ActionScript is an object-oriented programming language originally
Macromedia Inc. (later acquired by Adobe Systems). It is
a derivation of HyperTalk, the scripting language for HyperCard. It
is now a dialect of
ECMAScript (meaning it is a superset of the syntax
it originally arose as a sibling, both being influenced by HyperTalk.
ActionScript is used primarily for the development of websites and
software targeting the
Adobe Flash Player
Adobe Flash Player platform, used on Web pages
in the form of embedded
ActionScript 3 is also used with
Adobe AIR system for the development
of desktop and mobile applications. The language itself is open-source
in that its specification is offered free of charge and both an
open source compiler (as part of Apache Flex) and open source virtual
machine (Mozilla Tamarin) are available.
ActionScript is also used with
Scaleform GFx for the development of 3D
video game user interfaces and HUDs.
2.1 Timeline by player version
2.2 Timeline by
2.3 Flash Lite
4 Data structures
4.1 Data types
4.2 Using data types
5 Code protection
7 External links
ActionScript was initially designed for controlling simple 2D vector
animations made in
Adobe Flash (formerly
Macromedia Flash). Initially
focused on animation, early versions of Flash content offered few
interactivity features and thus had very limited scripting capability.
Later versions added functionality allowing for the creation of
Web-based games and rich Internet applications with streaming media
(such as video and audio). Today,
ActionScript is suitable for mobile
development through Adobe AIR, use in some database applications, and
in basic robotics, as with the Make Controller Kit.
Flash MX 2004 introduced
ActionScript 2.0, a scripting language more
suited to the development of Flash applications. It is often possible
to save time by scripting something rather than animating it, which
usually also enables a higher level of flexibility when editing.
Since the arrival of the Flash Player 9 alpha (in 2006) a newer
ActionScript has been released,
ActionScript 3.0. This
version of the language is intended to be compiled and run on a
version of the
ActionScript Virtual Machine that has been itself
completely re-written from the ground up (dubbed AVM2). Because of
this, code written in
ActionScript 3.0 is generally targeted for Flash
Player 9 and higher and will not work in previous versions. At the
ActionScript 3.0 executes up to 10 times faster than legacy
ActionScript code due to the Just-In-Time compiler enhancements.
Flash libraries can be used with the
XML capabilities of the browser
to render rich content in the browser. This technology is known as
Asynchronous Flash and XML, much like AJAX. Adobe offers its Flex
product line to meet the demand for
Rich Internet Applications built
on the Flash runtime, with behaviors and programming done in
ActionScript 3.0 forms the foundation of the Flex 2 API.
This section needs to be updated. In particular: "Adobe is planning a
release in the early part of the second half of 2013" It's 2017 now..
Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available
information. (December 2017)
ActionScript started as an object-oriented language for Macromedia's
Flash authoring tool, now developed by
Adobe Systems as Adobe Flash.
The first three versions of the Flash authoring tool provided limited
interactivity features. Early Flash developers could attach a simple
command, called an "action", to a button or a frame. The set of
actions was basic navigation controls, with commands such as "play",
"stop", "getURL", and "gotoAndPlay".
With the release of Flash 4 in 1999, this simple set of actions became
a small scripting language. New capabilities introduced for Flash 4
included variables, expressions, operators, if statements, and loops.
Although referred to internally as "ActionScript", the Flash 4 user
manual and marketing documents continued to use the term "actions" to
describe this set of commands.
Timeline by player version
Flash Player 2: The first version with scripting support. Actions
included gotoAndPlay, gotoAndStop, nextFrame and nextScene for
Flash Player 3: Expanded basic scripting support with the ability to
load external SWFs (loadMovie).
Flash Player 4: First player with a full scripting implementation
(called Actions). The scripting was a flash based syntax and contained
support for loops, conditionals, variables and other basic language
Flash Player 5: Included the first version of ActionScript. Used
prototype-based programming based on ECMAScript, and allowed full
procedural programming and object-oriented programming. Design based
Flash Player 6: Added an event handling model, accessibility controls
and support for switch. The first version with support for the AMF and
RTMP protocols which allowed for on demand audio/video streaming.
