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1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Aléria
Aléria
(Ancient Greek: Ἀλαλίη, Alaliē; Latin and Italian: Aleria, Corsican: U Cateraghju) is a commune in the Haute-Corse department of France
France
on the island of Corsica, former bishopric and present Latin Catholic titular see. It includes the easternmost point in Metropolitan France.

Contents

1 Administration 2 Geography 3 Population 4 History

4.1 Pre-Roman 4.2 Roman 4.3 Medieval and modern 4.4 Ecclesiastical

5 Archaeology 6 Economy 7 See also 8 References 9 Sources and external links 10 Bibliography

Administration[edit] Aléria
Aléria
shares the canton of Moïta-Verde with 13 other communes: Moïta, Ampriani, Campi, Canale-di-Verde, Chiatra, Linguizzetta, Matra, Pianello, Pietra-di-Verde, Tallone, Tox, Zalana
Zalana
and Zuani.[1] Geography[edit] Aléria
Aléria
is 70 kilometres (43 mi) to the south of Bastia
Bastia
on Route N198, in the centre of the Plaine Orientale, also called the Plaine d'Aléria, the east-central coastal plain of the island facing Italy. It includes a number of villages and monuments. Most of the rest of the island is precipitously mountainous. The eastern coastline is punctuated by a number of lakes connecting (but not always) to the Tyrrhenian Sea, the remnant of an ancient system of lagoons behind barrier beaches. The Corsicans refer to them under the name of Étang, "pool", although most are larger by far than an English pool. Marshland is also extensive on the coast requiring that cities be built inland from it. Malaria
Malaria
has historically been a problem near the marshlands and swamps of eastern Corsica. The fine barrier beaches are a recreational attraction. The Tavignano River
Tavignano River
(Tavignanu) enters the commune to the northwest and exits into the Tyrrhenian Sea. Its lands include a delta, marshes to the south and the unconnected étang de Diane to the north. To the west, the étang de Terre Rosse is a lake and reservoir used to irrigate the plain. Corsica
Corsica
had an indigenous population in the Neolithic
Neolithic
and the Bronze Age but the east coast was subject to colonization by Mediterranean maritime powers: Greeks, Etruscans, Carthaginians, Romans. They typically built on an étang, which they used as a harbor. Alaliē (Ionic dialect) was placed between the southern end of the 3.5-kilometre (2.2 mi) long Ētang de Diane and the Tavignano River (ancient Rhotanos), slightly inland, but controlling the entire district including the mouth of the river. The site is partly occupied today by the village of Cateraggio (Corsican U Cateraghju) at the crossroads of national routes N200 and N198. N200 follows the Vallé du Tavignano into the interior mountains of Corte. When the Etruscans
Etruscans
took the district, after its abandonment by the Greeks, they settled further south along N198 in the vicinity of the village of Aléria, today primarily an archaeological site across the river from Cateraggio, where visitors and academics are quartered. Still south of there was the Etruscan necropolis, in today's Casabianda. Aléria
Aléria
takes its name from the Roman town placed there after the defeat of the Etruscans. The entire district, however, is wider still, following the Corsican custom of including some mountains and some beaches in every district. It incorporates the agricultural lands of Teppe Rosse (to the west), the entire Étang de Diane and the Plage de Padulone 3 kilometres (2 mi) east of Cateraggio, a former barrier beach. Since 1975 a series of laws have created the Casabianda- Aléria
Aléria
Nature Preserve, 1,748 hectares (4,320 acres) between the mouth of the Tavignanu and the Étang d'Urbinu, which is 5 kilometres (3 mi) to the south. The reserve to the south was initiated from the grounds of the former penitentiary of Casabianda in 1951. It was instituted in 1880 in a then pestilential area which it was hoped the prisoners could farm. It contained 1800 ha and 214 plots. Due to a high death rate from malaria, the agricultural experiment failed.[1] Population[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1962 778 —    

