahan.) A. T. Mahan Elementary School and A. T. Mahan High School at Keflavik Naval Air Station, Iceland, were named in his honor. A former mission school in Yangzhou, China
China
was named for Mahan.[39] A U.S. Naval Sea Cadet Corps unit in Albany, New York
Albany, New York
is named for both Mahan and his father.[40] Mahan Road is an entrance to the former Naval Ordnance Laboratory
Naval Ordnance Laboratory
in White Oak, Silver Spring, Maryland. The facility is now the headquarters of the FDA.

Family[edit] Alfred Thayer Mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan
married Ellen Lyle Evans in June 1872. They had two daughters and one son.

Ancestors of Alfred Thayer Mahan

2. Dennis Hart Mahan

1. Alfred Thayer Mahan

6. John Okill

3. Mary Helena Okill

14. Sir James Jay

7. Mary Jay

Dates of rank[edit]

Acting midshipman: 30 September 1856 Midshipman: 9 June 1859 Lieutenant: 31 August 1861 Lieutenant
Lieutenant
commander: 7 June 1865 Commander: 20 November 1872 Captain: 23 September 1885 Retired list: 17 November 1896 Rear Admiral on the retired list: 1906

Awards[edit]

Civil War Campaign Medal Spanish Campaign Medal

In fiction[edit] In 1901, an alternate history by Robert Conroy, the main character is a young United States
United States
Army officer named Patrick Mahan, a fictitious nephew of Admiral Mahan, who himself appears briefly in the story as well. In Harry Turtledove's Southern Victory, another alternate history, Mahan is frequently mentioned but never appears. He is spoken of as having been President of the United States
United States
from 1889 to 1897, and the Mahan Bedroom is a famous room in the Powel House
Powel House
in Philadelphia, analogous to the actual Lincoln Bedroom
Lincoln Bedroom
in the White House. Works[edit]

The Gulf and Inland Waters (1883) The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660–1783 (1890)

The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660–1805 (abridged ed, 1980) The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660–1783 (1890) The Influence of Sea Power upon the French Revolution and Empire, 1793–1812 (1892) at archive.org

Mahan, Alfred Thayer (1892). Admiral Farragut. D. Appleton and company, New York. p. 333.  Url The Future in Relation To American Naval Power, Harper's New Monthly Magazine, Oct 1895 The Life of Nelson: The Embodiment of the Sea Power of Great Britain (1897)[41]

The Life of Nelson, Volume 1 (of 2) by A. T. Mahan at Project Gutenberg

The Life of Nelson, Volume 2 (of 2) by A. T. Mahan at Project Gutenberg The Interest of America in Sea Power, Present and Future (1897) Lessons of the War with Spain, and Other Articles (1899) The Problem of Asia and Its Effect Upon International Policies (1900) Story of the War in South Africa 1899–1900 (1900) online Types of Naval Officers Drawn from the History of the British Navy (1901) online Sea Power in Its Relation to the War of 1812 (2 vols.) (1905) (Boston: Little Brown) American Library Association. Reflections, Historic and Other, Suggested by the Battle of the Japan Sea. (1906) Proceedings magazine, June 1906, United States
United States
Naval Institute. From Sail to Steam, Recollections of Naval life (1907) Naval Administration and Warfare: Some General Principles, with Other Essays (1908) The Harvest Within: Thoughts on the Life of the Christian (1909) Naval Strategy: Compared and Contrasted with the Principles and Practice of Military Operations on Land (1911) Armaments and Arbitration; or, The Place of Force in the International Relations of States (1912) The Major Operations of the Navies in the War of American Independence (1913) at Project Gutenberg

See also[edit]

