pronunciation: [ˌa.ɣwas.kaˈljen.tes] ( listen)),
officially the Free and Sovereign State of
Estado Libre y Soberano de Aguascalientes, literally: Hot Waters), is
one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32
Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 11 municipalities and its
capital city is Aguascalientes.
It is located in North-Central Mexico. It is bordered by the states of
Zacatecas to the north and
Jalisco to the south. Its name means "hot
waters" in Spanish and originated from the abundance of hot springs in
the area. The corresponding demonym for the state and its inhabitants
is hidrocálido or aguascalentense.
5 Economy and industry
8 Government and politics
9 Major communities
10 Famous Hidrocálidos
11 See also
13 External links
Pre-Columbian era arrowheads, potshards, and rock paintings in the
caverns of the Sierra del Laurel and near the present village of Las
Negritas testify to the presence of man in this territory for more
than 20,000 years. Later in the colony,
Pedro Almíndez Chirino was
Spaniard who entered the territory, perhaps by the end of
1530 or the beginning of 1531, following the instructions given by
Nuño de Guzmán.
Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the territory of what is now the
Aguascalientes was inhabited by Chichimecas, who made the
territory difficult to access. In fact, the total occupation of the
lands of El Bajío was a task that would take about two centuries.
With respect to this, Viceroy
Luis de Velasco
Luis de Velasco offered municipal
benefits to those who established settlements to confront the
Chichimeca. And for his part, Viceroy Gastón de Peralta decided to
confront them directly, which did not give good results.
It was in order to be in the territory that is presently the state
inhabited by Chichimecas, the so-called Guachichiles, that the
conquistadors built several forts or presidios. This was a system
Martín Enríquez de Almanza following the strategy that
had been developing in Spain throughout the Reconquista period.
Therefore, in order to protect the Camino de la Plata, which
Mexico City, three presidios
[garrisoned fortifications] founded by the Indian fighter Juan
Domínguez, were to be created, which were: the presidio at Las Bocas,
later called Las Bocas de Gallardo, situated on the border of
Aguascalientes, in what was the jurisdiction of the mayor of
Teocaltiche, presently the border of
Aguascalientes and Zacatecas; the
presidio at Palmillas, which was located near what is now Tepezalá;
and the Ciénega Grande presidio, established around 1570. The latter
was located on what are now Moctezuma and Victoria Streets, although
some historians place it on the Calle 5 de Mayo (once the Camino Real)
at Moctezuma, just in front of the Plaza de Armas. This was a fortress
whose purpose was the protection of the Valle de los Romero and the
road to Zacatecas, entering this way to secure the passage of convoys
loaded with silver and other metals.
The founding of
Aguascalientes as a town came from the order that King
Felipe II gave the judge of the court of Nueva Galicia, Don Gerónimo
de Orozco, in which he stated that he should look for a rich man to
settle in the territory with the purpose of expelling the Chichimecas
and of assuring safe passage. Gerónimo de Orozco, following that
order, looked for someone who would accept the king's order and found
a man named Juan de Montoro in the city of Santa María de los
Lagos. He accepted the assignment and, accompanied by eleven other
people, headed to the territory and thus founded the town of Aguas
Calientes on October 22, 1575. It has been noted that it was called
San Marcos originally, changing its name on August 18, 1611, to the
Villa of Our Lady of the Assumption of Aguas Calientes. And finally,
from June 2, 1875, it was called the Villa of Our Lady of the
Assumption of Aguas Calientes; later changing to the city of
Aguascalientes, which remains its name today.
Zacatecas including Aguascalientes, early 19th Century
In the act of its establishment, the Villa de San Marcos
(Aguascalientes) was awarded the highest mayoral jurisdiction under
the Kingdom of New Galicia. As of December 4, 1786, on the occasion of
the issuance of the "Ordinance of Mayors," it became a quartermaster
On April 24, 1789, by order of the Superior Board of Royal Property,
the sub-delegation of
Aguascalientes became a dependency of Zacatecas.
In the Mexican War of Independence, in the territory which is today
the state of Aguascalientes, the fires of independence were stoked by
illustrious and courageous men such as Valentin Gómez Farías, Rafael
Iriarte, Rafael Vázquez, and Pedro Parga.
Aguascalientes annexed to
Zacatecas in the
Confusion has arisen regarding the exact date when Aguascalientes
formally separated from the territory of Zacatecas. By virtue of
having, de facto, defeated the liberal government of
rising against the central government, president Antonio López de
Santa Anna passed through Aguascalientes, where he was well received
by the people who had wanted to separate from
Zacatecas for some time.
