HOME
The Info List - Agusan Del Sur





Agusan del Sur
Agusan del Sur
(Butuanon: Probinsya hong Agusan del Sur; Cebuano: Habagatang Agusan) is a landlocked province of the Philippines
Philippines
located in the Caraga
Caraga
region in Mindanao. Its capital is Prosperidad
Prosperidad
and borders, from the north clockwise, Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Compostela Valley, Davao del Norte, Bukidnon, and Misamis Oriental.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Cultural history

3 Geography

3.1 Land area 3.2 Topography 3.3 Climate 3.4 Administrative divisions

4 Demographics

4.1 Religion

5 Economy 6 Government 7 Festivals 8 Attractions 9 References 10 External links

Etymology[edit] Agusan derived its name from the local dialect, agasan, meaning "where the water flows", referring to the Agusan River
Agusan River
that splits the land and meanders south to north in a 250-kilometre (160 mi) rush to Butuan
Butuan
Bay. It is third largest river in the country and served as highway for the Spanish colonizers in gaining access to inner northeastern Mindanao. History[edit] The Agusan Valley was settled by a variety of cultural communities like the Manobos, Mamanwas and Higaonons. Archeological excavations in the lower Agusan valley plains have uncovered evidence of strong relationships between the region and the Southeast Asian states. A golden image of Javan-Indian design unearthed in the 1920s and molten jars uncovered in Prosperidad
Prosperidad
are indications that the region had commercial and cultural ties with the coast.[citation needed] The Augustinian Recollects established a mission in Linao, in the vicinity of present-day Bunawan, in 1614. However, mission work was hampered by the hostility of the surrounding Manobo
Manobo
tribes. At the height of the power of the Sultanate of Maguindanao
Sultanate of Maguindanao
in the mid-17th century, the Manobos of the Agusan Valley were in alliance with Sultan Kudarat. Linao was attacked several times during the 1629 Caraga Revolt and the 1649 Sumuroy Revolt. Nevertheless, the Recollects were able to establish themselves in their mission work, and remained there until the middle of the 19th century. In the late 19th century, the Recollects (under protest) turned over many of their mission territories, including those in the upper Agusan region, to the reconstituted Jesuit
Jesuit
order (the Jesuits had been banned by Papal edict in the 1760s, and ejected from the Philippines
Philippines
in 1768). Missionary work was interrupted by the Philippine Revolution when the Jesuits either fled or were arrested by revolutionaries.[citation needed] During the American occupation, lumbering became an important activity in Agusan del Sur. Visayan migrants settled in the cleared plains, pushing indigenous communities farther into the mountainous slopes. The territory of Agusan del Sur
Agusan del Sur
was governed as part of the province of Caraga
Caraga
during most of the Spanish period. In 1860, it was placed under the comandancia of Butuan, a district of the province of Surigao. In 1914, the province of Agusan was created by the American government. In the Second World War, Japanese troops landed in the province of Agusan in 1942 and occupied the province until their defeat by combined U.S. and Philippine Commonwealth troops as well as recognized guerilla units in 1945 at the Battle of Agusan. The general headquarters and military camp and base of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was active from January 3, 1942, to June 30, 1946, and the 10th Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary
Philippine Constabulary
was active again from October 28, 1944, to June 30, 1946, are military stationed in the province of Surigao was composed to engaging operations against the Japanese Occupation.[clarification needed] In 1945, Filipino soldiers of the 6th, 10th, 101st, 102nd, 103rd, 107th and 110th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and the 10th Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary
Philippine Constabulary
together with the recognized Agusan guerrilla fighter units against the Japanese forces beginning the liberation in Northern Agusan during World War II.[incomprehensible] During World War II, a unit of the joint Philippine-American defense force were located at Manot, Talacogon, in the interior of the Agusan Valley. The province of Agusan del Sur
Agusan del Sur
was established on June 17, 1967, under Republic Act No. 4969 providing for the division of the province of Agusan into Agusan del Norte
Agusan del Norte
and Agusan del Sur.[3] In January 1970, the first set of provincial officials assumed office after the provincial election of November, 1969. The same law provided that the capital of Agusan del Sur
Agusan del Sur
be the municipality of Prosperidad. The Government Center has been set up in Barangay
Barangay
Patin-ay.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2016)

