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The Acropolis
Acropolis
of Athens
Athens
is an ancient citadel located on a rocky outcrop above the city of Athens
Athens
and contains the remains of several ancient buildings of great architectural and historic significance, the most famous being the Parthenon. The word acropolis is from the Greek words ἄκρον (akron, "highest point, extremity") and πόλις (polis, "city").[1] Although the term acropolis is generic and there are many other acropoleis in Greece, the significance of the Acropolis
Acropolis
of Athens
Athens
is such that it is commonly known as "The Acropolis" without qualification. During ancient times it was known also more properly as Cecropia, after the legendary serpent-man, Cecrops, the first Athenian king. While there is evidence that the hill was inhabited as far back as the fourth millennium BC, it was Pericles
Pericles
(c. 495 – 429 BC) in the fifth century BC who coordinated the construction of the site's most important present remains including the Parthenon, the Propylaia, the Erechtheion
Erechtheion
and the Temple of Athena
Athena
Nike.[2][3] The Parthenon
Parthenon
and the other buildings were damaged seriously during the 1687 siege by the Venetians during the Morean War
Morean War
when gunpowder being stored in the Parthenon
Parthenon
was hit by a cannonball and exploded.[4]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early settlement 1.2 Archaic Acropolis 1.3 The Periclean building program 1.4 Hellenistic and Roman period 1.5 Byzantine, Latin and Ottoman period

2 Archaeological remains

2.1 Site plan

3 The Acropolis
Acropolis
Restoration Project 4 Cultural significance 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External links

History[edit]

The Acropolis
Acropolis
of Athens
Athens
as seen from Mount Lycabettus The wooded Hill of the Nymphs is half-visible on its right, and Philopappos Hill on the left, immediately behind. The Philopappos Monument stands where, in the distant background, the coast of Peloponnese
Peloponnese
meet the waters of the Saronic Gulf.

View of the Acropolis
Acropolis
from the Agora, 2010.

Early settlement[edit] The Acropolis
Acropolis
is located on a flattish-topped rock that rises 150 m (490 ft) above sea level in the city of Athens, with a surface area of about 3 hectares (7.4 acres). While the earliest artifacts date to the Middle Neolithic
Neolithic
era, there have been documented habitations in Attica
Attica
from the Early Neolithic
Neolithic
period (6th millennium BC). There is little doubt that a Mycenaean megaron palace stood upon the hill during the late Bronze Age. Nothing of this megaron survives except, probably, a single limestone column-base and pieces of several sandstone steps.[5] Soon after the palace was constructed, a Cyclopean massive circuit wall was built, 760 meters long, up to 10 meters high, and ranging from 3.5 to 6 meters thick. This wall would serve as the main defense for the acropolis until the 5th century.[6] The wall consisted of two parapets built with large stone blocks and cemented with an earth mortar called emplekton (Greek: ἔμπλεκτον).[7] The wall uses typical Mycenaean conventions in that it followed the natural contour of the terrain and its gate, which was towards the south, was arranged obliquely, with a parapet and tower overhanging the incomers' right-hand side, thus facilitating defense. There were two lesser approaches up the hill on its north side, consisting of steep, narrow flights of steps cut in the rock. Homer
Homer
is assumed to refer to this fortification when he mentions the "strong-built House of Erechtheus" ( Odyssey
Odyssey
7.81). At some time before the 13th century BC, an earthquake caused a fissure near the northeastern edge of the Acropolis. This fissure extended some 35 meters to a bed of soft marl in which a well was dug.[8] An elaborate set of stairs was built and the well served as an invaluable, protected source of drinking water during times of siege for some portion of the Mycenaean period.[9] There is no conclusive evidence for the existence of a Mycenean palace on top of the Athenian Acropolis. However, if there was such a palace, it seems to have been supplanted by later building activity. Archaic Acropolis[edit]

Proposed elevation of the Hekatompedon
Hekatompedon
temple. Built between 570–550 BC, it stood where the Parthenon
Parthenon
now stands. Fragments of the sculptures in its pediments are in the Acropolis
Acropolis
Museum.

Proposed elevation of the Old Temple of Athena. Built around 525 BC, it stood between the Parthenon
Parthenon
and the Erechtheum. Fragments of the sculptures in its pediments are in the Acropolis
Acropolis
Museum.