Taking advantage of the independent souls of the Aguascalentenses, and
by way of punishing
Zacatecas for supporting the Revolution against
them, by Federal
Decree of General López de Santa Anna dated May 23,
1835, in the third article; ordered that
Zacatecas territory, without granting the territory any
specific category, reinstating the appointment of the political boss,
Pedro Garcia Rojas. With respect to this, it must be mentioned that
said order was not made official as it did not meet the legal
requirements to take effect, since it was necessary that two thirds of
each house, both Senators and Representatives, approved the order;
furthermore it would be required that two thirds of the legislatures
of the states also approved it. The second requirement not being
completed, the constitutional congress convened again to develop the
centralized constitution that would be known later as the Seven Laws.
The constitution did not acknowledge
Aguascalientes in the rank of
department, but it saw fit to eliminate the states, together with the
federal regime, replacing the states with departments, and because of
this it continued to belong to Zacatecas. What can be said, since in
the local constitution of
Zacatecas of 1825,
contemplated as a member of said state.
It was general José Mariano Salas who, on August 5, 1846, announced
the reestablishment of federalism, convening a constitutional congress
that declared current the constitution of 1824, but still didn't
Aguascalientes as a state. Subsequently, on May 18, 1847,
amendments were approved to the
Constitution of 1824, but neither
Aguascalientes the rank of state. That brought about a war
Aguascalientes and Zacatecas, bringing as a consequence that
Zacatecas would strengthen the partitions, now municipalities, of
Cavillo and Rincón de Romos. In July 1848,
the peaceful annexation to Zacatecas; but continued making efforts to
separate through Miguel García Rojas. It was not until December 10,
1853, that López de Santa Anna, using his extraordinary powers,
issued a decree declaring
Aguascalientes a department, based on the
decrees of December 30, 1836, and June 30, 1838, without ever
referring to the one from March 23, 1835. Finally, in the project that
would be the
Constitution of 1857, that was presented on June 16,
Aguascalientes was included as a state in Article 43; it was
passed unanimously by the 79 deputies present, ensuring the survival
of the state of Aguascalientes, on December 10, 1856. Entering on the
strength of said constitution, on September 16, 1857, Lic. Jesús
Terán Peredo reclaimed his post as constitutional governor of the
In the state, now independent, hidrocálidos Jesus R. Macías, Manuel
Rangel, Augustín Orona, José María Arellano and many other
anonymous heroes distinguished themselves in the war of Reform.
Silvestre Dorador, Román Morales, Pedro Vital, Alfonso Guerrero
Aguilera and Alberto Fuentes Dávila were forerunners of the
Revolution in this entity. The explosion of the Maderist movement
embraced the cause in the company of some other compatriots, and the
rebel action of the town and the region stayed formalized.
Mountain ranges seen from Aguascalientes
The state is located about 480 km (300 mi) from
in the macroregion of El Bajío, specifically the Bajío Occidental
It covers 5,471 square kilometers (2,112 sq mi), or 0.3% of
the area of the country, and has a little more than one million
inhabitants. Most of its inhabitants live in the densely populated
metropolitan area of its capital city.
The state as it is now was created on October 27, 1857, when it was
Zacatecas after the tale says that the wife of the
governor of the state promised to give a kiss to the President of the
time, in exchange for the separation of
Aguascalientes from Zacatecas,
which explains the shape of a kiss the state has. It bears the name
Aguascalientes taken from its largest city and capital also called
The state mostly has a semi-arid climate, except in the southeastern
and northeastern parts where the climate is wetter and cooler.
Mean annual temperature of the state is around 17 to 18 °C (62.6
to 64.4 °F) in which May and June are the hottest months with
mean temperatures between 22 to 23 °C (71.6 to
73.4 °F). In these months, temperatures can exceed
30 °C (86.0 °F). January is the coldest month,
averaging 13 to 14 °C (55.4 to 57.2 °F) with temperatures
dropping down to 4 °C (39.2 °F). Frosts frequently
occur from November to February. Mean rainfall is low, averaging
526 mm (20.7 in) and is mostly concentrated in summer with
winters being dry.
Demographics of Aguascalientes
Demographics of Aguascalientes and Municipalities of
Aguascalientes (2010 census)
Economy and industry
The Museo Espacio of the MECA (Macroespacio para la Cultura y las
Artes), housed in a former railway workshop. The 86 hectare MECA
complex is composed of museums, a library, auditorium, former
industrial buildings and sports facilities.
This state originated around the times of colonial Spanish influence.
It is located in the middle of the country and is now beginning to
make a name for itself as an industrial power within Mexico. The state
was once a major silver miner and a major source of railroad
transportation, the latter due to its strategic location, midway
between the three most populous areas, namely
Guadalajara, and Monterrey.
