Ostrogoths (Latin: Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were the eastern
branch of the later
Goths (the other major branch being the
Ostrogoths traced their origins to the
Greutungi – a
branch of the
Goths who had migrated southward from the
Baltic Sea and
established a kingdom north of the Black Sea, during the 3rd and 4th
centuries. They built an empire stretching from the
Black Sea to the
Ostrogoths were probably literate in the 3rd century, and
their trade with the Romans was highly developed. Their Danubian
kingdom reached its zenith under King Ermanaric, who is said to have
committed suicide at an old age when the
Huns attacked his people and
subjugated them in about 370.
After their annexation by the Huns, little is heard of the Ostrogoths
for about 80 years, after which they reappear in
Pannonia on the
Danube River as federates of the Romans. After the collapse of
the Hun empire after the
Battle of Nedao (453),
Illyria and the borders of Italy, while some
remained in the
Crimea (where the Crimean
Ostrogoths existed as a
distinct people until at least the 16th century). During the late 5th
and 6th centuries, under
Theodoric the Great
Theodoric the Great most of the Ostrogoths
moved first to
Moesia (c. 475–488) and later conquered the Kingdom
Italy of the Germanic warrior Odoacer. In 493, Theodoric the Great
established a kingdom in Italy.
A period of instability then ensued, tempting the Eastern Roman
Justinian to declare war on the
Ostrogoths in 535 in an effort
to restore the former western provinces of the Roman Empire.
Initially, the Byzantines were successful, but under the leadership of
Goths reconquered most of the lost territory until
Totila's death at the Battle of Taginae. The war lasted for almost 20
years and caused enormous damage and depopulation of Italy. The
Ostrogoths were absorbed into the
Lombards who established a
Italy in 568.
1 Divided Goths:
Greuthungi and Ostrogothi
2.2 Hunnic invasions
2.3 Post-Hunnic movements
2.4 Kingdom in Italy
2.5 War with Byzantium (535–554)
4 Ostrogothic rulers
4.1 Amal Dynasty
4.2 Later kings
5 See also
Greuthungi and Ostrogothi
Scandza based on Jordanes: Ostrogothic homeland located in
A division of the
Goths is first attested in 291.[a] The Tervingi
are first attested around that date; the Greuthungi, Vesi, and
Ostrogothi are all attested no earlier than 388. The
first named by Ammianus Marcellinus, writing no earlier than 392 and
perhaps later than 395, and basing his account on the words of a
Tervingian chieftain who is attested as early as 376. The
Ostrogoths are first named in a document dated September 392 from
Claudian mentions that they together with the Greuthungi
inhabit Phrygia. According to Herwig Wolfram, the primary sources
either use the terminology of Tervingi/
Greuthungi or Vesi/Ostrogothi
and never mix the pairs. All four names were used together, but the
pairing was always preserved, as in Gruthungi, Ostrogothi, Tervingi,
Vesi. That the
Tervingi were the Vesi/Visigothi and the Greuthungi
the Ostrogothi is also supported by Jordanes. He identified the
Visigothic kings from
Alaric I to
Alaric II as the heirs of the
fourth-century Tervingian king
Athanaric and the Ostrogothic kings
Theodoric the Great
Theodoric the Great to
Theodahad as the heirs of the Greuthungian
king Ermanaric. This interpretation, however, though very common among
scholars today, is not universal. According to the Jordanes' Getica,
around 400 the
Ostrogoths were ruled by Ostrogotha and derived their
name from this "father of the Ostrogoths", but modern historians often
assume the converse, that Ostrogotha was named after the people.
