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Hispania
Hispania
(/hɪˈspænjə, -eɪniə/; Latin: [hɪsˈpaːnia]) was the Roman and Greek name for the Iberian Peninsula. Under the Republic, Hispania
Hispania
was divided into two provinces: Hispania
Hispania
Citerior and Hispania
Hispania
Ulterior. During the Principate, Hispania Ulterior
Hispania Ulterior
was divided into two new provinces, Baetica
Baetica
and Lusitania, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Hispania
Hispania
Tarraconensis. Subsequently, the western part of Tarraconensis
Tarraconensis
was split off, first as Hispania
Hispania
Nova, later renamed Callaecia (or Gallaecia, whence modern Galicia). From Diocletian's Tetrarchy
Tetrarchy
(AD 284) onwards, the south of remaining Tarraconensis
Tarraconensis
was again split off as Carthaginensis, and probably then too the Balearic Islands
Balearic Islands
and all the resulting provinces formed one civil diocese under the vicarius for the Hispaniae (that is, the Celtic provinces). The name, Hispania, was also used in the period of Visigothic rule. The modern placenames Spain
Spain
and Hispaniola
Hispaniola
are both derived from Hispania.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Pre-Roman history 3 Languages 4 Carthaginian Hispania 5 Roman Hispania

5.1 The Hispaniae

6 Germanic Hispania 7 Muslim
Muslim
conquest and Christian
Christian
Reconquest of Hispania 8 Economy 9 Climate 10 Sources and references

10.1 Modern sources in Spanish and Portuguese 10.2 Other modern sources 10.3 Classical sources 10.4 Neo-modern references

11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Etymology[edit] The origin of the word Hispania
Hispania
is much disputed and the evidence for the various speculations are based merely upon what are at best mere resemblances, likely to be accidental, and suspect supporting evidence. One theory holds it to be of Punic derivation, from the Phoenician language
Phoenician language
of colonizing Carthage.[1] Specifically, it may derive from a Punic cognate of Hebrew אי-שפניא (i-shfania) meaning "island of the hyrax" or "island of the hare" or "island of the rabbit" (Phoenician-Punic and Hebrew are both Canaanite languages and therefore closely related to each other).[2] Some Roman coins of the Emperors Trajan
Trajan
and his son Hadrian, born in Hispania, depict Hispania
Hispania
and a rabbit. Golden Roman coin Aureus-Hadrianus showing the face of Hadrian
Hadrian
in one side and Hispania
Hispania
with Rabbit. Others derive the word from Phoenician span, meaning "hidden", and make it indicate "a hidden", that is, "a remote", or "far-distant land".[3] Another theory, proposed by the etymologist Eric Partridge
Eric Partridge
in his work Origins, is that it is of Iberian derivation and that it is to be found in the pre-Roman name for Seville, Hispalis, which strongly hints at an ancient name for the country of *Hispa, an Iberian or Celtic root whose meaning is now lost. Isidore of Sevilla
Isidore of Sevilla
considered Hispania
Hispania
derived from Hispalis.[4] Hispalis may alternatively derive from Heliopolis (Greek for "city of the sun"). According to Manuel Pellicer Catalán, the name derives from Phoenician Spal "lowland", [5][6] rendering this explanation of Hispania
Hispania
dubious. Occasionally Hispania
Hispania
was called Hesperia Ultima, "the last western land" in Greek, by Roman writers, since the name Hesperia had already been used by the Greeks
Greeks
to indicate the Italian peninsula. Another theory holds that the name derives from Ezpanna, the Basque word for "border" or "edge", thus meaning the farthest area or place.[7][8] During Antiquity and Middle Ages, the literary texts derive the term Hispania
Hispania
from an eponymous hero named Hispan, who is mentioned for the first time in the work of the Roman historian Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus, in the 1st century BC.

Archaeological Roman Ensemble of Mérida (Emerita Augusta), Extremadura, Spain.

The Tower of Hercules
Tower of Hercules
in Corunna, Galicia, Spain, is the world's oldest Roman lighthouse still in use.[9]

The Roman Aqueduct of Segovia, Castile, Spain.

The Roman Temple of Évora
Roman Temple of Évora
(Liberatias Iulia), Alentejo, Portugal.