Cultural history[edit] The history of Agusan del Sur
Agusan del Sur
is essentially linked with that of its sister province, Agusan del Norte. Agusans pre-Hispanic cultural history is traced back to the great influence of the Majapahit Empire
Majapahit Empire
through the discovery of an 8-inch (200 mm) tall image of a woman in pure gold at Maasam, Esperanza in 1917 and molten jars unearthed at Bah-bah, Prosperidad. The aborigines of Agusan del Sur
Agusan del Sur
are the ancestors of the present day Mamanwas, who were driven to the hinterlands by waves of Malay immigrants. These immigrants, in turn, sought the protection of the interior jungles because of the forays and the constant raids of "moro" pirates. The "moros" being seafaring people confined themselves to the coastal areas, where they started their settlements. Geography[edit] Land area[edit] In 1976, the province's land area was 8,568 square kilometres (3,308 sq mi), making it the seventh largest province in the country. After claiming the disputed boundary between Davao del Norte, Butuan City
Butuan City
and with the creation of Sibagat, Agusan del Sur
Sibagat, Agusan del Sur
now has an area of 8,966 square kilometres (3,462 sq mi). The municipalities of Loreto, La Paz, Esperanza, and San Luis are the four largest municipalities in land area comprising almost 60% of the province's total land area. Santa Josefa and Talacogon, also river towns, have the smallest land area. Forestland constitutes 76% of the total land area or 6,827.5 square kilometres (2,636.1 sq mi) while the alienable and disposable constitutes about 24% or 2,137.5 square kilometres (825.3 sq mi). Present land use, however showed that settlements and commercial areas already occupy some of the forestlands. Through the years, the province has lost much of its forest resources because existing industries are extractive in nature. Topography[edit] Agusan del Sur
Agusan del Sur
is an elongated basin formation with mountain ranges in the eastern and western sides forming a valley, which occupies the central longitudinal section of the land. The Agusan River, which flows from Compostela Valley
Compostela Valley
in the south towards Agusan del Norte
Agusan del Norte
in the north, runs almost in the middle of the valley and empties at Butuan
Butuan
Bay. The river has twelve tributaries: Wawa, Gibong and Simulao Rivers in the eastern side and Ojot, Pusilao, Kasilayan, Libang, Maasam, Adgawan, Cawayan, Umayam and Ihaon Rivers in the western side. These tributaries are fed by streams and creeks. The southern half of the province from the municipality of Veruela is an area filled with swamps and lakes, the biggest of which is Talacogon Lake. Climate[edit] The climate map of the Philippines
Philippines
based on the modified coronas classification shows that the province falls under Type II. Type II climate has no dry season with very pronounced wet season of heavy precipitation. Maximum rainfall generally occurs from December to January although there is no single dry month. Its average monthly rainfall is 355 millimetres (14.0 in) and average temperature is 27.15 °C (80.87 °F). Areas characterized by this climate type are generally along or very near the eastern coast thus are open to the northeast monsoon. Administrative divisions[edit] Agusan del Sur
Agusan del Sur
comprises 13 municipalities and 1 city.

City or municipality [i] Population ±% p.a. Area[4] Density (2015) Brgy.

(2015)[2] (2010)[5]

km2 sq mi /km2 /sq mi

8°42′51″N 125°44′53″E / 8.7143°N 125.7481°E / 8.7143; 125.7481 (Bayugan) Bayugan ∗ 7001147000000000000♠14.7% 103,202 99,361 +0.72% 688.77 265.94 150 390 43

8°10′41″N 125°59′37″E / 8.1781°N 125.9935°E / 8.1781; 125.9935 (Bunawan) Bunawan 7000640000000000000♠6.4% 45,151 37,482 +3.61% 512.16 197.75 88 230 10

8°40′34″N 125°38′43″E / 8.6760°N 125.6454°E / 8.6760; 125.6454 (Esperanza) Esperanza 7000780000000000000♠7.8% 54,801 51,897 +1.04% 1,355.48 523.35 40 100 47

8°16′48″N 125°48′33″E / 8.2801°N 125.8092°E / 8.2801; 125.8092 (La Paz) La Paz 7000400000000000000♠4.0% 28,217 28,562 −0.23% 1,481.12 571.86 19 49 15

8°11′08″N 125°51′14″E / 8.1856°N 125.8538°E / 8.1856; 125.8538 (Loreto) Loreto 7000610000000000000♠6.1% 42,501 39,474 +1.42% 1,462.74 564.77 29 75 17