Flash Player 7: Additions include CSS styling for text and support for
ActionScript 2.0, a programming language based on the
Netscape Proposal with class-based inheritance. However,
ActionScript 2.0 can cross compile to
ActionScript 1.0 byte-code, so
that it can run in Flash Player 6.
Flash Player 8: Further extended
ActionScript 2 by
adding new class libraries with APIs for controlling bitmap data at
run-time, file uploads and live filters for blur and dropshadow.
Flash Player 9 (initially called 8.5): Added
ActionScript 3.0 with the
advent of a new virtual machine, called
ActionScript Virtual Machine 2
(AVM2), which coexists with the previous AVM1 needed to support legacy
content. Performance increases were a major objective for this release
of the player including a new JIT compiler. Support for binary
XML parsing, full-screen mode and Regular Expressions
were added. This is the first release of the player to be titled Adobe
Flash Player 10 (initially called Astro): Added basic 3D manipulation,
such as rotating on the X, Y, and Z axis, a 3D drawing API, and
texture mapping. Ability to create custom filters using Adobe Pixel
Bender. Several visual processing tasks are now offloaded to the GPU
which gives a noticeable decrease to rendering time for each frame,
resulting in higher frame rates, especially with
H.264 video. There is
a new sound
API which allows for custom creation of audio in flash,
something that has never been possible before. Furthermore, Flash
Player 10 supports Peer to Peer (P2P) communication with Real Time
Media Flow Protocol (RTMFP).
Flash Player 11: The major addition in this version are advanced
(graphic card accelerated) 3D capabilities for Windows Desktop, Mac
Desktop, iOS, Android, and other major platforms. Significant
compatibility improvements have been added for the iOS platform, and
other non-desktop platforms. Other features include
H.264 encoding for
JSON support, Cubic Bézier Curves, a secure random
LZMA compression for swf files, workers to offload
some code execution to other processor threads, graphics card
accelerated camera feed rendering, memory intrinsics and performance
analysis, and the
ActionScript Compiler 2.0, as well as some other
Flash Player 11.2: released in March 2012, focused on adding features
that are key for the gaming and video markets. Some of the features in
the release include the following: Mouse-lock support. Right and
middle mouse-click support. Context menu disabling.
Hardware-accelerated graphics/Stage 3D support for Apple iOS and
Android via Adobe AIR. Support for more hardware accelerated video
cards (from January 2008) in order to expand availability of
hardware-accelerated content. New Throttle event
API (dispatches event
when Flash Player throttles, pauses, or resumes content).
Multithreaded video decoding pipeline on PCs, which improves overall
performance of video on all desktop platforms. Notification of use of
premium features in the debug players; content runs unrestricted in
the release players.
Flash Player 11.3: released in June 2012, focused on enabling features
and functionality key for the gaming market, as well as addressing
popular feature requests from developers. Some of the features in this
release include the following: Keyboard input support in full-screen
mode. Improved audio support for working with low-latency audio.
Ability to progressively stream textures for Stage 3D content.
Protected mode for Flash Player in Firefox. Frame label events.
Support for compressing BitmapData to JPEG and PNG formats. Support
for Mac OS X App Store application sandboxing requirements. Text
streaming support for Stage 3D. Expanded information about
details. Bitmap draw with quality
API (new). Release outside mouse
event API. Flash Player silent update support for Mac OS. Stylus
support for Android 4.0 devices (Adobe AIR). USB debugging for iOS
(Adobe AIR). iOS simulator support (Adobe AIR).
Flash Player 11.4: released in August 2012, focused on enabling
features and functionality that are key for the gaming market, as well
as addressing popular feature requests from developers. Some of the
features in this release include the following:
ActionScript execution on separate threads).
Support for advanced profiling.
LZMA compression support for
ByteArray. Support for hardware-accelerated video cards for Stage 3D
expanded to 2006. Improved
ActionScript performance when targeting
Apple iOS. Performance index
API to inform about performance
capabilities of current environment. Support for compressed textures
with alpha support. Support for StageVideo.attachCamera API. Support
for push notifications for iOS (Adobe AIR).
