Christianity , ARIANISM is a
Christological concept which
asserts the belief that
Jesus Christ is the
Son of God
Son of God who was
God the Father at a point in time, is distinct from the
Father and is therefore subordinate to the Father. Arian teachings
were first attributed to
Arius (c. AD 256–336), a Christian
Egypt . The teachings of
Arius and his
supporters were opposed to the theological views held by Homoousian
Christians, regarding the nature of the
Trinity and the nature of
Christ. The Arian concept of Christ is based on the belief that the
Son of God
Son of God did not always exist but was begotten by God the Father.
There was a dispute between two interpretations (
Homoousianism) based upon the theological orthodoxy of the time, both
of them attempted to solve its theological dilemmas. So there were,
initially, two equally orthodox interpretations which initiated a
conflict in order to attract adepts and define the new orthodoxy.
Homoousianism was formally affirmed by the first two Ecumenical
Councils . The Ecumenical
First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea of 325 deemed it to
be a heresy. All mainstream branches of
Christianity now consider
Arianism to be heterodox and heretical .
According to Everett Ferguson, "The great majority of Christians had
no clear views about the nature of the
Trinity and they did not
understand what was at stake in the issues that surrounded it." At
First Synod of Tyre in 335,
Arius was exonerated.
Constantine the Great was baptized by the Arian bishop
Nicomedia . After the deaths of both
Arius and Constantine, Arius
was again anathemised and pronounced a heretic again at the Ecumenical
First Council of Constantinople
First Council of Constantinople of 381. The Roman Emperors
Constantius II (337–361) and
Valens (364–378) were Arians or
Semi-Arians , as was the first
King of Italy ,
Lombards were also Arians or
Semi-Arians until the 7th
Arianism is also used to refer to other nontrinitarian theological
systems of the 4th century, which regarded
Jesus Christ —the Son of
God, the Logos —as either a begotten being (as in
Anomoeanism ) or as neither uncreated nor created in the sense
other beings are created (as in
* 1 Origin
* 2 Beliefs
* 3 Homoian
* 4 Struggles with Orthodoxy
First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
* 4.2 Aftermath of Nicaea
* 4.3 Council of
* 5 Among medieval Germanic tribes
* 6 From the 5th to the 7th century
* 7 From the 16th to the 19th century
* 8 Today
* 8.1 Adherents
* 9 See also
* 10 References
* 10.1 Notes
* 10.2 Bibliography
* 11 Further reading
* 12 External links
Arius had been a pupil of
Lucian of Antioch at Lucian\'s private
academy in Antioch and inherited from him a modified form of the
Paul of Samosata . He taught that
God the Father and the
Son of God
Son of God did not always exist together eternally. Arians taught
that the Logos was a divine being begotten by
God the Father before
the creation of the world, made him a medium through whom everything
else was created, and that the
Son of God
Son of God is subordinate to God the
Father. A verse from Proverbs was also used: "The Lord created me at
the beginning of his work" (Proverbs 8:22). Therefore, the Son was
rather the very first and the most perfect of God's creatures, and he
was made "God" only by the Father's permission and power.
Arianism arose in the late 3rd century and persisted
throughout most of the 4th century. It involved most church
members—from simple believers, priests, and monks to bishops,
emperors, and members of Rome's imperial family. Two Roman emperors,
Constantius II and
Valens , became Arians or Semi-Arians, as did
prominent Gothic ,
Vandal , and Lombard warlords both before and after
the fall of the
Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire . Such a deep controversy within
the Church during this period of its development could not have
materialized without significant historical influences providing a
basis for the Arian doctrines. Of the roughly three hundred bishops
in attendance at the Council of Nicea , two bishops did not sign the
Nicene Creed that condemned Arianism.
Emperor Constantine also
ordered a penalty of death for those who refused to surrender the
"In addition, if any writing composed by
Arius should be found, it
should be handed over to the flames, so that not only will the
wickedness of his teaching be obliterated, but nothing will be left
even to remind anyone of him. And I hereby make a public order, that
if someone should be discovered to have hidden a writing composed by
Arius, and not to have immediately brought it forward and destroyed it
by fire, his penalty shall be death. As soon as he is discovered in
this offence, he shall be submitted for capital punishment. ... "
— Edict by
Emperor Constantine against the Arians
Arius actually taught, and why, is a formidable
task, both because little of his own work survives except in
quotations selected for polemical purposes by his opponents, and also
because there is no certainty about what theological and philosophical
traditions formed his thought.