Not much is known about the architectural appearance of the Acropolis until the Archaic era. During the 7th and the 6th centuries BC, the site was controlled by Kylon during the failed Kylonian revolt,[10] and twice by Peisistratos; all attempts directed at seizing political power by coups d'état. Apart from the Hekatompedon
Hekatompedon
mentioned later, Peisistratos
Peisistratos
also built an entry gate or Propylaea.[11] Nevertheless, it seems that a nine-gate wall, the Enneapylon,[12] had been built around the biggest water spring, the Clepsydra, at the northwestern foot. A temple to Athena
Athena
Polias, the tutelary deity of the city, was erected between 570–550 BC. This Doric limestone building, from which many relics survive, is referred to as the Hekatompedon
Hekatompedon
(Greek for "hundred–footed"), Ur- Parthenon
Parthenon
(German for "original Parthenon" or "primitive Parthenon"), H–Architecture or Bluebeard temple, after the pedimental three-bodied man-serpent sculpture, whose beards were painted dark blue. Whether this temple replaced an older one, or just a sacred precinct or altar, is not known. Probably, the Hekatompedon was built where the Parthenon
Parthenon
now stands.[13] Between 529–520 BC yet another temple was built by the Peisistratids, the Old Temple of Athena, usually referred to as the Arkhaios Neōs (ἀρχαῖος νεώς, "ancient temple"). This temple of Athena
Athena
Polias was built upon the Dörpfeld foundations,[14] between the Erechtheion
Erechtheion
and the still-standing Parthenon. Arkhaios Neōs was destroyed by the Persian invasion during 480 BC; however, the temple was probably reconstructed during 454 BC, since the treasury of the Delian League
Delian League
was transferred in its opisthodomos. The temple may have been burnt down during 406/405 BC as Xenophon
Xenophon
mentions that the old temple of Athena
Athena
was set afire. Pausanias does not mention it in his 2nd century AD Description of Greece.[15] Around 500 BC the Hekatompedon
Hekatompedon
was dismantled to make place for a new grander building, the "Older Parthenon" (often referred to as the Pre-Parthenon, "early Parthenon"). For this reason, Athenians decided to stop the construction of the Olympieion temple which was connoted with the tyrant Peisistratos
Peisistratos
and his sons and, instead, used the Piraeus
Piraeus
limestone destined for the Olympieion to build the Older Parthenon. In order to accommodate the new temple, the south part of the summit was cleared, made level by adding some 8,000 two-ton blocks of limestone, a foundation 11 m (36 ft) deep at some points, and the rest was filled with soil kept in place by the retaining wall. However, after the victorious Battle of Marathon
Battle of Marathon
in 490 BC, the plan was revised and marble was used instead. The limestone phase of the building is referred to as Pre- Parthenon
Parthenon
I and the marble phase as Pre- Parthenon
Parthenon
II. In 485 BC, construction stalled to save resources as Xerxes became king of Persia and war seemed imminent.[16] The Older Parthenon
Parthenon
was still under construction when the Persians indeed invaded and sacked the city in 480 BC. The building was burned and looted, along with the Ancient Temple and practically everything else on the rock.[17][18] After the Persian crisis had subsided, the Athenians incorporated many architectural parts of the unfinished temple (unfluted column drums, triglyphs, metopes, etc.) into the newly built northern curtain wall of the Acropolis, where they served as a prominent "war memorial" and can still be seen today. The devastated site was cleared of debris. Statuary, cult objects, religious offerings and unsalvageable architectural members were buried ceremoniously in several deeply dug pits on the hill, serving conveniently as a fill for the artificial plateau created around the classic Parthenon. This "Persian debris" is the richest archaeological deposit excavated on the Acropolis.[19] The Periclean building program[edit]

The Parthenon.

After winning at Eurymedon during 468 BC, Cimon
Cimon
and Themistocles ordered the reconstruction of the southern and northern walls of the Acropolis. Most of the major temples, including the Parthenon, were rebuilt by order of Pericles
Pericles
during the so-called Golden Age of Athens (460–430 BC). Phidias, an Athenian sculptor, and Ictinus
Ictinus
and Callicrates, two famous architects, were responsible for the reconstruction.[20] During 437 BC, Mnesicles
Mnesicles
started building the Propylaea, a monumental gate at the western end of the Acropolis
Acropolis
with Doric columns of Pentelic
Pentelic
marble, built partly upon the old propylaea of Peisistratos.[21] These colonnades were almost finished during 432 BC and had two wings, the northern one decorated with paintings by Polygnotus.[22] About the same time, south of the Propylaea, building started on the small Ionic Temple of Athena Nike
Temple of Athena Nike
in Pentelic
Pentelic
marble with tetrastyle porches, preserving the essentials of Greek temple design. After an interruption caused by the Peloponnesian War, the temple was finished during the time of Nicias' peace, between 421 BC and 409 BC.[23]