Flash Player 11.5: released in November 2012, focused on performance
improvement and stability. Some of the features in this release
include the following: Shared ByteArray support for ActionScript
workers. Debug stack trace in release builds of Flash Player. Various
Flash Player 11.6: released in March 2013, focuses on performance
improvements, security enhancements, and stability. Some of the
features in this release include the following: Ability to query
graphics vector data at runtime. Full-screen permission dialog user
interface improvements. Ability to load SWFs at runtime when deploying
as an AIR application in AOT mode on iOS. Finer grained control over
supported display resolution on iOS devices when deploying as an AIR
application. HiDPI support for Flash Professional.
access to fast memory operations/intrinsics
Flash Player 11.7: released in June 2013, code-named "Geary." This
release focuses on premium video, gaming, security, and stability.
Some of the features planned for this release include the following:
Android captive runtime debugging. Support for the OUYA controller.
Remote hosting of
SWF files on iOS. Preventing backup of shared
objects on iOS for better iCloud support.
Flash Player 11.8 (code name Harrison): Adobe is planning a release in
the early part of the second half of 2013, code-named "Harrison." This
release focuses on premium video, gaming, security, and stability.
Some of the features in this release include the following: Recursive
API on MovieClips. GamePad support on desktop browsers and
ActionScript "1.0" With the release of Flash 5 in
September 2000, the "actions" from Flash 4 were enhanced once more and
named "ActionScript" for the first time. This was the first
ActionScript with influences from
ECMA-262 (Third Edition) standard, supporting the said standard's
object model and many of its core data types. Local variables may be
declared with the var statement, and user-defined functions with
parameter passing and return values can also be created. Notably,
ActionScript could now also be typed with a text editor rather than
being assembled by choosing actions from drop-down lists and dialog
box controls. With the next release of its authoring tool, Flash MX,
and its corresponding player, Flash Player 6, the language remained
essentially unchanged; there were only minor changes, such as the
addition of the switch statement and the "strict equality" (===)
operator, which brought it closer to being ECMA-262-compliant. Two
important features of
ActionScript that distinguish it from later
versions are its loose type system and its reliance on prototype-based
inheritance. Loose typing refers to the ability of a variable to hold
any type of data. This allows for rapid script development and is
particularly well-suited for small-scale scripting projects.
Prototype-based inheritance is the
ActionScript 1.0 mechanism for code
reuse and object-oriented programming. Instead of a class keyword that
defines common characteristics of a class,
ActionScript 1.0 uses a
special object that serves as a "prototype" for a class of objects.
All common characteristics of a class are defined in the class's
prototype object and every instance of that class contains a link to
that prototype object.
ActionScript 2.0 The next major revision of the language,
ActionScript 2.0, was introduced in September 2003 with the release of
Flash MX 2004 and its corresponding player, Flash Player 7. In
response to user demand for a language better equipped for larger and
more complex applications,
ActionScript 2.0 featured compile-time type
checking and class-based syntax, such as the keywords class and
extends. (While this allowed for a more structured object-oriented
programming approach, the code would still be compiled to ActionScript
1.0 bytecode, allowing it to be used on the preceding Flash Player 6
as well. In other words, the class-based inheritance syntax was a
layer on top of the existing prototype-based system.) With
ActionScript 2.0, developers could constrain variables to a specific
type by adding a type annotation so that type mismatch errors could be
found at compile-time.
ActionScript 2.0 also introduced class-based
inheritance syntax so that developers could create classes and
interfaces, much as they would in class-based languages such as Java
and C++. This version conformed partially to the
Edition draft specification.
ActionScript 3.0 In June 2006,
ActionScript 3.0 debuted
Adobe Flex 2.0 and its corresponding player, Flash Player 9.
ActionScript 3.0 was a fundamental restructuring of the language, so
much so that it uses an entirely different virtual machine. Flash
Player 9 contains two virtual machines, AVM1 for code written in
ActionScript 1.0 and 2.0, and AVM2 for content written in ActionScript
ActionScript 3.0 added limited support for hardware acceleration
The update to the language introduced several new features:
Compile-time and run-time type checking—type information exists at
both compile-time and runtime.
Improved performance from a class-based inheritance system separate
from the prototype-based inheritance system.
Support for packages, namespaces, and regular expressions.
Compiles to an entirely new type of bytecode, incompatible with
ActionScript 1.0 and 2.0 bytecode.
Revised Flash Player API, organized into packages.
Unified event handling system based on the DOM event handling
XML (E4X) for purposes of XML
Direct access to the Flash runtime display list for complete control
of what gets displayed at runtime.