Arians do not believe in the traditional doctrine of the
The letter of Arian Auxentius regarding the Arian missionary Ulfilas
gives a picture of Arian beliefs. Arian
Ulfilas , who was ordained a
bishop by Arian
Eusebius of Nicomedia and returned to his people to
work as a missionary, believed: God, the Father, ("unbegotten" God;
Almighty God) always existing and who is the only true God (John
17:3). The Son of God,
Jesus Christ, ("only-begotten God" John 1:18;
Mighty God Isaiah 9:6) begotten before time began (Proverbs 8:22-29;
Revelation 3:14; Colossians 1:15) and who is Lord/Master (1 Cor 8:6).
Holy Spirit (the illuminating and sanctifying power, who is
God the Father nor Lord/Master. First Corinthians 8:5-8:6 was
cited as proof text :
Indeed, even though there may be so-called gods in heaven or on earth
— as in fact there are many gods and many lords/masters — yet for
us there is one God (Gk. theos – θεός), the Father, from whom
are all things and for whom we exist, and one Lord/Master (kyrios –
Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and through
whom we exist. —
The creed of Arian
Ulfilas (c. 311 – 383), which concludes a letter
praising him written by Auxentius, distinguishes God the Father
("unbegotten"), who is the only true God from Son of God
("only-begotten"), who is Lord/Master; and the Holy Spirit, the
illuminating and sanctifying power, who is neither
God the Father nor
I, Ulfila, bishop and confessor, have always so believed, and in
this, the one true faith, I make the journey to my Lord; I believe in
only one God the Father, the unbegotten and invisible, and in his
only-begotten son, our Lord/Master and God, the designer and maker of
all creation, having none other like him. Therefore, there is one God
of all, who is also God of our God; and in one Holy Spirit, the
illuminating and sanctifying power, as Christ said after his
resurrection to his apostles: "And behold, I send the promise of my
Father upon you; but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be
clothed with power from on high" (Luke 24:49) and again "But ye shall
receive power, when the Holy Ghost is come upon you" (Acts 1:8);
Neither God nor Lord/Master, but the faithful minister of Christ; not
equal, but subject and obedient in all things to the Son. And I
believe the Son to be subject and obedient in all things to God the
A letter from
Arius (c. 250–336) to the Arian
Eusebius of Nicomedia
(died 341) succinctly states the core beliefs of the Arians:
Some of them say that the Son is an eructation, others that he is a
production, others that he is also unbegotten. These are impieties to
which we cannot listen, even though the heretics threaten us with a
thousand deaths. But we say and believe and have taught, and do teach,
that the Son is not unbegotten, nor in any way part of the unbegotten;
and that he does not derive his subsistence from any matter; but that
by his own will and counsel he has subsisted before time and before
ages as perfect as God, only begotten and unchangeable, and that
before he was begotten, or created, or purposed, or established, he
was not. For he was not unbegotten. We are persecuted because we say
that the Son has a beginning but that God is without beginning.
— Theodoret: Arius's Letter to
Eusebius of Nicomedia, translated
Heresy and Authority in
Medieval Europe , p. 41
Bart Ehrman , the dispute between
Arianism was about:
* has the Son always existed next to the
Father or was the Son
begotten at a certain time in eternity past?
* is the Son equal to the
Father or subordinated to the Father?
* for Constantine it was minor theological claptrap that stood in
the way of uniting the Empire, but for the theologians it was of huge
Arianism had several different variants, including
Arianism . Homoian
Arianism is associated with Akakius and
Eudoxius . Homoian
Arianism avoided the use of the word ousia to
describe the relation of
Father to Son, and described these as "like"
each other. Hanson lists twelve creeds that reflect the Homoian
* The Second Sirmian Creed of 357
* The Creed of Nice (Constantinople) 360
* The creed put forward by Akakius at Seleucia, 359
* The Rule of Faith of
* The creed uttered by
Ulfilas on his deathbed, 383
* The creed attributed to Eudoxius
* The Creed of Auxentius of Milan, 364
* The Creed of Germinius professed in correspondence with
* Palladius\' rule of faith
* Three credal statements found in fragments, subordinating the Son
to the Father
STRUGGLES WITH ORTHODOXY
FIRST COUNCIL OF NICAEA
Constantine burning Arian books, illustration from a compendium
of canon law , c. 825.
Arius was denounced by a synod at
Alexandria for teaching a
heterodox view of the relationship of
Jesus to God the Father. Because
Arius and his followers had great influence in the schools of
Alexandria—counterparts to modern universities or seminaries—their
theological views spread, especially in the eastern Mediterranean.
