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Aberdeen
Aberdeen
(/æbərˈdiːn/ ( listen); Scots: Aiberdeen,  listen (help·info); Scottish Gaelic: Obar Dheathain [ˈopər ˈʝɛ.ɛɲ]; Latin: Aberdonia) is Scotland's third most populous city, one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom's 37th most populous built-up area, with an official population estimate of 196,670 for the city of Aberdeen[1] and 229,800 for the local authority area.[2] Nicknames include the Granite
Granite
City, the Grey City
City
and the Silver City with the Golden Sands. During the mid-18th to mid-20th centuries, Aberdeen's buildings incorporated locally quarried grey granite, which can sparkle like silver because of its high mica content.[3] Since the discovery of North Sea oil
North Sea oil
in the 1970s, Aberdeen
Aberdeen
has been known as the off-shore oil capital of Europe.[4] The area around Aberdeen
Aberdeen
has been settled since at least 8,000 years ago,[5] when prehistoric villages lay around the mouths of the rivers Dee and Don. The city has a long, sandy coastline and a marine climate, the latter resulting in chilly summers and mild winters. Aberdeen
Aberdeen
received Royal burgh
Royal burgh
status from David I of Scotland (1124–53),[6] transforming the city economically. The city's two universities, the University of Aberdeen, founded in 1495, and Robert Gordon University, which was awarded university status in 1992, make Aberdeen
Aberdeen
the educational centre of the north-east of Scotland. The traditional industries of fishing, paper-making, shipbuilding, and textiles have been overtaken by the oil industry and Aberdeen's seaport. Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Heliport
Heliport
is one of the busiest commercial heliports in the world[7] and the seaport is the largest in the north-east of Scotland.[8] Aberdeen
Aberdeen
has won the Britain in Bloom
Britain in Bloom
competition a record-breaking ten times,[9] and hosts the Aberdeen
Aberdeen
International Youth Festival, a major international event which attracts up to 1000 of the most talented young performing arts companies. In 2015, Mercer named Aberdeen
Aberdeen
the 57th most liveable city in the world, as well as the fourth most liveable city in Britain.[10] In 2012, HSBC
HSBC
named Aberdeen as a leading business hub and one of eight 'super cities' spearheading the UK's economy, marking it as the only city in Scotland
Scotland
to receive this accolade.[11] In 2018, Aberdeen
Aberdeen
was found to be the best city in the UK to start a business in a study released by card payment firm Paymentsense.[12]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Toponymy

2 Governance 3 Heraldry 4 Geography

4.1 Location 4.2 Climate

5 Demography

5.1 Religion

6 Economy

6.1 Aberdeen
Aberdeen
and the North Sea 6.2 Business 6.3 Shopping

7 Landmarks

7.1 Parks, gardens and open spaces 7.2 Theatres and concert halls

8 Transport 9 Education

9.1 Universities and colleges 9.2 Schools

10 Culture

10.1 Museums and galleries 10.2 Festivals and performing arts 10.3 Music and film 10.4 Dialect 10.5 Media 10.6 Food

11 Sport

11.1 Football 11.2 Rugby Union 11.3 Rugby League 11.4 Golf 11.5 Swimming 11.6 Rowing 11.7 Cricket 11.8 Ice hockey 11.9 Other sports

12 Public services 13 Twin cities 14 Notable people 15 Aberdeen
Aberdeen
in popular culture 16 See also 17 References 18 Further reading 19 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Aberdeen

The Town House, Old Aberdeen. Once a separate burgh, Old Aberdeen
Old Aberdeen
was incorporated into the city in 1891

The Castlegate and Union Street (c.1900)

The Aberdeen
Aberdeen
area has seen human settlement for at least 8,000 years.[5] The city began as two separate burghs: Old Aberdeen
Old Aberdeen
at the mouth of the river Don; and New Aberdeen, a fishing and trading settlement, where the Denburn waterway entered the river Dee estuary. The earliest charter was granted by William the Lion
William the Lion
in 1179 and confirmed the corporate rights granted by David I. In 1319, the Great Charter
Charter
of Robert the Bruce
Robert the Bruce
transformed Aberdeen
Aberdeen
into a property-owning and financially independent community. Granted with it was the nearby Forest of Stocket, whose income formed the basis for the city's Common Good Fund which still benefits Aberdonians.[13][14] During the Wars of Scottish Independence, Aberdeen
Aberdeen
was under English rule, so Robert the Bruce
Robert the Bruce
laid siege to Aberdeen Castle
Aberdeen Castle
before destroying it in 1308, followed by the massacring of the English garrison. The city was burned by Edward III of England
Edward III of England
in 1336, but was rebuilt and extended. The city was strongly fortified to prevent attacks by neighbouring lords, but the gates were removed by 1770.

The Powis gate Old Aberdeen

During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms of 1644–1647 the city was plundered by both sides. In 1644, it was taken and ransacked by Royalist troops after the Battle of Aberdeen[15] and two years later it was stormed by a Royalist force under the command of the Marquis of Huntly.[16] In 1647 an outbreak of bubonic plague killed a quarter of the population. In the 18th century, a new Town Hall was built and the first social services appeared with the Infirmary at Woolmanhill in 1742 and the Lunatic Asylum in 1779. The council began major road improvements at the end of the 18th century with the main thoroughfares of George Street, King Street and Union Street all completed at the beginning of the 19th century.

Union Terrace, Aberdeen, circa 1900

The expensive infrastructure works led to the city becoming bankrupt in 1817 during the Post-Napoleonic depression, an economic downturn immediately after the Napoleonic Wars; but the city's prosperity later recovered. The increasing economic importance of Aberdeen
Aberdeen
and the development of the shipbuilding and fishing industries led to the construction of the present harbour including Victoria Dock and the South Breakwater, and the extension of the North Pier. Gas street lighting arrived in 1824 and an enhanced water supply appeared in 1830 when water was pumped from the Dee to a reservoir in Union Place. An underground sewer system replaced open sewers in 1865.[14] The city was incorporated in 1891. Although Old Aberdeen
Old Aberdeen
has a separate history and still holds its ancient charter, it is no longer officially independent. It is an integral part of the city, as is Woodside and the Royal Burgh
Burgh
of Torry
Torry
to the south of the River Dee. Toponymy[edit] Main article: Etymology of Aberdeen Aberdeen
Aberdeen
was in Pictish territory and became Gaelic-speaking at some time in the medieval period. Old Aberdeen
Old Aberdeen
is the approximate location of Aberdon, the first settlement of Aberdeen; this literally means "the mouth of the Don". The Celtic word aber means "river mouth", as in modern Welsh (Aberystwyth, Aberdare, Aberbeeg
Aberbeeg
etc.).[17] The Gaelic name is Obar Dheathain (variation: Obairreadhain; *obar presumably being a loan from the earlier Pictish; the Gaelic term is inbhir), and in Latin, the Romans referred to the river as Devana. Mediaeval (or Ecclesiastical) Latin
Latin
has it as Aberdonia. Governance[edit] Main article: Politics of Aberdeen See also: List of Provosts and Lord Provosts of Aberdeen

Marischal College, home of Aberdeen
Aberdeen
City
City
Council, Broad St.

Aberdeen
Aberdeen
is locally governed by Aberdeen
Aberdeen
City
City
Council, which comprises forty-five councillors who represent the city's wards and is headed by the Lord Provost. The current Lord Provost is Barney Crockett.[18] From May 2003 until May 2007 the council was run by a Liberal Democrat and Conservative Party coalition. Following the May 2007 local elections, the Liberal Democrats formed a new coalition with the Scottish National Party.[19][20] After a later SNP by-election gain from the Conservatives, this coalition held 28 of the 43 seats. Following the election of 4 May 2017, the council was controlled by a coalition of Scottish Labour, Scottish Conservatives
Scottish Conservatives
and independent councillors; the Labour councillors were subsequently suspended by Scottish Labour Party
Scottish Labour Party
leader, Kezia Dugdale.[21] Aberdeen
Aberdeen
is represented in the Parliament of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
by three constituencies: Aberdeen
Aberdeen
North and Aberdeen
Aberdeen
South which are wholly within the Aberdeen
Aberdeen
City
City
council area, and Gordon, which includes a large area of the Aberdeenshire Council
Aberdeenshire Council
area. In the Scottish Parliament, the city is represented by three constituencies with different boundaries: Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Central and Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Donside are wholly within the Aberdeen
Aberdeen
City
City
council area. Aberdeen
Aberdeen
South and North Kincardine
Kincardine
includes the North Kincardine
Kincardine
ward of Aberdeenshire
Aberdeenshire
Council. A further seven MSPs are elected as part of the North East Scotland
Scotland
electoral region. In the European Parliament the city is represented by six MEPs as part of the all-inclusive Scotland
Scotland
constituency. Heraldry[edit] Main article: Coat of arms of Aberdeen

Bon Accord Square, designed by Archibald Simpson
Archibald Simpson
and dating from 1823

Lamp-post bearing the city coat of arms

The arms and banner of the city show three silver towers on red. This motif dates from at least the time of Robert the Bruce
Robert the Bruce
and represents the buildings that stood on the three hills of medieval Aberdeen: Aberdeen Castle
Aberdeen Castle
on Castle Hill (today's Castlegate); the city gate on Port Hill; and a church on St Catherine's Hill (now levelled).[22] Bon Accord is the motto of the city and is French for "Good Agreement". Legend tells that its use dates from a password used by Robert the Bruce
Robert the Bruce
during the 14th century Wars of Scottish Independence, when he and his men laid siege to the English-held Aberdeen Castle
Aberdeen Castle
before destroying it in 1308.[13] It is still widely present in the city, throughout street names, business names and the city's Bon Accord shopping mall.[23] The shield in the coat of arms is supported by two leopards. A local magazine is called the "Leopard" and, when Union Bridge was widened in the 20th century, small statues of the creature in a sitting position were cast and placed on top of the railing posts (known locally as Kelly's Cats). The city's toast is "Happy to meet, sorry to part, happy to meet again"; this has been commonly misinterpreted as the translation of Bon Accord.[24] Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Aberdeen

Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Coast

Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Beach

Being sited between two river mouths, the city has little natural exposure of bedrock. This leaves local geologists in a slight quandary: despite the high concentration of geoscientists in the area (courtesy of the oil industry), there is only a vague understanding of what underlies the city. To the south side of the city, coastal cliffs expose high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Grampian
Grampian
Group; to the south-west and west are extensive granites intruded into similar high-grade schists; to the north the metamorphics are intruded by gabbroic complexes instead. The small amount of geophysics done, and occasional building-related exposures, combined with small exposures in the banks of the River Don, suggest that it is actually sited on an inlier of Devonian "Old Red" sandstones and silts. The outskirts of the city spread beyond the (inferred) limits of the outlier onto the surrounding metamorphic/ igneous complexes formed during the Dalradian period (approximately 480–600 million years ago) with sporadic areas of igneous Diorite
Diorite
granites to be found, such as that at the Rubislaw quarry
Rubislaw quarry
which was used to build much of the Victorian parts of the city.[25] On the coast, Aberdeen
Aberdeen
has a long sand beach between the two rivers, the Dee and the Don, which turns into high sand dunes north of the Don stretching as far as Fraserburgh; to the south of the Dee are steep rocky cliff faces with only minor pebble and shingle beaches in deep inlets. A number of granite outcrops along the south coast have been quarried in the past, making for spectacular scenery and good rock-climbing. The city extends to 185.7 km2 (71.7 sq mi),[26] and includes the former burghs of Old Aberdeen, New Aberdeen, Woodside and the Royal Burgh
Burgh
of Torry
Torry
to the south of River Dee. In 2016 this gave the city a population density of 1,237.[2] The city is built on many hills, with the original beginnings of the city growing from Castle Hill, St. Catherine's Hill and Windmill Hill.[27] Location[edit]

Destinations from Aberdeen

Inverurie, Keith, Elgin Ellon, Fraserburgh Peterhead, Stavanger, (Norway)

Westhill, Grantown-on-Spey

Aberdeen

Aalborg
Aalborg
(Denmark)

Banchory, Brechin, Forfar Portlethen, Stonehaven Groningen, Amsterdam
Amsterdam
(Netherlands)

Climate[edit] Aberdeen
Aberdeen
features an oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb). Aberdeen
Aberdeen
has far milder winter temperatures than one might expect for its northern location, although statistically it is the coldest city in the UK. During the winter, especially throughout December, the length of the day is very short, averaging 6 hours and 41 minutes between sunrise and sunset at winter solstice.[28] As winter progresses, the length of the day grows fairly quickly, to 8 hours and 20 minutes by the end of January. Around summer solstice, the days will be around 18 hours long, having 17 hours and 55 minutes between sunrise and sunset.[28] During this time of the year marginal nautical twilight lasts the entire night. Temperatures at this time of year will be typically hovering around 17.0 °C (62.6 °F) during the day in most of the urban area, though nearer 16.0 °C (60.8 °F) directly on the coast, and around 18.0 to 19.0 °C (64.4 to 66.2 °F) in the westernmost suburbs,[29] illustrating the cooling effect of the North Sea during summer. In addition, from June onward skies are more overcast than in April/May, as reflected in a lower percentage of possible sunshine (the percentage of daylight hours that are sunny). These factors render summer to be very temperate by European standards. Two weather stations collect climate data for the area, Aberdeen/Dyce Airport, and Craibstone. Both are about 4 1⁄2 miles (7 km) to the north west of the city centre, and given that they are in close proximity to each other, exhibit very similar climatic regimes. Dyce tends to have marginally warmer daytime temperatures year round owing to its slightly lower elevation, though it is more susceptible to harsh frosts. The coldest temperature to occur in recent years was −16.8 °C (1.8 °F) during December 2010,[30] while the following winter, Dyce
Dyce
set a new February high temperature station record on 28 February 2012 of 17.2 °C (63.0 °F).,[31] and a new March high temperature record of 21.6 °C (70.9 °F) on 25 March 2012.[32] The average temperature of the sea ranges from 6.6 °C (43.9 °F) in March to 13.8 °C (56.8 °F) in August.[33]

Climate data for Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Dyce
Dyce
65m asl, 1981–2010, extremes 1960–

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 17.2 (63) 17.2 (63) 21.6 (70.9) 23.7 (74.7) 24.3 (75.7) 26.7 (80.1) 29.8 (85.6) 29.7 (85.5) 25.9 (78.6) 22.0 (71.6) 18.8 (65.8) 15.7 (60.3) 29.8 (85.6)

Average high °C (°F) 6.5 (43.7) 6.8 (44.2) 8.8 (47.8) 10.9 (51.6) 13.6 (56.5) 16.1 (61) 18.5 (65.3) 18.3 (64.9) 15.8 (60.4) 12.4 (54.3) 8.9 (48) 6.6 (43.9) 12.0 (53.6)

Average low °C (°F) 0.6 (33.1) 0.8 (33.4) 1.9 (35.4) 3.4 (38.1) 5.7 (42.3) 8.6 (47.5) 10.8 (51.4) 10.5 (50.9) 8.6 (47.5) 5.9 (42.6) 2.9 (37.2) 0.7 (33.3) 5.1 (41.2)

Record low °C (°F) −19.3 (−2.7) −18.2 (−0.8) −15.8 (3.6) −6.8 (19.8) −4.2 (24.4) −0.3 (31.5) 0.1 (32.2) −0.2 (31.6) −2.4 (27.7) −4.4 (24.1) −15.6 (3.9) −18.1 (−0.6) −19.3 (−2.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 67.6 (2.661) 55.1 (2.169) 59.8 (2.354) 58.8 (2.315) 56.9 (2.24) 61.2 (2.409) 61.6 (2.425) 60.5 (2.382) 67.9 (2.673) 96.2 (3.787) 93.3 (3.673) 76.1 (2.996) 814.9 (32.083)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 58.3 81.3 121.8 149.4 199.4 166.4 165.3 157.8 123.7 99.8 66.2 46.1 1,435.7

Percent possible sunshine 25.1 30.7 33.2 34.8 38.9 31.2 31.0 33.5 32.2 31.1 27.2 21.8 30.9

Source #1: Met Office[34]

Source #2: Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute/KNMI[35]

Climate data for Craibstone 102m asl, 1971–2000, extremes 1951–

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 16.0 (60.8) 16.3 (61.3) 20.0 (68) 23.4 (74.1) 23.8 (74.8) 26.1 (79) 28.8 (83.8) 28.6 (83.5) 25.9 (78.6) 21.1 (70) 18.3 (64.9) 15.4 (59.7) 28.8 (83.8)

Average high °C (°F) 5.7 (42.3) 6.1 (43) 8.0 (46.4) 9.9 (49.8) 12.7 (54.9) 15.3 (59.5) 17.6 (63.7) 17.5 (63.5) 14.9 (58.8) 11.8 (53.2) 8.2 (46.8) 6.4 (43.5) 11.2 (52.2)

Average low °C (°F) 0.4 (32.7) 0.6 (33.1) 1.5 (34.7) 2.7 (36.9) 5.0 (41) 7.8 (46) 9.9 (49.8) 9.8 (49.6) 8.0 (46.4) 5.6 (42.1) 2.6 (36.7) 1.1 (34) 4.6 (40.3)

Record low °C (°F) −13.5 (7.7) −12.2 (10) −11.7 (10.9) −6.7 (19.9) −3 (27) 0.3 (32.5) 1.7 (35.1) 1.7 (35.1) −0.6 (30.9) −4 (25) −10.8 (12.6) −12.6 (9.3) −13.5 (7.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 74.1 (2.917) 53.7 (2.114) 59.8 (2.354) 61.2 (2.409) 56.7 (2.232) 59.5 (2.343) 60.3 (2.374) 65.7 (2.587) 76.7 (3.02) 87.7 (3.453) 84.2 (3.315) 76.9 (3.028) 816.3 (32.138)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 56.4 77.1 114.1 145.8 188.5 166.2 164.9 163.4 122.1 99.2 65.1 46.2 1,409

Source #1: Met Office[36]

Source #2: Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute/KNMI[37]

Demography[edit]

Aberdeen's population since 1396[38]

The latest population estimate (mid 2012) for the urban area of Aberdeen
Aberdeen
is 196,670.[1] For the wider settlement of Aberdeen
Aberdeen
including Cove Bay
Cove Bay
and Dyce
Dyce
the latest population estimate (mid 2012) is 209,460.[1] For the local authority area of Aberdeen
Aberdeen
City
City
the latest estimate (mid 2016) is 229,800[2] In 1396 the population was about 3,000. By 1801 it had become 26,992; (1901) 153,503; (1941) 182,467.[39] The 2011 census showed that there are fewer young people in Aberdeen, with 16.4% under 16, opposed to the national average of 19.2%.[40] According to the 2011 census Aberdeen
Aberdeen
is 91.9% white, ethnically, 24.7% were born outside Scotland, higher than the national average of 16%. Of this population 7.6% were born in other parts of the UK.[41] 8.2% of Aberdonians stated to be from an ethnic minority (non-white) in the 2011 census, with 9,519 (4.3%) being Asian, with 3,385 (1.5%) coming from India
India
and 2,187 (1.0%) being Chinese. The city has around 5,610 (2.6%) residents of African or Caribbean origin, which is a higher percentage than both Glasgow
Glasgow
and Edinburgh.[41] The most multicultural part of the city is George Street, which has many ethnic restaurants, supermarkets and hairdressers.