Although "Hispania" is the Latin
Latin
root for the modern name "Spain", substituting Spanish for Hispanicus or Hispanic, or Spain
Spain
for Hispania, should be done carefully and taking into account the correct context. The Estoria de España ("The History of Spain") written on the initiative of Alfonso X of Castile "El Sabio" ("the Wise"), between 1260 and 1274, during the Reconquest of Spain, is believed to be the first extended history of Spain
Spain
in Old Spanish using the words "España" ("Spain") and "Españoles"("Spanish") to refer to Medieval Hispania. The use of Latin
Latin
"Hispania", Castilian "España", Catalan "Espanya" and French "Espaigne", between others, to refer to Roman Hispania
Hispania
or Visigothic Hispania
Hispania
was common throughout all the Late Middle Ages. A document dated 1292 mentions the names of foreigners from Medieval Spain
Spain
as "Gracien d'Espaigne".[10] Latin
Latin
expressions using "Hispania" or "Hispaniae" like "omnes reges Hispaniae" are used often in the Middle Ages at the same time as the emerging Spain Romance languages during the Reconquista
Reconquista
use the Romance version interchangeably. In James Ist Chronicle Llibre dels fets, written between 1208 and 1276, there are many instances of this: when it talks about the different Kings, "los V regnes de Espanya" ("The 5 Kingdoms of Spain"); when it talks about a military fort built by the Christians saying that it is "de los meylors de Espanya" ("from the best of Spain"); when it declared that Catalonia, one of the integral parts of the Crown of Aragon, is "lo meylor Regne Despanya, el pus honrat, el pus noble" ("the best kingdom of Spain, the most honest, the most noble"); when it talks about the conflict that has existed for long "entre los sarrains e los chrestians, en Espanya" ("between Saracens and Christians, in Spain") [11] Since the borders of modern Spain
Spain
do not coincide with those of the Roman province
Roman province
of Hispania
Hispania
or of the Visigothic Kingdom, it is important to understand the context of medieval Spain
Spain
versus modern Spain. The Latin
Latin
term Hispania, often used during Antiquity and the Low Middle Ages
Low Middle Ages
as a geographical name, starts to be used also with political connotations, as shown in the expression "Laus Hispaniae" ("Praise to Hispania") to describe the history of the peoples of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
of Isidore of Seville's "Historia de regibus Gothorum, Vandalorum et Suevorum". :

You are, Oh Spain, holy and always happy mother of princes and peoples, the most beautiful of all the lands that extend far from the West to India. You, by right, are now the queen of all provinces, from whom the lights are given not only the sunset, but also the East. You are the honor and ornament of the orb and the most illustrious portion of the Earth ... And for this reason, long ago, the golden Rome desired you