1968 1,913 +145.9%

1975 2,885 +50.8%

1982 2,410 −16.5%

1990 2,022 −16.1%

1999 1,966 −2.8%

2008 1,957 −0.5%

As of 2008[update], Aléria
Aléria
has a population of 1,957. History[edit] Pre-Roman[edit] According to Herodotus[2] twenty years before the abandonment of Phocaea
Phocaea
in Ionia, that is, in 566 BC, Phocaeans colonizing the western Mediterranean
Mediterranean
founded a city, Alaliē, on the island of Cyrnus (Corsica). Diodorus Siculus[3] says that the city was named Calaris, possibly a corruption of Alaliē.[4] The historical circumstances of Calaris leave no doubt that it was Aleria. Diodorus says[3] that Aleria had a "beautiful large harbor, called Syracusium," that Calaris and another city, Nicaea, were on it, and that Nicaea had been built by the Etruscans.[5] Syracusium can only be the Étang de Diane, a lake exiting to the Tyrrhenian Sea. As Aleria and Nicaea were trade rivals it seems unlikely that the Etruscans would have allowed the Phocaeans, who were ancient Greeks, access to Étang de Diane. Nicaea is generally identified with the La Marana district further north, where the Romans later built a city, Mariana, on the Étang de Biguglia, a better harbor.[4] Diodorus says that the cities of Corsica
Corsica
were subject to the Phocaeans and that the latter took slaves, resin, wax and honey from them. Alaliē was then an emporium. Of the natives whom the Phocaeans subjugated Diodorus says only that they were "barbarians, whose language is very strange and difficult to be understood" and that they numbered more than 30,000. At home Phocaea
Phocaea
was the first city of Ionia
Ionia
to come under siege by the army of Cyrus, who were Medes
Medes
commanded by Harpagus, in 546 BC. Requesting a cease-fire the Phocaeans took to their ships, abandoning the city to Harpagus, who allowed them to escape.[2] Refused permission to settle Oenussae
Oenussae
in the territory of Chios
Chios
they resolved to reinforce Alaliē, but first made a surprise punitive raid on Phocaea, executing the entire Persian garrison. At this success half the Phocaeans reinhabited Phocaea; the other half settled in the vicinity of Alaliē. In Corsica
Corsica
they were so troublesome to the Etruscans
Etruscans
and to the Carthaginians
Carthaginians
of Sardinia
Sardinia
that the two powers sent a combined fleet of 120 ships to root them out, but this force was defeated by 60 Phocaean ships at the Battle of Alalia
Battle of Alalia
in the Sardinian Sea, which Herodotus describes as a Cadmeian victory (his equivalent of a Pyrrhic victory) because the Greeks lost 40 ships sunk and the remaining 20 so damaged as not to be battle-worthy. Now unable to defend themselves, the Phocaeans took to their remaining ships and sailed off to Rhegium, abandoning Alaliē. The Etruscans
Etruscans
landed the numerous Phocaean prisoners and executed them by stoning, leaving the bodies where they lay until the oracle compelled a proper burial. As the Carthaginians were not then interested in Corsica, the Etruscans
Etruscans
occupied Alaliē and took over dominion of the island, which they held until the Romans took it from them. Roman[edit] The Etruscans
Etruscans
and perhaps others in their turn occupied Alalia.[1] There is no evidence of any other impact of theirs on the island or the indigenous population; the east coast location was simply fortuitous for them. Across the waters, however, rose a power that eventually dominated the entire island and had a lasting impact, changing the language. Alaliē was occupied by the Romans during the First Punic War
First Punic War
in 259 BC. Florus
Florus
says that Lucius Cornelius Scipio destroyed it and cleared the region of Carthaginians[6] while Pliny adds that Sulla
Sulla
much later placed two colonies, Aleria and Mariana.[7] Evidently the Corsican Etruscans
Etruscans
had been still cooperating with the Carthaginians. Not including them the island was divided into 32 states. The Etruscans
Etruscans
continued to use the necropolis. Subsequently, the Etruscan population must have assimilated to a new Roman population in parallel with the assimilation of Etruscans
Etruscans
on the mainland. The Etruscan language
Etruscan language
disappeared and it must have been starting from that time that the island began to acquire its Latin language. Under the late Roman Republic
Roman Republic
the Romans decided to build a major naval base on the shores of Étang de Diane. Starting in 80 BC under Sulla
Sulla
as dictator they rebuilt the city on the promontory at Aléria, naming it Aleria. The city rose to prominence under Augustus, becoming the provincial capital of Corsica.[clarification needed] Major fleets were stationed on the étang.[8] Ptolemy
Ptolemy
mentions it but says little about it, only mentioning "Aleria Colonia", the Rotanus River and Diana Harbor.[9] He lists the "native races" inhabiting the island, but their geographical coordinates do not match those of Aleria; perhaps the Roman town was not considered among them. In the later Roman Empire, the port and the city declined. It never recovered from a disastrous fire of 410 AD and in 465 was sacked by the Vandals. Subsequently, it became a small village of no interest to any major power. These events must mark the end of its classical antiquity. It was buried bit by bit by the Tavignano and the Tagnone, which also created the deadly marshes. The region became subsumed under a Christian parish. Medieval and modern[edit] In the 13th century, Aleria became of interest to the Republic of Genoa. By that time the Latin language