8°36′21″N 125°54′55″E / 8.6057°N 125.9153°E / 8.6057; 125.9153 (Prosperida) Prosperidad † 7001118000000000000♠11.8% 82,631 76,628 +1.45% 505.15 195.04 160 410 32

8°22′53″N 126°00′05″E / 8.3814°N 126.0015°E / 8.3814; 126.0015 (Rosario) Rosario 7000670000000000000♠6.7% 46,683 38,280 +3.85% 385.05 148.67 120 310 11

8°30′18″N 125°58′38″E / 8.5050°N 125.9771°E / 8.5050; 125.9771 (San Francisco) San Francisco 7001106000000000000♠10.6% 74,542 70,986 +0.94% 392.53 151.56 190 490 27

8°29′47″N 125°44′11″E / 8.4964°N 125.7364°E / 8.4964; 125.7364 (San Luis) San Luis 7000460000000099999♠4.6% 32,109 32,733 −0.37% 950.50 366.99 34 88 25

7°59′03″N 126°01′43″E / 7.9842°N 126.0285°E / 7.9842; 126.0285 (Santa Josefa) Santa Josefa 7000380000000000000♠3.8% 26,729 25,156 +1.16% 341.80 131.97 78 200 11

8°49′19″N 125°41′38″E / 8.8219°N 125.6938°E / 8.8219; 125.6938 (Sibagat) Sibagat 7000430000000000000♠4.3% 30,442 30,985 −0.34% 567.82 219.24 54 140 24

8°26′56″N 125°47′13″E / 8.4488°N 125.7869°E / 8.4488; 125.7869 (Talacogon) Talacogon 7000550000000000000♠5.5% 38,374 37,224 +0.58% 405.25 156.47 95 250 16

8°02′45″N 126°03′41″E / 8.0459°N 126.0614°E / 8.0459; 126.0614 (Trento) Trento 7000740000000000000♠7.4% 51,565 47,193 +1.70% 555.70 214.56 93 240 16

8°04′11″N 125°57′19″E / 8.0698°N 125.9554°E / 8.0698; 125.9554 (Veruela) Veruela 7000620000000000000♠6.2% 43,706 40,457 +1.48% 385.45 148.82 110 280 20

TOTAL 700,653 656,418 +1.25% 9,989.52 3,856.98 70 180 314

 †  Capital municipality  ∗  Component city      Municipality

^ The globe  icon marks the city/town center.

Demographics[edit]

Population census of Agusan del Sur

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1990 420,763 —    

1995 514,736 +3.85%

2000 559,294 +1.80%

2007 609,447 +1.19%

2010 656,418 +2.74%

2015 700,653 +1.25%

Source: PSA[2][5][6][7]

The population of Agusan del Sur
Agusan del Sur
in the 2015 census was 700,653 people,[2] with a density of 70 inhabitants per square kilometre or 180 inhabitants per square mile. In 2000, the province had a population of 559,294. This represented an increase of 44,558 persons or 7.96% since 1995. The annual population growth rate was 1.79%.[7] The 103,637 households had an average household size of 5.39 persons. The population density was 62 persons per square kilometer, with a male to female ratio of 107:100. Five tribal groups are found in the province: Aeta, Mamanwa, Bagobo, Higaonon, and Manobo. The Manobos live along the national highway and river towns towards the boundary with the Compostela Valley. The Higaonons live mostly on the western side of Agusan River, generally in Esperanza towards the boundary with Bukidnon. The Agusan del Sur
Agusan del Sur
population is predominantly composed of immigrants from the Visayas. Intermarriages between immigrants and natives have pulled down the percentage of the lumad stock. Cebuano is the most common language spoken in Agusan del Sur.