Herwig Wolfram and Thomas Burns conclude that the terms Tervingi
Greuthungi were geographical identifiers used by each tribe to
describe the other. This terminology therefore dropped out of
use after the
Goths were displaced by the Hunnic invasions. In support
of this, Wolfram cites
Zosimus as referring to a group of "Scythians"
north of the
Danube who were called "Greuthungi" by the barbarians
north of the Ister. Wolfram asserts that it was the
remained behind after the Hunnic conquest. He further believes that
the terms "Vesi" and "Ostrogothi" were used by the peoples to
boastfully describe themselves. On this understanding, the
Greuthungi and Ostrogothi were more or less the same people.
The nomenclature of
Tervingi fell out of use shortly
after 400. In general, the terminology of a divided Gothic people
disappeared gradually after they entered the Roman Empire. The term
"Visigoth", however, was an invention of the sixth century.
Cassiodorus, a Roman in the service of Theodoric the Great, invented
the term Visigothi to match Ostrogothi, which terms he thought of as
"western Goths" and "eastern Goths" respectively. The
western-eastern division was a simplification and a literary device of
sixth-century historians where political realities were more
Cassiodorus used the term "Goths" to refer
only to the Ostrogoths, whom he served, and reserved the geographical
term "Visigoths" for the Gallo-Hispanic Goths. This usage, however,
was adopted by the
Visigoths themselves in their communications with
Byzantine Empire and was in use in the seventh century.
Other names for the
Goths abounded. A "Germanic"
Byzantine or Italian
author referred to one of the two peoples as the Valagothi, meaning
"Roman [walha] Goths". In 484 the
Ostrogoths had been called the
Valameriaci (men of Valamir) because they followed Theodoric, a
descendant of Valamir. This terminology survived in the Byzantine
East as late as the reign of Athalaric, who was called του
Ουαλεμεριακου (tou Oualemeriakou) by John Malalas.
Ostrogothic bow-fibulae (c. 500) from Emilia-Romagna, Italy
"Greuthungi" may mean "steppe dwellers" or "people of the pebbly
coasts". The root greut- is probably related to the Old English
greot, meaning "flat". This is supported by evidence that
geographic descriptors were commonly used to distinguish people living
north of the
Black Sea both before and after Gothic settlement there
and by the lack of evidence for an earlier date for the name pair
Greuthungi than the late third century.
However, that the name "Greuthungi" has pre-Pontic, possibly
Scandinavian, origins has support. It may mean "rock people",
(related to the
Old Norse grjut huningi) to distinguish the Ostrogoths
Geats (referred as
Goths in Scandinavia) from Götaland
(Gothland) in southern Sweden. The Roman historian
to an Evagreotingi (Greuthung island) in Scandza, as part of his
description of Gothiscandza. It has also been suggested that
Greuthungi may be related to certain place names in Poland, but this
has met with little support.
"Ostrogothi" means "
Goths of (or glorified by) the rising sun".
This has been interpreted as "gleaming Goths" or "east Goths". By the
4th century the
Ostrogoths had developed a distinct language known as
Gothic. Classified by linguists as an east Germanic language, Gothic
eventually died out sometime in the
Middle Ages as the
Ostrogoths were absorbed by other European peoples.
While none of the eastern
Germanic languages are still spoken, Gothic
is the only one with "continuous texts" remaining. Singularly the most
important work amid the surviving Gothic texts is the translation of
the Bible by the Visigothic bishop Ulfilas, comprising the earliest
remnants of the
Germanic languages known. Smatterings of the
Gothic language can be found in Italian but its presence is minimal. A
language related to Gothic was still spoken sporadically in
late as the 16th and 17th centuries (Crimean Gothic language).
Much of the disappearance of the
Gothic language is attributable to
the Goth's cultural and linguistic absorption by other European
peoples during the Middle Ages.
