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Secondary Source
In scholarship, a secondary sourcePrimary, secondary and tertiary sources
. University Libraries, University of Maryland.
Secondary sources
". James Cook University.
is a or recording that relates or discusses information originally presented elsewhere. A secondary source contrasts with a , which is an original source of the information being discussed; a primary source can be a person with direct knowledge of a si ...
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No Original Research
No (and variant writings) may refer to one of these articles: English language * ''Yes'' and ''no'' (responses) * A determiner in noun phrases Alphanumeric symbols * No (kana), a letter/syllable in Japanese script * No symbol, displayed 馃毇 * Numero sign, a typographic symbol for the word 'number', also represented as "No." or similar variants Geography * Norway (ISO 3166-1 country code NO) ** Norwegian language (ISO 639-1 code "no"), a North Germanic language that is also the official language of Norway ** .no, the internet ccTLD for Norway * Lake No, in South Sudan * No, Denmark, village in Denmark * N艒, Niigata, a former town in Japan * No Creek (other) * Acronym for the U.S. city of New Orleans, Louisiana or its professional sports teams ** New Orleans Saints of the National Football League ** New Orleans Pelicans of the National Basketball Association Arts and entertainment Film and television * ''Dr. No'' (film), a 1962 ''James Bond'' film ** Juliu ...
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Primary Sources
In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called an original source) is an artifact, document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study. It serves as an original source of information about the topic. Similar definitions can be used in library science and other areas of scholarship, although different fields have somewhat different definitions. In journalism, a primary source can be a person with direct knowledge of a situation, or a document written by such a person. Primary sources are distinguished from secondary sources, which cite, comment on, or build upon primary sources. Generally, accounts written after the fact with the benefit of hindsight are secondary. A secondary source may also be a primary source depending on how it is used. For example, a memoir would be considered a primary source in research concerning its author or about their friends charac ...
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Martha C
Martha (Hebrew: 诪指专职转指讗鈥) is a biblical figure described in the Gospels of Luke and John. Together with her siblings Lazarus and Mary of Bethany, she is described as living in the village of Bethany near Jerusalem. She was witness to Jesus resurrecting her brother, Lazarus. Etymology of the name The name ''Martha'' is a Latin transliteration of the Koine Greek 螠维蟻胃伪, itself a translation of the Aramaic 诪指专职转指讗鈥 ''M芒rt芒,'' "the mistress" or "the lady", from 诪专讛 "mistress," feminine of 诪专 "master." The Aramaic form occurs in a Nabatean inscription found at Puteoli, and now in the Naples Museum; it is dated AD 5 (Corpus Inscr. Semit., 158); also in a Palmyrene inscription, where the Greek translation has the form ''Marthein.'' Pope, Hugh"St. Martha" The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1919. Biblical references In the Gospel of Luke, Jesus visits the home of two sisters named Mary and Martha. The two sisters are c ...
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Richard Holmes (military Historian)
Edward Richard Holmes, CBE, TD, JP, VR (29 March 1946 鈥 30 April 2011), known as Richard Holmes, was a British military historian. He was co-director of Cranfield University's Security and Resilience Group from 1989 to 2009 and became Professor of Military and Security Studies at Cranfield in 1995. Early life and education Holmes was educated at Forest School, Walthamstow, Emmanuel College, Cambridge, Northern Illinois University, and the University of Reading, where he was awarded a PhD in 1975. Military career In 1964, he enlisted in the Territorial Army, the volunteer reserve of the British Army. Two years later he received a commission as a second lieutenant with the Territorial Army, and was promoted to lieutenant on 17 June 1968. He was promoted to acting captain in 1972, substantive captain in 1973, acting major in 1978 and substantive major in 1980. In 1979, he was awarded the Territorial Decoration. Holmes was promoted to lieutenant-colonel in 1986, wher ...
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What Is History?
''What Is History?'' is a 1961 non-fiction book by historian E. H. Carr on historiography. It discusses history, facts, the bias of historians, science, morality, individuals and society, and moral judgements in history. The book originated in a series of lectures given by Carr in 1961 at the University of Cambridge. The lectures were intended as a broad introduction into the subject of the theory of history and their accessibility has resulted in ''What is History?'' becoming one of the key texts in the field of historiography. Some of Carr's ideas are contentious, particularly his relativism and his rejection of contingency as an important factor in historical analysis. His work provoked a number of responses, most notably Geoffrey Elton's ''The Practice of History''. Carr was in the process of revising ''What is History?'' for a second edition at the time of his death. Structure The book begins with Chapter 1 ''The Historian and His Facts'', this is followed by chapters on t ...