The Erechtheum

Construction of the elegant temple of Erechtheion
Erechtheion
in Pentelic
Pentelic
marble (421–406 BC) was in accordance with a complex plan which took account of the extremely uneven ground and the need to circumvent several shrines in the area. The entrance, facing east, is lined with six Ionic columns. Unusually, the temple has two porches, one on the northwest corner borne by Ionic columns, the other, to the southwest, supported by huge female figures or Caryatids. The eastern part of the temple was dedicated to Athena
Athena
Polias, while the western part, serving the cult of the archaic king Poseidon-Erechtheus, housed the altars of Hephaestus
Hephaestus
and Voutos, brother of Erechtheus. Little is known about the original plan of the interior which was destroyed by fire during the first century BC and has been rebuilt several times.[24][25] During the same period, a combination of sacred precincts including the temples of Athena
Athena
Polias, Poseidon, Erechtheus, Cecrops, Herse, Pandrosos
Pandrosos
and Aglauros, with its Kore Porch (Porch of the Maidens) or Caryatids' balcony was begun.[26] Between the temple of Athena
Athena
Nike and the Parthenon, there was the Sanctuary of Artemis
Artemis
Brauronia (or the Brauroneion), the goddess represented as a bear and worshipped in the deme of Brauron. According to Pausanias, a wooden statue or xoanon of the goddess and a statue of Artemis
Artemis
made by Praxiteles
Praxiteles
during the 4th century BC were both in the sanctuary.[27]

The Propylaea

Behind the Propylaea, Phidias' gigantic bronze statue of Athena Promachos (" Athena
Athena
who fights in the front line"), built between 450 BC and 448 BC, dominated. The base was 1.50 m (4 ft 11 in) high, while the total height of the statue was 9 m (30 ft). The goddess held a lance the gilt tip of which could be seen as a reflection by crews on ships rounding Cape Sounion, and a giant shield on the left side, decorated by Mys with images of the fight between the Centaurs and the Lapiths.[28] Other monuments that have left almost nothing visible to the present day are the Chalkotheke, the Pandroseion, Pandion's sanctuary, Athena's altar, Zeus Polieus's sanctuary and, from Roman times, the circular temple of Augustus
Augustus
and Rome.[29] Hellenistic and Roman period[edit]

3-D model of the Acropolis
Acropolis
in 165 AD (click to rotate)

During the Hellenistic and Roman periods, many of the existing buildings in the area of the Acropolis
Acropolis
were repaired, due to damage from age, and occasionally, war.[30] Monuments to foreign kings were erected, notably those of the Attalid
Attalid
kings of Pergamon
Pergamon
Attalos II (in front of the NW corner of the Parthenon), and Eumenes II, in front of the Propylaia. These were rededicated during the early Roman Empire to Augustus
Augustus
or Claudius (uncertain), and Agrippa, respectively.[31] Eumenes was also responsible for constructing a stoa on the South slope, not unlike that of Attalos in the Agora
Agora
below.[32] During the Julio-Claudian period, the Temple of Rome and Augustus, a small, round edifice, about 23 meters from the Parthenon, was to be the last significant ancient construction on the summit of the rock.[33] Around the same time, on the North slope, in a cave next to the one dedicated to Pan since the classical period, a sanctuary was founded where the archons dedicated to Apollo
Apollo
on assuming office.[34] During 161 AD, on the South slope, the Roman Herodes Atticus
Herodes Atticus
built his grand amphitheatre or Odeon. It was destroyed by the invading Herulians a century later but was reconstructed during the 1950s.[35] During the 3rd century, under threat from a Herulian
Herulian
invasion, repairs were made to the Acropolis
Acropolis
walls, and the " Beulé
Beulé
Gate" was constructed to restrict entrance in front of the Propylaia, thus returning the Acropolis
Acropolis
to use as a fortress.[30] Byzantine, Latin and Ottoman period[edit]

Depiction of the Venetian siege of the Acropolis
Acropolis
of Athens
Athens
during 1687.

During the Byzantine
Byzantine
period, the Parthenon
Parthenon
was used as a church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary.[36] During the Latin Duchy of Athens, the Acropolis
Acropolis
functioned as the city's administrative center, with the Parthenon
Parthenon
as its cathedral, and the Propylaia
Propylaia
as part of the Ducal Palace.[37] A large tower was added, the "Frankopyrgos", demolished during the 19th century.[38] After the Ottoman conquest of Greece, the Parthenon
Parthenon
was used as the garrison headquarters of the Turkish army,[39] and the Erechtheum
Erechtheum
was turned into the Governor's private Harem. The buildings of the Acropolis
Acropolis
suffered significant damage during the 1687 siege by the Venetians in the Morean War. The Parthenon, which was being used as a gunpowder magazine, was hit by artillery shot and damaged severely.[40]

Idealized reconstruction of the Acropolis
Acropolis
and Areios Pagos
Areios Pagos
in Athens, Leo von Klenze, 1846.