Latin language
was gone, but it had developed into Corsu
Corsu
on Corsica, in parallel with the development of other Romance languages. The commune of Aléria
Aléria
was created in 1824, but it did not truly begin to revive until after 1945, after the allies (chiefly American) had undertaken to eradicate malaria (1944). An organization, SOMIVAC (Société d'aménagement pour la mise en valeur de la Corse) was created in 1957 to resurrect agriculturally the entire eastern plain under government sponsorship. It had great success in developing the region. A massive archaeological effort got underway in 1955. Ecclesiastical[edit] Main article: Diocese of Aleria There is some evidence that Corsica
Corsica
was being converted to Christianity
Christianity
in the late 6th century. Pope Gregory the Great
Gregory the Great
wrote in 597 to Bishop Peter of Alaria to recover lapsed converts and to convert more pagans from the worship of trees and stones. He sent him money for baptismal robes.[10] In 601, however, Aleria was without a bishop (see under Ajaccio). Aleria was a residential diocese, suffragan of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Pisa, which became a dogal state in Italy. It counted among its bishops Saint Alexander Sauli. On 29 November 1801, in accordance with the Napoleontic Concordat of 1801, it was suppressed as the territory of the diocese of Ajaccio
Ajaccio
was extended to the whole of Corsica. At the end of the Ancien Régime, the bishop no longer lived in Aléria, but in Cervione. Archaeology[edit] Hundreds of archaeological sites on Corsica
Corsica
offer a view of an island that has been occupied continuously since about 6500 BC and has never been isolated. It was common for populations on Corsica
Corsica
to maintain contacts (especially trade contacts) with other communities on the Mediterranean; the indigenous people of Corsica
Corsica
therefore might have come from anywhere on the Mediterranean. The various archaeological museums on the island preserve ample remains from the Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and Iron Age, with some interpretive or circumstantial variation in the dates.[11] Only in the Iron Age
Iron Age
(700 BC-) were there any historians to distinguish between the indigenes descending from previous populations and the more recent colonists. Although no settlements of urban density preceded the first Greek colony, Aléria
Aléria
is unlikely to have been altogether unpopulated. A chance find of an ancient rubbish disposal pit at a location called Terrina about 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) from the Étang de Diane gives some information regarding pre-Roman habitation.[12] The pit was excavated between 1975 and 1981 by G. Camps, who found four levels and named the site after the most important, Terrina IV. Terrina IV features a Middle Neolithic
Neolithic
settlement in which the use of cattle and pigs were, in contrast to the rest of the island, which kept mainly goats and sheep and grew grain. The Chalcolithic, approximately 3500-3000 BC, arrived by easy transition. The population of the site manufactured arsenical copper and copper goods. The visible antique habitations at Aléria
Aléria
date to the Iron Age
Iron Age
and are consistent with the common history. Although ruins on the promontory were noted by Prosper Mérimée
Prosper Mérimée
in 1839, they were only excavated in 1955 by Jean Jehasse and Jean-Paul Boucher. By 1958 the excavators had uncovered the forum of the Roman city of Aleria, first occupied in the 1st century BC. A pre-Roman, Etruscan necropolis was then discovered 500 metres (1,600 ft) to the south (in Casabianda) containing more than 200 tombs. It was excavated between 1960-1981. The necropolis had been in use mainly from the 6th to the 3rd centuries BC and was abandoned altogether with the construction of the Roman city, which had a cemetery to the north.[13] No artifacts that were identifiably Etruscan have been found to have been from before the 6th century BC; that is, the Etruscans
Etruscans
were most likely intrusive at that time. Systematic excavation since 1955 has revealed wide-ranging contacts in the 6th century BC, through pottery shards in test pits, with Ionian, Phocaean, Rhodian and Attic black-figure ware. The excavated necropolis of Casabianda's rock-cut tombs have revealed treasures and goods, left or placed with the buried, that include fine works of art, jewels, weapons, metalware, bronze and ceramic plates and dishes in particular, rhytons, distinctive kraters decorated by some of the first rank Attic vase-painters.[14] Portable antiquities found in the Aléria
Aléria
commune are presented for public viewing in the Musée Jérôme Carcopino in Fort Matra in the village of Aléria. Economy[edit] L'étang de Diane occupies 600 hectares (1,500 acres); in it, the île des Pêcheurs ("Fishermans' Island") features a large mound of oyster shells accumulated from Roman times, when removed from their shells, salted oysters were exported to Rome. A company has revived with success the production of molluscs in the étang. In the commune, grapes and citrus fruits are commonly grown. See also[edit]