In modern history, Spain
Spain
and Spanish have become increasingly associated with the Kingdom of Spain
Spain
alone, although this process took several centuries. After the union of the central peninsular Kingdom of Castile with the eastern peninsular Kingdom of Aragon
Kingdom of Aragon
in the 15th century under the Catholic Monarchs
Catholic Monarchs
in 1492, only Navarra
Navarra
and Portugal were left to complete the whole Peninsula under one Monarchy. Navarre followed soon after in 1512, and Portugal
Portugal
in 1580. During this time, the concept of Spain
Spain
was still unchanged. The King of Portugal
Portugal
would protest energetically when during a public act King Fernando talked about the "Crown of Spain".[12] This sentiment was also shared by the Portuguese people, as shown by who is considered Portugal's and Portuguese language's greatest poet, Luís de Camões, when in 1572 he defined the Portuguese people as "Uma gente fortíssima de Espanha" ("A very strong people of Spain").[13] It was after the independence of Portugal
Portugal
in 1640 when the concept of Spain
Spain
started to shift and be applied to all the Peninsula except Portugal. Even so, Portugal
Portugal
would still complain when the terms "Crown of Spain" or " Monarchy
Monarchy
of Spain" were still used in the 18th century with the Treaty of Utrecht.[12] Pre-Roman history[edit] Main articles: Prehistoric Iberia
Prehistoric Iberia
and Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian peninsula
Iberian peninsula
has long been inhabited, first by early hominids such as Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis
Homo heidelbergensis
and Homo antecessor. In the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
period, the Neanderthals entered Iberia and eventually took refuge from the advancing migrations of modern humans. In the 40th millennium BC, during the Upper Paleolithic
Paleolithic
and the last ice age, the first large settlement of Europe
Europe
by modern humans occurred. These were nomadic hunter-gatherers originating on the steppes of Central Asia. When the last Ice Age
Ice Age
reached its maximum extent, during the 30th millennium BC, these modern humans took refuge in Southern Europe, namely in Iberia, after retreating through Southern France. In the millennia that followed, the Neanderthals became extinct and local modern human cultures thrived, producing pre-historic art such as that found in L'Arbreda Cave and in the Côa Valley. In the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
period, beginning in the 10th millennium BC, the Allerød Oscillation occurred. This was an interstadial deglaciation that lessened the harsh conditions of the Ice Age. The populations sheltered in Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
(descendants of the Cro-Magnon) migrated and recolonized all of Western Europe. In this period one finds the Azilian
Azilian
culture in Southern France
Southern France
and Northern Iberia (to the mouth of the Douro
Douro
river), as well as the Muge Culture in the Tagus
Tagus
valley. The Neolithic
Neolithic
brought changes to the human landscape of Iberia (from the 5th millennium BC onwards), with the development of agriculture and the beginning of the European Megalith
Megalith
Culture. This spread to most of Europe
Europe
and had one of its oldest and main centres in the territory of modern Portugal, as well as the Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
and Beaker cultures. During the 1st millennium BC, in the Bronze Age, the first wave of migrations into Iberia of speakers of Indo-European languages occurred. These were later (7th and 5th centuries BC) followed by others that can be identified as Celts. Eventually urban cultures developed in southern Iberia, such as Tartessos, influenced by the Phoenician colonization of coastal Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Iberia, with strong competition from the Greek colonization. These two processes defined Iberia's cultural landscape – Mediterranean
Mediterranean
towards the southeast and Continental in the northwest. Languages[edit]

Linguistic map: This shows the Linguistic variation of the Iberian Peninsula at about 200 BC (at the end of the Second Punic War).

Main article: Languages of Iberia Latin
Latin
was the official language of Hispania
Hispania
during the Rome's more than 600 years of rule, and by the empire's end in Hispania
Hispania
around 460 AD, all the original Iberian languages, except the ancestor of modern Basque, were extinct. Even after the fall of Rome and the invasion of the Germanic Visigoths
Visigoths
and Suebi, Latin
Latin
was spoken by nearly all of the population, but in its common form known as Vulgar Latin, and the regional changes which led to the modern Iberian Romance languages
Iberian Romance languages
had already begun. Carthaginian Hispania[edit]

Carthaginian influence sphere before the First Punic War.

Further information: Second Punic War
Second Punic War
and Carthaginian Iberia After its defeat by the Romans in the First Punic War
First Punic War
(264 BC–241 BC), Carthage
Carthage
compensated for its loss of Sicily
Sicily
by rebuilding a commercial empire in Hispania. The major part of the Punic Wars, fought between the Punic Carthaginians and the Romans, was fought on the Iberian Peninsula. Carthage
Carthage
gave control of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
and much of its empire to Rome in 201 BC as part of the peace treaty after its defeat in the Second Punic War, and Rome completed its replacement of Carthage
Carthage
as the dominant power in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
area. By then the Romans had adopted the Carthaginian name, romanized first as Ispania. The term later received an H, much like what happened with Hibernia, and was pluralized as Hispaniae, as had been done with the Three Gauls. Roman Hispania[edit] Further information: Roman Conquest of Hispania
Roman Conquest of Hispania
and Romanization of Hispania

Hispania
Hispania
under Caesar Augustus's rule after the Cantabrian Wars
Cantabrian Wars
in 29 BC