During subsequent years, the Acropolis
Acropolis
was a site of bustling human activity with many Byzantine, Frankish, and Ottoman structures. The dominant feature during the Ottoman period was a mosque inside the Parthenon, complete with a minaret. After the Greek War of Independence, most features that dated from the Byzantine, Frankish and Ottoman periods were cleared from the site in an attempt to restore the monument to its original form, "cleansed" of all later additions.[41] Archaeological remains[edit]

Remains of the Theatre of Dionysus
Theatre of Dionysus
as of 2007

The entrance to the Acropolis
Acropolis
was a monumental gateway termed the Propylaea. To the south of the entrance is the tiny Temple of Athena Nike. At the centre of the Acropolis
Acropolis
is the Parthenon
Parthenon
or Temple of Athena
Athena
Parthenos ( Athena
Athena
the Virgin). East of the entrance and north of the Parthenon
Parthenon
is the temple known as the Erechtheum. South of the platform that forms the top of the Acropolis
Acropolis
there are also the remains of the ancient, though often remodelled, Theatre of Dionysus. A few hundred metres away, there is the now partially reconstructed Odeon of Herodes Atticus.[42] All the valuable ancient artifacts are situated in the Acropolis Museum, which resides on the southern slope of the same rock, 280 metres from the Parthenon.[43]

Site plan[edit] Site plan of the Acropolis
Acropolis
at Athens
Athens
showing the major archaeological remains

Parthenon Old Temple of Athena Erechtheum Statue of Athena
Athena
Promachos Propylaea Temple of Athena
Athena
Nike Eleusinion Sanctuary of Artemis
Artemis
Brauronia or Brauroneion Chalkotheke Pandroseion Arrephorion Altar of Athena Sanctuary of Zeus Polieus Sanctuary of Pandion Odeon of Herodes Atticus Stoa of Eumenes Sanctuary of Asclepius or Asclepieion Theatre of Dionysus
Theatre of Dionysus
Eleuthereus Odeon of Pericles Temenos of Dionysus Eleuthereus Aglaureion

The Acropolis
Acropolis
Restoration Project[edit]

View east toward the Acropolis
Acropolis
under construction during summer 2014.

The Project began during 1975 but as of 2017 has almost ground to a halt. The goal of the restoration was to reverse the decay of centuries of attrition, pollution, destruction stemming from military use, and misguided past restorations. The project included collection and identification of all stone fragments, even small ones, from the Acropolis
Acropolis
and its slopes and the attempt was made to restore as much as possible using reassembled original material (anastylosis), with new marble from Mount Penteli
Mount Penteli
used sparingly. All restoration was made using titanium dowels and is designed to be completely reversible, in case future experts decide to change things. A combination of cutting-edge modern technology and extensive research and reinvention of ancient techniques were used.[44] The Parthenon
Parthenon
colonnades, largely destroyed by Venetian bombardment during the 17th century, were restored, with many wrongly assembled columns now properly placed. The roof and floor of the Propylaea
Propylaea
were partly restored, with sections of the roof made of new marble and decorated with blue and gold inserts, as in the original.[44] Restoration of the Temple of Athena Nike
Temple of Athena Nike
was completed in 2010.[45] A total of 2,675 tons of architectural members were restored, with 686 stones reassembled from fragments of the originals, 905 patched with new marble, and 186 parts made entirely of new marble. A total of 530 cubic meters of new Pentelic
Pentelic
marble were used.[46] Cultural significance[edit] Every four years, the Athenians had a festival called the Panathenaea that rivaled the Olympic Games in popularity. During the festival, a procession (believed to be depicted on the Parthenon
Parthenon
frieze) traveled through the city via the Panathenaic Way and culminated on the Acropolis. There, a new robe of woven wool (peplos) was placed on either the statue of Athena
Athena
Polias in the Erechtheum
Erechtheum
(during a regular Panathenaea) or on the statue of Athena
Athena
Parthenos in the Parthenon (during the Great Panathenaea, held every four years).[47] Within the later tradition of Western Civilization
Western Civilization
and classical revival the Acropolis, from at least the mid-18th century on, has often been invoked as a key symbol of the Greek legacy and of the glories of Classical Greece. References[edit]