Aberdeen
Aberdeen
compared[41]

UK Census 2011 Aberdeen Scotland

Total population 222,793 5,295,000

Population growth 2001–2011 5.0% 5.0%

White 91.9% 96.0%

Asian 4.3% 2.7%

Black 2.6% 0.8%

Christian 30.9% 54.0%

Muslim 1.9% 1.4%

In the household, there were 97,013 individual dwellings recorded in the city of which 61% were privately owned, 9% privately rented and 23% rented from the council. The most popular type of dwellings are apartments which comprise 49% of residences followed by semi-detached at just below 22%.[42] The median income of a household in the city is £16,813 (the mean income is £20,292)[43] (2005) which places approximately 18% households in the city below the poverty line (defined as 60% of the mean income). Conversely, an Aberdeen
Aberdeen
postcode has the second highest number of millionaires of any postcode in the UK.[44] Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Aberdeen

St Machar's Cathedral

South and St. Nicholas Kirk Spires viewed from Union St

Christianity is the main religion practised in the city. Aberdeen's largest denominations are the Church of Scotland
Scotland
(through the Presbytery of Aberdeen) and the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Church, both with numerous churches across the city, with the Scottish Episcopal Church having the third-largest number. The most recent census in 2001 showed that Aberdeen
Aberdeen
has the highest proportion of non-religious residents of any city in Scotland, with nearly 43% of citizens claiming to have no religion[40] and several former churches in the city have been converted into bars and restaurants. In the Middle Ages, the Kirk of St Nicholas was the only burgh kirk and one of Scotland's largest parish churches. Like a number of other Scottish kirks, it was subdivided after the Reformation, in this case into the East and West churches. At this time, the city also was home to houses of the Carmelites
Carmelites
(Whitefriars) and Franciscans
Franciscans
(Greyfriars), the latter of which surviving in modified form as the chapel of Marischal College
Marischal College
as late as the early 20th century.

Gilcomston Church, Union St, Aberdeen

St Machar's Cathedral
St Machar's Cathedral
was built twenty years after David I (1124–53) transferred the pre-Reformation Diocese
Diocese
from Mortlach in Banffshire
Banffshire
to Old Aberdeen
Old Aberdeen
in 1137. With the exception of the episcopate of William Elphinstone (1484–1511), building progressed slowly. Gavin Dunbar, who followed him in 1518, completed the structure by adding the two western spires and the southern transept. It is now a congregation of the Church of Scotland. Aberdeen
Aberdeen
has two other cathedrals: St. Mary's Cathedral is a Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
cathedral in Gothic style, erected in 1859. In addition, St. Andrew's Cathedral serves the Scottish Episcopal Church. It was constructed in 1817 as Archibald Simpson's first commission and contains a memorial to the consecration of the first bishop of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America, which took place nearby. In 1804, St Peter's Church, the first permanent Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
church in the city after the Reformation was built.[45]

St Andrew's Cathedral, King Street

Numerous other Protestant denominations have a presence in Aberdeen. The Salvation Army
The Salvation Army
citadel on the Castlegate dominates the view of east end of Union Street. In addition, there is a Unitarian church, established in 1833 and located in Skene Terrace. Christadelphians have been present in Aberdeen
Aberdeen
since at least 1844. Over the years, they have rented space to meet at a number of locations and currently meet in the Inchgarth Community Centre in Garthdee.[46] There is also a Quaker
Quaker
meetinghouse on Crown street, the only purpose built Quaker House in Scotland
Scotland
that is still in use today. In addition, there are a number of Baptist congregations in the city, and Evangelical congregations have been appearing in significant numbers since the late 2000s. The city also has two meetinghouses of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). There is also a mosque in Old Aberdeen
Old Aberdeen
which serves the Islamic community in the city, and an Orthodox Jewish Synagogue established in 1945. There is also a Thai Buddhist
Buddhist
temple located in the Hazelhead area of the city.There are no formal Hindu buildings, although the University of Aberdeen
University of Aberdeen
has a small Bahá'í society and there is a fortnightly Hindu religious gathering in the 1st and 3rd Sunday afternoons at Queens Cross
Queens Cross
Parish church hall.[47] Economy[edit]

Rubislaw
Rubislaw
Quarry, opened in 1740, provided some six million tonnes of granite prior to its closure. Both the Houses of Parliament
Houses of Parliament
and the Forth Rail Bridge
Forth Rail Bridge
were constructed using its granite.

War Memorial at Pocra Quay with Marine Ops Centre in background. Situated at Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Harbour, next to Footdee
Footdee
an ancient fishing village dating as far back as 1398

Main articles: Economy of Aberdeen
Economy of Aberdeen
and Petroleum industry
Petroleum industry
in Aberdeen Traditionally, Aberdeen
Aberdeen
was home to fishing, textile mills, shipbuilding and paper making. These industries have been largely replaced. High technology developments in the electronics design and development industry, research in agriculture and fishing and the oil industry, which has been largely responsible for Aberdeen's economic boom in the last three decades, are now major parts of Aberdeen's economy. Until the 1970s, most of Aberdeen's leading industries dated from the 18th century; mainly these were textiles, foundry work, shipbuilding and paper-making, the oldest industry in the city, with paper having been first made there in 1694. Paper-making has reduced in importance since the closures of Donside Paper Mill in 2001 and the Davidson Mill in 2005 leaving the Stoneywood Paper Mill with a workforce of approximately 500. Textile production ended in 2004 when Richards of Aberdeen
Richards of Aberdeen
closed. Grey granite was quarried at Rubislaw quarry
Rubislaw quarry
for more than 300 years, and used for paving setts, kerb and building stones, and monumental and other ornamental pieces. Aberdeen
Aberdeen
granite was used to build the terraces of the Houses of Parliament
Houses of Parliament
and Waterloo Bridge
Waterloo Bridge
in London. Quarrying finally ceased in 1971. The current owners have begun pumping 40 years of rain water from the quarry with the aim of developing a heritage centre on the site.[48] Fishing was once the predominant industry, but was surpassed by deep-sea fisheries, which derived a great impetus from improved technologies throughout the 20th century. Catches have fallen because of overfishing and the use of the harbour by oil support vessels,[49] and so although still an important fishing port it is now eclipsed by the more northerly ports of Peterhead
Peterhead
and Fraserburgh. The Fisheries Research Services are headquartered in Aberdeen, and there is a marine research lab in Torry.

GDF Suez and Aker Solutions Buildings, North Dee Business Quarter. An example of modern offices becoming more prevalent in Aberdeen's City Centre

Aberdeen
Aberdeen
is well regarded for the agricultural and soil research carried out at The James Hutton Institute (formerly the Macaulay Land Use Research Institute), which has close links to the city's two universities. The Rowett Research Institute
Rowett Research Institute
is a world-renowned research centre for studies into food and nutrition located in Aberdeen. It has produced three Nobel laureates and there is a high concentration of life scientists working in the city.[50][51] As oil reserves in the North Sea decrease there is an effort to rebrand Aberdeen
Aberdeen
as "Energy Capital of Europe" rather than "Oil Capital of Europe", and there is interest in the development of new energy sources; and technology transfer from oil into renewable energy and other industries is under way. The "Energetica" initiative led by Scottish Enterprise has been designed to accelerate this process.[52] As of 2013, Aberdeen
Aberdeen
remained a major world centre for undersea petroleum technology.[53] Aberdeen
Aberdeen
and the North Sea[edit] Aberdeen
Aberdeen
had been a major maritime centre throughout the 19th century, when a group of local entrepreneurs launched the first steam-powered trawler. The steam trawling industry expanded and by 1933 Aberdeen
Aberdeen
was Scotland's top fishing port, employing nearly 3,000 men with 300 vessels sailing from its harbour. By the time oil was coming on stream, much of the trawling fleet had relocated to Peterhead. Although Aberdeen
Aberdeen
still brings in substantial catches, the tugs, safety vessels and supply ships which pack the harbour far outnumber the trawlers.

Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Harbour from the Air

Geologists had speculated about the existence of oil and gas in the North Sea since the middle of the 20th century, but tapping its deep and inhospitable waters was another story. With the Middle Eastern oil sheiks becoming more aware of the political and economic power of their oil reserves and government threats of rationing, the industry began to consider the North Sea as a viable source of oil. Exploration commenced in the 1960s and the first major find in the British sector was in November 1970 in the Forties field, 110 miles (180 km) east of Aberdeen. By late 1975, after years of intense construction the necessary infrastructure was in place. In Aberdeen, at BP's (British Petroleum) headquarters, the Queen pressed the button that would set the whole thing moving. Oil flowed from the rig directly to the refinery at far-away Grangemouth. While many ports have suffered decline, Aberdeen remains busy because of the oil trade and the influx of people connected with the industry, a subsequent rise in property prices have brought prosperity to the area. The industry supports about 47,000 jobs locally, and known reserves ensure that oil will continue to flow well into the 21st century. As a major port in the UK, Aberdeen
Aberdeen
receives many ships calling at the port. Seafarers' welfare organisation, Apostleship of the Sea
Apostleship of the Sea
has a port chaplain in Aberdeen
Aberdeen
to offer practical and pastoral support to them. Business[edit] In 2011, the Centre for Cities named Aberdeen
Aberdeen
as the best placed city for growth in Britain, as the country looked to emerge from the recent economic downturn.[54] With energy still providing the backbone of the local economy, recent years have seen very large new investment in the North Sea owing to rising oil prices and favourable government tax incentives.[55] This has led to several oil majors and independents building new global offices in the city.[56] Aberdeen
Aberdeen
City
City
and Shire's Gross Domestic Product is estimated at over £11.4billion, accounting for over 17% of the overall Scottish GDP. Five of Scotland's top ten businesses are based in Aberdeen
Aberdeen
with a collective turnover of £14billion, yielding a profit in excess of £2.4billion. Alongside this 29 of Scotland's top 100 businesses are located in Aberdeen
Aberdeen
with an employment rate of 77.9%, making it the 2nd highest UK city for employment.[57] Figures released in 2016 ranked Aberdeen
Aberdeen
as having the second highest amount of patents processed per person in the UK.[58] Shopping[edit]

The Academy, Belmont St and Schoolhill, Aberdeen

Union St towards West End, Aberdeen

The traditional shopping streets are Union Street and George Street, now complemented by shopping centres, notably the Bon Accord & St Nicholas and the Trinity Shopping Centre. A £190 million retail development, Union Square, reached completion in late September/early October 2009. Major retail parks away from the city centre include the Berryden Retail Park, the Kittybrewster
Kittybrewster
Retail Park and the Beach Boulevard Retail Park. In March 2004, Aberdeen
Aberdeen
was awarded Fairtrade City
City
status by the Fairtrade Foundation.[59] Along with Dundee, it shares the distinction of being the first city in Scotland
Scotland
to receive this accolade. Landmarks[edit] Main article: Architecture of Aberdeen

Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Central Library and St Marks Church, Rosemount, Aberdeen

Town House, Sheriff Court and North of Scotland
Scotland
Bank, Aberdeen

Granite
Granite
Buildings on Union Street

Aberdeen, Salvation Army Citadel

Head Post Office, Crown Street

Former Trinity United Free Church, Crown Street, Aberdeen

Aberdeen's architecture is known for its principal use during the Victorian era
Victorian era
of granite, which has led to its local nickname of the Granite
Granite
City
City
or more romantically the less commonly used name the Silver City, since the Mica
Mica
in the stone sparkles in the sun. The hard grey stone is one of the most durable materials available and helps to explain why the city's buildings look brand-new when they have been newly cleaned and the cement has been pointed. Unlike other Scottish cities where sandstone has been used, the buildings are not weathering and need very little structural maintenance on their masonry. The buildings can however become noticeably darker as a result of pollution and grime accumulated over the years. There has however been great success in cleaning the buildings which can result in their façade being restored back to much how they looked originally. Amongst the notable buildings in the city's main street, Union Street, are the Town and County Bank, the Music Hall, the Trinity Hall of the incorporated trades (originating between 1398 and 1527, although completely rebuilt in the 1860s), now a shopping mall; the former office of the Northern Assurance Company, and the National Bank of Scotland. In Castle Street, a continuation eastwards of Union Street, is the new Town House, a very prominent landmark in Aberdeen, built between 1868 and 1873 to a design by Peddie and Kinnear.[60] Alexander Marshall Mackenzie's extension to Marischal College
Marischal College
on Broad Street, opened by King Edward VII in 1906, created the second largest granite building in the world (after the Escorial, Madrid).[61] In addition to the many fine landmark buildings, Aberdeen
Aberdeen
has many prominent public statues, three of the most notable being William Wallace at the junction between Union Terrace and Rosemount Viaduct, Robert Burns
Robert Burns
on Union Terrace above Union Terrace Gardens, and Robert the Bruce holding aloft the charter he issued to the city in 1319 on Broad Street, outside Marischal College. Parks, gardens and open spaces[edit] Main article: Green spaces and walkways in Aberdeen Aberdeen
Aberdeen
has long been famous for its 45[9] parks and gardens, and citywide floral displays which include two million roses, eleven million daffodils and three million crocuses. The city has won the Royal Horticultural Society's Britain in Bloom
Britain in Bloom
'Best City' award ten times,[9] the overall Scotland
Scotland
in Bloom competition twenty times[9] and the large city category every year since 1968.[9] However, despite recent spurious reports, Aberdeen
Aberdeen
has never been banned from the Britain in Bloom
Britain in Bloom
competition.[62] The city won the 2006 Scotland
Scotland
in Bloom "Best City" award along with the International Cities in Bloom award. The suburb of Dyce
Dyce
also won the Small Towns award.[63][64]

Union Terrace Gardens, Aberdeen

Duthie Park
Duthie Park
opened in 1899 on the north bank of the River Dee. It was named after and given to the city by Miss Elizabeth Crombie Duthie of Ruthrieston in 1881. It has extensive gardens, a rose hill, boating pond, bandstand, and play area as well as Europe's second largest enclosed gardens the David Welch Winter Gardens. Hazlehead Park, is large and forested, located on the outskirts of the city, it is popular with walkers in the forests, sports enthusiasts, naturalists and picnickers. There are football pitches, two golf courses, a pitch and putt course and a horse riding school.

Duthie Park, Aberdeen, Scotland

Aberdeen's success in the Britain in Bloom
Britain in Bloom
competitions is often attributed to Johnston Gardens, a small park of one hectare in the west end of the city containing many different flowers and plants which have been renowned for their beauty. In 2002, the garden was named the best garden in the British Islands.[9] Seaton Park, formerly the grounds of a private house, is on the edge of the grounds of St Machar's Cathedral. The Cathedral Walk is maintained in a formal style with a great variety of plants providing a popular display. The park includes several other areas with contrasting styles to this. Union Terrace Gardens opened in 1879 and is situated in the centre of the city. It covers 2.5 acres (1.0 ha) in the centre of Aberdeen bordered on three sides by Union Street, Union Terrace and Rosemount Viaduct. The park forms a natural amphitheatre located in the Denburn Valley and is an oasis of peace and calm in the city centre. A recent proposal to build a three-storey concrete and steel superstructure in place of the gardens, part of which will provide a commercial concourse, has proved highly controversial.[citation needed] Situated next to each other, Victoria Park and Westburn Park
Westburn Park
cover 26 acres (11 ha) between them. Victoria Park opened in 1871. There is a conservatory used as a seating area and a fountain made of fourteen different granites, presented to the people by the granite polishers and master builders of Aberdeen. Opposite to the north is Westburn Park
Westburn Park
opened in 1901. With large grass pitches it is widely used for field sports. There is large tennis centre with indoor and outdoor courts, a children's cycle track, play area and a grass boules lawn. Theatres and concert halls[edit] Main article: Aberdeen
Aberdeen
theatres and concert halls

The Tivoli Theatre, Guild Street, Aberdeen

His Majesty's Theatre, Rosemount, Aberdeen

Aberdeen
Aberdeen
has hosted several theatres throughout its history, some of which have subsequently been converted or destroyed. The most famous include:

His Majesty's Theatre
His Majesty's Theatre
(HMT), on Rosemount Viaduct[65] The Tivoli, on Guild Street[66] Capitol Theatre, on Union Street Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Arts Centre, on King Street The Palace Theatre, on Bridge Street[67] The Lemon Tree on West North Street

The main concert hall is the Music Hall on Union Street, built in 1822. Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Aberdeen

Plaza outside railway station at Aberdeen
Aberdeen
in early morning, with Union Square to left

Aberdeen
Aberdeen
railway station, main concourse

Aberdeen Airport
Aberdeen Airport
(ABZ), at Dyce
Dyce
in the north of the city, serves domestic and international destinations including France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Belgium, Austria, Ireland and Scandinavian countries. The heliport which serves the oil industry and rescue services is one of the world's busiest commercial heliports.[7] Aberdeen railway station
Aberdeen railway station
is on the main UK rail network and Abellio ScotRail has frequent direct trains to major cities Edinburgh, Glasgow and Inverness. Virgin Trains East Coast
Virgin Trains East Coast
and the Caledonian Sleeper operate direct trains to London. The station is being updated to bring it into the modern age.[when?] In 2007 additions were made and a new ticket office was built in the building. The UK's longest direct rail journey runs from Aberdeen
Aberdeen
to Penzance. It is operated by CrossCountry, leaving Aberdeen
Aberdeen
at 08:20 and taking 13 hours and 23 minutes. Today, all railway services to the south run via Dundee. The faster main line from Aberdeen
Aberdeen
to Perth via Forfar
Forfar
and Strathmore closed in 1967 as a result of the Beeching cuts, and the faster main line from Perth to Edinburgh
Edinburgh
via Glenfarg
Glenfarg
also subsequently closed in 1970. Until 2007, a 1950s-style concrete bus station at Guild Street served out-of-the-city locations; it has since transferred to a new and well-presented bus station just 100 metres to the east off Market Street as part of the Union Square development. There are six major roads in and out of the city. The A90 is the main arterial route into the city from the north and south, linking Aberdeen
Aberdeen
to Edinburgh, Dundee, Brechin
Brechin
and Perth in the south and Ellon, Peterhead
Peterhead
and Fraserburgh
Fraserburgh
in the north. The A96 links Elgin and Inverness
Inverness
and the north west. The A93 is the main route to the west, heading towards Royal Deeside and the Cairngorms. After Braemar, it turns south, providing an alternative tourist route to Perth. The A944 also heads west, through Westhill and on to Alford. The A92 was the original southerly road to Aberdeen
Aberdeen
prior to the building of the A90, and is now used as a tourist route, connecting the towns of Montrose and Arbroath
Arbroath
and on the east coast. The A947 exits the city at Dyce and goes on to Newmachar, Oldmeldrum
Oldmeldrum
and Turriff
Turriff
finally ending at Banff and Macduff.

River Dee Railway Bridge, Aberdeen

After first being mooted some 60 years ago and being held up for the past five years by a number of legal challenges, Aberdeen's long-awaited Western Peripheral Route was given the go-ahead after campaigners lost their appeal to the UK Supreme Court in October 2012. The 30-mile (50 km) route is earmarked to be completed in 2018 and is hoped to significantly reduce traffic congestion in and around the city.[68] Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Harbour is important as the largest in the north of Scotland
Scotland
and serves the ferry route to Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland. Established in 1136, the harbour has been referred to as the oldest business in Britain.[69] FirstGroup
FirstGroup
operates the city buses under the name First Aberdeen, as the successor of Grampian
Grampian
Regional Transport (GRT) and Aberdeen Corporation Tramways. Aberdeen
Aberdeen
is the global headquarters of FirstGroup
FirstGroup
plc, having grown from the GRT Group. First is still based at the former Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Tramways depot on King Street,[70] which has now been redeveloped into a new Global Headquarters and Aberdeen
Aberdeen
bus depot. Stagecoach East Scotland
Scotland
also run buses in Aberdeen
Aberdeen
and Aberdeenshire, under the Stagecoach Bluebird brand. Megabus run buses from the bus station to places north and south of the city. National Express operate express coach services to London twice daily. The 590 service, operated by Bruce's Coaches
Bruce's Coaches
of Salsburgh
Salsburgh
operates in the morning and runs through the day, calling at Dundee, Perth, Glasgow, Hamilton, Carlisle, Milton Keynes, Golders Green
Golders Green
and Victoria Coach Station, whilst the 592 (operated by Parks of Hamilton) leaves in the evening and travels overnight, calling at Dundee, Glasgow, Hamilton, Carlisle, Heathrow Airport
Heathrow Airport
and Victoria Coach Station. In addition, there are Megabus services to London and Edinburgh
Edinburgh
and Scottish Citylink
Scottish Citylink
services to Glasgow, operated by Stagecoach East Scotland
Scotland
and Parks of Hamilton using the Citylink gold and blue livery. Aberdeen
Aberdeen
is connected to the UK National Cycle Network, and has a track to the south connecting to cities such as Dundee
Dundee
and Edinburgh and one to the north that forks about 10 miles (15 km) from the city into two different tracks heading to Inverness
Inverness
and Fraserburgh respectively. Two popular footpaths along old railway tracks are the Deeside Way
Deeside Way
to Banchory
Banchory
(which will eventually connect to Ballater) and the Formartine and Buchan Way
Formartine and Buchan Way
to Ellon, both used by a mixture of cyclists, walkers and occasionally horses. Four park-and-ride sites serve the city: Stonehaven
Stonehaven
and Ellon (approx 12 to 17 miles (19 to 27 km) out from the city centre) and Kingswells
Kingswells
and Bridge of Don (approx 3 to 4 miles (5 to 6 km) out). The Dee Estuary, Aberdeen's harbour, has continually been improved. Starting out as a fishing port, moving onto steam trawlers, the oil industry, it is now a major port of departure for the Baltic and Scandinavia.[71] Major exports include fertiliser, granite, and chemicals. Education[edit] Main article: Education in Aberdeen