By 325, the controversy had become significant enough that the
Emperor Constantine called an assembly of bishops, the First Council
of Nicaea , which condemned Arius's doctrine and formulated the
Nicene Creed of 325 . The Nicene Creed's central term, used
to describe the relationship between the
Father and the Son, is
Ancient Greek : ὁμοούσιος), or Consubstantiality
, meaning "of the same substance" or "of one being". (The Athanasian
Creed is less often used but is a more overtly anti-Arian statement on
The focus of the Council of Nicaea was the nature of the Son of God
and his precise relationship to God the Father. (see Paul of Samosata
Synods of Antioch ).
Arius taught that
Jesus Christ was
divine/holy and was sent to earth for the salvation of mankind but
Jesus Christ was not equal to
God the Father (infinite,
primordial origin) in rank and that
God the Father and the Son of God
were not equal to the
Holy Spirit (power of God the Father). Under
Arianism, Christ was instead not consubstantial with
God the Father
since both the
Father and the Son under
Arius were made of "like"
essence or being (see homoiousia ) but not of the same essence or
being (see homoousia ).
In the Arian view,
God the Father is a Deity and is divine and the
Son of God
Son of God is not a Deity but divine (I, the LORD, am Deity alone.
God the Father sent
Jesus to earth for salvation of
mankind (John 17:3).
Ousia is essence or being, in Eastern
Christianity, and is the aspect of God that is completely
incomprehensible to mankind and human perception. It is all that
subsists by itself and which has not its being in another, God the
Father and God the Son and God the
Holy Spirit all being uncreated.
According to the teaching of Arius, the pre-existent Logos and thus
Jesus Christ was a begotten being; only the Son was
directly begotten by God the Father, before ages, but was of a
distinct, though similar, essence or substance from the Creator. His
opponents argued that this would make
Jesus less than God and that
this was heretical. Much of the distinction between the differing
factions was over the phrasing that Christ expressed in the New
Testament to express submission to God the Father. The theological
term for this submission is kenosis . This Ecumenical council declared
Jesus Christ was a distinct being of God in existence or reality
(hypostasis ), which the Latin fathers translated as persona. Jesus
was God in essence, being, and/or nature (ousia), which the Latin
fathers translated as substantia.
Constantine is believed to have exiled those who refused to accept
the Nicean creed—
Arius himself, the deacon Euzoios, and the Libyan
bishops Theonas of Marmarica and
Secundus of Ptolemais —and also the
bishops who signed the creed but refused to join in condemnation of
Eusebius of Nicomedia and
Theognis of Nicaea . The Emperor also
ordered all copies of the Thalia, the book in which
expressed his teachings, to be burned . However, there is no evidence
that his son and ultimate successor,
Constantius II , who was an Arian
Christian, was exiled.
Although he was committed to maintaining what the church had defined
at Nicaea, Constantine was also bent on pacifying the situation and
eventually became more lenient toward those condemned and exiled at
the council. First he allowed
Eusebius of Nicomedia, who was a
protégé of his sister, and Theognis to return once they had signed
an ambiguous statement of faith. The two, and other friends of Arius,
worked for Arius's rehabilitation.
First Synod of Tyre in AD 335, they brought accusations
against Athanasius , now bishop of Alexandria, the primary opponent of
Arius. After this, Constantine had Athanasius banished since he
considered him an impediment to reconciliation. In the same year, the
Synod of Jerusalem under Constantine's direction readmitted
communion in AD 336.
Arius died on the way to this event in
Constantinople. Some scholars suggest that
Arius may have been
poisoned by his opponents.
Eusebius and Theognis remained in the
Emperor's favor, and when Constantine, who had been a catechumen much
of his adult life, accepted baptism on his deathbed, it was from
Eusebius of Nicomedia.
AFTERMATH OF NICAEA
The Council of Nicaea did not end the controversy, as many bishops of
the Eastern provinces disputed the homoousios , the central term of
the Nicene creed, as it had been used by
Paul of Samosata , who had
advocated a monarchianist
Christology . Both the man and his teaching,
including the term homoousios, had been condemned by the Synods of
Antioch in 269.
Hence, after Constantine's death in 337, open dispute resumed again.
Constantius II , who had become Emperor of the
eastern part of the Empire, actually encouraged the Arians and set out
to reverse the Nicene creed. His advisor in these affairs was Eusebius
of Nicomedia, who had already at the Council of Nicea been the head of
the Arian party, who also was made bishop of Constantinople.