Completely conforming implementation of the
ECMAScript fourth edition
Limited support for dynamic 3D objects. (X, Y, Z rotation, and texture
Flash Lite 1.0: Flash Lite is the Flash technology specifically
developed for mobile phones and consumer electronics devices. Supports
Flash 4 ActionScript.
Flash Lite 1.1: Flash 4
ActionScript support and additional device
Flash Lite 2.0 and 2.1: Added support for Flash 7
ActionScript 2.0 and
some additional fscommand2 API.
Flash Lite 3: Added support for Flash 8
ActionScript 2.0 and also FLV
Flash Lite 4: Added support for Flash 10
ActionScript 3.0 as a browser
plugin and also hardware graphics acceleration.
Adobe AIR supports ActionScript, in addition to some extended
contents, such as the
Stage3D engine Adobe has developed. The number
of APIs (Application programming interfaces) available to ActionScript
3.0 has also risen dramatically.
ActionScript code is free form and thus may be created with whichever
amount or style of whitespace that the author desires. The basic
syntax is derived from ECMAScript.
The following code, which works in any compliant player, creates a
text field at depth 0, at position (0, 0) on the screen (measured in
pixels), that is 100 pixels wide and high. Then the text parameter is
set to the "Hello, world" string, and it is automatically displayed in
createTextField("greet", 0, 0, 0, 100, 100);
greet.text = "Hello, world";
When writing external
ActionScript 2.0 class files the above example
could be written in a file named Greeter.as as following.
class com.example.Greeter extends MovieClip
public function Greeter()
var txtHello:TextField = this.createTextField("txtHello", 0,
0, 0, 100, 100);
txtHello.text = "Hello, world";
ActionScript 3.0 has a similar syntax to
ActionScript 2.0 but a
different set of APIs for creating objects. Compare the script below
to the previous
ActionScript 2.0 version:
var greet:TextField = new TextField();
greet.text = "Hello World";
ActionScript 3.0 programs may be somewhat larger and more
complicated due to the increased separation of the programming
language and the Flash IDE.
Presume the following file to be Greeter.as:
public class Greeter extends Sprite
public function Greeter()
var txtHello:TextField = new TextField();
txtHello.text = "Hello World";
(See also: Sprite.)
ActionScript 3 can also be used in M
XML files when using Apache's Flex
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
public function initApp():void
// Prints our "Hello, world!" message into title
<s:Label id="title" fontSize="54" fontStyle="bold"/>
ActionScript primarily consists of "fundamental" or "simple" data
types which are used to create other data types. These data types are
very similar to Java data types. Since
ActionScript 3 was a complete
ActionScript 2, the data types and their inheritances have
ActionScript 2 top level data types
String - A list of characters such as "Hello World"
Number - Any Numeric value
Boolean - A simple binary storage that can only be "true" or "false".
Object - Object is the data type all complex data types inherit from.
It allows for the grouping of methods, functions, parameters, and
ActionScript 2 complex data types
There are additional "complex" data types. These are more processor
and memory intensive and consist of many "simple" data types. For AS2,
some of these data types are:
MovieClip - An
ActionScript creation that allows easy usage of visible
TextField - A simple dynamic or input text field. Inherits the
Button - A simple button with 4 frames (states): Up, Over, Down and
Hit. Inherits the MovieClip type.
Date - Allows access to information about a specific point in time.
Array - Allows linear storage of data.
XML - An
XMLNode - An
LoadVars - A Load Variables object allows for the storing and send of
HTTP POST and HTTP GET variables
ActionScript 3 primitive (prime) data types
Boolean - The
Boolean data type has only two possible values: true and
false or 1 and 0. No other values are valid.
int - The int data type is a 32-bit integer between -2,147,483,648 and
Null - The Null data type contains only one value, null. This is the
default value for the String data type and all classes that define
complex data types, including the Object class.