Roman armies invaded Hispania
Hispania
in 218 BC and used it as a training ground for officers and as a proving ground for tactics during campaigns against the Carthaginians, the Iberians, the Lusitanians, the Gallaecians and other Celts. It was not until 19 BC that the Roman emperor Augustus
Augustus
(r. 27 BC–AD 14) was able to complete the conquest (see Cantabrian Wars). Until then, much of Hispania
Hispania
remained autonomous. Romanization proceeded quickly in some regions where we have references to the togati, and very slowly in others, after the time of Augustus, and Hispania
Hispania
was divided into three separately governed provinces (nine provinces by the 4th century). More importantly, Hispania
Hispania
was for 500 years part of a cosmopolitan world empire bound together by law, language, and the Roman road. But the impact of Hispania
Hispania
in the newcomers was also big. Caesar wrote on the Civil Wars that the soldiers from the Second Legion had become Hispanicized and regarded themselves as hispanicus. Some of the peninsula's population were admitted into the Roman aristocratic class and they participated in governing Hispania
Hispania
and the Roman empire, although there was a native aristocracy class who ruled each local tribe. The latifundia (sing., latifundium), large estates controlled by the aristocracy, were superimposed on the existing Iberian landholding system. The Romans improved existing cities, such as Lisbon
Lisbon
(Olissipo) and Tarragona
Tarragona
(Tarraco), established Zaragoza
Zaragoza
(Caesaraugusta), Mérida (Augusta Emerita), and Valencia (Valentia), and reduced other native cities to mere villages. The peninsula's economy expanded under Roman tutelage. Hispania
Hispania
served as a granary and a major source of metals for the Roman market, and its harbors exported gold, tin, silver, lead, wool, wheat, olive oil, wine, fish, and garum. Agricultural production increased with the introduction of irrigation projects, some of which remain in use today. The Romanized Iberian populations and the Iberian-born descendants of Roman soldiers and colonists had all achieved the status of full Roman citizenship by the end of the 1st century. The emperors Trajan
Trajan
(r. 98–117), Hadrian
Hadrian
(r. 117–138), and Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
(r. 161–180) were of Hispanic origin. The Iberian denarii, also called argentum oscense by Roman soldiers, circulated until the 1st century BC, after which it was replaced by Roman coins. Hispania
Hispania
was separated into two provinces (in 197 BC), each ruled by a praetor: Hispania Citerior
Hispania Citerior
("Hither Hispania") and Hispania
Hispania
Ulterior ("Farther Hispania"). The long wars of conquest lasted two centuries, and only by the time of Augustus
Augustus
did Rome managed to control Hispania Ulterior. Hispania
Hispania
was divided into three provinces in the 1st century BC. In the 4th century, Latinius Pacatus Drepanius, a Gallic rhetorician, dedicated part of his work to the depiction of the geography, climate and inhabitants of the peninsula, writing:

v t e

Roman conquest of Hispania

Second Punic War Celtiberian Wars (First,Second) Lusitanian War Numantine War Cantabrian Wars

This Hispania
Hispania
produces tough soldiers, very skilled captains, prolific speakers, luminous bards. It is a mother of judges and princes; it has given Trajan, Hadrian, and Theodosius to the Empire.

With time, the name Hispania
Hispania
was used to describe the collective names of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
kingdoms of the Middle Ages, which came to designate all of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
plus the Balearic Islands. The Hispaniae[edit]

Roman Hispania
Hispania
in 125

During the first stages of Romanization, the peninsula was divided in two by the Romans for administrative purposes. The closest one to Rome was called Citerior and the more remote one Ulterior. The frontier between both was a sinuous line which ran from Cartago Nova (now Cartagena) to the Cantabrian Sea. Hispania Ulterior
Hispania Ulterior
comprised what are now Andalusia, Portugal, Extremadura, León, a great portion of the former Castilla la Vieja, Galicia, Asturias, and the Basque Country. Hispania Citerior
Hispania Citerior
comprised the eastern part of former Castilla la Vieja, and what are now Aragon, Valencia, Catalonia, and a major part of former Castilla la Nueva. In 27 BC, the general and politician Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
divided Hispania
Hispania
into three parts, namely dividing Hispania Ulterior
Hispania Ulterior
into Baetica
Baetica
(basically Andalusia) and Lusitania
Lusitania
(including Gallaecia
Gallaecia
and Asturias) and attaching Cantabria
Cantabria
and the Basque Country to Hispania Citerior. The emperor Augustus
Augustus
in that same year returned to make a new division leaving the provinces as follows:

Provincia Hispania Ulterior
Hispania Ulterior
Baetica
Baetica
(or Hispania
Hispania
Baetica), whose capital was Corduba, presently Córdoba. It included a little less territory than present-day Andalusia—since modern Almería and a great portion of what today is Granada and Jaén were left outside—plus the southern zone of present-day Badajoz. The river Anas or Annas (Guadiana, from Wadi-Anas) separated Hispania
Hispania
Baetica from Lusitania. Provincia Hispania Ulterior
Hispania Ulterior
Lusitania
Lusitania
(Lusitania), whose capital was Emerita Augusta
Emerita Augusta
(now Mérida) and without Gallaecia
Gallaecia
and Asturias. Provincia Hispania Citerior
Hispania Citerior
(or Tarraconensis), whose capital was Tarraco
Tarraco
(Tarragona). After gaining maximum importance this province was simply known as Tarraconensis
Tarraconensis
and it comprised Gallaecia
Gallaecia
(modern Galicia and northern Portugal) and Asturias. In AD 69, the province of Mauretania Tingitana
Mauretania Tingitana
was incorporated into the Diocesis Hispaniarum.