Constantius used his power to exile bishops adhering to the Nicene
creed, especially St
Athanasius of Alexandria
Athanasius of Alexandria , who fled to Rome. In
355 Constantius became the sole Emperor and extended his pro-Arian
policy toward the western provinces, frequently using force to push
through his creed, even exiling
Pope Liberius and installing Antipope
Felix II .
Council of Sirmium in 357 was the high point of Arianism.
The Seventh Arian Confession (Second Sirmium Confession) held that
both homoousios (of one substance) and homoiousios (of similar
substance) were unbiblical and that the
Father is greater than the
Son. (This confession was later known as the Blasphemy of Sirmium.)
But since many persons are disturbed by questions concerning what is
called in Latin substantia, but in Greek ousia, that is, to make it
understood more exactly, as to 'coessential,' or what is called,
'like-in-essence,' there ought to be no mention of any of these at
all, nor exposition of them in the Church, for this reason and for
this consideration, that in divine Scripture nothing is written about
them, and that they are above men's knowledge and above men's
As debates raged in an attempt to come up with a new formula, three
camps evolved among the opponents of the Nicene creed. The first group
mainly opposed the Nicene terminology and preferred the term
homoiousios (alike in substance) to the Nicene homoousios, while they
Arius and his teaching and accepted the equality and
coeternality of the persons of the Trinity. Because of this centrist
position, and despite their rejection of Arius, they were called
"semi-Arians" by their opponents. The second group also avoided
invoking the name of Arius, but in large part followed Arius'
teachings and, in another attempted compromise wording, described the
Son as being like (homoios ) the Father. A third group explicitly
Arius and described the Son as unlike (anhomoios ) the
Father. Constantius wavered in his support between the first and the
second party, while harshly persecuting the third.
Epiphanius of Salamis labelled the party of
Basil of Ancyra in 358
Semi-Arianism ". This is considered unfair by Kelly who states that
some members of the group were virtually orthodox from the start but
disliked the adjective homoousios while others had moved in that
direction after the out-and-out Arians had come into the open.
The debates among these groups resulted in numerous synods, among
Council of Sardica in 343, the
Council of Sirmium in 358 and
Council of Rimini and Seleucia in 359, and no fewer than
fourteen further creed formulas between 340 and 360, leading the pagan
Ammianus Marcellinus to comment sarcastically: "The highways
were covered with galloping bishops." None of these attempts were
acceptable to the defenders of Nicene orthodoxy: writing about the
latter councils, Saint
Jerome remarked that the world "awoke with a
groan to find itself Arian."
After Constantius' death in 361, his successor Julian , a devotee of
Rome\'s pagan gods , declared that he would no longer attempt to favor
one church faction over another, and allowed all exiled bishops to
return; this resulted in further increasing dissension among Nicene
Christians. The Emperor
Valens , however, revived Constantius' policy
and supported the "Homoian" party, exiling bishops and often using
force. During this persecution many bishops were exiled to the other
ends of the Empire, (e.g.,
St Hilary of Poitiers to the Eastern
provinces). These contacts and the common plight subsequently led to a
rapprochement between the Western supporters of the
Nicene creed and
the homoousios and the Eastern semi-Arians.
COUNCIL OF CONSTANTINOPLE
It was not until the co-reigns of
Gratian and Theodosius that
Arianism was effectively wiped out among the ruling class and elite of
the Eastern Empire. Theodosius' wife St Flacilla was instrumental in
his campaign to end Arianism.
Valens died in the Battle of Adrianople
in 378 and was succeeded by
Theodosius I , who adhered to the Nicene
creed. This allowed for settling the dispute.
Two days after Theodosius arrived in Constantinople, 24 November 380,
he expelled the
Demophilus of Constantinople , and
surrendered the churches of that city to
Gregory Nazianzus , the
leader of the rather small Nicene community there, an act which
provoked rioting. Theodosius had just been baptized, by bishop
Acholius of Thessalonica, during a severe illness, as was common in
the early Christian world. In February he and
Gratian had published an
edict that all their subjects should profess the faith of the bishops
of Rome and
Alexandria (i.e., the Nicene faith), or be handed over for
punishment for not doing so.
Although much of the church hierarchy in the East had opposed the
Nicene creed in the decades leading up to Theodosius' accession, he
managed to achieve unity on the basis of the Nicene creed. In 381, at
Ecumenical Council in Constantinople, a group of mainly
Eastern bishops assembled and accepted the
Nicene Creed of 381 ,
which was supplemented in regard to the
Holy Spirit , as well as some
other changes: see Comparison between Creed of 325 and Creed of 381 .