Number - The Number data type can represent integers, unsigned
integers, and floating-point numbers. The Number data type uses the
64-bit double-precision format as specified by the IEEE Standard for
Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE-754). values between
-9,007,199,254,740,992 (-253) to 9,007,199,254,740,992 (253) can be
String - The String data type represents a sequence of 16-bit
characters. Strings are stored internally as Unicode characters, using
UTF-16 format. Previous versions of Flash used the UTF-8 format.
uint - The uint (Unsigned Integer) data type is a 32-bit unsigned
integer between 0 and 4,294,967,295.
void - The void data type contains only one value, undefined. In
previous versions of ActionScript, undefined was the default value for
instances of the Object class. In
ActionScript 3.0, the default value
for Object instances is null.
ActionScript 3 some complex data types
Array - Contains a list of data. Though
ActionScript 3 is a strongly
typed language, the contents of an Array may be of any type and values
must be cast back to their original type after retrieval. (Support for
typed Arrays has recently been added with the Vector class.)
Date - A date object containing the date/time digital representation.
Error - A generic error object that allows runtime error reporting
when thrown as an exception.
flash.display:Bitmap - A non-animated bitmap display object.
flash.display:MovieClip - Animated movie clip display object; Flash
timeline is, by default, a MovieClip.
flash.display:Shape - A non-animated vector shape object.
flash.display:SimpleButton - A simple interactive button type
supporting "up", "over", and "down" states with an arbitrary hit area.
flash.display:Sprite - A display object container without a timeline.
flash.media:Video - A video playback object supporting direct
(progressive download) or streaming (RTMP) transports. As of Flash
Player version 22.214.171.124, the H.264/MP4 high-definition video format
is also supported alongside standard Flash video (FLV) content.
flash.text:TextField - A dynamic, optionally interactive text field
flash.utils:ByteArray - Contains an array of binary byte data.
flash.utils:Dictionary - Dictionaries are a variant of Object that may
contain keys of any data type (whereas Object always uses strings for
Function - The core class for all Flash method definitions.
Object - The Object data type is defined by the Object class. The
Object class serves as the base class for all class definitions in
ActionScript. Objects in their basic form can be used as associative
arrays that contain key-value pairs, where keys are Strings and values
may be any type.
RegExp - A regular expression object for strings.
Vector - A variant of array supported only when publishing for Flash
Player 10 or above. Vectors are typed, dense Arrays (values must be
defined or null) which may be fixed-length, and are bounds-checked
during retrieval. Vectors are not just more typesafe than Arrays but
also perform faster.
XML - A revised
XML object based on the
E4X (Standard ECMA-357); nodes
and attributes are accessed differently from
ActionScript 2.0 object
(a legacy class named XMLDocument is provided for backwards
XMLList - An array-based object for various content lookups in the XML
Using data types
The basic syntax is:
var yourVariableName:YourVariableType = new YourVariableType(Param1,
Param2, ..., ParamN);
So in order to make an empty Object:
var myObject:Object = new Object();
Or, in an informal way:
var myObject = ;
Some types are automatically put in place:
var myString:String = "Hello!"; // This would automatically
set the variable as a string.
var myNumber:Number = 5; // This would do the same for a number.
var myObject:Object = Param1:"Hi!", Param2:76 ; //This creates an
object with two variables.
// Param1 is a string with the data of "Hi!",
// and Param2 is a number with the data of 76.
var myArray:Array = [5,"Hello!", a:5, b:7 ]; //This is the syntax for
automatically creating an Array.
//It creates an Array with 3 variables.
//The first (0) is a number with the value of 5,
//the second (1) is a string with the value of "Hello!",
//and the third (2) is an object with a:5, b:7 .
Unlike some object-oriented languages,
ActionScript makes no
distinction between primitive types and reference types. In
ActionScript, all variables are reference types. However, objects that
belong to the primitive data types, which includes Boolean, Number,
int, uint, and String, are immutable.
So if a variable of a supposedly primitive type, e.g. an integer is
passed to a function, altering that variable inside the function will
not alter the original variable, as a new int Object is created when
inside the function. If a variable of another (not primitive)
XML is passed to a function, altering that variable
inside the function will alter the original variable as well, as no
XML Object is created.