Biography portal United States
United States
Navy portal

References[edit] Notes

^ Keegan, John. The American Civil War
American Civil War
Knopf, 2009, 272. ^ Suzanne Geisler, God and Sea Power: The Influence of Religion on Alfred Thayer Mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan
(Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2015), 1. ^ Geissler, 24–26. ^ Richard W. Turk, The Ambiguous Relationship: Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
and Alfred Thayer Mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan
(Greenwood Press, 19870, 10. ^ Larrie D. Ferreiro, 'Mahan and the "English Club" of Lima, Peru: The Genesis of The Influence of Sea Power upon History', The Journal of Military History72: 3 (July 2008), 901–06. ^ Paret, Peter (1986). Makers of Modern Strategy from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 445.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-05-17. Retrieved 2006-05-17.  ^ Geissler, 99–100. ^ ODNB entry for Carola Oman: Retrieved 8 July 2012. Pay-walled. (subscription required) ^ Knight, Roger (2000). "The Foundations of Naval History: John Knox Laughton, the Royal Navy and the Historical Profession, Review of book by Professor Andrew Lambert". London: Institute for Historical Research. Retrieved April 3, 2007.  ^ Vego, Dr. Milan (2009). "Naval Classical Thinkers and Operational Art". Naval War College: 4. Archived from the original on January 31, 2017. Retrieved December 12, 2016.  ^ Paret, Peter (1986). Makers of Modern Strategy from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. pp. 453–55.  ^ Crowl, Alfred Thayer Mahan, 451, 460. ^ a b Philip A. Crowl, "Alfred Thayer Mahan: The Naval Historian," in Paret, Peter, Gordon A. Craig, and Felix Gilbert, eds. Makers of Modern Strategy from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age (1986), ch. 16. ^ Jon Tetsuro Sumida, Inventing Grand Strategy and Teaching Command: The Classic Works of Alfred Thayer Mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan
(Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997). ^ Kenneth Bourne and Carl Boyd, "Captain Mahan's 'War' with Great Britain," U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, 94:7 (1968), 71–78. ISSN 0041-798X ^ Holger Herwig,"The Failure of German Sea Power, 1914–1945: Mahan, Tirpitz, and Raeder Reconsidered", The International History Review, 10:1 (February 1988), 72–73. ^ a b c Herwig, 69–105. ^ Herwig, 72–73. ^ Jon Tetsuro Sumida, "Geography, Technology, and British Naval Strategy in the Dreadnought Era." Naval War College
Naval War College
Review 2006 59(3): 89–102. ^ Martin Motte, "L'epreuve des Faits: ou la Pensee Navale Française face a la Grande Guerre", Revue Historique Des Armées 1996 (2): 97–106. ISSN 0035-3299. ^ Mark Peattie & David Evans, Kaigun (U.S. Naval Institute Press, 1997). ^ Mahan, Proceedings article 1906. ^ Donald Goldstein and Katherine Dillon, The Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor
Papers (Brassey's, 1993) ^ Marc Parillo, The Japanese Merchant Marine in WW2 (U.S. Naval Institute Press, 1993) ^ Crowl, "Alfred Thayer Mahan: pp. 474–77. ^ Brinkley, Alan (2010). "19: From Crisis to Empire". The Unfinished Nation. Columbia University: McGrawHill. p. 499.  ^ Geissler, 134–35. ^ Adelson, Roger. London and the Invention of the Middle East: Money, Power, and War, 1902–1922 (New Haven: Yale University
Yale University
Press, 1995), 22–23. ^ Barbara Tuchman, The Proud Tower, 246. ^ Geissler, 151–52;"Subordination in Historical Treatment." ^ Giessler, 189. Mahan unsuccessfully appealed the order to Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels, arguing that retired officers were no different from private citizens and should not be "silenced". ^ Geissler, 178-185. ^ Geissler, 78. ^ Geissler, 149. ^ Geissler, 149. He concluded with "the reiteration of my sure and joyful confidence, that I have tried God these many years and found Him ever faithful...that all I have, all that I am, all that have accomplished, has been of Him and through Him." ^ Geissler, 167. ^ Ebarb, Matthew A. "Midshipmen Learn Lessons from the Fleet Archived 2009-01-14 at the Wayback Machine." (story number NNS071020-04), Navy.mil, October 20, 2007. ^ Geissler, 1 ^ Mahan Division website. ^ "Review of The Life of Nelson, The Embodiment of the Sea Power of Great Britain by Captain A. T. Mahan". The Quarterly Review. 187: 126–52. January 1898. 