This is generally considered the end of the dispute about the Trinity
and the end of
Arianism among the Roman, non-Germanic peoples.
AMONG MEDIEVAL GERMANIC TRIBES
Gothic Christianity and Germanic
The ceiling mosaic of the
Arian Baptistry .
During the time of Arianism's flowering in
Constantinople , the
Ulfilas (later the subject of the letter of Auxentius
cited above) was sent as a missionary to the Gothic barbarians across
the Danube , a mission favored for political reasons by emperor
Constantius II. Ulfilas' initial success in converting this Germanic
people to an Arian form of
Christianity was strengthened by later
events. When the Germanic peoples entered the provinces of the Western
Roman Empire and began founding their own kingdoms there, most had
been Arian Christians for more than a century.
The conflict in the 4th century AD had seen Arian and Nicene factions
struggling for control of the Church. In contrast, among the Arian
German kingdoms established in the collapsing Western Empire in the
5th century, there were entirely separate Arian and Nicene Churches
with parallel hierarchies, each serving different sets of believers.
The Germanic elites were Arians, and the Romance majority population
Most Germanic tribes were generally tolerant of the Nicene beliefs of
their subjects. However, the
Vandals tried for several decades to
force their Arian beliefs on their North African Nicene subjects,
exiling Nicene clergy, dissolving monasteries, and exercising heavy
pressure on non-conforming Nicene Christians.
The apparent resurgence of
Arianism after Nicaea was more an
anti-Nicene reaction exploited by Arian sympathizers than a pro-Arian
development. By the end of the 4th century it had surrendered its
remaining ground to
Trinitarianism . In western Europe, Arianism,
which had been taught by
Ulfilas , the Arian missionary to the
barbarian Germanic tribes, was dominant among the
Vandals . By the 8th century it had ceased to be the tribes'
mainstream belief as the tribal rulers gradually came to adopt Nicene
orthodoxy. This trend began in 496 with
Clovis I of the Franks, then
Reccared I of the
Visigoths in 587 and
Aripert I of the
Franks and the
Anglo-Saxons were unlike the other Germanic
peoples in that they entered the empire as pagans and converted to
Christianity directly, guided by their kings, Clovis
Æthelberht of Kent . The remaining tribes – the
Vandals and the
Ostrogoths – did not convert as a people nor did they maintain
territorial cohesion. Having been militarily defeated by the armies of
Emperor Justinian I , the remnants were dispersed to the fringes of
the empire and became lost to history. The
Vandalic War of 533–534
dispersed the defeated Vandals. Following their final defeat at the
Battle of Mons Lactarius
Battle of Mons Lactarius in 553, the
Ostrogoths went back north and
(re)settled in south Austria. Once the Orthodox Trinitarians
succeeded in defeating Arianism, they censored any signs that the
perceived heresy left behind. This mosaic in Basilica of
Sant\'Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna has had images of the Arian king,
Theoderic, and his court removed. On some columns their hands remain.
FROM THE 5TH TO THE 7TH CENTURY
Much of south-eastern Europe and central Europe , including many of
Vandals respectively, had embraced
Visigoths converted to Arian
Christianity in 376), which led to
Arianism being a religious factor in various wars in the Roman Empire.
In the west, organized
Arianism survived in
North Africa , in
Hispania, and parts of Italy until it was finally suppressed in the
6th and 7th centuries. Grimwald , King of the
and his young son and successor
Garibald (671), were the last Arian
kings in Europe.
FROM THE 16TH TO THE 19TH CENTURY
Protestant Reformation from 1517, it did not take long
for Arian and other non-trinitarian views to resurface. The first
recorded English antitrinitarian was
John Assheton who was forced to
Thomas Cranmer in 1548. At the
Anabaptist Council of
Venice 1550, the early Italian instigators of the Radical Reformation
committed to the views of Miguel
Servetus (burned alive by Calvin in
1553), and these were promulgated by
Giorgio Biandrata and others into
Poland and Transylvania.
The antitrinitarian wing of the Polish
Reformation separated from the
Calvinist ecclesia maior to form the ecclesia minor or Polish Brethren
. These were commonly referred to as "Arians" due to their rejection
of the Trinity, though in fact the
Socinians , as they were later
known, went further than
Arius to the position of
Photinus . The
epithet "Arian" was also applied to the early Unitarians such as John
Biddle though in denial of the pre-existence of Christ they were again
Socinians not Arians.
