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Visigoths
The VISIGOTHS (UK : /ˈvɪzɪˌɡɒθs/ ; US : /ˈvɪzɪˌɡɑːθs/ ; Latin : Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi; Italian : Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths . These tribes flourished and spread throughout the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in Late Antiquity , or what is known as the Migration Period . The Visigoths emerged from earlier Gothic groups (possibly the Thervingi ) who had invaded the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
beginning in 376 and had defeated the Romans at the Battle of Adrianople in 378. Relations between the Romans and the Visigoths
Visigoths
were variable, alternately warring with one another and making treaties when convenient. The Visigoths
Visigoths
invaded Italy
Italy
under Alaric I and sacked Rome in 410
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Spain
Coordinates : 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4 Kingdom of Spain Reino de España (Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Plus Ultra " (Latin ) "Further Beyond" ANTHEM: " Marcha Real " (Spanish ) "Royal March" Location of Spain
Spain
(dark green) – in Europe
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Votive Crown
A VOTIVE CROWN is a votive offering in the form of a crown , normally in precious metals and often adorned with jewels. Especially in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
, they are of a special form, designed to be suspended by chains at an altar, shrine or image. Later examples are more often typical crowns in the style of the period, either designed to be placed on the head of a statue, or re-used in this way after donation. There were pagan votive crowns in the ancient world, although these are essentially known only from literary references. Vitruvius
Vitruvius
records that when Hiero II of Syracuse (died 215 BC) suspected his goldsmith of cheating him over the making of a votive crown for a statue in a temple, for which he had supplied the gold to be used, he asked Archimedes
Archimedes
to devise a test
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Pyrenees
The PYRENEES (/ˈpɪrᵻniːz/ ; Spanish : Pirineos , French : Pyrénées , Aragonese : Pirineus, Catalan : Pirineus , Occitan : Pirenèus, Basque : Pirinioak or Auñamendiak ) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe
Europe
that forms a natural border between France
France
and Spain
Spain
. Reaching a height of 3,404 metres (11,168 ft) altitude at the peak of Aneto
Aneto
, the range separates the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of continental Europe, and extends for about 491 km (305 mi) from the Bay of Biscay
Bay of Biscay
( Cap Higuer ) to the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
( Cap de Creus
Cap de Creus
). For the most part, the main crest forms a divide between France
France
and Spain, with the microstate of Andorra sandwiched in between
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Councils Of Toledo
COUNCILS OF TOLEDO (Concilia toletana). From the 5th century to the 7th century AD, about thirty synods , variously counted, were held at Toledo in what would come to be part of Spain
Spain
. The earliest , directed against Priscillianism
Priscillianism
, assembled in 400. The "third" synod of 589 marked the epoch-making conversion of King Reccared from Arianism
Arianism
to orthodox Chalcedonian Christianity . The "fourth ," in 633, probably under the presidency of the noted Isidore of Seville
Isidore of Seville
, regulated many matters of discipline and decreed uniformity of liturgy throughout the kingdom. The British Celts of Galicia accepted the Latin rite and stringent measures were adopted against baptized Jews who had gone back to their former faith
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Toulouse
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. TOULOUSE (UK : /tuːˈluːz/ ; French pronunciation: ( listen ) locally: ( listen ); Occitan : Tolosa , Latin : Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie . The city is on the banks of the River Garonne
Garonne
, 150 kilometres (93 miles) from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
, 230 km (143 mi) from the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and 680 km (420 mi) from Paris
Paris
. It is the fourth-largest city in France
France
, with, 466,297 inhabitants as of January 2014
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Capital City
A CAPITAL CITY (or simply CAPITAL) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country , state , province , or other administrative region , usually as its seat of government . A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the offices and meeting places of its respective government ; the status as capital is often designated by its law or constitution . In some jurisdictions , including several countries, the different branches of government are located in different settlements. In some cases, a distinction is made between the official (constitutional) capital and the seat of government, which is in another place. Capital cities that are also the prime economic, cultural, or intellectual centres of a nation or an empire are sometimes referred to as primate cities
