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Zenata
The Zenata
Zenata
(Berber: Iznaten, ⵉⵣⵏⴰⵜⴻⵏ[citation needed] or Iznasen, ⵉⵣⵏⴰⵙⴻⵏ; Arabic: زناتة‎ Zanātah) were a Berber tribe, who inhabited an area stretching from western Egypt
Egypt
to Morocco
Morocco
in antiquity along with the Sanhaja
Sanhaja
and Masmuda.[1] Their lifestyle was mainly nomadic.[2][3] The Zenata
Zenata
adopted Islam early, still in the 7th century. While other Berber tribes continued to resist the Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
conquest well into the 8th century, they were quickly Arabized.[4] They also formed a substantial contingent in the subsequent Muslim invasion of Iberia. The 14th-century historiographer Ibn Khaldun
Ibn Khaldun
reports that the Zenata were divided into three large tribes: Jarawa, Maghrawa, and Banu Ifran
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Nasamones
The Nasamones were a nomadic Berber tribe inhabiting southeast Libya. They were mistakenly believed to be a Numidian people, along with the Garamantes.[1] History[edit] The Nasamones were centered in the oases of Augila and Siwa in the Libyan Desert. They used war chariots, like the Garamantes. They were known to attack the Greek colonies in Cyrenaica. During the Peloponnesian War, the citizens of Euesperides
Euesperides
received aid from the Spartan general Gylippus, who helped defend the town from the Nasamones on his way to Sicily. Later, Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
recounts that the Nasamones defeated the Psylli tribe in a war, expelling them from the area
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Riffian Language
Riffian, Rif
Rif
Berber or Riffian Berber (native local name: Tmaziɣt; external name: Tarifit) is a Zenati Northern Berber language. It is spoken natively by some 1.4 million Riffians
Riffians
of Morocco
Morocco
and Algeria, primarily in the Rif
Rif
provinces of Al Hoceima, Nador, Driouch, Berkane and as a minority language in Tangier, Oujda and Tetouan
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Laguatan
Laguatan was a Berber nation that inhabited the Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
area during the Roman period.[1] They have been described as primarily raiders and nomadic,[2] but others consider them a settled group who also raided.[3] The Laguatan emerged in the late 3rd century, when the first groups started a westward migration from their original homes in the Libyan Desert. Under the label of Austuriani (probably reflecting a then-dominant sub-tribe) they are recorded as raiding the Cyrenaica and Tripolitania
Tripolitania
in the 4th century, and in the 520s, under their leader Cabaon, they scored a major victory over the Vandals, gaining effective independence from them.[4] In the 540s, they played a major role in the tribal wars against the Byzantines, until finally defeated by John Troglita
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Caliphate Of Cordoba
The Caliphate
Caliphate
of Córdoba (Arabic: خلافة قرطبة‎; trans. Khilāfat Qurṭuba) was a state in Islamic Iberia
Iberia
along with a part of North Africa
North Africa
ruled by the Umayyad
Umayyad
dynasty. The state, with the capital in Córdoba, existed from 929 to 1031. The region was formerly dominated by the Umayyad
Umayyad
Emirate of Córdoba
Emirate of Córdoba
(756–929). The period was characterized by an expansion of trade and culture, and saw the construction of masterpieces of al-Andalus architecture. In January 929, Abd-ar-Rahman III
Abd-ar-Rahman III
proclaimed himself caliph (Arabic: خليفة) of Córdoba[2] in place of his original title, Emir
Emir
of Córdoba (Arabic: أمير قرطبة 'Amīr Qurṭuba)
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Fatimids
The Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: الفاطميون‎, al-Fāṭimīyūn) was an Ismaili
Ismaili
Shia
Shia
Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea
Red Sea
in the east to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
in the west. The dynasty of Arab origin[4][5] ruled across the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast of Africa and ultimately made Egypt
Egypt
the centre of the caliphate. At its height the caliphate included in addition to Egypt
Egypt
varying areas of the Maghreb, Sudan, Sicily, the Levant, and Hijaz. The Fatimids
Fatimids
claimed descent from Fatimah, the daughter of Islamic prophet Muhammad
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Meshwesh
The Meshwesh
Meshwesh
(often abbreviated in ancient Egyptian as Ma) were an ancient Libyan tribe of Berber origin from beyond Cyrenaica. According to Egyptian hieroglyphs, this area is where the Libu
Libu
and Tehenu inhabited. Early records of the Meshwesh
Meshwesh
date back to the 18th Dynasty
Dynasty
of ancient Egypt, from the reign of Amenhotep III. During the 19th and 20th Dynasties of Egypt (c. 1295 – 1075 BC), the Meshwesh
Meshwesh
were in almost constant conflict with the Egyptian state. During the late 21st Dynasty, increasing numbers of Meswesh Libyans began to settle in the Western Delta region of Egypt. They would ultimately take control of the country during the late 21st Dynasty
Dynasty
first under King Osorkon the Elder
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Mauri People
Mauri (from which derives the English term "Moors") was the Latin designation for the Berber population of Mauretania
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Edmond Destaing
Edmond Destaing (19 January 1872 – 27 December 1940) was a French orientalist Arabist, Berberologist, and first holder of the Chair of Berber at the Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales.Contents1 Biography 2 Works 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Destaing was a teacher in Doubs, then he moved to Algiers in order to follow the course of the Normal school of Bouzaréah. He taught at the Franco-native school of rue Montpensier from 1894. He served as Professor of Natural Sciences and Geography at the Médersa de Tlemcen (fr) under the direction of William Marçais and Alfred Bel (1902-1907), concentrating (beginning 1905) on the study of the Beni Snous dialect at the Moroccan border