In the 18th century the "dominant trend" in Britain, particularly in
Latitudinarianism , was towards Arianism, with which the names of
Samuel Clarke ,
Benjamin Hoadly ,
William Whiston and
Isaac Newton are
associated. To quote the Encyclopædia Britannica's article on
Arianism: "In modern times some Unitarians are virtually Arians in
that they are unwilling either to reduce Christ to a mere human being
or to attribute to him a divine nature identical with that of the
Father." However, their doctrines cannot be considered representative
of traditional Arian doctrines or vice versa.
A similar view was held by the ancient anti-Nicene Pneumatomachi
(Greek : Πνευματομάχοι, "breath" or "spirit" and
"fighters", combining as "fighters against the spirit"), so called
because they opposed the deifying of the Nicene Holy Ghost. However,
Pneumatomachi were adherents of
Macedonianism , and though their
beliefs were somewhat reminiscent of Arianism, they were distinct
enough to be distinguishably different.
Iglesia ni Cristo
Iglesia ni Cristo is one of the largest groups that teaches a
similar doctrine, though they are really closer to Socinianism,
believing the Word in John 1:1 is God's plan of salvation, not Christ.
So Christ did not preexist.
Jehovah\'s Witnesses are often referred to as "modern-day Arians" or
they are sometimes referred to as "
Semi-Arians ", usually by their
opponents. While there are some significant similarities in
theology and doctrine, the Witnesses differ from Arians by saying that
the Son can fully know the
Father (something which
denied), and by their denial of personality to the
Holy Spirit . The
original Arians also generally prayed directly to Jesus, whereas the
Witnesses pray to God, through
Jesus as a mediator.
The teachings of the first two ecumenical councils – which entirely
Arianism – are held by the
Catholic Church , the Eastern
Orthodox Church , the
Oriental Orthodox Churches , the Assyrian Church
of the East and all churches founded during the
Reformation in the
16th century or influenced by it (Lutheran , Reformed /Presbyterian ,
and Anglican ). Also, nearly all Protestant groups (such as Methodists
Baptists , and most Pentecostals ) entirely reject the teachings
associated with Arianism. Modern groups which currently appear to
embrace some of the principles of
Arianism include Unitarians and
Jehovah\'s Witnesses . Although the origins of their beliefs are not
necessarily attributed to the teachings of Arius, many of the core
beliefs of Unitarians and
Jehovah's Witnesses are entirely similar to
Church of God (7th day) - Salem Conference can be considered
We believe in one true God who is the creator of all. He is
omnipotent, omniscient, and omnipresent. He sent his son to Earth to
be a sacrifice for our sins. He is a separate being from his son,
Holy Spirit is the power of God and not a separate being
with a separate consciousness. We do not believe in the teaching of
the Trinity, in which the Father, Son, and
Holy Spirit are three parts
of a single being who is God. We believe the
Father and the Son are
separate beings with separate consciousnesses and that the Holy Spirit
is not a conscious being but instead the power of God. — FAQs –
Does the Church of God (7th Day) believe in the Trinity?
Other groups which oppose the belief in the
Trinity are not
Iglesia ni Cristo
Iglesia ni Cristo ,
Christadelphians , Church of God General
Conference and other "Biblical Unitarians " are typically Socinian
in their Christology, not Arian.
* There are also various
Binitarian churches, which basically
believe that God is two persons, the
Father and the Son, but they
believe that the
Holy Spirit is not a person. They include the Church
of God (Seventh Day) and its various offshoots, in particular the
former Radio Church of God, founded by Herbert W. Armstrong, renamed
Worldwide Church of God , which after Armstrong's death converted
to Trinitarianism, causing many small breakaway churches to form, and
most of them remain loyal to the teachings of Armstrong, for example
Restored Church of God , the
United Church of God , the
Philadelphia Church of God , the
Living Church of God , and many
Binitarian churches include the
Gospel Assemblies, a
group of Pentecostal denominations which believe that God adopted the
name Jesus, and the Church of
Jesus Christ (Bickertonite) , an
Mormonism , which believes that God is two personages, not
Binitarian churches generally believe that the
greater than the Son, a view somewhat similar to Arianism.
First Council of Nicea
* ^ "Arianism". Encyclopædia Britannica.
* ^ A B C D E
* ^ A B Ferguson, Everett (26 November 2013). Church History,
Volume One: From Christ to the Pre-Reformation: The Rise and Growth of
the Church in Its Cultural, Intellectual, and Political Context.