Today, Mexico's fast growing car industry is especially important in
this state. There are not one but two
Nissan factories in
Aguascalientes which together produce more than half a million cars
per year. And in 2017
Infiniti will build a plant to make vehicles
In the rural area,
Aguascalientes was once the largest national
producer of grapes and wines. This tradition ceased gradually due to
the Spanish Royalty's wishes that grape and wine production be limited
to the mother country. Thanks to the influx of immigrants into Mexico,
the wineries and vineyards remain and flourish. Guavas are also
produced in the state, specifically in the municipality of Calvillo.
There are several projects for economic development such as: the
Financial District Río San Pedro, a monorail, a suburban train, the
construction of the newest and most modern WTC in Mexico, over four
shopping malls, two theme parks, two Executive Hotels and one whose
qualification is five stars, eight bridges for the next five years, a
Financial District around the Airport, A Texas Instruments
Assembly-Test Plant, A
Nissan Assembly plant, a Toyota assembly plant
and several others projects place
Aguascalientes as the third most
competitive state in
Mexico with more than US$12,000,000 in foreign
direct investment per year (around 8 percent of Mexico's FDI) even
though its population is just about 1.03 percent of the country.
However, recently it has also benefited from heavier tourism, since
the capital city has gained prestige and status as a national
destination for its colonial beauty and cleanliness. In addition, the
haciendas and baths around the state have historic and recreational
Headquarters of INEGI
Templo San Antonio
Complejo Ferrocarrilero Tres Centurias
Although this state is not often billed as a tourist center,
international visitors, as well as citizens from all over Mexico, are
attracted to San Marcos Fair, which is considered the national fair of
Mexico and contributes much to Mexico's economy.
Recently, its capital city has gained the reputation as a great
destination for its superb colonial architecture visible in the
colonial center, as well as the modernity and dynamism in the
The city is home to Lic. Jesús Terán Peredo International Airport,
where 9 flights per day depart to
Mexico City, Tijuana, Dallas/Fort
Worth and Houston.
The city also hosts many conventions every year. It benefits from its
excellent central location. The city is also famed for its environment
of relaxation, and for its safety and cleanliness, as it is often
described by people when traveling to this part of the country for
conventions or tourism.
Most tourists go to the capital. A few tourists explore the former
mining towns in the north of the state (in the municipalities of
Asientos and Tepezalá), which are now almost ghost cities. The
haciendas, hot springs, and baths scattered around the state are also
of historical and recreational relevance.
The municipality of
Calvillo has a semi-tropical climate, The largest
producer of guavas in Mexico, it attracts some fans of watersports
to its reservoirs.
The state has a Natural Protected Reserve in the higher mountains
called Sierra Fría. Located at a height of 2,500 to 3,000 meters
(8,202 to 9,843 ft) above sea level, it comprises oak and pine
forests. Its attractions include observing exuberant landscape and
wide ravines, in which, there are pumas, lynxes, boar, white-tailed
deer, wild turkey, raccoons and many other animals. There are
steep-sided cycle paths, camping and picnic areas as well as several
hunting clubs. It is the mountain climate and fauna that attracts
locals for camping activities. In winter, the temperature sometimes
falls to −4.44 °C (24.01 °F) when the weather is poor.
Usually, Sierra Fría is the only part of the state that gets snow
In the city of
Aguascalientes one of the best sunsets in the world can
be seen in Cerro del Muerto; the hill resembles the shape of a man
lying down. The city of
Aguascalientes is called "el corazón" which
means "the heart" of
Mexico because it lies in the middle of the
country. This city is often considered, by its locals, to be one of
the safest and cleanest in Mexico. Also, the city of
known as "the land of the good people".
The state has one football team in the Mexican Premiere League, Club
Necaxa, one professional baseball team in the Mexican League, Rieleros
Aguascalientes (The railroad men), and one professional basketball
Las Panteras (The Panthers)
In December 2009, Necaxa was represented on the field and played their
final 2009 match within the Primera División (First Division) tier in
the 2009 season after losing 1-0 vs Club América. Under the rules of
regulation, Necaxa would not be able to participate in the First
Division competition play in the fall 2009 and spring 2010 year.
Necaxa's closing spring 2010 league performance had some
accomplishments. They had an undefeated record at home throughout the
fall 2009. In the spring 2010 campaign, Necaxa's only loss in the
season came against F.C León, Necaxa faced this other soccer team on
May 8, 2010 for the second leg of the Bicentennial Closing Spring
Tournament of 2010. Necaxa won 4-2 on aggregate. Necaxa abandoned the
Liga de Ascenso and returned to First Division fall 2010 season. As a
result of this match Necaxa won the bi-championship in the Liga de
Ascenso and First Promotion title in their franchise history.