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Northern Berber Languages
The Northern Berber languages
Berber languages
are a dialect continuum spoken across the Maghreb, constituting a subgroup of the Berber branch of the Afroasiatic family. Their continuity has been broken by the spread of Arabic, and to a lesser extent by the Zenati group of Northern Berber. The Zenati idioms share certain innovations not found in the surrounding languages; notably a softening of k to sh and an absence of a- in certain words, such as "hand" (afus vs. fus.) Northern Berber languages
Berber languages
spoken by over a million people include Shilha, Central Morocco Tamazight, Riff, Shawiya and Kabyle. They fall into three groups:Moroccan Atlas languages
Atlas languages
(incl. Shilha, Central Morocco Tamazight) Zenati languages (incl
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Shawiya Language
Shawiya, or Shawiya Berber, also spelt Chaouïa (native form: Tacawit [θaʃawiθ]), is a Zenati Berber language
Berber language
spoken in Algeria
Algeria
by the Shawiya people. The language's primary speech area is the Awras Mountains in eastern Algeria
Algeria
and the surrounding areas, including Batna, Khenchela, Sétif, Oum El Bouaghi, Souk Ahras, Tébessa
Tébessa
and the northern part of Biskra.Contents1 Language 2 Bibliography 3 References 4 External linksLanguage[edit] The Shawiya people
Shawiya people
call their language Tacawit (Thashawith) (IPA: [θʃawɪθ] or [hʃawɪθ]), which is also known as Numidian Berber. Estimates of number of speakers range from 1.4 to 3 million speakers.[1][3] The French spelling of Chaouïa is commonly seen, due to the influence of French conventions on Algeria
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Tamazgha
Tamazgha
Tamazgha
(Berber languages: Tamazɣa, Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵗⴰ or ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵖⴰ) is a Berber language
Berber language
toponym denoting the Greater Maghreb, the lands traditionally inhabited by Berbers (Mazice/Amazigh). The region encompasses the geographical area between the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
and the Niger
Niger
River, a large swathe of territory spanning Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Mali, Niger, Egypt
Egypt
and the Canary Islands.[1] Although the Berber linguistic root MZƔ or ZƔ is ancient, Tamazɣa as a toponym is derived from the Berber language, coined in the context of Berber nationalism. It appeared for the first time in Algeria
Algeria
and Morocco
Morocco
in the 1970s. It is not clear at all who coined it
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Numidia
French Algeria
Algeria
(19th - 20th centuries)French conquest French governors Resistance Pacification Emir Abdelkader Fatma N'Soumer Mokrani Revolt Cheikh Bouamama Nationalism RCUA FLN GPRA Algerian War 1958 putsch 1961 putsch Évian Accords Independence referendum Pied-Noir Harkis Oujda GroupContemporary era1960s–80sArab nationalism 1965 putsch Berber Spring 1988 Riots1990s
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Libu
The Libu
Libu
(Ancient Egyptian: rbw; also transcribed Rebu, Lebu) were an Ancient Libyan tribe of Berber origin, from which the name Libya derives.[1]Contents1 Early history 2 Great Chiefs of the Libu 3 See also 4 ReferencesEarly history[edit] Their occupation of Ancient Libya
Ancient Libya
is first attested in Egyptian language texts from the New Kingdom, especially from the Ramesside Period. The earliest occurrence is in a Ramesses II
Ramesses II
inscription.[2] There were no vowels in the Egyptian script. The name Libu
Libu
is written as rbw in Egyptian hieroglyphs
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North Africa
North Africa
Africa
is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries situated in the northern-most region of the African continent. The term "North Africa" has no single accepted definition. It is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic
Atlantic
shores of Morocco
Morocco
in the west, to the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and the Red Sea
Red Sea
in the east. Others have limited it to the countries of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, a region known by the French during colonial times as “Afrique du Nord” and by the Arabs
Arabs
as the Maghreb
Maghreb
(“West”). The most commonly accepted definition includes Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, as well as Libya
Libya
and Egypt
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Wayback Machine
The Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
is a digital archive of the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
and other information on the Internet. It was launched in 2001 by the Internet
Internet
Archive, a nonprofit organization based in San Francisco, California, United States. .mw-parser-output .toclimit-2 .toclevel-1 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-3 .toclevel-2 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-4 .toclevel-3 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-5 .toclevel-4 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-6 .toclevel-5 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-7 .toclevel-6 ul display:none Contents1 History 2 Technical details2.1 Storage capacity and growth 2.2 Growth 2.3 Website exclusion policy2.3.1 Oakland Archive
Archive
Policy3 Uses3.1 Limitations 3.2 In legal evidence3.2.1 Civil litigation3.2.1.1 Netbula LLC v
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