Religion[edit] The predominant religion is Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
with 79% of the population. Other religions include the Seventh-day Adventist Church, Aglipay, Iglesia ni Cristo, United Pentecostal Church, Born Again and the United Church of Christ
United Church of Christ
in the Philippines, Islam
Islam
and Latter Day Saints. Economy[edit] Based on the 1995 census, 75% of the labor force is engaged in agriculture and forestry. Rice, corn and fruits are among the major agricultural crops. Human resources Agusan del Sur
Agusan del Sur
has a labor force of 287,000 people, mostly in the agriculture and forestry sector. Several colleges, including a university, add to a trainable, English-speaking workforce. The province also has educational establishments offering skills development courses in Information Technology. Agriculture Rice occupies the largest cultivated area, with 243.85 square kilometres (94.15 sq mi) of irrigated area with a yield of 410 t/km², and rainfed rice with an area of about 165.73 square kilometres (63.99 sq mi) with a yield of 300 t/km². The province's rice production has the estimated capacity to feed 1,072,456 people—far more than the provinces population. Ironically, rice insufficiency persists, especially in the upland and hard to reach barangays. Corn plantations cover 255.25 square kilometres (98.55 sq mi) for both white and yellow corn with a total production of 55,767 t in 2000 with surplus corn grits of 31,106 MT enough to feed more than 2 million people, four times greater than the province's population. Banana is another abundant crop covering an area of 127.45 square kilometres (49.21 sq mi). Banana chips are also processed in the province. Oil palm plantation covers 118 square kilometres (46 sq mi). The plantation is a Malaysian-Filipino joint venture, with agrarian reform beneficiaries as land owners. Crude oil is processed in the sites of Rosario, and Trento. Coconut trees are widespread in the province, covering 393.36 square kilometres (151.88 sq mi). Poultry and livestock Despite the government's efforts to increase poultry and livestock production, deficits in meat supply persist. Processed poultry and beef are imported from Davao City
Davao City
and Cagayan
Cagayan
de Oro City. Fish Agusan del Sur
Agusan del Sur
is highly dependent on Surigao del Sur
Surigao del Sur
and other provinces for the supply of marine products. However, the province has abundant supply of fresh water fish like mudfish, catfish and tilapia. Government[edit]

Democrito O. Plaza Memorial Hospital

Agusan del Sur
Agusan del Sur
has two congressional districts encompassing its 13 municipalities and 1 component city.

District Representative[8] City or municipality District population (2015)

1st Maria Valentina G. Plaza

Bayugan Esperanza Prosperidad San Luis Sibagat Talacogon

341,559

2nd Evelyn P. Mellana

Bunawan La Paz Loreto Rosario San Francisco Santa Josefa Trento Veruela

359,094

History Rufino C. Otero was elected as the first Provincial Governor
Governor
and Democrito O. Plaza the first Congressman in the election of November 1969. The term of office of Congressman Democrito O. Plaza would have continued until December 1973 had it not for the proclamation of Martial Law on September 21, 1972, which in effect abolished the Congress. When the Interim Batasang Pambansa was convened in 1978 after almost a decade of absence under the martial Law, Edelmiro Amante represented the province in the National Assembly. Festivals[edit] The province annually celebrates its Naliyagan Festival, a celebration of the foundation anniversary of Agusan del Sur
Agusan del Sur
which is a week-long socio-cultural and arts exposition of indigenous tribes in the entire Agusan valley and displaying their skills and gracefulness in dancing as part of their ritual activities. It is being held in the Naliyagan Plaza at the Agusan del Sur
Agusan del Sur
Capitol Grounds in the municipality of Prosperidad. Naliyagan is a Manobo
Manobo
word which means "the chosen one" or "the most loved one". Attractions[edit]

This section is written like a travel guide rather than an encyclopedic description of the subject. Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. If a travel guide is intended, use of Wikivoyage
Wikivoyage
is strongly suggested. (April 2013)

Agusan Marsh
Agusan Marsh
In Sta. Irene Prosepridad One of the most ecologically significant wetlands in the Philippines, the Agusan Marsh
Agusan Marsh
is situated in the heart of Mindanao's Agusan Basin, covering an area of 14,000 hectares (140 km2).[9] It contains nearly 15% of the nation's fresh water resources in the form of swamp forests. During the rainy season, when the water rises to create large lakes, vast number of ducks come to Agusan Marsh
Agusan Marsh
to nest. In the dry months, thousands of birds come from as faraway as Japan, China and Russia to escape the chilly winter winds of Northern Asia. Over 200 individual species have been known to spend at least part of the year in the marsh, making it one of Asia's most important transit points for wild birds. In the very heart of the marsh is a semi-permanent lake where many square kilometres of lily pads, hyacinths and other hydrophytic plants thrive. In the dark tea-colored waters live catfish, carp, soft-shell fresh water turtles, and crocodiles. Agusan Marsh
Agusan Marsh
is also host to "Wonderland", where natural "bonsai" trees crafted by nature can be found. It can be reached from Barangay Caimpogan or from Barangay
Barangay
New Visayas
Visayas
in the municipality of San Francisco. The tiny community of mostly ethnic Manobos have made their permanent homes deep within the marsh, living on floating homes. The small houses made of bamboo and nipa lashed to hard wood logs, freely rise or fall with the level of the marsh itself. Bega Falls Located in Brgy. Mabuhay, Prosperidad, accessible by mountain or river trekking from the barangay proper. Gibong River The Gibong River is a stretch of water with a view of unharmed vegetation in its banks. The river is the only gateway to Binaba Falls. It is also the source of water supply irrigating some 60 square kilometres (23 sq mi) of rice fields of three municipalities in the province. Binaba Falls The Binaba Falls is situated in the heart of a jungle-like foot of the mountain, with clear waters emitting from the springs, cascading onto boulders of limestone. The falls offer a refreshing bath after a fifteen-minutes ride on a motor-banca from the mini wharf of Prosperidad
Prosperidad
town passing along the Gibong River. Tugonan Falls The name derived from the word Tugon meaning "a promise", Tugonan waterfalls is situated in Barangay
Barangay
San Lorenzo of Prosperidad. References[edit]