Main articles: Chernyakhov culture, Oium, and Gothic runic
Island of Gotland
Wielbark Culture, early 3rd century
Chernyakhov culture, early 4th century
Mentioned in several sources up to the third century AD when they
apparently split into at least two groups, the
Greuthungi in the east
Tervingi in the west, the two Gothic tribes shared many aspects,
especially recognizing a patron deity the Romans named Mars. This
so-called "split" or, more appropriately, resettlement of western
tribes into the Roman province of
Dacia was a natural result of
population saturation of the area north of the Black Sea. The
Dacia established a vast and powerful kingdom during the third and
fourth centuries between the
Danube and the
Dniepr in what is now
Moldova and western Ukraine. This was a multi-tribal state
ruled by a Gothic elite but inhabited by many other interrelated but
multi-tongue tribes including the Iranian-speaking Sarmatians, the
Germanic-speaking Gepids, the Thracian-speaking Dacians, other minor
Celtic and Thracian tribes and possibly early Slavs. Unfortunately
the exact geographical dividing line between the
Visigoths and the
Ostrogoths is not known but in general terms, the
Dacia, Moldavia and Walachia, whereas the
Ostrogoths lived in the
steppe regions beyond the Dniester River, ruling over a large
confederation of Germanic and Scythian tribes, covering a vast
territory in what is now
Ukraine and areas of southern Russia.
Jordanes calls the realm Oium, or Aujum.
The rise of the
Huns around 370 overwhelmed the Gothic kingdoms.
Many of the
Goths migrated into Roman territory in the Balkans, while
others remained north of the
Danube under Hunnic rule. Frequently the
Ostrogoths fought alongside both Alans and Huns. It was the
Ostrogoths who were first subdued by the Huns. Like other tribal
peoples, they became one of the many Hunnic vassals fighting in
Europe, as in the
Battle of Chalons
Battle of Chalons in 451. Several uprisings against
Huns were suppressed. The collapse of Hunnic power in the 450s led
to further violent upheaval in the lands north of the Danube, during
Ostrogoths expanded slowly southwards into the Balkans, and
then head westwards towards
Illyria and the borders of Italy. Their
rule was marked by turmoil with hostile neighbors all around and the
land they acquired between Vindobona (Vienna) and Sirmium (Belgrade)
was not well managed, a fact which rendered the
Constantinople for subsidies.
Their recorded history begins with their independence from the remains
of the Hunnic Empire following the death of
Attila the Hun
Attila the Hun in 453.
Allied with the former vassal and rival, the
Gepids and the Ostrogoths
Theodemir broke the Hunnic power of Attila's sons in the Battle
of Nedao in 454, although the Ostrogoth contribution to the battle's
success was minimal.
Ostrogoths now entered into relations with the Empire, and were
settled on lands in Pannonia, becoming foederati (federates) to the
Byzantines. During the greater part of the latter half of the 5th
century, the East
Goths played in south-eastern Europe nearly the same
part that the Western
Goths (Visigoths) played in the century before.
They were seen going to and from, in every conceivable relation of
friendship and enmity with the Eastern Roman power, until, just as the
Goths had done before them, they passed from the East to the
West. Unchallenged by the now-dissipated power of the Huns, the
Valamir were themselves powerful and absorbed
elements from other, smaller tribes, such as the Scirii. A dispute
with the Eastern
Roman emperor at
Ostrogoths against him. With the barbarians at the gates,
Emperor Leo I agreed to pay an annual subsidy of gold.
Kingdom in Italy
Part of a series on the
History of Italy
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Ancient Rome (Roman Italy) (753 BC–476 AD)
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Italy in the Carolingian Empire and HRE
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Italian Renaissance (14th–16th c.)