^ acro-. (n.d.). In Greek, Acropolis
Acropolis
means "Highest City". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved September 29, 2008, from Dictionary.com website: Quote: "[From Greek akros, extreme; see ak- in Indo-European roots.]" ^ Hurwit 2000, p. 87 ^ "History", Odysseus. Retrieved 2 December 2012. ^ Nicholas Reeves and Dyfri Williams, "The Parthenon
Parthenon
in Ruins" Archived 2009-08-06 at the Wayback Machine., British Museum
British Museum
Magazine 57 (spring/summer 2007), pp. 36-38. Retrieved 2 December 2012. ^ Castleden, Rodney (2005). Mycenaeans. Routledge. pp. 64–. ISBN 978-1-134-22782-2.  ^ Hurwit 2000, p. 74-75. ^ ἔμπλεκτος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library ^ Hurwit 2000, p. 78. ^ "The springs and fountains of the Acropolis
Acropolis
hill" Archived 2013-07-28 at the Wayback Machine., Hydria Project. Retrieved 2 December 2012. ^ Pomeroy, Sarah B. (1999). Ancient Greece: A Political, Social, and Cultural History. Oxford University Press. pp. 163–. ISBN 978-0-19-509742-9.  ^ Starr, Chester G. "Peisistratos". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2 December 2012.  ^ " Acropolis
Acropolis
fortification wall", Odysseus. Retrieved 2 December 2012. ^ Hurwit 2000, p. 111. ^ Hurwit 2000, p. 121. ^ (in Greek) [1], Retrieved 5 June 2012 ^ Manolis Korres, Topographic Issues of the Acropolis, Archaeology of the City of Athens; Retrieved 7 June 2012 ^ "Athens, Pre- Parthenon
Parthenon
(Building)", Perseus Digital Library. Retrieved 3 December 2012. ^ Dörpfeld, W: Der aeltere Parthenon, Ath. Mitt, XVII, 1892, pp. 158–89. (in German) ^ Kavvadias, Panagiotis, Kawerau, Georg: Die Ausgrabung der Akropolis vom Jahre 1885 bis zum Jahre 1890, Athens, 1906 (in German) ^ " Ictinus
Ictinus
and Callicrates
Callicrates
with Phidias", Architecture Week. Retrieved 3 December 2012. ^ "Mnesicles". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 6 December 2012.  ^ McCulloch, John Ramsay (1841). A Dictionary, Geographical, Statistical, and Historical: Of the Various Countries, Places and Principal Natural Objects in the World. Longman, Orme, Brown, Green and Longmans. pp. 205–.  ^ Mark, Ira S. (1993). The Sanctuary of Athena
Athena
Nike in Athens: Architectural Stages and Chronology. ASCSA. pp. 72–. ISBN 978-0-87661-526-3.  ^ Thomas Sakoulas, "Erechtheion", Ancient-Greece.org. Retrieved 7 December 2012. ^ Venieri, "Erechtheion", Odysseus. Retrieved 7 December 2012. ^ "The Acropolis
Acropolis
of Athens". Retrieved 9 February 2013. ^ "The Sanctuary of Artemis
Artemis
Brauronia", Acropolis
Acropolis
Museum. Retrieved 9 February 2013. ^ Mikalson, Jon D. (2011). Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Religion. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 73–. ISBN 978-1-4443-5819-3. Retrieved 9 February 2013.  ^ Brouskarē, Maria S. (1997). The monuments of the Acropolis. pp 56-57: Ministry of Culture, Archeological Receipts Fund. ISBN 978-960-214-158-8. Retrieved 9 February 2013.  ^ a b Travlos, John, Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Athens, London: Thames and Hudson, 1971. p.54. ^ Hurwit 2000 p. 278 ^ "The Stoa of Eumenes", The Acropolis
Acropolis
of Athens. Greek Thesaurus. Retrieved 9 February 2013. ^ Hurwit 2000, p. 279. ^ Nulton, Peter, The Sanctuary of Apollo
Apollo
Hypoakraios and Imperial Athens, Archaeologia Transatlantica XXI, 2003. ^ Steves, Rick (2011). Rick Steves' Greece: Athens
Athens
& the Peloponnese. Avalon Travel. pp. 115–. ISBN 978-1-61238-060-5. Retrieved 9 February 2013.  ^ "The Partenon", Ancient Greece. Retrieved 9 February 2013. ^ Melton, J. Gordon; Baumann, Martin (21 September 2010). Religions of the World, Second Edition: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices. ABC-CLIO. pp. 233–. ISBN 978-1-59884-204-3.  ^ Neils, Jenifer (5 September 2005). The Parthenon: From Antiquity to the Present. Cambridge University Press. pp. 346–. ISBN 978-0-521-82093-6.  ^ Hellenistic ministry of culture History of the Acropolis
Acropolis
of Athens ^ "Acropolis, Athens: Long description", UNESCO. Retrieved 9 February 2013. ^ Nicholas Reeves and Dyfri Williams, "The Parthenon
Parthenon
in Ruins" Archived 2009-08-06 at the Wayback Machine., British Museum
British Museum
Magazine, No 57, 2007, pages 36–38. Retrieved 9 February 2013. ^ Hadingham, Evan (February 2008). "Unlocking Mysteries of the Parthenon". Smithsonian.  ^ "The Acropolis
Acropolis
Museum". Retrieved 9 February 2013. ^ a b Fani Mallouchou-Tufano, "The Restoration of the Athenian Acropolis" Archived 2012-12-02 at the Wayback Machine., University of Michigan. Retrieved 9 February 2013. ^ "2010 – 2011, The progress of restoration on the Acropolis", The Acropolis
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Restoration News, July 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2013. ^ " Acropolis
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Restoration Project-Lecture by Maria Ioannidou, Director, Acropolis
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Restoration Service", Columbia University. Retrieved 9 February 2013. ^ "Panathenaic Festical". Archived from the original on 2012-04-27. 