^ "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2014.  ^ a b c d Census
Census
of Population (2015). "Caraga". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.  ^ "Republic Act No. 4979; An Act Creating the Provinces of Agusan del Norte and Agusan del Sur". The LawPhil Project. 17 June 1967. Retrieved 18 March 2016.  ^ "Province: Agusan del Sur". PSGC Interactive. Quezon
Quezon
City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 8 January 2016.  ^ a b Census
Census
of Population and Housing (2010). "Caraga". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.  ^ Census
Census
of Population and Housing (2010). Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines
Philippines
and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities (PDF). NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.  ^ a b Censuses of Population (1903 – 2007). "Caraga". Table 1. Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by Province/Highly Urbanized City: 1903 to 2007. NSO.  ^ "House Members; 17th Congress". House of Representatives of the Philippines. Retrieved 7 August 2016.  ^ "Agusan marshland a sanctuary for naturalists". The Philippine Star. 29 October 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2016. A protected area covering more than 14,000 hectares in the heart of the 250-kilometer Agusan River, it is perhaps the country’s most significant wetland, listed in the Swiss-based prestigious Ramsar List Wetlands of International Importance. Scattered in the towns of San Francisco, Bunawan, La Paz, Loreto, and Talacogon, it is habitat to endangered animals which include 1,332 species of birds, 112 species of flowering plants and ferns, two crocodile species and 65 types of butterflies. 

External links[edit]

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap · Google Maps

Download coordinates as: KML · GPX

Media related to Agusan del Sur
Agusan del Sur
at Wikimedia Commons Geographic data related to Agusan del Sur
Agusan del Sur
at OpenStreetMap The Official Website of the Provincial Government of Agusan del Sur More info about Agusan del Sur
Agusan del Sur
at the Agusan–Surigao Historical Archive (Archived 2009-10-24)

Places adjacent to Agusan del Sur

Misamis Oriental Agusan del Norte

Bukidnon

Agusan del Sur

Surigao del Sur

Davao del Norte, Compostela Valley Davao Oriental

v t e

Province of Agusan del Sur

Prosperidad
Prosperidad
(capital)

Component city

Bayugan

Municipalities

Bunawan Santa Josefa Esperanza La Paz Loreto Prosperidad Rosario San Francisco San Luis Sibagat Talacogon Trento Veruela

Articles related to Agusan del Sur

v t e

Caraga
Caraga
(Region XIII)

Regional Center

Butuan

Provinces

Agusan del Norte Agusan del Sur Dinagat Islands Surigao del Norte Surigao del Sur

Highly Urbanized City

Butuan

Component Cities

Bayugan Bislig Cabadbaran Surigao City Tandag

Provincial Capitals

Cabadbaran Prosperidad San Jose Surigao City Tandag

Municipalities

Alegria Bacuag Barobo Basilisa Bayabas Buenavista Bunawan Burgos Cagdianao Cagwait Cantilan Carmen (Agusan del Norte) Carmen (Surigao del Sur) Carrascal Claver Cortes Dapa Del Carmen Dinagat Esperanza General Luna Gigaquit Hinatuan Jabonga Kitcharao La Paz Lanuza Las Nieves Lianga Libjo Lingig Loreto (Agusan del Sur) Loreto (Dinagat Islands) Madrid Magallanes Mainit Malimono Marihatag Nasipit Pilar Placer Prosperidad Remedios T. Romualdez Rosario San Agustin San Benito San Francisco (Agusan del Sur) San Francisco (Surigao del Norte) San Isidro San Jose San Luis San Miguel Santa Josefa Santa Monica Santiago Sibagat Sison Socorro Tagana-an Tagbina Tago Talacogon Trento Tubajon Tubay Tubod Veruela