By the 3rd century the emperor Caracalla made a new division which lasted only a short time. He split Hispania Citerior
Hispania Citerior
again into two parts, creating the new provinces Provincia Hispania
Hispania
Nova Citerior and Asturiae-Calleciae. In the year 238 the unified province Tarraconensis or Hispania Citerior
Hispania Citerior
was re-established.

Provinces of Hispania
Hispania
under the Tetrarchy

In the 3rd century, under the Soldier Emperors, Hispania
Hispania
Nova (the northwestern corner of Spain) was split off from Tarraconensis, as a small province but the home of the only permanent legion is Hispania, Legio VII Gemina. After Diocletian's Tetrarchy
Tetrarchy
reform in AD 293, the new dioecesis Hispaniae became one of the four dioceses—governed by a vicarius—of the praetorian prefecture of Gaul
Gaul
(also comprising the provinces of Gaul, Germania
Germania
and Britannia), after the abolition of the imperial Tetrarchs under the Western Emperor (in Rome itself, later Ravenna). The diocese, with capital at Emerita Augusta
Emerita Augusta
(modern Mérida), comprised the five peninsular Iberian provinces (Baetica, Gallaecia
Gallaecia
and Lusitania, each under a governor styled consularis; and Carthaginiensis, Tarraconensis, each under a praeses), the Insulae Baleares and the North African province of Mauretania Tingitana. Christianity
Christianity
was introduced into Hispania
Hispania
in the 1st century and it became popular in the cities in the 2nd century. Little headway was made in the countryside, however, until the late 4th century, by which time Christianity
Christianity
was the official religion of the Roman Empire. Some heretical sects emerged in Hispania, most notably Priscillianism, but overall the local bishops remained subordinate to the Pope. Bishops who had official civil as well as ecclesiastical status in the late empire continued to exercise their authority to maintain order when civil governments broke down there in the 5th century. The Council of Bishops became an important instrument of stability during the ascendancy of the Visigoths. The last vestiges of Roman rule ended in 472. Germanic Hispania[edit] Further information: Visigoths, Suebi, Alans, and Vandals

Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
(AD 530–AD 570)

The Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
in the year 560 AD

The undoing of Roman Spain
Spain
was the result of four tribes crossing the Rhine New Year's Eve 407. After three years of depredation and wandering about northern and western Gaul
Gaul
the Germanic Buri, Suevi
Suevi
and Vandals, together with the Sarmatian
Sarmatian
Alans
Alans
move into Iberia in September or October 409 at the request of Gerontius a Roman usurper. Thus began the history of the end of Roman Spain
Spain
which came in 472. The Suevi
Suevi
established a kingdom in Gallaecia
Gallaecia
in what is today modern Galicia and northern Portugal. The Alans' allies, the Hasdingi Vandals, also established a kingdom in another part of Gallaecia. The Alans
Alans
established a kingdom in Lusitania
Lusitania
– modern Alentejo
Alentejo
and Algarve, in Portugal. The Silingi
Silingi
Vandals
Vandals
briefly occupied parts of South Iberia. In an effort to retrieve the region the western Roman emperor, Honorius (r. 395–423), promised the Visigoths
Visigoths
a home in southwest Gaul
Gaul
if they destroyed the invaders in Spain. They all but wiped out the Silingi
Silingi
and Alans. The remnant joined the Asding Vandals who had settled first in the northwest with the Sueves but south to Baetica. It is a mystery why the Visigoths
Visigoths
were recalled by patrician Constantius (who in 418 married Honorius' sister who had been married briefly to the Visigothic king Ataulf). The Visigoths, the remnants of the two tribes who joined them and the Sueves were confined to a small area in the northwest of the peninsula. The diocese may even have been re-established with the capital at Mérida in 418. (Kulikowski, M. The Career of the 'comes Hispanarum' Asterius, Phoenix, 2000a,54: 123-141. The Roman attempt under general Castorius to dislodge the Vandals
Vandals
from Cordoba failed in 422. The Vandals
Vandals
and Alans
Alans
crossed over to North Africa in 429, an event which is considered to have been decisive in hastening the decline of the Western Empire. However their departure allowed the Romans to recover 90% of the Iberian peninsula until 439. After the departure of the Vandals
Vandals
only the Sueves remained in a northwest corner of the peninsula. Roman rule which had survived in the eastern quadrant was restored over most of Iberia until the Sueves occupied Merida in 439, a move which coincides to the Vandal occupation of Carthage
Carthage
late the same year. Rome made attempts to restore control in 446 and 458. Success was temporary. After the death of emperor Majorian in 461 Roman authority collapsed except in Tarraconensis
Tarraconensis
the northeastern quadrant of the peninsular. The Visigoths, a Germanic people, whose kingdom was located in southwest Gaul, took the province when they occupied Tarragona
Tarragona
in 472. They also confined the Sueves who had ruled most of the region to Galicia and northern Portugal. In 484 the Visigoths
Visigoths
established Toledo as the capital of their kingdom. Successive Visigothic kings ruled Hispania as patricians who held imperial commissions to govern in the name of the Roman emperor. In 585 the Visigoths
Visigoths
conquered the Suebic Kingdom of Galicia, and thus controlled almost all of Hispania. A century later, taking advantage of a struggle for the throne between the Visigothic kings Agila
Agila
and Athanagild, the eastern emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
sent an army under the command of Liberius to take back the peninsula from the Visigoths. This short-lived reconquest covered only a small strip of land along the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast roughly corresponding to the ancient province of Baetica, known as Spania. Under the Visigoths
Visigoths
culture was not as highly developed as it had been under Roman rule when a goal of higher education had been to prepare gentleman to take their places in municipal and imperial administration. With the collapse of the imperial administrative super-structure above the provincial level (which was practically moribund) the task of maintaining formal education and government shifted to the Church from the old ruling class of educated aristocrats and gentry. The clergy for the most part emerged as the qualified personnel to manage higher administration in concert with local powerful 'notables who gradually displaced the old town councils. As elsewhere in early medieval Europe, the church in Hispania
Hispania
stood as society's most cohesive institution. The Visigoths are also responsible for the introduction of mainstream Christianity to the Iberian peninsula; the earliest representation of Christ
Christ
in Spanish religious art can be found in a Visigothic hermitage, Santa Maria de Lara. It also embodied the continuity of Roman order. Romans continued to run the civil administration and Latin
Latin
continued to be the language of government and of commerce on behalf of the Visigoths, E.A. Thompson, The Visigoths
Visigoths
in Spain, 1969 pp. 114-131. Religion was the most persistent source of friction between the Roman Catholic Romans and their Arian Visigothic overlords, whom the former considered heretical. At times this tension invited open rebellion, and restive factions within the Visigothic aristocracy exploited it to weaken the monarchy. In 589, Recared, a Visigothic ruler, renounced his Arianism
Arianism
before the Council of Bishops at Toledo and accepted Catholicism, thus assuring an alliance between the Visigothic monarchy and the Romans. This alliance would not mark the last time in the history of the peninsula that political unity would be sought through religious unity. Court ceremonials – from Constantinople
Constantinople
– that proclaimed the imperial sovereignty and unity of the Visigothic state were introduced at Toledo. Still, civil war, royal assassinations, and usurpation were commonplace, and warlords and great landholders assumed wide discretionary powers. Bloody family feuds went unchecked. The Visigoths
Visigoths
had acquired and cultivated the apparatus of the Roman state but not the ability to make it operate to their advantage. In the absence of a well-defined hereditary system of succession to the throne, rival factions encouraged foreign intervention by the Greeks, the Franks, and finally the Muslims
Muslims
in internal disputes and in royal elections. According to Isidore of Seville, it is with the Visigothic domination of the zone that the idea of a peninsular unity is sought after, and the phrase Mother Hispania
Hispania
is first spoken. Up to that date, Hispania designated all of the peninsula's lands. In Historia Gothorum, the Visigoth Suinthila
Suinthila
appears as the first monarch where Hispania
Hispania
is dealt with as a Gothic nation. Muslim
Muslim
conquest and Christian
Christian
Reconquest of Hispania[edit] Main article: Al Andalus

I greet you, oh king of Al-Andalus, she that was called Hispania
Hispania
by the ancients. — Oton's Embassador to Abderramán III in Medina Azahara.

Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
under the Caliph of Cordoba

The North African Muslims, referred to as Moors, conquered Hispania (اسبانيا, Arabic: Isbānīya) (711–719), and called the area they controlled Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
(الأندلس). In the chronicles and documents of the High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
the terms derived from Hispania, Spania, España or Espanha continued to be used by the Christians but only in reference to Muslim
Muslim
controlled areas. King Alfonso I of Aragon (1104–1134) says in his documents that "he reigns over Pamplona, Aragon, Sobrarbe
Sobrarbe
and Ribagorza", and that when in 1126 he made an expedition to Málaga
Málaga
he "went to the lands of España". In the last years of the 12th century the whole Iberian Peninsula, Muslim
Muslim
and Christian, became known as "Spain" (España, Espanya or Espanha) and the denomination "the Five Kingdoms of Spain" became used to refer to the Muslim
Muslim
Kingdom of Granada
Kingdom of Granada
and the Christian
Christian
kingdoms of Aragon, Castile, Portugal, and Navarre. Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Hispania Before the Punic Wars, Hispania
Hispania
was a land with much untapped mineral and agricultural wealth, limited by the primitive subsistence economies of her native peoples outside of a few trading ports along the coast of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea. Occupations by the Carthaginians and then by the Romans for her abundant silver deposits developed Hispania
Hispania
into a thriving multifaceted economy. Several metals, olives, oil from Baetica, salted fish and garum, and wines were some of the goods produced in Hispania
Hispania
and traded throughout the Empire. The gold mining was the most important activity in the NO of the peninsula. This activity is attested in archaeological sites as Las Médulas (Spain) and Casais (Ponte de Lima, Portugal).[14] Climate[edit] See also: Climate of Ancient Rome Unusually high precipitation levels were during the so-called Iberian–Roman Humid Period. The Roman Spain
Spain
experienced its three phases: the most humid interval in 550–190 BC, an arid interval in 190 BC–150 AD and another humid period in 150–350.[15] In 134 BC the army of Scipio Aemilianus in Spain
Spain
had to march at night due to extreme heat, when some of its horses and mules died of thirst[16] (even though earlier, in 181 BC, heavy spring rains prevented the Celtiberians
Celtiberians
from relieving the Roman siege of Contrebia).[16] Through the 2nd century AD warm temperatures dominated particularly in the Austurian mountains along the north coast, punctuated by further cool spells from c. 155 to 180.[17] After about 200 the temperatures fluctuated, trending toward cool.[17] Sources and references[edit]  This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/. Modern sources in Spanish and Portuguese[edit]

Altamira y Crevea, Rafael Historia de España y de la civilización española. Tomo I. Barcelona, 1900. Altamira was a professor at the University of Oviedo, a member of the Royal Academy of History, of the Geographic Society of Lisbon
Lisbon
and of the Instituto de Coimbra. (In Spanish.) Aznar, José Camón, Las artes y los pueblos de la España primitiva. Editorial Espasa Calpe, S.A. Madrid, 1954. Camón was a professor at the University of Madrid. (In Spanish.) Bosch Gimpera, Pedro; Aguado Bleye, Pedro; and Ferrandis, José. Historia de España. España romana, I, created under the direction of Ramón Menéndez Pidal. Editorial Espasa-Calpe S.A., Madrid 1935. (In Spanish.) García y Bellido, Antonio, España y los españoles hace dos mil años (según la Geografía de Estrabón). Colección Austral de Espasa Calpe S.A., Madrid 1945 (first edition 8-XI-1945). García y Bellido was an archeologist and a professor at the University of Madrid. (In Spanish.) Mattoso, José (dir.), História de Portugal. Primeiro Volume: Antes de Portugal, Lisboa, Círculo de Leitores, 1992. (in Portuguese) Melón, Amando, Geografía histórica española Editorial Volvntad, S.A., Tomo primero, Vol. I Serie E. Madrid 1928. Melón was a member of the Royal Geographical Society of Madrid and a professor of geography at the Universities of Valladolid and Madrid. (In Spanish.) Pellón, José R., Diccionario Espasa Íberos. Espasa Calpe S.A. Madrid 2001. (In Spanish.) Urbieto Arteta, Antonio, Historia ilustrada de España, Volumen II. Editorial Debate, Madrid 1994. (In Spanish.)