Battle of Alalia
Battle of Alalia
(530-535 BC) History of Corsica Mediæval Corsica Torra di Diana Communes of the Haute-Corse
Haute-Corse
department Former railway station

References[edit]

^ a b c "France, le trésor des régions: Département: Haut-Corse" (in French). Retrieved 2008-05-06. . ^ a b Herodotus, Book I Sections 162-167. ^ a b Bibliotheca historica
Bibliotheca historica
Book V Chapter 1. ^ a b Gregorovius, Ferdinand; Edward Joy Morris (Translator) (1855). Corsica: Picturesque, Historical and Social. Philadelphia: Parry & M'Millan. pp. 12–13.  Downloadable Google Books. ^ Syracusium is not to be confused with the Syracusianos Portus of Ptolemy, which must be either Porto-Vecchio
Porto-Vecchio
or further south. ^ Epitome of Roman History Book I section 18. ^ Natural History Book III Section 6.80. ^ Abram (2003). ^ Book III chapter 2. ^ Richards, Jeffrey (1980). Consul of God: The Life and Times of Gregory the Great. London, Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul. p. 237. ISBN 0-7100-0346-3.  ^ "Archaeological Museums". Corseweb. Archived from the original on 2008-04-30.  ^ Costa, L.J., Editor (2005). "Préhistoire de la Corse: Terrina IV (Aléria)". Kyrnos Publications pour l'archchéologie. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Allegrini-Simonetti, Franck; Guidoni, E., Illustrator (July 2004). "Site archéologique: Aleria: le site antique" (PDF). Collectivité Territoriale de Corse: Service des Editions de la Direction de la Communication et de la Documentation Service Archéologie et Musées de la Direction du Patrimoine. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 20, 2008.  . ^ Stillwell.

Sources and external links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aléria.

GCatholic with resident and titular incumbent bio links

Bibliography[edit]

Stillwell, ed., Richard (1976). "Alalia, later Aleria, Corsica, France". Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Abram, David; Geoffrey Young; Theo Taylor; Nia Williams (2003). The Rough Guide to Corsica. Rough Guides. pp. 300–304. ISBN 1-84353-047-3. 

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Communes of the Haute-Corse
Haute-Corse
department