Mindanao, Republic of the Philippines

v t e

  Administrative divisions of the Philippines

Capital

Manila
Manila
(National Capital Region)

Island groups

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Regions

Administrative

I – Ilocos Region II – Cagayan
Cagayan
Valley III – Central Luzon IV-A – Calabarzon Mimaropa
Mimaropa
– Southwestern Tagalog Region V – Bicol Region VI – Western Visayas VII – Central Visayas VIII – Eastern Visayas IX – Zamboanga Peninsula X – Northern Mindanao XI – Davao Region XII – Soccsksargen XIII – Caraga CAR – Cordillera Administrative Region NCR – National Capital Region

Autonomous

Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao

Provinces

Abra Agusan del Norte Agusan del Sur Aklan Albay Antique Apayao Aurora Basilan Bataan Batanes Batangas Benguet Biliran Bohol Bukidnon Bulacan Cagayan Camarines Norte Camarines Sur Camiguin Capiz Catanduanes Cavite Cebu Compostela Valley Cotabato Davao del Norte Davao del Sur Davao Occidental Davao Oriental Dinagat Islands Eastern Samar Guimaras Ifugao Ilocos Norte Ilocos Sur Iloilo Isabela Kalinga La Union Laguna Lanao del Norte Lanao del Sur Leyte Maguindanao Marinduque Masbate Misamis Occidental Misamis Oriental Mountain Province Negros Occidental Negros Oriental Northern Samar Nueva Ecija Nueva Vizcaya Occidental Mindoro Oriental Mindoro Palawan Pampanga Pangasinan Quezon Quirino Rizal Romblon Samar Sarangani Siquijor Sorsogon South Cotabato Southern Leyte Sultan Kudarat Sulu Surigao del Norte Surigao del Sur Tarlac Tawi-Tawi Zambales Zamboanga del Norte Zamboanga del Sur Zamboanga Sibugay

Cities

List of cities in the Philippines

Municipalities

List of cities and municipalities in the Philippines

Barangays

Lists of barangays by province Poblacion

Other subdivisions

Puroks Sitios List of primary LGUs Legislative districts Metropolitan areas

Historical

Former provinces Formally proposed provinces Negros Island Region Southern Tagalog

v t e

Philippines articles

History

Timeline

Prehistory (Pre-900) Archaic Era (900–1521) Colonial era (1521–1946)

Spanish period (1521–1898) American period (1898–1946)

Postcolonial era (1946–1986)

Third Republic (1946–65) Marcos dictatorship (1965–86)

Contemporary history (1986–present)

By topic

Archaeology Demographic Discoveries Economic history Inventions Military

Geography

Bays Biosphere reserves Climate Earthquakes Ecoregions Environmental issues Extreme points Island groups

islands

Lakes Landmarks Mountains National parks Protected areas Ramsar sites Rivers Volcanoes Wildlife World Heritage Sites

Politics

Government

Executive

President

Executive Office

Cabinet Civil service National Police

Legislature

Congress

Senate

Senate President President pro tem

House of Representatives

Speaker

Judiciary

Supreme Court Judiciary Court of Appeals

Law

Constitution Philippine legal codes Human rights

Intelligence

National Bureau of Investigation National Counter-Terrorism Action Group National Intelligence Coordinating Agency Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency

Uniformed

Armed Forces of the Philippines

Philippine Air Force Philippine Army Philippine Navy Philippine Marine Corps

Philippine Coast Guard

Administrative divisions Elections Foreign relations Political parties

Economy

Agriculture Business process outsourcing Central Bank Energy Fiscal policy National debt Labor Peso Stock Exchange Taxation Telecommunications Tourism Transportation Science and technology Water and Sanitation

Society

Corruption Crime Demographics Education Ethnic groups Health Income inequality Languages Poverty Provinces by HDI Refugees Religion Women

Culture

Architecture Art Cinema Cuisine Cultural Properties Dance Fashion and clothing Festivals Historical Markers Literature Media Music Mythology Public holidays Psychology Sexuality Sports Traditional games Value system

Symbols

Anthem Coat of arms Arnis Flag Name Narra Philippine eagle Sampaguita

Book Category Philip

.