Library resources about Acropolis
Acropolis
of Athens

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Bibliography[edit]

Andronicos, Manolis (2005). The Acropolis. Ekdotike Athenon S.A. ISBN 9789602130063.  Bouras, Charalampos; Ioannidou, Maria; Jenkins, Ian (2012). Acropolis Restored. British Museum
British Museum
Press. ISBN 978-0861591879.  Brouskarē, Maria S. (1997). The monuments of the Acropolis. Ministry of Culture, Archeological Receipts Fund. ISBN 978-960-214-158-8.  Cohen, Beth. (2010). "Deconstructing the Acropolis: The Acropolis Museum, Athens, opened 20 June 2009 by Bernard Tschumi Architects." American Journal of Archaeology 114:745–753. Economakis, Richard; Bettella, Mario (2010). Acropolis: Ancient Cities. Artmedia Press. ISBN 9781902889061.  Goette, Hans Rupprecht. (2001). Athens, Attica
Attica
and the Megarid: An Archaeological Guide. London and New York: Routledge. Harris, Diane. (1995). The Treasures of the Parthenon
Parthenon
and Erechtheion. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Hurwit, Jeffrey M. (2000). The Athenian Acropolis: History, Mythology, and Archaeology from the Neolithic
Neolithic
Era to the Present. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521428347.  Hurwit, Jeffrey M. (2004). The Acropolis
Acropolis
in the Age of Pericles. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521527408.  Keesling, Catherine M. (2008). The Votive Statues of the Athenian Acropolis. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521071260.  Miller, Walter (2009). A History of the Akropolis of Athens. Gorgias Press. ISBN 978-1607244981.  Neils, Jenifer (2005). The Parthenon: From Antiquity to the Present. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-82093-6.  Neils, Jenifer, ed. (1996). Worshipping Athena: Panathenaia and Parthenon. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press. Pollitt, Jerome J. (1990). The Art of Ancient Greece: Sources and Documents. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press. Rhodes, Robin Francis (1995). Architecture and Meaning on the Athenian Acropolis. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521469814.  Shuter, Jane (1999). The Acropolis. Heinemann Library. ISBN 978-1575728551.  Servi, Katerina (2011). The Acropolis: The Acropolis
Acropolis
Museum. Ekdotike Athenon. ISBN 978-9602134528.  Tanaka, Michitaro (1978). The Acropolis. Kodansha America, Inc. ISBN 978-0870110856. 

External links[edit]

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Museum and the Goddess Athena The Glafka Project UNESCO World Heritage Centre — Acropolis, Athens Ancient Athens
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3D Excerpt on the geology of Athens
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and the Aegean by Michael and Reynold Higgins, Cornell University Press, 1996 The Acropolis
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Videos

Acropolis
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of Athens, Full Reconstruction, animation by the Technological Research Institute, University of Santiago de Compostela, on YouTube Timelapse video of Acropolis
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during Earth Hour 2010 Timelapse showing how the Acropolis
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switched off & on the lights during Earth Hour 2010 The Acropolis
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in 1955 The Acropolis
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in 1969 Greek Glory A tour of ancient Greek buildings and monuments in Athens in the 1940s Acropolis
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from the old Greek TV show "Ελλάδος Περιήγησις..." ( Greece
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Tours), 1998 (in Greek) Athens, Greece: Ancient Acropolis
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and Agora
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by Rick Steves Three dimensional reconstruction of ancient Acropolis Βασιλόπουλος (Vasilopoulos), Χρίστος (Christos) (2011). "Η ιστορία της Ακρόπολης" [The history of Acropolis]. Μηχανή Του Χρόνου (The Time Machine) (in Greek). Greece. NET. 