Zondervan. p. 267. ISBN 978-0-310-51657-6 .
* ^ Ben Witherington III, The Living Word of God: Rethinking the
Theology of the Bible (Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2009),
* ^ Socrates of
Constantinople , Church History, book 1, chapter
33. Anthony F. Beavers, Chronology of the Arian Controversy.
* ^ A B Gonzalez, Justo (1984). The Story of
Harper Collins. p. 176. ISBN 0-06-063315-8 .
* ^ "
Eusebius of Nicomedia".
Catholic Encyclopedia . Retrieved
* ^ "First Council of Constantinople, Canon 1". ccel.org.
* ^ Leighton Pullan, Early Christian Doctrine, Third Edition,
Oxford Church Text Books (New York: Edwin S. Gorham, 1905), p.87.
* ^ A B Ritchie, Mark S. "The Story of the Church - Part 2, Topics
2 & 3". The Story of the Church.
* ^ M'Clintock, John; James Strong. Cyclopedia of Biblical,
Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature. 7. p. 45.
* ^ Francis Schüssler Fiorenza; John P. Galvin (1991). Systematic
theology: Roman Catholic perspectives. Fortress Press. pp. 164–.
ISBN 978-0-8006-2460-6 . Retrieved 14 April 2010.
* ^ Kelly, J N D (29 March 1978). Early Christian Doctrine. Chapter
9. San Francisco: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-064334-8 .
* ^ Davis, Leo Donald (1983). The First Seven Ecumenical Councils
(325-787). Collegeville: Liturgical Press. pp. 52–54. ISBN
* ^ Hanson, R P C (2007). The Search for the Christian Doctrine of
God. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic. pp. 127–128. ISBN 0-8010-3146-X .
* ^ Chadwick, Henry (July 1960). "Faith and Order at the Council of
Nicea". The Harvard Theological Review. 53 (3): 171–195. JSTOR
1508399 . doi :10.1017/S0017816000027000 .
* ^ "Emperor Constantine\'s Edict against the Arians".
fourthcentury.com. 23 January 2010. Archived from the original on 19
August 2011. Retrieved 20 August 2011.
* ^ Richard Bauckham, “Review of Arius:
Heresy and Tradition by
Rowan Williams,” Themelios: Volume 14, No. 2, January/February 1989,
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Mathematics and Statistics,
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* ^ A B "Auxentius on Wulfila: Translation by Jim Marchand".
* ^ "New American Standard Bible – John 1". Bible Hub.
* ^ Heather and Matthews.
Goths in the Fourth Century. p. 143.
* ^ Hanson, R.P.C. (1988). The Search for the Christian Doctrine of
God. Edinburgh: T&T Clark. pp. 557–558.
* ^ Hanson, R.P.C. (1988). The Search for the Christian Doctrine of
God. Edinburgh: T&T Clark. pp. 558–559.
* ^ The Seven Ecumenical Councils, Christian Classics Ethereal
* ^ A B C D "The oneness of Essence, the Equality of Divinity, and
the Equality of Honor of God the Son with the God the Father."
Orthodox Dogmatic Theology: A Concise Exposition Protopresbyter
Michael Pomazansky pages 92–95
* ^ The Mystical Theology of the Eastern Church, SVS Press, 1997.
(ISBN 0-913836-31-1 ) James Clarkef ">"". www.fourthcentury.com.
* ^ Kelly J.N.D. Early Christian Doctrines A&G Black 1965, p. 249
* ^ "Sozomen\'s Church History VII.4". ccel.org.
* ^ The text of this version of the
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Synod of Nice". ccel.org. Retrieved
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* ^ Everett Ferguson, Church History: From Christ to
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* ^ "
Arianism and Its Influence TodayAriusIdea That
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Father By Nature". carm.org. Retrieved 23 October
* ^ Frassetto, Michael, Encyclopedia of barbarian Europe,
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* ^ Procopius, Secret Histories, Chapter 11, 18
The inhibiting and paralyzing force of superstitious beliefs
penetrated to every department of life, and the most primary and
elementary activities of society were influenced. War, for example,
was not a simple matter of a test of strength and courage, but
supernatural matters had to be taken carefully into consideration.
When Clovis said of the
Goths in southern Gaul, "I take it hard that
these Arians should hold a part of the Gauls; let us go with God's aid
and conquer them and bring the land under our dominion", he was not
speaking in a hypocritical or arrogant manner but in real accordance
with the religious sentiment of the time. What he meant was that the
Goths, being heretics, were at once enemies of the true God and
inferior to the orthodox
Franks in their supernatural backing.