On April 16, 2011, after a draw 1–1 with Atlante F.C., the club's
first key game in 2011, Necaxa could not cumulate enough points in
order to evade relegation. For a second time,
Club Necaxa was
relegated to the Liga de Ascenso, the second tier, for the 2011–2012
season. One of the biggest soccer to live Judith Ramírez played for
this team from 2001–2017.
Aguascalientes hosts the Panteras de
Aguascalientes headquarters. This
team plays in the Mexican Professional
Aguascalientes also hosts the baseball professional team Rieleros.
Aguascalientes also has important racetracks for the car and motorbike
races at a national and international level.
Government and politics
Main article: Municipalities of Aguascalientes
Aguascalientes is subdivided into 11 municipios ("municipalities").
Municipalities of Aguascalientes, by
Pabellón de Arteaga
Pabellón de Arteaga
Rincón de Romos
Rincón de Romos
San José de Gracia
San José de Gracia
San Francisco de los Romo
San Francisco de los Romo
Presidential elections results
Pabellón de Arteaga
Rincón de Romos
San Francisco de los Romo
San Jose de Gracia
See also articles in the category People from Aguascalientes
Mexican-Born WIlliam Yarbrough
William Yarbrough, Mexican-born American soccer player who plays for
Liga MX club León
Wendolly Esparza, American-born Mexican television personality best
known for winning Miss
Mexico 2014 and placing top 15 in Miss Universe
Alfonso Anaya, philosopher
Karina González, Model and Nuestra Belleza México 2011
Gabriela Palacio, model and Nuestra Belleza Mundo México 2010.
José María Bocanegra, third President of Mexico
Saturnino Herrán, artist
Manuel M. Ponce, musician, (born in neighbor state Zacatecas, but
family moved to
Aguascalientes a few days later).
José Guadalupe Posada, artist
Jesús Fructuoso Contreras, artist
Guerrero Pérez, Rhythmic Gymnast, Contemporary dancer,
Violeta Retamoza, professional golfer
Iyérida Mogollón Martin, Elite Gymnast
Luz Helisabet Delgado, Wife of Joshua Ingraham
Monica Del Real, Tae Kwon Do medalist
Jose Maria Napoleón, Singer and Composer from late seventies to early
Jose Antonio Zapata Cabral, Writer, filmmaker and journalist
David Reynoso, actor
Manuel Lavin de la Riva, University of Nebraska Golfer
Casandra Calderón, Actress
Anabel Ferreira, Actress/Comedian
Itzel Medina, Comedian
North America portal
Latin America portal
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original on 2010-04-11.
^ "Senadores por
Aguascalientes LXI Legislatura". Senado de la
Republica. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
^ "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Estado de
Aguascalientes". Camara de Diputados. Retrieved October 19,
^ "Superficie". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
^ "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). Retrieved December 8, 2015.
^ "Aguascalientes". 2010. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
^ "Reporte: Jueves 3 de Junio del 2010. Cierre del peso mexicano".
www.pesomexicano.com.mx. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
^ La Guerra Chichimeca, POWELL, PHILIP W., Fondo de la Cultura
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 18, 2007.
Retrieved 2016-06-17. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown
^ Evolución Constitucional del Estado de Aguascalientes, José
Alfredo Muñoz Delgado, Ed. Piqueta.
^ a b c d e "Clima". Información por entidad (in Spanish). Instituto
Nacional de Estadística y Geografía. Retrieved February 1,
^ a b "Clima" (in Spanish). Gobierno del estado de Aguascalientes.
Retrieved February 1, 2016.
^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). INEGI. Retrieved
^ "Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010". INEGI. Retrieved
^ "San Marco National Fair,
Mexico City, Mexico". World Reviewer.
Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved
^ Grupo Aeroportuario del Pacifo
^ Bucur, Diodora (2009-12-04). "December guava fair in Calvillo,
Mexico Travel". Mexconnect.com. Retrieved
^ "Presidential elections results". Archived from the original on
March 21, 2013. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
^ "Gimnasia rítmica, una opción". Noroeste.com.mx. 2009-10-17.
Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aguascalientes.
Geographic data related to
Aguascalientes at OpenStreetMap
(in Spanish)—Estado de
Aguascalientes — state government website.
Aguascalientes tourism website
Flickr: photo set of the City of
Aguascalientes — in Aguascalientes
Fotos y Mensajes de Aguascalientes
State of Aguascalientes
Jesús María (Jesús María)
El Llano (Palo Alto)
Pabellón de Arteaga
Pabellón de Arteaga (Pabellón de Arteaga)
Rincón de Romos
Rincón de Romos (Rincón de Romos)
San Francisco de los Romo
San Francisco de los Romo (San Francisco de los Romo)
San José de Gracia (San José de Gracia)
States of Mexico
Baja California Sur
San Luis Potosí