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Italian unification (1815–1861)
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List of historic states
Main article: Ostrogothic Kingdom
Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy
The greatest of all Ostrogothic rulers, the future Theodoric the Great
(whose Gothic name meant "leader of the people") of Ostrogothic
Kingdom (Regnum Italiae, "Kingdom of Italy")[b], was born to Theodemir
in or about 454, soon after the Battle of Nedao. His childhood was
Constantinople as a diplomatic hostage, where he was
carefully educated. The early part of his life was taken up with
various disputes, intrigues and wars within the
Byzantine empire, in
which he had as his rival
Theodoric Strabo of the Thracian Goths, a
distant relative of
Theodoric the Great
Theodoric the Great and son of Triarius. This
older but lesser Theodoric seems to have been the chief, not the king,
of that branch of the
Ostrogoths that had settled within the Empire
earlier. Theodoric the Great, as he is sometimes distinguished, was
sometimes the friend, sometimes the enemy, of the Empire. In the
former case he was clothed with various Roman titles and offices, as
patrician and consul; but in all cases alike he remained the national
Ostrogothic king. Theodoric is also known for his attainment of
support from the
Catholic Church and on one occasion, he even helped
resolve a disputed papal election. During his reign, Theodoric,
who was an Arian, allowed freedom of religion, which had not been done
before. However, he did try to appease the
Pope and tried to keep his
alliance with the church strong. He saw the
Pope as an authority not
only in the church but also over
Rome itself. His ability to work well
with the Italy's nobles, members of the Roman Senate, and his good
relations with the
Catholic Church all helped facilitate his
acceptance as the ruler of Italy.
Theodoric sought to revive Roman culture and government and in doing
so, profited the Italian people. It was in both characters
together that he set out in 488, by commission from the Byzantine
emperor Zeno, to recover
Italy from Odoacer. In 489, the Rugii, a
Germanic tribe who dwelt in the Hungarian Plain, joined the Ostrogoths
in their invasion of Italy. By 493
Ravenna was taken, where
Theodoric would set up his capital. It was also at this time that
Odoacer was killed by Theodoric's own hand. Ostrogothic power was
fully established over Italy, Sicily, Dalmatia and the lands to the
north of Italy. Around 500, Theodoric celebrated his thirtieth
anniversary as King of the Ostrogoths. In order to improve their
chances against the
Roman Empire the
again to unite in what became a loose confederation of Germanic
peoples. The two branches of the nation were soon brought closer
together; after he was forced to become regent of the Visigothic
kingdom of Toulouse, the power of Theodoric was practically extended
over a large part of
Gaul and over nearly the whole of the Iberian
peninsula. Theodoric forged alliances with the Visigoths, Alamanni,
Franks and Burgundians, some of which were accomplished through
The Ostrogothic dominion was once again as far-reaching and splendid
as it was in the time of Hermanaric; however it was now of a wholly
different character. The dominion of Theodoric was not a barbarian but
a civilized power. His twofold position ran through everything. He was
at once national king of the Goths, and successor, though without any
imperial titles, of the West Roman emperors. The two nations,
differing in manners, language and religion, lived side by side on the
soil of Italy; each was ruled according to its own law, by the prince
who was, in his two separate characters, the common sovereign of
both. Due to his ability to foster and leverage relations between
the various Germanic kingdoms, the Byzantines began to fear
Theodoric's power, which led to an alliance between the Byzantine
emperor and the Frankish king, Clovis I, a pact designed to counteract
and ultimately overthrow the Ostrogoths. In some ways Theodoric may
have been overly accommodating to both the Romans and other Gothic
people as he placated Catholics and Arian Christians alike. Historian
Herwig Wolfram suggests that Theodoric's efforts in trying to appease
Latin and barbarian cultures in kind brought about the collapse of
Ostrogothic predominance and also resulted in the "end of
Italy as the
heartland of late antiquity." All the years of creating a
protective perimeter around
Italy were broken down by the
Byzantine coalition. Theodoric was able to temporarily salvage
some of his realm with the assistance of the Thuringians.
Realizing that the
Franks were the most significant threat to the
Visigothic empire as well, Alaric II, (who was the son-in-law of
Theodoric) enlisted the aide of the
Burgundians and fought against the
Franks at the urging of the magnates of his tribe, but this choice
proved an error and he allegedly met his end at the hand of the
Frankish king, Clovis.