Bibliography[edit] Primary sources

Seager II, Robert, ed. Letters and Papers of Alfred Thayer Mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan
(3 vol 1975) v. 1. 1847–1889. – v. 2. 1890–1901. – v. 3. 1902–1914 Mahan, Alfred Thayer. The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660–1783 (1890) online edition Mahan, Alfred Thayer. The Influence of Sea Power upon the French Revolution and Empire, 1793–1812 (2 vols., 1892) online edition Mahan, Alfred Thayer. Sea Power in Relation to the War of 1812 (2 vols., 1905). online edition Mahan, Alfred Thayer., Reflections, Historic and Other, Suggested by the Battle of the Japan Sea. By Captain A. T. Mahan, U.S. Navy. US Naval Proceedings magazine, June 1906, Volume XXXVI, No. 2 United States Naval Institute. Mahan, Alfred Thayer. The Life of Nelson: The Embodiment of the Sea Power of Great Britain (2 vols., 1897) online edition Mahan, Alfred Thayer. Mahan on Naval Strategy: selections from the writings of Rear Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan
ed by John B. Hattendorf (1991) The Negotiations at Ghent in 1814, A. T. Mahan, The American Historical Review, Vol. 11, No. 1 (Oct., 1905), pp. 68–87, Published by: The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the American Historical Association
American Historical Association
Article Stable URL: JSTOR 1832365

Further reading[edit]

Apt, Benjamin. "Mahan's Forebears: The Debate over Maritime Strategy, 1868–1883." Naval War College
Naval War College
Review (Summer 1997). Online. Naval War College. September 24, 2004 Bowling, Roland Alfred. "The Negative Influence of Mahan on the Protection of Shipping in Wartime: The Convoy Controversy in the Twentieth Century." PhD dissertation U. of Maine 1980. 689 pp. DAI 1980 41(5): 2241-A. 8024828 Fulltext: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Crowl, Philip A. "Alfred Thayer Mahan: The Naval Historian" in Makers of Modern Strategy from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age, ed. Peter Paret (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986) Hattendorf, John B., ed. The Influence of History on Mahan. Naval War College Press, 1991. 208 pp. Holmes, James R., Strategic Features of the South China
China
Sea: A Tough Neighborhood for Hegemons, Naval War College
Naval War College
Review, Spring 2014, Volume 67, Number 2, pp. 30–51. Kaplan, Robert D. (2012) The Revenge of Geography: What the Maps Tell Us About the Coming Conflicts and the Battle Against Fate New York: Random House. ISBN 978-1-4000-6983-5 Karsten, Peter. "The Nature of 'Influence': Roosevelt, Mahan and the Concept of Sea Power." American Quarterly 1971 23(4): 585–600. in Jstor LaFeber, Walter. "A Note on the "Mercantilistic Imperialism" of Alfred Thayer Mahan," The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 48, No. 4 (Mar., 1962), pp. 674–85 online at JSTOR Livezey, William E. Mahan on Sea Power (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, reprinted 1981) Puleston, W. D. Mahan: The Life and Work of Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan, U.S.N 1939 online edition St. John, Ronald B. "European Naval Expansion and Mahan, 1889–1906." Naval War College
Naval War College
Review 1971 23(7): 74–83. ISSN 0028-1484. Argues that key Europeans were already set to expand their navies and that Mahan crystallized their ideas and generate broad support. Schluter, Randall Craig. "Looking Outward for America: An Ideological Criticism of the Rhetoric of Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan, USN, in American Magazines of the 1890s." PhD dissertation U. of Iowa 1995. 261 pp. DAI 1995 56(6): 2045-A. DA9536247 Fulltext: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Seager, Robert. Alfred Thayer Mahan: The Man and His Letters (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1977), the standard biography Shulman, Mark Russell. "The Influence of Mahan upon Sea Power." Reviews in American History 1991 19(4): 522–27. in Jstor Shulman, Mark Russell. Navalism and the Emergence of American Sea Powers, 1882–1893 (1995) Sumida, Jon Tetsuro. Inventing Grand Strategy and Teaching Command: The Classic Works of Alfred Thayer Mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan
(2000) 184 pages excerpt and online search from Amazon.com Turk, Richard W. The Ambiguous Relationship: Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
and Alfred Thayer Mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan
(1987) online edition Varacalli, Thomas F.X. "National Interest and Moral Responsibility in the Political Thought of Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan" Naval War College Review, Vol. 69, no. 2 (Spring 2016), 108–27 Zimmermann, Warren. First Great Triumph: How Five Americans Made Their Country a World Power. (2002). 562 pp., chapter on Mahan