Considerations of duty, strategy, and self-interest all reinforced one
another in Clovis 's mind. However, it was not always the orthodox
side that won. We hear of a battle fought a few years before Gregory
became bishop of Tours between king Sigibert and the
Huns , in which
Huns "by the use of magic arts caused various false appearances to
arise before their enemies and overcame them decisively." Medieval
Study Guide to
Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours History of the Franks. — St
Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours * ^
Roland Bainton , Hunted Heretic. The Life
and Death of Michael Servetus
George Huntston Williams . The Radical Reformation, 3rd
edition. Volume 15 of Sixteenth Century Essays and Studies. Ann Arbor,
MI: Edwards Brothers, 1992
* ^ William Gibson, Robert G. Ingram Religious identities in
Britain, 1660–1832 p92
* ^ "Arianism." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
2007 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007.
* ^ A B Wace, Henry; Piercy, William C., eds. Dictionary of
Christian Biography and Literature to the End of the Sixth Century
(1911, third edition) London: John Murray.
* ^ Institute for Metaphysical Studies—The Arian Christian Bible
- Metaphysical Institute, 2010. Page 209. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
* ^ Adam Bourque - Ten Things You Didn’t Know about Jehovah’s
Witnesses.—Michigen Skeptics Association. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
* ^ Dorsett, Tommy. "Modern Day Arians: Who Are They?". Retrieved 2
* ^ "Trinity:
Arius and the Nicene Creed". Retrieved 2 May 2012.
* ^ Young, Alexey. "Jehovah\'s Witnesses". Retrieved 2 May 2012.
* ^ "Should You Believe in the Trinity?". Awake!: 12–13. August
2013. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
* ^ "FAQs". Churchofgod-7thday.org. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
* ^ Bienvenido Santiago "Is
Jesus Christ Called 'God' in John 1:1?"
in God's Message magazine July–September 1995
* ^ Pearce F. Jesus: God the Son or Son of God? CMPA
* ^ Anthony Buzzard and Charles Hunting The Doctrine of the
Trinity: Christianity's Self-Inflicted Wound
* Alexandria, Athanasius of (2013). History of the Arians. London.
ISBN 978-1-78336-206-6 .
* Alexandria, Athanasius of . "History of the Arians". Missing or
empty url= (help ) Part I, Part II, Part III, Part IV, Part V, Part
VI, Part VII, Part VIII
* Ayres, Lewis (2004). Nicaea and its Legacy: An Approach to
Fourth-Century Trinitarian Theology. New York: Oxford University
* Belletini, Mark.
Arius in the Mirror: The Alexandrian Dissent And
How It Is Reflected in Modern Unitarian Universalist Practice and
* Roland Steinacher Guido M. Berndt, ed. (2014). Arianism. Roman
Heresy and Barbarian Creed. vol.1. Farnham, UK: Ashgate.
* Davidson, Ivor J. (2005). "A Public Faith". Baker History of the
Church. 2. ISBN 0-8010-1275-9 .
* Hanson, R. P. C. (1988). The Search for the Christian Doctrine of
God: The Arian Controversy 318–381. T & T Clark. ISBN
* Kelly, J. N. D. (1978). Early Christian Doctrines. ISBN
* Newman, John Henry (1833). "Arians of the Fourth Century".
* Parvis, Sarah (2006). Marcellus of Ancyra And the Lost Years of
the Arian Controversy 325–345. New York: Oxford University Press.
* Documents of the Arian Controversy (in German). Berlin and New
York: Walter De Gruyter. 2007.
* Rodriguez, Eliseo. The Doctrine of the
Trinity is Dead: The
Gospel (Lost Fundamental Doctrines). vol. 1. ISBN
* Rusch, William C. (1980). The Trinitarian Controversy. Sources of
Early Christian Thought. ISBN 0-8006-1410-0 .
* Schaff, Philip . Theological Controversies and the Development of
Orthodoxy: The History of the Christian Church. vols. III and IX.
* Williams, Rowan (2001). Arius:
Heresy and Tradition (revised ed.).
ISBN 0-8028-4969-5 .
* Brennecke, Hanns Christof (1999), "Arianism", in Fahlbusch, Erwin,
Encyclopedia of Christianity, 1, Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, pp.
121–122, ISBN 0-8028-2413-7
* Documents of the Early Arian Controversy Chronological survey of
* English translations of all extant letters