Elphinstone Hall, Old Aberdeen

Sir Duncan Rice
Duncan Rice
Library, Aberdeen
Aberdeen
University, Aberdeen

King's College, Old Aberdeen

Universities and colleges[edit] Aberdeen
Aberdeen
has two universities, the ancient University of Aberdeen, and Robert Gordon University, a modern university often referred to as RGU. Aberdeen's student rate of 11.5% is higher than the national average of 7%.[72]

Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Business School at the Robert Gordon University

The University of Aberdeen
University of Aberdeen
began as King's College, Aberdeen, which was founded in 1495[71] by William Elphinstone
William Elphinstone
(1431–1514), Bishop of Aberdeen
Aberdeen
and Chancellor of Scotland. Marischal College, a separate institution, was founded in "New" Aberdeen
Aberdeen
by George Keith, fifth Earl Marischal of Scotland
Scotland
in 1593.[71] These institutions were merged by order of Parliament in 1860 to form the University of Aberdeen.[71] The university is the fifth oldest in the English-speaking world[73] and offers degrees in a full range of disciplines. Its main campus is in Old Aberdeen
Old Aberdeen
in the north of the city and it currently has approximately 14,000 students. The university's debating society is the oldest in Scotland, founded in 1848 as the King's College Debating Society.[74] Robert Gordon's College
Robert Gordon's College
(originally Robert Gordon's Hospital) was founded in 1750 by the merchant Robert Gordon,[71] grandson of the map maker Robert Gordon of Straloch, and was further endowed in 1816 by Alexander Simpson of Collyhill. Originally devoted to the instruction and maintenance of the sons of poor burgesses of guild and trade in the city, it was reorganised in 1881 as a day and night school for secondary and technical education. In 1903, the vocational education component of the college was designated a Central Institution and was renamed as the Robert Gordon Institute of Technology in 1965. In 1992, university status was awarded and it became Robert Gordon University. The university has expanded and developed significantly in recent years, and was named Best Modern University in the UK for 2012 by The Sunday Times. It was previously The Sunday Times
The Sunday Times
Scottish University of the Year for 2011, primarily because of its record on graduate employment. The citation for the 2011 award read: "With a graduate unemployment rate that is lower than the most famous universities, including Oxford
Oxford
and Cambridge, plus a flourishing reputation for research, high student satisfaction rates and ambitious plans for its picturesque campus, the Robert Gordon University
Robert Gordon University
is The Sunday Times Scottish University of the Year".[75] RGU had two campuses: one in the city centre at Schoolhill/St. Andrew Street and a larger suburban campus at Garthdee
Garthdee
and currently has approximately 15,500 students. As of 2013, the Garthdee
Garthdee
campus was expanded to include all schools, with the Schoolhill/St. Andrew Street campus being sold to Robert Gordon's College, and the building now functions as the school's Science and Technology Centre. The closure of the Schoolhill site includes the removal of the Student Union building, giving Aberdeen
Aberdeen
the dubious distinction of having two universities but no student bar.

Robert Gordon University
Robert Gordon University
– Sir Ian Wood building

North East Scotland
Scotland
College

Aberdeen
Aberdeen
is also home to two artistic schools: Gray's School of Art, founded in 1886, which is one of the oldest established colleges of art in the UK. The Scott Sutherland School of Architecture and the Built Environment, was one of the first architectural schools to have its training courses recognised by the Royal Institute of British Architects. Both are now part of Robert Gordon University
Robert Gordon University
and are based at its Garthdee
Garthdee
campus. North East Scotland
Scotland
College has several campuses in the city and offers a wide variety of part-time and full-time courses leading to several different qualifications in science. The Scottish Agricultural College is based just outside Aberdeen, on the Craibstone Estate. This is situated beside the roundabout for Aberdeen Airport
Aberdeen Airport
on the A96. The college provides three services—Learning, Research and Consultancy. The college features many land based courses such as Agriculture, Countryside Management, Sustainable Environmental Management and Rural Business Management. There are a variety of courses from diplomas through to master's degrees. The Marine Laboratory Aberdeen, which specialises in fisheries, Macaulay Land Use Research Institute (soil science), and the Rowett Research Institute
Rowett Research Institute
(animal nutrition) are some other higher education institutions.[71] Schools[edit]

Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Grammar School

Woodside School, dating from 1890

There are currently 12 secondary schools and 54 primary schools which are run by the city council. The most notable are Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Grammar School (founded in 1257), Harlaw Academy, Cults Academy, and Oldmachar Academy which were all rated in the top 50 Scottish secondary schools league tables published by The Times
The Times
in 2005. Harlaw Academy was taken down from the list after a short time but is still a popular school.[76] There are a number of private schools in Aberdeen: Robert Gordon's College, Albyn School for Girls (co-educational as of 2005), St Margaret's School for Girls, the Hamilton School
Hamilton School
(closed by the Child Care Inspectorate in early 2014), the Total French School (for French oil industry families), the International School of Aberdeen and a Waldorf/Steiner School. Primary schools in Aberdeen
Aberdeen
include Airyhall Primary School, Albyn School, Ashley Road Primary School, Balgownie Primary School, Broomhill Primary School, Cornhill Primary School (the city's largest), Culter Primary School, Cults Primary School, Danestone
Danestone
Primary School, Fernielea Primary school, Ferryhill Primary School, Gilcomstoun Primary School, Glashieburn Primary School, Hamilton School, Kaimhill Primary School, Kingsford Primary School, Kittybrewster
Kittybrewster
Primary School, Mile-End School, Muirfield Primary School, Robert Gordon's College, Skene Square Primary School, St. Joseph's Primary School and St Margaret's School for Girls. Culture[edit] Main article: Culture in Aberdeen

Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Art Gallery

Maritime Museum, Shiprow

.[77] The city has a wide range of cultural activities, amenities and museums.[78] The city is regularly visited by Scotland's National Arts Companies. The Aberdeen Art Gallery
Aberdeen Art Gallery
houses a collection of Impressionist, Victorian, Scottish and 20th-century British paintings as well as collections of silver and glass. It also includes The Alexander Macdonald Bequest, a collection of late 19th century works donated by the museum's first benefactor and a constantly changing collection of contemporary work and regular visiting exhibitions.[79] Museums and galleries[edit] The Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Maritime Museum, located in Shiprow, tells the story of Aberdeen's links with the sea from the days of sail and clipper ships to the latest oil and gas exploration technology. It includes an 8.5-metre-high (28 ft) model of the Murchison oil production platform and a 19th-century assembly taken from Rattray Head lighthouse Provost Ross' House is the second oldest dwelling house in the city. It was built in 1593 and became the residence of Provost John Ross of Arnage in 1702. The house retains some original medieval features, including a kitchen, fireplaces and beam-and-board ceilings.[80] The Gordon Highlanders Museum
Gordon Highlanders Museum
tells the story of one of Scotland's best known regiments.[81]

Provost Skene's House Museum, dating from 1545

The Tolbooth Museum, a 17th-century jail

Marischal Museum
Marischal Museum
holds the principal collections of the University of Aberdeen, comprising some 80,000 items in the areas of fine art, Scottish history and archaeology, and European, Mediterranean and Near Eastern archaeology. The permanent displays and reference collections are augmented by regular temporary exhibitions.[82] It closed to the public in 2008 for renovations; its reopening date has yet to be confirmed.[83] The King's Museum
King's Museum
acts as the main museum of the university in the meantime. Festivals and performing arts[edit] Aberdeen
Aberdeen
is home to a number of events and festivals including the Aberdeen International Youth Festival
Aberdeen International Youth Festival
(the world's largest arts festival for young performers), Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Jazz Festival, Aberdeen Alternative Festival, Rootin' Aboot (a folk and roots music event), Triptych, the University of Aberdeen's literature festival Word and DanceLive, Scotland's only Festival of contemporary dance, which is produced by the city's Citymoves dance organisation.

Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Exhibition and Conference Centre

The Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Student Show, performed annually without interruption since 1921, under the auspices of the Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Students' Charities Campaign, is the longest-running of its kind in the United Kingdom. It is written, produced and performed by students and graduates of Aberdeen's universities and higher education institutions. Since 1929—other than on a handful of occasions—it has been staged at His Majesty's Theatre. The Student Show traditionally combines comedy and music, inspired by the North-East's Doric dialect and humour.

Gordon Highlanders Museum, Aberdeen

National festivals which visited Aberdeen
Aberdeen
in 2012 included the British Science Festival in September, hosted by the University of Aberdeen but with events also taking place at Robert Gordon University
Robert Gordon University
and at other venues across the city. In February 2012 the University of Aberdeen
Aberdeen
also hosted the Inter Varsity Folk Dance Festival, the longest running folk festival in the United Kingdom. Music and film[edit]

Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Arts Centre

Aberdeen's music scene includes a variety of live music venues including pubs, clubs, and church choirs. The bars of Belmont Street are particularly known for featuring live music. Ceilidhs are also common in the city's halls. Popular music venues include the Aberdeen Exhibition and Conference Centre (AECC), Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Music Hall, along with smaller venues such as The Tunnels, The Moorings, Drummonds, Downstairs, The Lemon Tree and The Garage. Notable Aberdonian musicians include Annie Lennox, Emeli Sandé, cult band Pallas and contemporary composer John McLeod. There are many local bands including Grader, Sleepless, Hayworth, Deceptions, Without Reason, Monroe and Deadfire A large proportion of Aberdeen's classical music scene is based around the ensembles of Aberdeen
Aberdeen
University's music department, notably the Symphony Orchestra, Marischal Chamber Orchestra, and the Concert Band.