A time of confusion followed the death of
Alaric II who was slain
during the Battle of Vouillé. The Ostrogothic king Theodoric stepped
in as the guardian of his grandson Amalaric, and preserved for him
all his Iberian and a fragment of his
Franks but the Goth kept
Narbonne and its district and
Septimania, which was the last part of
Gaul held by the
Goths and kept
the name of Gothia for many ages. While Theodoric lived, the
Visigothic kingdom was practically united to his own dominion. He
seems also to have claimed a kind of protectorate over the Germanic
powers generally, and indeed to have practically exercised it, except
in the case of the Franks. From 508–511 under Theodoric's command,
Ostrogoths marched on
Gaul as the Vandal king of Carthage and
Clovis made concerted efforts to weaken his hold on the Visigoths.
On the death of Theodoric in 526, the eastern and western
once again divided. By the late 6th century, the Ostrogoths
lost their political identity and assimilated into other Germanic
The mausoleum of
Theodoric the Great
Theodoric the Great in Ravenna, Emilia-Romagna
The picture of Theodoric's rule is drawn for us in the state papers
drawn up, in his name and in the names of his successors, by his Roman
minister Cassiodorus. The
Goths seem to have been thick on the ground
in northern Italy; in the south they formed little more than
garrisons. In Theodoric's theory the Goth was the armed protector
of the peaceful Roman; the Gothic king had the toil of government,
while the Roman consul had the honour. All the forms of the Roman
administration went on, and the Roman policy and culture had great
influence on the
Goths themselves. The rule of the prince over
distinct nations in the same land was necessarily despotic; the old
Germanic freedom was necessarily lost. Such a system needed a
Theodoric to carry it on. It broke in pieces after his death.
Meanwhile, the Frankish king Clovis fought protracted wars against
various enemies while consolidating his rule, forming the embryonic
stages of what would eventually become Medieval Europe.
War with Byzantium (535–554)
Main article: Gothic War (535–554)
Theodahad (534-536), minted in Rome-he wears the barbaric
Absent the unifying presence of Theodoric, the
Visigoths were unable to consolidate their realms despite their common
Germanic kinship. The few instances where they acted together after
this time are as scattered and incidental as they were before.
Amalaric succeeded to the Visigothic kingdom in Iberia and Septimania.
Athalaric took on the mantle as king of the
Ostrogoths for the next five years.
Provence was added to the
dominion of the new Ostrogothic king
Athalaric and through his
Amalasuntha who was named regent. Both were unable to
settle disputes among Gothic elites. Theodahad, cousin of Amalasuntha
and nephew of Theodoric through his sister, took over and slew
them; however the usurping ushered in more bloodshed.
The weakness of the Ostrogothic position in
Italy now showed itself.
The Eastern Roman Emperor
Justinian I always strove to restore as much
of the Western
Roman Empire as he could and certainly would not pass
up the opportunity. Launched on both land and sea,
Justinian began his
war of reconquest. In 535, he commissioned
Belisarius to attack
Ostrogoths following the success he had in North Africa against
the Vandals. It was Justinian's intention to recover
Rome from the Goths.
Belisarius quickly captured
Sicily and then
Italy where he captured Naples and
Rome in December of
536. Sometime during the spring of 537, the
Goths marched on
upwards of 100,000 men under the leadership of
Witiges and laid siege
to the city, albeit unsuccessfully. Despite having a majority margin
of five-to-one, the
Goths could not loose
Belisarius from the former
western capital of the Empire. After recuperating from siege
Belisarius marched north, taking Mediolanum (Milan) and the
Ostrogoth capital of
Ravenna in 540.
With the attack on Ravenna,
Witiges and his men were trapped in the
Belisarius proved more capable at siege warfare
than his rival
Witiges had been at
Rome and the Ostrogoth ruler, who
was also dealing with Frankish enemies, was forced to surrender but
not without terms.
