1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.
Ancient Greek : Ἀλαλίη, Alaliē; Latin and Italian :
Aleria, Corsican : U Cateraghju) is a commune in the Haute-Corse
* 1 Administration * 2 Geography * 3 Population
* 4 History
* 4.1 Pre-Roman * 4.2 Roman * 4.3 Medieval and modern * 4.4 Ecclesiastical
* 5 Archaeology * 6 Economy * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Sources and external links * 10 Bibliography
The eastern coastline is punctuated by a number of lakes connecting
(but not always) to the
Tyrrhenian Sea , the remnant of an ancient
system of lagoons behind barrier beaches . The Corsicans refer to them
under the name of Étang, "pool", although most are larger by far than
an English pool. Marshland is also extensive on the coast requiring
that cities be built inland from it.
The Tavignano River (Tavignanu) enters the commune to the northwest and exits into the Tyrrhenian Sea . Its lands include a delta, marshes to the south and the unconnected étang de Diane to the north. To the west, the étang de Terre Rosse is a lake and reservoir used to irrigate the plain.
Etruscans took the district, after its abandonment by the
Greeks, they settled further south along N198 in the vicinity of the
village of Aléria, today primarily an archaeological site across the
river from Cateraggio, where visitors and academics are quartered.
Still south of there was the Etruscan necropolis , in today's
The entire district, however, is wider still, following the Corsican
custom of including some mountains and some beaches in every district.
It incorporates the agricultural lands of Teppe Rosse (to the west),
the entire Étang de Diane and the Plage de Padulone 3 kilometres (2
mi) east of Cateraggio, a former barrier beach. Since 1975 a series of
laws have created the Casabianda-
The reserve to the south was initiated from the grounds of the former penitentiary of Casabianda in 1951. It was instituted in 1880 in a then pestilential area which it was hoped the prisoners could farm. It contained 1800 ha and 214 plots. Due to a high death rate from malaria, the agricultural experiment failed.
YEAR POP. ±%
1962 778 —
1968 1,913 +145.9%
1975 2,885 +50.8%
1982 2,410 −16.5%
1990 2,022 −16.1%
1999 1,966 −2.8%
2008 1,957 −0.5%
As of 2008 ,
Herodotus twenty years before the abandonment of
Ionia , that is, in 566 BC, Phocaeans colonizing the
Diodorus says that Aleria had a "beautiful large harbor, called
Syracusium," that Calaris and another city, Nicaea, were on it, and
that Nicaea had been built by the
Etruscans . Syracusium can only be
the Étang de Diane, a lake exiting to the
Tyrrhenian Sea . As Aleria
and Nicaea were trade rivals it seems unlikely that the Etruscans
would have allowed the Phocaeans, who were ancient Greeks , access to
Étang de Diane. Nicaea is generally identified with the La Marana
district further north, where the Romans later built a city, Mariana,
on the Étang de Biguglia, a better harbor. Diodorus says that the
At home Phocaea was the first city of Ionia to come under siege by the army of Cyrus , who were Medes commanded by Harpagus , in 546 BC. Requesting a cease-fire the Phocaeans took to their ships, abandoning the city to Harpagus, who allowed them to escape. Refused permission to settle Oenussae in the territory of Chios they resolved to reinforce Alaliē, but first made a surprise punitive raid on Phocaea, executing the entire Persian garrison. At this success half the Phocaeans reinhabited Phocaea; the other half settled in the vicinity of Alaliē.
Etruscans and perhaps others in their turn occupied Alalia.
There is no evidence of any other impact of theirs on the island or
the indigenous population; the east coast location was simply
fortuitous for them. Across the waters, however, rose a power that
eventually dominated the entire island and had a lasting impact,
changing the language. Alaliē was occupied by the Romans during the
First Punic War in 259 BC.
Florus says that Lucius Cornelius Scipio
destroyed it and cleared the region of
Carthaginians while Pliny adds
The Etruscans continued to use the necropolis. Subsequently the Etruscan population must have assimilated to a new Roman population in parallel with the assimilation of Etruscans on the mainland. The Etruscan language disappeared and it must have been starting from that time that the island began to acquire its Latin language .
Under the late
In the later
MEDIEVAL AND MODERN
In the 13th century, Aleria became of interest to the Republic of
Genoa . By that time the
Latin language was gone, but it had developed
Corsu on Corsica, in parallel with the development of other
The commune of
Main article: Diocese of Aleria
There is some evidence that
Aleria was a residential diocese, suffragan of the Metropolitan
Archdiocese of Pisa , which became a dogal state in Italy. It counted
among its bishops Saint
On 29 November 1801, in accordance with the Napoleontic Concordat of 1801 , it was suppressed as the territory of the diocese of Ajaccio was extended to the whole of Corsica. At the end of the Ancien Régime , the bishop no longer lived in Aléria, but in Cervione .
Hundreds of archaeological sites on
Although no settlements of urban density preceded the first Greek
Terrina IV features a Middle Neolithic settlement in which the use of cattle and pigs were, in contrast to the rest of the island, which kept mainly goats and sheep and grew grain. The Chalcolithic, approximately 3500-3000 BC, arrived by easy transition. The population of the site manufactured arsenical copper and copper goods.
The visible antique habitations at
A pre-Roman, Etruscan necropolis was then discovered 500 metres (1,600 ft) to the south (in Casabianda) containing more than 200 tombs. It was excavated between 1960-1981. The necropolis had been in use mainly from the 6th to the 3rd centuries BC and was abandoned altogether with the construction of the Roman city, which had a cemetery to the north. No artifacts that were identifiably Etruscan have been found to have been from before the 6th century BC; that is, the Etruscans were most likely intrusive at that time.
Systematic excavation since 1955 has revealed wide-ranging contacts in the 6th century BC, through pottery shards in test pits, with Ionian , Phocaean , Rhodian and Attic black-figure ware . The excavated necropolis of Casabianda's rock-cut tombs have revealed treasures and goods, left or placed with the buried, that include fine works of art, jewels, weapons, metalware, bronze and ceramic plates and dishes in particular, rhytons , distinctive kraters decorated by some of the first rank Attic vase-painters.
Portable antiquities found in the
L'étang de Diane occupies 600 hectares (1,500 acres); in it, the île des Pêcheurs ("Fishermans' Island") features a large mound of oyster shells accumulated from Roman times, when removed from their shells, salted oysters were exported to Rome. A company has revived with success the production of molluscs in the étang. In the commune, grapes and citrus fruits are commonly grown.