Articles and topics related to Acropolis
Acropolis
of Athens

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Acropolis
Acropolis
of Athens

Extant structures

Parthenon Erechtheion Propylaea Temple of Athena
Athena
Nike Odeon of Herodes Atticus Stoa of Eumenes Sanctuary of Asclepius Theatre of Dionysus
Theatre of Dionysus
Eleuthereus Aglaureion

Former structures

Pelasgic wall Hekatompedon
Hekatompedon
temple Older Parthenon Old Temple of Athena Perserschutt Statue of Athena
Athena
Promachos Statue of Athena
Athena
Parthenos Sanctuary of Artemis
Artemis
Brauronia Chalkotheke Pandroseion Arrephorion Altar of Athena Eleusinion Nike of Callimachus Sanctuary of Pandion Sanctuary of Zeus Polieus Odeon of Pericles Frankish Tower

People

Creation

Pericles Phidias Ictinus Callicrates Mnesikles

Destruction

Francesco Morosini Lord Elgin Giovanni Battista Lusieri Reverend Philip Hunt

Museums

Acropolis
Acropolis
Museum Old Acropolis
Acropolis
Museum Museum of the Center for the Acropolis
Acropolis
Studies Elgin Marbles
Elgin Marbles
at the British Museum

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World Heritage Sites in Greece

North

Aigai Mount Athos Paleochristian and Byzantine
Byzantine
monuments of Thessaloniki

City Walls Rotunda Church of the Acheiropoietos Church of Saint Demetrios Latomou Monastery Church of Hagia Sophia Church of Panagia Chalkeon Church of Saint Panteleimon Church of the Holy Apostles Church of Saint Nicholas Orphanos Church of Saint Catherine Church of the Saviour Vlatades Monastery Church of Prophet Elijah Byzantine
Byzantine
Bath

Philippi

Central

Delphi Hosios Loukas Meteora Old Town of Corfu

Attica

Acropolis
Acropolis
of Athens Daphni Monastery

South

Epidaurus Mycenae
Mycenae
and Tiryns

Lion Gate Treasury of Atreus

Mystras Olympia Temple of Apollo
Apollo
Epicurius at Bassae

Aegean Islands

Delos Medieval city of Rhodes

Grand Master's Palace Fortifications

Monastery of Saint John the Theologian
Monastery of Saint John the Theologian
and the Cave of the Apocalypse Nea Moni of Chios Pythagoreion
Pythagoreion
and Heraion of Samos

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Major landmarks of Athens

Ancient

Acropolis Ancient Agora Arch of Hadrian Areopagus Aristotle’s Lyceum Hadrian's Library Kerameikos Monument of Lysicrates Odeon of Herodes Atticus Panathenaic Stadium Philopappos Hill/Monument Platonic Academy Pnyx Remains of the Acharnian Road, Acharnian Gate and Cemetery Site Remains of the Long Walls Roman Agora Stoa of Attalos Temple of Hephaestus Temple of Olympian Zeus Theatre of Dionysus Tower of the Winds

Byzantine

Agios Eleftherios/Mikri Mitropoli/Panagia Gorgoepikoos Daphni Monastery Holy Apostles Church Kapnikarea Church Pantanassa Church

Ottoman

Fethiye Mosque House of Saint Philothei/Manor house of Benizelos-Palaiologos family Tzistarakis Mosque

Modern

Hansen's "Trilogy"

Academy Kapodistrian University of Athens National Library of Greece

Museums

Acropolis
Acropolis
Museum Benaki Museum Byzantine
Byzantine
and Christian Museum Museum of Cycladic Art Kerameikos
Kerameikos
Museum National Archaeological Museum National Gallery National Historical Museum Numismatic Museum

Churches

Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens Cathedral Basilica of St. Dionysius the Areopagite

Gardens/Parks

National Gardens Pedion tou Areos

Squares and Neighbourhoods

Anafiotika Kolonaki Square Kotzia Square Monastiraki Omonoia Square Plaka Syntagma Thiseio