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Alfred Thayer Mahan

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alfred Thayer Mahan.

Works by Alfred Thayer Mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Alfred Thayer Mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan
at Internet Archive Works by Alfred Thayer Mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) Past Presidents of the Naval War College
Naval War College
– from the Naval War College website Afred Thayer Mahan at Find a Grave The Life of Nelson – review

Military offices

Preceded by Stephen Luce President of the Naval War College 1886–1889 Succeeded by Caspar F. Goodrich

Preceded by Caspar F. Goodrich President of the Naval War College 1892–1893 Succeeded by Charles Herbert Stockton

v t e

Presidents of the American Historical Association

1884–1900

Andrew Dickson White
Andrew Dickson White
(1884-85) George Bancroft
George Bancroft
(1886) Justin Winsor
Justin Winsor
(1887) William Frederick Poole
William Frederick Poole
(1888) Charles Kendall Adams
Charles Kendall Adams
(1889) John Jay (1890) William Wirt Henry (1891) James Burrill Angell
James Burrill Angell
(1892-93) Henry Adams
Henry Adams
(1893-94) George Frisbie Hoar
George Frisbie Hoar
(1895) Richard Salter Storrs
Richard Salter Storrs
(1896) James Schouler (1897) George Park Fisher (1898) James Ford Rhodes
James Ford Rhodes
(1899) Edward Eggleston
Edward Eggleston
(1900)

1901–1925

Charles Francis Adams Jr.
Charles Francis Adams Jr.
(1901) Alfred Thayer Mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan
(1902) Henry Charles Lea
Henry Charles Lea
(1903) Goldwin Smith
Goldwin Smith
(1904) John Bach McMaster
John Bach McMaster
(1905) Simeon Eben Baldwin
Simeon Eben Baldwin
(1906) J. Franklin Jameson (1907) George Burton Adams (1908) Albert Bushnell Hart
Albert Bushnell Hart
(1909) Frederick Jackson Turner
Frederick Jackson Turner
(1910) William Milligan Sloane
William Milligan Sloane
(1911) Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
(1912) William Archibald Dunning (1913) Andrew C. McLaughlin
Andrew C. McLaughlin
(1914) H. Morse Stephens
H. Morse Stephens
(1915) George Lincoln Burr
George Lincoln Burr
(1916) Worthington C. Ford (1917) William Roscoe Thayer
William Roscoe Thayer
(1918-19) Edward Channing (1920) Jean Jules Jusserand
Jean Jules Jusserand
(1921) Charles Homer Haskins
Charles Homer Haskins
(1922) Edward Potts Cheyney
Edward Potts Cheyney
(1923) Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
(1924) Charles McLean Andrews
Charles McLean Andrews
(1924-25)