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Edward H
Edward is an English given name. It is derived from the Anglo-Saxon name ''膾adweard'', composed of the elements '' 膿ad'' "wealth, fortune; prosperous" and '' weard'' "guardian, protector鈥. History The name Edward was very popular in Anglo-Saxon England, but the rule of the Norman and Plantagenet dynasties had effectively ended its use amongst the upper classes. The popularity of the name was revived when Henry III named his firstborn son, the future Edward I, as part of his efforts to promote a cult around Edward the Confessor, for whom Henry had a deep admiration. Variant forms The name has been adopted in the Iberian peninsula since the 15th century, due to Edward, King of Portugal, whose mother was English. The Spanish/Portuguese forms of the name are Eduardo and Duarte. Other variant forms include French 脡douard, Italian Edoardo and Odoardo, German, Dutch, Czech and Romanian Eduard and Scandinavian Edvard. Short forms include Ed, Eddy, Eddie, Ted, Teddy and ...
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Original Research
Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis of evidence to increase understanding of a topic, characterized by a particular attentiveness to controlling sources of bias and error. These activities are characterized by accounting and controlling for biases. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole. The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, and the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, econo ...
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World War I
World War I (28 July 1914 11 November 1918), often abbreviated as WWI, was List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll, one of the deadliest global conflicts in history. Belligerents included much of Europe, the Russian Empire, the United States, and the Ottoman Empire, with fighting occurring throughout Europe, the Middle East, Africa, the Pacific Ocean, Pacific, and parts of Asia. An estimated 9 million soldiers were killed in combat, plus another 23 million wounded, while 5 million civilians died as a result of military action, hunger, and disease. Millions more died in Genocides in history (World War I through World War II), genocides within the Ottoman Empire and in the Spanish flu, 1918 influenza pandemic, which was exacerbated by the movement of combatants during the war. Prior to 1914, the European great powers were divided between the Triple Entente (comprising French Third Republic, France, Russia, and British Empire, Britain) and the Triple A ...
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Precedent
A precedent is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case that is either binding on or persuasive for a court or other tribunal when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts. Common-law legal systems place great value on deciding cases according to consistent principled rules, so that similar facts will yield similar and predictable outcomes, and observance of precedent is the mechanism by which that goal is attained. The principle by which judges are bound to precedents is known as ''stare decisis'' (a Latin phrase with the literal meaning of "to stand in the-things-that-have-been-decided"). Common-law precedent is a third kind of law, on equal footing with statutory law (that is, statutes and codes enacted by legislative bodies) and subordinate legislation (that is, regulations promulgated by executive branch agencies, in the form of delegated legislation) in UK parlance 鈥 or regulatory law (in US parlance). Case law, in common-law jurisd ...
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Headnote
A headnote is a brief summary of a particular point of law that is added to the text of a court decision to aid readers in locating discussion of a legal issue in an opinion. As the term implies, headnotes appear at the beginning of the published opinion. In 1906, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in '' United States v. Detroit Timber & Lumber Co.'' that headnotes have no legal standing and therefore do not set precedent.'' United States v. Detroit Timber & Lumber Co.'', See also * Case law Case law, also used interchangeably with common law, is law that is based on precedents, that is the judicial decisions from previous cases, rather than law based on constitutions, statutes, or regulations. Case law uses the detailed facts of ... References Judicial legal terminology American legal terminology {{vocab-stub ...
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Archive
An archive is an accumulation of historical records or materials 鈥 in any medium 鈥 or the physical facility in which they are located. Archives contain primary source documents that have accumulated over the course of an individual or organization's lifetime, and are kept to show the function of that person or organization. Professional archivists and historians generally understand archives to be records that have been naturally and necessarily generated as a product of regular legal, commercial, administrative, or social activities. They have been metaphorically defined as "the secretions of an organism", and are distinguished from documents that have been consciously written or created to communicate a particular message to posterity. In general, archives consist of records that have been selected for permanent or long-term preservation on grounds of their enduring cultural, historical, or evidentiary value. Archival records are normally unpublished and almost al ...
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Leopold Von Ranke
Leopold von Ranke (; 21 December 1795 鈥 23 May 1886) was a German historian and a founder of modern source-based history. He was able to implement the seminar teaching method in his classroom and focused on archival research and the analysis of historical documents. Building on the methods of the G枚ttingen School of History, he was the first to establish a historical seminar. Ranke set the standards for much of later historical writing, introducing such ideas as reliance on primary sources ( empiricism), an emphasis on narrative history and especially international politics ('' Au脽enpolitik''). He was ennobled in 1865, with the addition of a "von" to his name. Ranke also had a great influence on Western historiography and is considered a symbol of the quality of 19th century German historical studies. Ranke, influenced by Barthold Georg Niebuhr, was very talented in constructing narratives without exceeding the limits of historical evidence. His critics have noted the i ...
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