Tomb of the Unknown Soldier Athens
Athens
Concert Hall Gennadius Library National Observatory of Athens National Theatre Old Parliament House Old Royal Palace Olympic Sports Complex Presidential Mansion Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Center Zappeion

Marinas

Agios Kosmas Marina Alimos
Alimos
Marina Athens
Athens
Marina (formerly Faliro Marina) Marinas
Marinas
of Glyfada Olympic Marine Floisvos Marina Marina of Vouliagmeni Marina of Zea Marina Tzitzifies

Others

Dionysiou Areopagitou Street Lycabettus Hill

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Ancient Greece

Outline Timeline

History Geography

Periods

Cycladic civilization Minoan civilization Mycenaean civilization Greek Dark Ages Archaic period Classical Greece Hellenistic Greece Roman Greece

Geography

Aegean Sea Aeolis Alexandria Antioch Cappadocia Crete Cyprus Doris Ephesus Epirus Hellespont Ionia Ionian Sea Macedonia Magna Graecia Miletus Peloponnesus Pergamon Pontus Taurica Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
colonies

City states Politics Military

City states

Argos Athens Byzantion Chalcis Corinth Eretria Kerkyra Larissa Megalopolis Megara Rhodes Samos Sparta Syracuse Thebes

Politics

Boeotarch Boule Koinon Proxeny Strategos Tagus Tyrant Amphictyonic League

Athenian

Agora Areopagus Ecclesia Graphē paranómōn Heliaia Ostracism

Spartan

Apella Ephor Gerousia Harmost

Macedon

Synedrion Koinon

Military

Wars Athenian military Antigonid Macedonian army Army of Macedon Ballista Cretan archers Hellenistic armies Hippeis Hoplite Hetairoi Macedonian phalanx Phalanx Peltast Pezhetairos Sarissa Sacred Band of Thebes Sciritae Seleucid army Spartan army Toxotai Xiphos Xyston

People

List of ancient Greeks

Rulers

Kings of Argos Archons of Athens Kings of Athens Kings of Commagene Diadochi Kings of Lydia Kings of Macedonia Kings of Paionia Attalid
Attalid
kings of Pergamon Kings of Pontus Kings of Sparta Tyrants of Syracuse

Philosophers

Anaxagoras Anaximander Anaximenes Antisthenes Aristotle Democritus Diogenes of Sinope Empedocles Epicurus Gorgias Heraclitus Hypatia Leucippus Parmenides Plato Protagoras Pythagoras Socrates Thales Zeno

Authors

Aeschylus Aesop Alcaeus Archilochus Aristophanes Bacchylides Euripides Herodotus Hesiod Hipponax Homer Ibycus Lucian Menander Mimnermus Panyassis Philocles Pindar Plutarch Polybius Sappho Simonides Sophocles Stesichorus Theognis Thucydides Timocreon Tyrtaeus Xenophon

Others

Agesilaus II Agis II Alcibiades Alexander the Great Aratus Archimedes Aspasia Demosthenes Epaminondas Euclid Hipparchus Hippocrates Leonidas Lycurgus Lysander Milo of Croton Miltiades Pausanias Pericles Philip of Macedon Philopoemen Praxiteles Ptolemy Pyrrhus Solon Themistocles

Groups

Philosophers Playwrights Poets Tyrants

By culture

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
tribes Thracian Greeks Ancient Macedonians

Society Culture

Society

Agriculture Calendar Clothing Coinage Cuisine Economy Education Festivals Funeral and burial practices Homosexuality Law Olympic Games Pederasty Philosophy Prostitution Religion Slavery Warfare Wedding customs Wine

Arts and science

Architecture

Greek Revival architecture

Astronomy Literature Mathematics Medicine Music

Musical system

Pottery Sculpture Technology Theatre

Religion

Funeral and burial practices Mythology

mythological figures

Temple Twelve Olympians Underworld

Sacred places

Eleusis Delphi Delos Dodona Mount Olympus Olympia

Structures

Athenian Treasury Lion Gate Long Walls Philippeion Theatre of Dionysus Tunnel of Eupalinos

Temples

Aphaea Artemis Athena
Athena
Nike Erechtheion Hephaestus Hera, Olympia Parthenon Samothrace Zeus, Olympia

Language

Proto-Greek Mycenaean Homeric Dialects

Aeolic Arcadocypriot Attic Doric Ionic Locrian Macedonian Pamphylian

Koine

Writing

Linear A Linear B Cypriot syllabary Greek alphabet Greek numerals Attic numerals

Lists

Cities

in Epirus

People Place names Stoae Temples Theatres

Category Portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 237708

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