1926–1950

Dana Carleton Munro
Dana Carleton Munro
(1926) Henry Osborn Taylor (1927) James Henry Breasted
James Henry Breasted
(1928) James Harvey Robinson
James Harvey Robinson
(1929) Evarts Boutell Greene (1930) Carl L. Becker (1931) Herbert Eugene Bolton
Herbert Eugene Bolton
(1932) Charles A. Beard
Charles A. Beard
(1933) William Dodd (1934) Michael Rostovtzeff
Michael Rostovtzeff
(1935) Charles Howard McIlwain (1936) Guy Stanton Ford (1937) Laurence M. Larson (1938) William Scott Ferguson (1939) Max Farrand
Max Farrand
(1940) James Westfall Thompson (1941) Arthur M. Schlesinger Sr. (1942) Nellie Neilson (1943) William Linn Westermann
William Linn Westermann
(1944) Carlton J. H. Hayes (1945) Sidney Bradshaw Fay (1946) Thomas J. Wertenbaker
Thomas J. Wertenbaker
(1947) Kenneth Scott Latourette
Kenneth Scott Latourette
(1948) Conyers Read (1949) Samuel Eliot Morison
Samuel Eliot Morison
(1950)

1951–1975

Robert Livingston Schuyler (1951) James G. Randall (1952) Louis R. Gottschalk (1953) Merle Curti (1954) Lynn Thorndike
Lynn Thorndike
(1955) Dexter Perkins (1956) William L. Langer (1957) Walter Prescott Webb
Walter Prescott Webb
(1958) Allan Nevins
Allan Nevins
(1959) Bernadotte Everly Schmitt (1960) Samuel Flagg Bemis (1961) Carl Bridenbaugh (1962) Crane Brinton (1963) Julian P. Boyd (1964) Frederic C. Lane (1965) Roy Franklin Nichols (1966) Hajo Holborn (1967) John K. Fairbank (1968) C. Vann Woodward
C. Vann Woodward
(1969) Robert Roswell Palmer (1970) David M. Potter (1971) Joseph Strayer (1971) Thomas C. Cochran (1972) Lynn Townsend White Jr. (1973) Lewis Hanke (1974) Gordon Wright (1975)

1976–2000

Richard B. Morris (1976) Charles Gibson (1977) William J. Bouwsma (1978) John Hope Franklin (1979) David H. Pinkney (1980) Bernard Bailyn (1981) Gordon A. Craig
Gordon A. Craig
(1982) Philip D. Curtin (1983) Arthur S. Link (1984) William H. McNeill (1985) Carl Neumann Degler (1986) Natalie Zemon Davis
Natalie Zemon Davis
(1987) Akira Iriye (1988) Louis R. Harlan (1989) David Herlihy (1990) William Leuchtenburg (1991) Frederic Wakeman (1992) Louise A. Tilly (1993) Thomas C. Holt (1994) John Henry Coatsworth (1995) Caroline Bynum (1996) Joyce Appleby (1997) Joseph C. Miller (1998) Robert Darnton
Robert Darnton
(1999) Eric Foner
Eric Foner
(2000)

2001–Present

William Roger Louis (2001) Lynn Hunt (2002) James M. McPherson
James M. McPherson
(2003) Jonathan Spence (2004) James J. Sheehan
James J. Sheehan
(2005) Linda K. Kerber (2006) Barbara Weinstein (2007) Gabrielle M. Spiegel (2008) Laurel Thatcher Ulrich
Laurel Thatcher Ulrich
(2009) Barbara D. Metcalf (2010) Anthony Grafton
Anthony Grafton
(2011) William Cronon
William Cronon
(2012) Kenneth Pomeranz
Kenneth Pomeranz
(2013) Jan E. Goldstein (2014) Vicki L. Ruiz (2015) Patrick Manning (2016) Tyler E. Stovall (2017) Mary Beth Norton (2018)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 44302106 LCCN: n80044749 ISNI: 0000 0001 0892 6324 GND: 118730207 SELIBR: 364611 SUDOC: 027001733 BNF: cb11913925m (data) NLA: 36551324 NDL: 00448

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