The Music Hall, Union Street, Aberdeen

Cultural cinema, educational work and local film events are provided by The Belmont Picturehouse on Belmont Street, Peacock Visual Arts and The Foyer. The only Doric speaking feature film was released in 2008 by Stirton Productions and Canny Films. One Day Removals is a black comedy/adult drama starring Patrick Wight and Scott Ironside and tells the tale of two unlucky removal men whose day goes from bad to worse. It was filmed on location in Aberdeenshire
Aberdeenshire
for a budget of £60,000.

The Cowdray Hall, Aberdeen

Dialect[edit]

Satrosphere, Science Centre Links Road

Main article: Mid Northern Scots Listen to recordings of a speaker of Scots from Aberdeen The local dialect of Lowland Scots is often known as Doric, and is spoken not just in the city, but across the north-east of Scotland. It differs somewhat from other Scots dialects most noticeable are the pronunciation f for what is normally written wh and ee for what in standard English would usually be written oo (Scots ui). Every year the annual Doric Festival[84] takes place in Aberdeenshire
Aberdeenshire
to celebrate the history of the north-east's language. As with all Scots dialects in urban areas, it is not spoken as widely as it used to be in Aberdeen. Media[edit] Main article: Media in Aberdeen Aberdeen
Aberdeen
is home to Scotland's oldest newspaper the Press and Journal, a local and regional newspaper first published in 1747. The Press and Journal and its sister paper the tabloid Evening Express are printed six days a week by Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Journals. There is one free newspaper, the Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Citizen. BBC Scotland
Scotland
has a network studio production base in the city's Beechgrove area, and BBC Aberdeen
Aberdeen
produces The Beechgrove Potting Shed for radio while Tern Television produces The Beechgrove Garden television programme.[85] The city is also home to STV North (formerly Grampian
Grampian
Television), which produces the regional news programmes such as STV News at Six, as well as local commercials. The station, based at Craigshaw Business Park in Tullos, was based at larger studios in Queens Cross
Queens Cross
from September 1961 until June 2003. There are three commercial radio stations operating in the city: Northsound Radio, which runs Northsound 1
Northsound 1
and Northsound 2, and independent station Original 106. Other radio stations include NECR FM (North-East Community Radio FM) DAB station,[86] and shmu FM[87] managed by Station House Media Unit[88] which supports community members to run Aberdeen's first (and only) full-time community radio station, broadcasting on 99.8 MHz FM. Food[edit]

Aberdeen
Aberdeen
butteries, also known as rowies, served with jam

The Aberdeen
Aberdeen
region has given its name to a number of dishes, including the Aberdeen
Aberdeen
buttery (also known as "rowie")[89] and Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Sausage.[90] The Aberdeen
Aberdeen
buttery is more frequently seen and is sold at bakeries and supermarkets throughout the city. It is comparable to a croissant that is flat and round with a buttery, savoury taste and flaky texture. It is often toasted and served plain or with butter or jam. In 2015, a study was published in The Scotsman
The Scotsman
which analysed the presence of branded fast food outlets in Scotland. Of the ten towns and cities analysed, Aberdeen
Aberdeen
was found to have the lowest per capita concentration, with just 0.12 stores per 1,000 inhabitants.[91] Sport[edit] Main article: Sport in Aberdeen Football[edit]

Pittodrie Stadium
Pittodrie Stadium
viewed from Broad Hill

SPFL football club, Aberdeen F.C.
Aberdeen F.C.
play at Pittodrie Stadium. The club won the European Cup Winners Cup
European Cup Winners Cup
and the European Super Cup
European Super Cup
in 1983, the Scottish Premier League
Scottish Premier League
Championship four times (1955, 1980, 1984 and 1985), and the Scottish Cup
Scottish Cup
seven times (1947, 1970, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1986 and 1990). Under the management of Alex Ferguson, Aberdeen was a major force in British football during the 1980s. As of the 2016–17 season, the club is managed by Derek McInnes. There are plans to build a new Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Stadium in the future. Under the management of McInnes the team won the 2014 Scottish League Cup and followed it up with a second place league finish for the first time for more than 20 years in the following season. The other senior team is Cove Rangers F.C.
Cove Rangers F.C.
of the Highland Football League (HFL), who play at Allan Park in the suburb of Cove Bay, although they will be moving to Calder Park once it is built to boost their chances of getting into the Scottish Football League.[92] Cove won the HFL championship in 2001, 2008, 2009 and 2013. There was also a historic senior team Bon Accord F.C. who no longer play. Local junior teams include Banks O' Dee F.C., Culter F.C., F.C. Stoneywood, Glentanar F.C., Sunnybank and Hermes F.C.. Rugby Union[edit] Aberdeen
Aberdeen
hosted Caledonia Reds
Caledonia Reds
a Scottish rugby team, before they merged with the Glasgow
Glasgow
Warriors in 1998. The city is also home to the Scottish Premiership Division One rugby club Aberdeen GSFP RFC
Aberdeen GSFP RFC
who play at Rubislaw
Rubislaw
Playing Fields, and Aberdeenshire
Aberdeenshire
RFC which was founded in 1875 and runs Junior, Senior Men's, Senior Ladies and Touch sections from the Woodside Sports Complex[93] and also Aberdeen Wanderers RFC. Former Wanderers' player Jason White was captain of the Scotland
Scotland
national rugby union team. Aberdeenshire
Aberdeenshire
Rugby Football Club is based in the North of the city at Woodside Sports Complex[94] near the Great North Road on the banks of the river Don. They currently play in the Scottish League Championship B (East), the 3rd tier of club rugby. In 2005 the President of the SRU said it was hoped eventually to establish a professional team in Aberdeen.[95] In November 2008 the city hosted a rugby international at Pittodrie between Scotland
Scotland
and Canada, with Scotland
Scotland
winning 41–0.[96] In November 2010 the city once again hosted a rugby international at Pittodrie between Scotland and Samoa, with Scotland
Scotland
winning 19–16. Rugby League[edit] Aberdeen Warriors
Aberdeen Warriors
rugby league team play in the Scotland
Scotland
Rugby League Conference Division One. The Warriors also run Under 15's and 17's teams. Aberdeen Grammar School
Aberdeen Grammar School
won the Saltire Schools Cup in 2011.[97] Golf[edit]

Hazlehead Golf Course, Aberdeen

The Royal Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Golf Club, founded in 1780 and the oldest golf club in Aberdeen, hosted the Senior British Open
Senior British Open
in 2005, and the amateur team event the Walker Cup in 2011.[98] Royal Aberdeen
Aberdeen
also hosted the Scottish Open in 2014, won by Justin Rose.[99] The club has a second course, and there are public golf courses at Auchmill, Balnagask, Hazlehead and King's Links.[100] The 1999 winner of The Open Championship, Paul Lawrie, hails from the city. There are new courses planned for the area, including world class facilities with major financial backing, the city and shire are set to become a hotbed for golf tourism. In Summer 2012, Donald Trump
Donald Trump
opened a new state of the art golf course at Menie, just north of the city, as the Trump International Golf Links, Scotland.

Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Aquatics Centre – Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Sports Village

Swimming[edit] The City
City
of Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Swim Team (COAST) was based in Northfield swimming pool, but since the opening of the Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Aquatics Centre in 2014, it is now based there, as it has a 50 m pool as opposed to the 25 m pool at Northfield. It has been in operation since 1996. The team comprises several smaller swimming clubs, and has enjoyed success throughout Scotland
Scotland
and in international competitions. Three of the team's swimmers qualified for the 2006 Commonwealth Games.[101] Rowing[edit]

Rowers under Wellington Suspension Bridge
Wellington Suspension Bridge
on the River Dee, Aberdeen

There are four boat clubs that row on the River Dee: Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Boat Club (ABC), Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Schools Rowing Association (ASRA), Aberdeen University Boat Club (AUBC) and Robert Gordon University
Robert Gordon University
Boat Club (RGUBC). There are regattas and head races annually, managed by the Committee of the Dee. There is also a boat race held every year between AUBC and RGUBC. The race is in mixed eights, and usually held in late February / early March. Cricket[edit] Aberdeen
Aberdeen
boasts a large cricket community with 4 local leagues operating that comprise a total of 25 clubs fielding 36 teams. The city has two national league sides, Aberdeenshire
Aberdeenshire
and Stoneywood-Dyce. Local 'Grades'[102] cricket has been played in Aberdeen
Aberdeen
since 1884. Aberdeenshire
Aberdeenshire
were the 2009 & 2014 Scottish National Premier League and Scottish Cup
Scottish Cup
Champions[103] Ice hockey[edit] Aberdeen Lynx
Aberdeen Lynx
are an amateur ice hockey team who play in the Scottish National League and are based at the Linx Ice Arena. The arena has a seating capacity of 1,100. The club also field teams at the Under 20, Under 16, Under 14 and Under 12 age groups. Other sports[edit] The city council operates public tennis courts in various parks including an indoor tennis centre at Westburn Park. The Beach Leisure Centre is home to a climbing wall, gymnasium and a swimming pool. There are numerous swimming pools dotted around the city notably the largest, the Bon-Accord Baths which closed down in 2006.[104] Aberdeen
Aberdeen
City
City
council also have an outdoor education service which is now known as adventure aberdeen, that provides abseiling, surfing, white water rafting, gorge walking, kayaking and open canoeing, mountaineering, sailing, mountain biking and rock climbing. They say they aim to "Inspire learning through adventure", and have many programs for children and adults.[105] In common with many other major towns and cities in the UK, Aberdeen has an active roller derby league, Granite
Granite
City
City
Roller Girls.[106] The Aberdeen Roughnecks
Aberdeen Roughnecks
American football club are a new team which started in 2012. They are an adult contact team who currently train at Seaton Park. This is the first team which Aberdeen
Aberdeen
has enjoyed since the Granite
Granite
City
City
Oilers were wound up in the late 1990s. Aberdeen Oilers Floorball Club was founded in 2007. The club initially attracted a range of experienced Scandinavian and other European players who were studying in Aberdeen. Since their formation, Aberdeen Oilers have played in the British Floorball Northern League and went on to win the league in the 2008/09 season. The club played a major role in setting up a ladies league in Scotland. The Oilers' ladies team ended up second in the first ladies league season (2008/09).[107] Public services[edit]