Belisarius refused to grant any concessions save
unconditional surrender in lieu of the fact that
Justinian wanted to
Witiges a vassal king in Trans-Padane Italy. This condition
made for something of an impasse.
Totila razes the walls of Florence: illumination from the Chigi
manuscript of Villani's Cronica
A faction of the Gothic nobility pointed out that their own king
Witiges, who had just lost, was something of a weakling and they would
need a new one. Eraric, the leader of the group, endorsed Belisarius
and the rest of the kingdom agreed, so they offered him their
Belisarius was a soldier, not a statesman, and still loyal
to Justinian. He made as if to accept the offer, rode to
Ravenna to be
crowned, and promptly arrested the leaders of the
Goths and reclaimed
their entire kingdom—no halfway settlements—for the Empire.
Belisarius might set himself up a permanent kingship
should he consolidate his conquests,
Justinian recalled him to
Witiges in tow.
As soon as
Belisarius was gone, the remaining
Ostrogoths elected a new
king named Totila. Under the brilliant command of Totila, the Goths
were able to reassert themselves to a degree. For a period of nearly
ten years, control for
Italy became a seesaw battle between Byzantine
and Ostrogothic forces.
Totila eventually recaptured all of
Italy and even drove the Byzantines out of Rome. The
recapturing of the Roman capital by the Goth
Totila afforded him the
opportunity to take political control of the city, partly achieved by
executing the Roman senatorial order. Many of them fled eastwards for
Justinian was able to put together an enormous force, an
assembly designed to recover his losses and subdue any Gothic
resistance. In 551, the Roman navy destroyed Totila's fleet and in 552
Byzantine force under Narses entered
Italy from the
north. Attempting to surprise the invading Byzantines,
with his forces at Taginaei, where he was slain. Broken but not
yet defeated, the
Ostrogoths made one final stand at Campania under a
chief named Teia, but when he was also killed in battle at Nuceria
they finally capitulated. On surrendering, they informed Narses that
evidently "the hand of God was against them" and so they left Italy
for the northern lands of their fathers. After that final defeat,
the Ostrogothic name wholly died. The nation had practically
evaporated with Theodoric's death. "The leadership of western Europe
therefore passed by default to the Franks. Consequently, Ostrogothic
failure and Frankish success were crucial for the development of early
medieval Europe, for Theodoric had made it "his intention to restore
the vigor of Roman government and Roman culture". The chance of
forming a national state in
Italy by the union of Roman and Germanic
elements, such as those that arose in Gaul, in Iberia, and in parts of
Italy under Lombard rule, was thus lost. The failures of the barbarian
kingdoms to maintain control of the regions they conquered were partly
the result of leadership vacuums like those which resulted from the
death of Theodoric (also the lack of male succession) and
additionally as a consequence of political fragmentation amid the
Germanic tribes as their loyalties waned between their kin and their
erstwhile enemies. Frankish entry onto the geopolitical map of Europe
also bears into play as had the
Ostrogoths attained more military
success against the Byzantines on the battlefield by combining the
strength of other Germanic tribes, this could have changed the
direction of Frankish loyalty. Military success or defeat and
political legitimacy were interrelated in barbarian society.
Nevertheless, according to Roman historian Procopius of Caesarea, the
Ostrogothic population was allowed to live peacefully in
their Rugian allies under Roman sovereignty. They later joined the
Lombards during their conquest of Italy.[c]
Ostrogoth ear jewels, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Gothic literature in the
Gothic language we have the Bible of
Ulfilas and some other religious writings and fragments. Of Gothic
Latin we have the edict of Theodoric of the year 500,
and the Variae of
Cassiodorus may pass as a collection of the state
papers of Theodoric and his immediate successors. Among the Visigothic
written laws had already been put forth by Euric.