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Late Middle Ages
The LATE MIDDLE AGES or LATE MEDIEVAL PERIOD were the period of European history
European history
generally comprising the 14th and 15th centuries (c. 1301–1500). The Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
followed the High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
and preceded the onset of the early modern era (and, in much of Europe, the Renaissance
Renaissance
). Around 1300, centuries of prosperity and growth in Europe
Europe
came to a halt. A series of famines and plagues, including the Great Famine of 1315–1317 and the Black Death
Black Death
, reduced the population to around half of what it was before the calamities. Along with depopulation came social unrest and endemic warfare
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Nicene Christianity
NICENE CHRISTIANITY refers to Christian doctrinal traditions that adhere to the Nicene Creed , which was originally formulated at the First Council of Nicaea in 325 AD and finished at the First Council of Constantinople in AD 381. The main rival doctrine of Nicene Christianity at the time was Arian Christianity , which ceased to exist during the 7th century AD with the conversion of the Gothic kingdoms to Nicene Christianity. The main points of dissent centered on Christology . Nicene Christianity considers Christ to be divine and co-eternal with God the Father, while Arian Christianity considered Christ to be the first created being, and inferior to God the Father. Other non-Nicene currents have been considered heresies since the early medieval period
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Walters Art Museum
Coordinates : 39°17′48″N 76°36′58″W / 39.29667°N 76.61611°W / 39.29667; -76.61611 The Walters Art Museum North Charles Street original main entrance FORMER NAME The Walters Art Gallery ESTABLISHED 1934 (1934) LOCATION Mount Vernon-Belvedere , Baltimore
Baltimore
, Maryland
Maryland
TYPE Art museum
Art museum
DIRECTOR Julia Marciari-Alexander (2016) PUBLIC TRANSIT ACCESS Light Rail Hunt Valley – BWI Marshall Centre Street Station WEBSITE Official websiteThe WALTERS ART MUSEUM, located in Mount Vernon-Belvedere , Baltimore , Maryland
Maryland
, is a public art museum founded and opened in 1934. It holds collections established during the mid-19th century
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British English
BRITISH ENGLISH is the English language
English language
as spoken and written in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland
Ireland
, and occasionally Yorkshire , whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English
British English
is more difficult to apply to the spoken language
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American English
AMERICAN ENGLISH (AME, AE, AMENG, USENG, EN-US ), sometimes called UNITED STATES ENGLISH or U.S. ENGLISH, is the set of varieties of the English language
English language
native to the United States
United States
. English is the most widely spoken language in the United States
United States
and is the common language used by the federal government, considered the de facto language of the country because of its widespread use. English has been given official status by 32 of the 50 state governments. As an example, while both Spanish and English have equivalent status in the local courts of Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
, under federal law, English is the official language for any matters being referred to the United States
United States
district court for the territory
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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Italian Language
ITALIAN ( italiano (help ·info ) or lingua italiana ) is a Romance language
Romance language
. By most measures, Italian, together with Sardinian, is the closest to Latin
Latin
of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy
Italy
, Switzerland
Switzerland
, San Marino , Vatican City and western Istria (in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
). It used to have official status in Albania
Albania
, Malta
Malta
and Monaco
Monaco
, where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former Italian East Africa
Italian East Africa
and Italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum
Augusta Treverorum
Sirmium Ravenna
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Umayyad Conquest Of Hispania
SASSANID PERSIAN EMPIRE * Afghanistan * Armenia * Georgia INDUS VALLEY * Rasil CAUCASUS * Georgia * Khazar Khaganate TRANSOXIANA VISIGOTHIC KINGDOM (Hispania) FRANKISH EMPIRE (Gaul) * v * t * e Islamic Conquest of Hispania (711–718) * Guadalete * Córdoba * Medina-Sidonia * Seville
Seville
* Mértola * Jaén * Murcia * Granada