New Royal Aberdeen's Children Hospital and New Emergency Care Centre in background, Foresterhill, Aberdeen

Police Scotland's Aberdeen
Aberdeen
HQ, Queen Street

The public health service in Scotland, NHS Scotland
Scotland
provides for the people of Aberdeen
Aberdeen
through the NHS Grampian
NHS Grampian
health board. Aberdeen Royal Infirmary is the largest hospital in the city and one of the largest in Europe[108][109] (the location of the city's A&E department), Royal Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Children's Hospital, a paediatric hospital, Royal Cornhill Hospital for mental health, Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, an antenatal hospital, Woodend Hospital, which specialises in rehabilitation and long term illnesses and conditions, and City
City
Hospital and Woolmanhill Hospital, which host several out-patient clinics and offices. Albyn Hospital
Albyn Hospital
is a private hospital located in the west end of the city. Aberdeen City Council
Aberdeen City Council
is responsible for city owned infrastructure which is paid for by a mixture of council tax and income from HM Treasury. Infrastructure and services run by the council include: clearing snow in winter, city wardens, maintaining parks, refuse collection, sewage, street cleaning and street lighting. Infrastructure in private hands includes electricity, gas and telecoms. Water supplies are provided by Scottish Water.

Police: Policing in Aberdeen
Aberdeen
is the responsibility of Police Scotland (the British Transport Police
British Transport Police
has responsibility for railways). The Grampian
Grampian
Division of Police Scotland
Scotland
headquarters (and Aberdeen divisional headquarters) is located in Queen Street, Aberdeen. Ambulance: The North East divisional headquarters of the Scottish Ambulance Service is located in Aberdeen.[110] Fire and rescue: This is the responsibility of the Scottish Fire and Rescue Service. Lifeboat: The Royal National Lifeboat Institution
Royal National Lifeboat Institution
operates Aberdeen Lifeboat Station. It is located at Victoria Dock Entrance in York Place.[111] The current building was opened in 1997.

Twin cities[edit] Aberdeen
Aberdeen
is twinned with Regensburg, Germany (1955),[112] Clermont-Ferrand, France (1983),[112] Bulawayo, Zimbabwe (1986),[112] Stavanger, Norway
Norway
(1990),[112] Gomel, Belarus (1990) and Barranquilla, Colombia (2016).[112] Houston, Texas, is twinned with the former region of Grampian, of which Aberdeen
Aberdeen
was the largest settlement. Notable people[edit] Main article: List of Aberdonians

George Gordon Byron

Leslie Benzies, Former president of Rockstar North, creators of the critically acclaimed Grand Theft Auto
Grand Theft Auto
series. Scott Booth, former football player, played for Aberdeen
Aberdeen
F.C., FC Twente, Borussia Dortmund
Borussia Dortmund
and the Scottish national football team. Lord Byron, poet, was raised (age 2–10) in Aberdeen. David Carry, swimmer, 2x 2006 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
gold medallist. Henry Cecil, one of the most successful horse trainers of all time. Oswald Chambers, author of My Utmost For His Highest Andrew Cruickshank, actor famous for his role in Dr Finlay's Casebook John Mathieson Dodds, apprentice and engineer with Metrovick, Manchester
Manchester
and radar pioneer in Chain Home defence system for 1940 Battle of Britain. Neil Fachie, cyclist, 2012 Paralympic Games
2012 Paralympic Games
gold and silver medallist. Simon Farquhar, playwright. Bertie Charles Forbes
Bertie Charles Forbes
(from New Deer, Aberdeenshire), founded Forbes. Graeme Garden, author, actor, comedian, artist, TV presenter, famous for The Goodies. Ryan Gauld, footballer who currently plays for Sporting Lisbon
Sporting Lisbon
in the Portuguese Primeira Liga. James Gibbs, 18th-century architect. George Jamesone, Scotland's first eminent portrait-painter. Reginald Victor Jones, physicist, Chair of Natural Philosophy at the University of Aberdeen, author. Denis Law, former football player, played for Manchester
Manchester
City, Manchester
Manchester
United and the Scottish national football team, joint all-time record Scotland
Scotland
goalscorer with thirty goals. Paul Lawrie, golfer, winner of the 1999 Open Championship. Annie Lennox, musician, winner of eight Brit Awards, grew up in Ellon. Rose Leslie, actress, best known for playing Ygritte in HBO's Game of Thrones. James Clerk Maxwell, Chair of Natural Philosophy at Marischal College, Aberdeen
Aberdeen
from 1856 to 1860. Robbie Renwick, swimmer, 1x 2010 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
gold medallist. Professor Sir C. Duncan Rice, historian, former principal of the University of Aberdeen. Archibald Simpson, architect, one of Aberdeen's major architects. John Smith, architect, Aberdeen's other major architect and official City
City
Architect Nicol Stephen, former Scottish Liberal Democrats
Scottish Liberal Democrats
leader, former Deputy First Minister of Scotland John Strachan, first Anglican Bishop of Toronto. Ron Yeats, former football player, captain of the first great Liverpool
Liverpool
team of the 1960s, also played for the Scottish national football team.

Aberdeen
Aberdeen
in popular culture[edit]

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Stuart MacBride's crime novels, Cold Granite, Dying Light, Broken Skin, Flesh House, Blind Eye and Dark Blood (a series with main protagonist, DS Logan MacRae) are all set in Aberdeen. DS Logan MacRae is a Grampian
Grampian
Police officer and locations found in the books can be found in Aberdeen
Aberdeen
and the surrounding countryside. A large part of the plot of the World War II
World War II
spy thriller Eye of the Needle takes place in wartime Aberdeen, from which a German spy is trying to escape to a submarine waiting offshore. Stewart Home's sex and literary obsessed contemporary novel 69 Things to Do with a Dead Princess is set in Aberdeen. A portion of Ian Rankin's novel Black and Blue (1997) is set in Aberdeen, where its nickname "Furry Boots" is noted.[113] Sarah Jane Smith
Sarah Jane Smith
from the popular science fiction show Doctor Who
Doctor Who
was accidentally returned to Aberdeen
Aberdeen
instead of her home in South Croydon by the fourth incarnation of the Doctor. The Channel 4 sitcom Peep Show makes occasional reference to Aberdeen, as the employer of one of the main characters has an office in Aberdeen. In one episode Mark Corrigan is desperate to be put on secondment to Aberdeen
Aberdeen
so as to spend some time with his love interest, Sophie, whilst in another episode, Mark's boss, Alan Johnson, announces that he is "just back from Aberdeen." The pop music groups Danny Wilson and Royseven, as well as alternative rock group Cage the Elephant
Cage the Elephant
have all recorded songs called 'Aberdeen'. The fictional character Groundskeeper Willie, a recurring character on the USA TV show "The Simpsons" is heard cheering "Go Aberdeen" upon waking up from a dream in the episode titled 'Scuse Me While I Miss the Sky. Also, in an episode when Homer and Mr Burns go to Loch Ness in search of the Loch Ness
Loch Ness
Monster, they discover a fake version of the monster with graffiti which reads 'Stomp Aberdeen'. Homer then goes on to proclaim that ' Aberdeen
Aberdeen
rules!'. This is in spite of the fact that Groundskeeper Willie
Groundskeeper Willie
does not have an Aberdeen
Aberdeen
accent. Star Trek's chief engineer, Montgomery Scott, described himself as "an old Aberdeen
Aberdeen
pub crawler" in the episode "Wolf in the Fold" (however, actor James Doohan
James Doohan
does not speak with an Aberdeenshire
Aberdeenshire
accent). In Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Aberdeen
Aberdeen
is mentioned as one of the stops of The Knight Bus. Aberdeen
Aberdeen
is mentioned in Under the Lake, the third episode of the ninth series of the popular science fiction show Doctor Who. Looking to portray a socially acceptable level of empathy, The Doctor flips through a series of cue cards. One of the cards reads, "It was my fault, I should have known you didn't live in Aberdeen."