Some data types can be assigned values with literals:
var item5:Object= name:"Actionscript",version:"3.0" ;
XML = <node><child/></node>; //Note that
XML is not quoted
A reference in
ActionScript is a pointer to an instance of a class. A
reference stores the memory address of an object - operations against
references will follow the value of the reference to the memory
address of the object and carry out the operation on that object. All
ActionScript are accessed through references instead of
being accessed directly.
var item1:XML=new XML("<node><child/></node>");
//item1 now equals item2 since item2 simply points to what item1
//Both are now:
Only references to an object may be removed by using the "delete"
keyword. Removal of actual objects and data is done by the Flash
Player garbage collector which checks for any existing references in
the Flash memory space. If none are found (no other reference is made
to the orphaned object), it is removed from memory. For this reason,
memory management in
ActionScript requires careful application
var item1:XML=new XML("<node><child/></node>");
//If no other reference to item1 is present anywhere else in the
//it will be removed on the garbage collector's next pass
As with all intermediate language compiled code such as Flash and
Microsoft .NET, once an
SWF file is saved locally, it can be
decompiled into its source code and assets. Some decompilers are
capable of nearly full reconstruction of the original source file,
down to the actual code that was used during creation (although
results vary on a case-by-case basis).
In opposition to the decompilers,
ActionScript obfuscators have been
introduced, which transform code into a form that breaks decompiler
output while preserving the functionality and structure of the
program. Higher-quality obfuscators implement lexical transformations
such as identifier renaming, control flow transformation, and data
abstraction transformation which collectively make it harder for
decompilers to generate output likely to be useful to a human. Less
robust obfuscators insert traps for decompilers. Such obfuscators
either cause the decompiler software to crash unexpectedly or to
generate unintelligible source code.
The following is an example of
ActionScript 3.0 code generated by a
decompiler program, before and after obfuscation.
Code before obfuscation:
private function getNeighbours(i:int, j:int):Array
var a:Array = new Array();
for (var k = 0; k < 8; k++)
var ni = i + int(neighbour_map[k]);
var nj = j + int(neighbour_map[k]) ;
if (ni < 0 ni >= xsize nj < 0 nj >= ysize)
Code after obfuscation:
private function getNeighbours(_arg1:int, _arg2:int):Array
var _local3:Array = -(((null - !NULL!) % ~(undefined)));
_local3 = new Array();
_local4 = 0;
for (;//unresolved jump
, _arg2 < 8;_local4++)
_local5 = (_arg1 + int(!NULL!));
_local6 = (_arg2 + int(!NULL!));
_arg1 = (((//unresolved nextvalue or nextname << !NULL!) +
_arg1 = (!(!NULL!) ^ !NULL!);
(!NULL! instanceof !NULL!);
var _local1 = (((!NULL! as !NULL!) + !NULL!) == this);
if (!(!NULL! == !NULL!))
-((true << !NULL!)).push(Cell(cells[_local5][_local6]));
(_local6 < 0);
(_local6 < 0);
(_local5 < 0);
^ RFC 4329 (limit compatible with EcmaScript)
^ "Apple's lost decade, HyperCard, and what might NOT have been if
Apple then was like Apple is today". zdnet.com. 2011-04-17. Retrieved
^ Brimelow, Lee (August 18, 2008). "Six reasons to use ActionScript
Adobe Systems Incorporated. Retrieved June 18, 2010.
^ Grossman, Gary; Huang, Emmy (June 27, 2006). "
Adobe Systems Incorporated. Retrieved June 18, 2010.
^ "Standard ECMA-262". Ecma-international.org. Retrieved April 22,
^ "ECMAScript". ECMAScript. Archived from the original on February 23,
2001. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
^ "Flash Player
Adobe Flash Player
Adobe Flash Player 11 Overview". Adobe.com. April
9, 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
^ "Adobe Labs -
Adobe Flash Player
Adobe Flash Player 10.1". Labs.adobe.com. Archived
from the original on January 5, 2010. Retrieved December 17,
^ "Flash Player 11 and AIR 3 Release Notes for Adobe Labs"
(PDF). [dead link]
^ "Flash Player 11, AIR 3 Release Notes". helpx.adobe.com. Retrieved
^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 2, 2007.
Retrieved July 13, 2007.
^ "Flex 3 - Function parameters". Livedocs.adobe.com. Retrieved
December 17, 2009.
^ "Third party review of another decompiler". Flashmagazine.com.
October 21, 2007. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
^ "Customer comments on one Flash decompiler". Topshareware.com.
Retrieved April 22, 2013.
^ Customer comments on another Flash product Archived August 18, 2006,
at the Wayback Machine.
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