Alaric II put forth
a Breviarium of Roman law for his Roman subjects; but the great
collection of Visigothic laws dates from the later days of the
monarchy, being put forth by King
Reccaswinth about 654. This code
gave occasion to some well-known comments by Montesquieu and Gibbon,
and has been discussed by Savigny (Geschichte des römischen Rechts,
ii. 65) and various other writers. They are printed in the Monumenta
Germaniae, leges, tome i. (1902).
Of special Gothic histories, besides that of Jordanes, already so
often quoted, there is the Gothic history of Isidore, archbishop of
Seville, a special source of the history of the Visigothic kings down
Suinthila (621-631). But all the
Latin and Greek writers
contemporary with the days of Gothic predominance make their constant
contributions. Not for special facts, but for a general estimate, no
writer is more instructive than
Salvian of Marseilles in the 5th
century, whose work, De Gubernatione Dei, is full of passages
contrasting the vices of the Romans with the virtues of the
"barbarians", especially of the Goths. In all such pictures we must
allow a good deal for exaggeration both ways, but there must be a
groundwork of truth. The chief virtues that the Roman Catholic
presbyter praises in the Arian
Goths are their chastity, their piety
according to their own creed, their tolerance towards the Catholics
under their rule, and their general good treatment of their Roman
subjects. He even ventures to hope that such good people may be saved,
notwithstanding their heresy. This image must have had some basis in
truth, but it is not very surprising that the later
Iberia had fallen away from Salvian's somewhat idealistic picture.
Valamir (not yet in Italy)
Theodemir (not yet in Italy)
Theodoric the Great
Theodoric the Great 493–526
Totila 541–552 (also known as Baduila)
Theia 552–553 (also known as Teia(s) or Teja)
Ancient Germanic culture portal
List of Germanic tribes
Gothic War (535–554)
Panegyrici Latini XI 17.1 (dated 291)
^ Flavius Magnus Aurelius
Cassiodorus Senator, Variae, Lib. II., XLI.
Luduin regi Francorum Theodericus rex.)
^ De Bello Gothico IV 32, pp. 241–245.
^ a b Wolfram 1988, p. 24, fn52.
^ a b c d e f Wolfram 1988, p. 24.
^ a b c d e f g Wolfram 1988, p. 25.
^ Heather 1996, pp. 52–57, 300–301.
^ a b Burns 1984, p. 44.
^ a b Wolfram 1988, p. 387, fn57.
^ a b c d Wolfram 1988, p. 26.
^ Wolfram 1988, p. 389, fn67.
^ Burns 1984, p. 30.
^ a b Wolfram 1988, pp. 387–388, fn58.
^ a b Wolfram 1988, p. 387, fn58.
^ Waldman & Mason 2006, p. 574.
^ a b Dalby 1999, p. 229.
^ Waldman & Mason 2006, p. 572.
^ Encyclopædia Britannica—Ostrogoths
^ Bury 2000, p. 25.
^ a b c Waldman & Mason 2006, p. 575.
^ Todd 1999, p. 177.
^ Bury 2000, p. 55.
^ Todd 1999, p. 178.
^ Burns 1984, p. 52.
^ a b c d e f De Puy 1899, p. 2865.
^ Backman 2008, p. 68.
^ Frassetto 2003, p. 338.
^ Frassetto 2003, pp. 338–339.
^ Cantor 1994, p. 109.
^ Waldman & Mason 2006, p. 665.
^ Waldman & Mason 2006, pp. 575–576.
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^ Larned, ed. 1895, p. 134.
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^ Wolfram 1997, p. 225.
^ Collins 1999, pp. 116–137.
^ Wolfram 1988, p. 334.
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^ Wolfram 1988, p. 339.
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^ Halsall 2007, p. 501.
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^ Bauer 2010, p. 208.
^ Bauer 2010, p. 210.
^ a b Halsall 2007, p. 504.
^ Oman 1902, pp. 95–96.
^ Cantor 1994, p. 105–107.
^ Halsall 2007, pp. 505–512.
^ Halsall 2007, p. 512.
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