See also[edit]

Scotland
Scotland
portal

Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Bestiary Aberdeen
Aberdeen
City
City
Youth Council Aberdeen
Aberdeen
typhoid outbreak 1964 Aberdonia (other) List of places in Aberdeen List of places in Scotland Our Lady of Aberdeen William Wallace
William Wallace
Statue, Aberdeen William Wallace
William Wallace
Statue, Bemersyde

References[edit]

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Granite
City". Aberdeen
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and Grampian
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Tourist Board. Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 16 December 2016.  ^ "About Aberdeen". University of Aberdeen. Archived from the original on 5 February 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2007.  ^ a b "Welcome to Aberdeen". Aberdeen
Aberdeen
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Aberdeen
airport". The Daily Telegraph. 3 March 2009. Retrieved 7 June 2017.  ^ "Architecture of Aberdeen, Scotland". Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 23 May 2007.  ^ a b c d e f "Floral Capital of Scotland". British Publishing. 20 February 2007. Archived from the original on 1 April 2007.  ^ "2012 Quality of Living survey". Mercer.com. 4 March 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2015.  ^ " Aberdeen
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Granite
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City
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Aberdeen
1644. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Tempus Publishing.  ^  Henderson, Thomas Finlayson (1890). "Gordon, George (d.1649)". In Stephen, Leslie; Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 22. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 190–194.  ^ Charnock, Richard Stephen (1859). Local Etymology: A Derivative Dictionary of Geographical Names. Houlston and Wright.  ^ " Aberdeen
Aberdeen
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Aberdeen
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Aberdeen
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City
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Aberdeen
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Aberdeen
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Aberdeen
climate information". Met Office. Retrieved 5 August 2015.  ^ " Dyce
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Aberdeen
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Rubislaw
Quarry
Quarry
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Aberdeen
Harbour: A History of Service". Aberdeen
Aberdeen
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City
With One Foot on the Seafloor". The New York
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Aberdeen
'best-placed city for growth' in Britain". BBC News. Retrieved 18 October 2012.  ^ "Record rise in North Sea oil
North Sea oil
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Aberdeen
a leader in patents race". Evening Express. Retrieved 2 February 2016.  ^ " Aberdeen
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Fairtrade". Aberdeenfairtrade.org.uk. Archived from the original on 25 December 2009. Retrieved 25 June 2009.  ^ "Overview of Town House". University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 25 June 2009.  ^ "Overview of Marischal College". University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 25 June 2009.  ^ Simpson, Maureen (22 September 2006). "We're top of Brit parade". Press and Journal. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007.  ^ "2006 winners". Royal Horticultural Society. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2007.  ^ "Aberdeen's blooming success goes worldwide". Press and Journal. 28 December 2006. Archived from the original on 22 December 2004.  ^ Edi Swan: His Majesty's Theatre
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– One Hundred Years of Glorious Damnation (Black & White Publishing) (2006); ISBN 978-1-84502-102-3 ^ " Aberdeen
Aberdeen
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Aberdeen
Theatres and Halls". Arthurlloyd.co.uk. 13 March 2004. Retrieved 25 August 2011.  ^ " Aberdeen
Aberdeen
bypass set to proceed after Supreme Court appeal rejected". BBC. 17 October 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012.  ^ "It's a fact: 50 things you may not have known about Aberdeen". Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Official Guide. Archived from the original on 7 December 2006. Retrieved 15 February 2007.  ^ "www.firstgroup.com The History of 395 King Street 1862–2007". FirstGroup. 20 January 1989. Retrieved 25 June 2009.  ^ a b c d e f Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Aberdeen". Encyclopædia Britannica. I: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. pp. 27–28. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.  ^ "Comparative Education Profile: Aberdeen City Council
Aberdeen City Council
Area, Scotland". Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 21 February 2007.  ^ Carter, Jennifer (1994). Crown and Gown: Illustrated History of the University of Aberdeen, 1495–1995. Aberdeen: Aberdeen
Aberdeen
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Aberdeen
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Aberdeen
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Aberdeen
Maritime Museum". Aberdeen
Aberdeen
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Aberdeen
Culture". Aberdeen
Aberdeen
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Aberdeen
Art Gallery". Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Art Galleries and Museums. Archived from the original on 6 December 2006. Retrieved 18 February 2007.  ^ "Provost Ross' House". The Gazetteer for Scotland. Retrieved 18 February 2007.  ^ "The Gordon Highlanders Museum". Army Museums Ogilby Trust. Archived from the original on 26 September 2006. Retrieved 18 February 2007.  ^ "Marischal Museum: Introduction". University of Aberdeen. Archived from the original on 7 February 2007. Retrieved 18 February 2007.  ^ "Marischal Museum. Visiting and Contacting the Museum. University of Aberdeen". Abdn.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012.  ^ "The Doric Festival". The Doric Festival. Archived from the original on 1 July 2009. Retrieved 25 June 2009.  ^ "The Beechgrove Garden". Tern Television. Archived from the original on 9 March 2012.  ^ "Digital Radio Now, Station List". Archived from the original on 26 October 2007.  ^ "Shmu community media productions". Shmufm.net. Retrieved 25 June 2009.  ^ "Shmu community media productions". Shmu.org.uk. Archived from the original on 19 June 2009. Retrieved 25 June 2009.  ^ "Aberdeen_Rowie". EatScotlank.com (Scotland's National Tourism Organisation). Retrieved 23 March 2012.  ^ " Aberdeen
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Aberdeen
pro-team". BBC Sport. 13 September 2005. Retrieved 25 June 2009.  ^ [1][dead link] ^ " Scotland
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Rugby League". Scotlandrl.com. 20 April 2011. Archived from the original on 4 October 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2011.  ^ "Golf event to swing into Aberdeen". BBC. 8 May 2006.  ^ Ewan Murray (13 July 2014). " Justin Rose
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City
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Swim Team". Archived from the original on 31 March 2009. Retrieved 16 April 2009.  ^ " Aberdeen
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Grades Association".  ^ "Dons do double by D/L". Cricket
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City
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Roller Girls league site". Archived from the original on 2 March 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2011.  ^ " Aberdeen
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Oilers Floorball Club". Archived from the original on 18 December 2014.  ^ Aitken, Louise (September 2016), " Aberdeen Royal Infirmary
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to hit new heights as it marks its 80th year", Evening Express, retrieved 5 March 2018  ^ " Aberdeen Royal Infirmary
Aberdeen Royal Infirmary
reconfiguration". Robertson Group. Retrieved 5 March 2018.  ^ [2][dead link] ^ " Aberdeen
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Lifeboat". RNLI Aberdeen. Archived from the original on 5 June 2009. Retrieved 25 June 2009.  ^ a b c d e "Aberdeen's Twin Cities". Aberdeen
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City
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Further reading[edit]

Carter, Jennifer (1994). Crown and Gown: Illustrated History of the University of Aberdeen, 1495–1995. Aberdeen
Aberdeen
University Press. ISBN 1-85752-240-0.  Fraser, W. Hamish (2000). Aberdeen, 1800 to 2000: A New History. Tuckwell Press. ISBN 1-86232-175-2.  Keith, Alexander (1987). A Thousand Years of Aberdeen. Aberdeen University Press. ISBN 0-900015-29-2.  Stuart, John, ed. (1871). Extracts from the Council register of the burgh of Aberdeen
Aberdeen
1625–1642. 1. Edinburgh: Scottish Burgh
Burgh
Records Society.  Stuart, John, ed. (1871). Extracts from the Council register of the burgh of Aberdeen
Aberdeen
1643–1747. 2. Edinburgh: Scottish Burgh
Burgh
Records Society. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aberdeen.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Aberdeen.

Aberdeen
Aberdeen
City
City
Council Aberdeen
Aberdeen
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) A collection of historic maps of Aberdeen
Aberdeen
from the 1660s onward at National Library of Scotland A selection of archive films relating to Aberdeen
Aberdeen
at the Scottish Screen Archive Engraving of Aberdeen
Aberdeen
in 1693 by John Slezer
John Slezer
at National Library of Scotland Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Tourist Guide Aberdeen
Aberdeen
listings and review Texts on Wikisource:

"Aberdeen". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 47–49.  " Aberdeen
Aberdeen
(Scotland)". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921. 

v t e

Aberdeen

History

Etymology Heraldry Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Castle Battle of Aberdeen
Aberdeen
(1644) Battle of Aberdeen
Aberdeen
(1646) River Dee ferryboat disaster 1964 Aberdeen
Aberdeen
typhoid outbreak

Politics

Aberdeen
Aberdeen
City
City
Council Provosts and Lord Provosts Members of Parliament Members of the Scottish Parliament

Geography

Areas of Aberdeen River Dee River Don

Culture

Parks and Gardens Theatres and Concert Halls Architecture Doric Dialect Aberdeen
Aberdeen
International Youth Festival

Transport

Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Airport Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Railway Station

Education

University of Aberdeen The Robert Gordon University North East Scotland
Scotland
College Secondary Schools Primary Schools

Religion

Diocese
Diocese
of Aberdeen Bishop of Aberdeen Diocese
Diocese
of Aberdeen
Aberdeen
and Orkney Bishop of Aberdeen and Orkney Presbytery

Sport

Football Clubs

Aberdeen
Aberdeen
F.C. Cove Rangers F.C.

Aberdeen
Aberdeen
International Football Festival Aberdeen
Aberdeen
GSFP RFC Royal Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Golf Club Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Warriors

Economy

Petroleum industry Media Retail

See also

Notable Aberdonians

Category

Articles relating to Aberdeen

v t e

Areas of Aberdeen

Altens Berryden Bieldside Braeside Bridge of Don Broomhill Bucksburn Cornhill Cove Bay Craigiebuckler Cults Cummings Park Danestone Dyce Ferryhill Footdee Foresterhill Garthdee Hazlehead Hilton Kaimhill Kincorth Kingswells Kittybrewster Mannofield Mastrick Midstocket Milltimber Nigg Northfield Old Aberdeen Peterculter Queen's Cross Rosemount Rubislaw Seaton Stoneywood Summerhill Tillydrone Torry Tullos West End Woodside

v t e

Council areas of Scotland

Aberdeen Aberdeenshire Angus Argyll and Bute Clackmannanshire Dumfries and Galloway Dundee East Ayrshire East Dunbartonshire East Lothian East Renfrewshire Edinburgh Falkirk Fife Glasgow Highland Inverclyde Midlothian Moray Na h-Eileanan Siar (Western Isles) North Ayrshire North Lanarkshire Orkney Perth and Kinross Renfrewshire Scottish Borders Shetland South Ayrshire South Lanarkshire Stirling West Dunbartonshire West Lothian

List by area, population, density

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Cities of the United Kingdom

England

Bath Birmingham Bradford Brighton and Hove Bristol Cambridge Canterbury Carlisle Chelmsford Chester Chichester Coventry Derby Durham Ely Exeter Gloucester Hereford Kingston upon Hull Lancaster Leeds Leicester Lichfield Lincoln Liverpool London Manchester Newcastle upon Tyne Norwich Nottingham Oxford Peterborough Plymouth Portsmouth Preston Ripon St Albans Salford Salisbury Sheffield Southampton Stoke-on-Trent Sunderland Truro Wakefield Wells Westminster Winchester Wolverhampton Worcester York

Scotland

Aberdeen Dundee Edinburgh Glasgow Inverness Perth Stirling

Wales

Bangor Cardiff Newport St Asaph St Davids Swansea

Northern Ireland

Armagh Belfast Derry Lisburn Newry

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 157104604 LCCN: n80079

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