Aghione Aiti Alando Albertacce Aléria Algajola Altiani Alzi Ampriani Antisanti Aregno Asco Avapessa Barbaggio Barrettali Bastia Belgodère Bigorno Biguglia Bisinchi Borgo Brando Bustanico Cagnano Calacuccia Calenzana Calvi Cambia Campana Campi Campile Campitello Canale-di-Verde Canari Canavaggia Carcheto-Brustico Carpineto Carticasi Casabianca Casalta Casamaccioli Casanova Casevecchie Castellare-di-Casinca Castellare-di-Mercurio Castello-di-Rostino Castifao Castiglione Castineta Castirla Cateri Centuri Cervione Chiatra Chisa Corbara Corscia Corte Costa Croce Crocicchia Erbajolo Érone Ersa Farinole Favalello Felce Feliceto Ficaja Focicchia Furiani Galéria Gavignano Ghisonaccia Ghisoni Giocatojo Giuncaggio L'Île-Rousse Isolaccio-di-Fiumorbo Lama Lano Lavatoggio Lento Linguizzetta Loreto-di-Casinca Lozzi Lucciana Lugo-di-Nazza Lumio Luri Manso Matra Mausoléo Mazzola Meria Moïta Moltifao Monacia-d'Orezza Moncale Monte Montegrosso Monticello Morosaglia Morsiglia Muracciole Murato Muro Nessa Nocario Noceta Nonza Novale Novella Occhiatana Ogliastro Olcani Oletta Olmeta-di-Capocorso Olmeta-di-Tuda Olmi-Cappella Olmo Omessa Ortale Ortiporio Palasca Pancheraccia Parata Patrimonio Penta-Acquatella Penta-di-Casinca Perelli Pero-Casevecchie Pianello Piano Piazzali Piazzole Piedicorte-di-Gaggio Piedicroce Piedigriggio Piedipartino Pie-d'Orezza Pietracorbara Pietra-di-Verde Pietralba Pietraserena Pietricaggio Pietroso Piève Pigna Pino Piobetta Pioggiola Poggio-di-Nazza Poggio-di-Venaco Poggio-d'Oletta Poggio-Marinaccio Poggio-Mezzana Polveroso Popolasca Porri La Porta Prato-di-Giovellina Prunelli-di-Casacconi Prunelli-di-Fiumorbo Pruno Quercitello Rapaggio Rapale Riventosa Rogliano Rospigliani Rusio Rutali Saint-Florent Saliceto San-Damiano San-Gavino-d'Ampugnani San-Gavino-di-Fiumorbo San-Gavino-di-Tenda San-Giovanni-di-Moriani San-Giuliano San-Lorenzo San-Martino-di-Lota San-Nicolao Santa-Lucia-di-Mercurio Santa-Lucia-di-Moriani Santa-Maria-di-Lota Santa-Maria-Poggio Sant'Andréa-di-Bozio Sant'Andréa-di-Cotone Sant'Antonino Santa-Reparata-di-Balagna Santa-Reparata-di-Moriani Santo-Pietro-di-Tenda Santo-Pietro-di-Venaco Scata Scolca Sermano Serra-di-Fiumorbo Silvareccio Sisco Solaro Sorbo-Ocagnano Sorio Soveria Speloncato Stazzona Taglio-Isolaccio Talasani Tallone Tarrano Tomino Tox Tralonca Urtaca Vallecalle Valle-d'Alesani Valle-di-Campoloro Valle-di-Rostino Valle-d'Orezza Vallica Velone-Orneto Venaco Ventiseri Venzolasca Verdèse Vescovato Vezzani Vignale Ville-di-Paraso Ville-di-Pietrabugno Vivario Volpajola Zalana Zilia Zuani

v t e

Etruscan-related topics

History

Origins Padanian Etruria Founding of Rome Tyrrhenus Tyrrhenians Tarchon Caelius Vibenna Capys Lucius Tarquinius Priscus Tanaquil Servius Tullius Lucius Tarquinius Superbus Aruns (son of Tarquinius Superbus) Lars Porsena Lars Tolumnius Titus Vestricius Spurinna

Culture and society

Apollo of Veii Architecture Art Chimera of Arezzo Coins Corpus Speculorum Etruscorum Etruscan League Etruscan names for Greek heroes Etruscan Sibyl Extispicy Fanum Voltumnae Haruspex Jewelry Lausus Liver of Piacenza Mezentius Mythological figures Mythology Persius Poppilia Raeti Religion Sarcophagus of the Spouses Tages Terracotta warriors Titus Lartius Tomb of the Roaring Lions Vulca

Military history

Battle of Alalia
Battle of Alalia
(540 BC–535 BC) Siege of Rome (509 BC) Siege of Rome (508 BC) Battle of the Cremera (477 BC) Battle of Cumae
Battle of Cumae
(474 BC) Capture of Fidenae
Fidenae
(435 BC) Battle of Veii (c. 396 BC) Battle of Lake Vadimo (310 BC) Battle of Populonia (282 BC)

Language

Alphabet Cippus Perusinus Corpus Inscriptionum Etruscarum English words of Etruscan origin Lemnian language Liber Linteus Pyrgi
Pyrgi
Tablets Raetic language Spanish words of Etruscan origin Tabula Capuana Tabula Cortonensis Tyrsenian languages

Archeology

Bucchero Cuniculi Etruscology Impasto (pottery) Monteleone Chariot National Etruscan Museum Negau helmet Portonaccio Tomb of Orcus Tumulus of Montefortini Vicus Tuscus

Key sites

Acquarossa Adria Aleria Baratti Bologna Caere Ceri Cerveteri Civita di Bagnoregio Clusium Cumae Etruria Falerii Fescennia Fidenae Norchia Orvieto Perusia Poggio Colla Populonia Pyrgi Rusellae San Giovenale Spina Tarquinia Tuscania Veii Vetulonia Vie Cave Volsinii Volterra V

.