El Housin Helal Ouriachen, 2009, La ciudad bética durante la Antigüedad Tardía. Persistencias y mutaciones locales en relación con la realidad urbana del Mediterraneo y del Atlántico, Tesis doctoral, Universidad de Granada, Granada.

Other modern sources[edit]

This article draws heavily on the corresponding article in the Spanish-language, which was accessed in the version of 27 February 2005. Westermann Grosser Atlas zur Weltgeschichte (in German) Hispania

Classical sources[edit]

The notitia dignitatum (c. AD 400; one edition online is http://www.intratext.com/IXT/LAT0212/_PJ.HTM#1WJ)

Other classical sources have been accessed second-hand (see references above):

Strabo, Geographiká. Book
Book
III, Iberia, written between the years 29 and 7 BC and touched up in AD 18. The most prestigious and widely used edition is Karl Müller's, published in Paris at the end of the 19th century, one volume, with 2 columns, Greek and Latin. The most reputed French translation is Tardieu, París 1886. The most reputed English translation (with Greek text) is H.L. Jones, vol. I–VIII, London 1917ff., ND London 1931ff. Ptolemy
Ptolemy
(Greek astronomer of the 2nd century) Geographiké Hyphaégesis, geographic guidebook. Pacatus (Gallic rhetorician) directed a panegyric on Hispania
Hispania
to the emperor Theodosius I
Theodosius I
in 389, which he read to the Senate. Paulus Orosius
Paulus Orosius
(390–418) historian, follower of Saint Augustine and author of Historiae adversus paganos, the first Christian
Christian
universal history, and of Hispania
Hispania
Universa, an historical guide translated into Anglo-Saxon by Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
and into Arabic by Abd-ar-Rahman III. Lucius Anneus Florus
Lucius Anneus Florus
(between 1st and 2nd century). Compendium of Roman History and Epitome of the History of Titus Livius (Livy). The relevant texts of Livy
Livy
have been lost, but we can read them via Florus. Trogus Pompeius. Believed to be a Gaul
Gaul
with Roman citizenship. Historia universal written in Latin
Latin
in the times of Augustus
Augustus
Caesar. Titus Livius (Livy) (59 BC–17 BC). Ab urbe condita, Book
Book
CXLII of Livy's surviving work.

Neo-modern references[edit]

E. Hübner, La Arqueologia de España (Barcelona, 1888) E. S. Bouchier, Spain
Spain
under the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(Oxford, 1914)

See also[edit]

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References[edit]

^ pg14 ^ Zvi Herman, (1963). Cartage, the Maritime Empire (קרתגו המעצמה הימית) p. 105; Massadah Ltd ^ Malte-Brun, Précis de la Géographie, t. iv, p. 318. ^ pg 292 ^ SPAL: Revista de prehistoria y arqueología de la Universidad de Sevilla. Secretariado de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Sevilla. 1998. p. 93. Retrieved 8 February 2013. La presencia de fenicios en la antigua Sevilla parece constatada por el topónimo Spal que en diversas lenguas semíticas significa "zona baja", "llanura verde" o "valle profundo"  ^ "La Emergencia de Sevilla" (PDF). Universidad de Sevilla. Retrieved 2011-05-11.  ^ Anthon, Charles. A System of Ancient and Mediæval Geography
Geography
for the Use of Schools and Colleges pg.14 ^ pg 253–254 ^ A Universal Pronouncing Gazetteer from Google Book
Book
Search ^ Paul Lebel, Les noms de personnes en France, 1946, p. 108 ^ Las Raices Medievales de España, Julio Valdeón Baruque p. 40 ^ a b Spain: a unique history, Stanley Paine p. 166 ^ Luís de Camões: “Os Lusíada”, (1572) Canto I, estrofa XXXI. ^ Encadré 5.2 de Silva, A. J. M. (2012), Vivre au-delà du fleuve de l'Oubli. Portrait de la communauté villageoise du Castro do Vieito au moment de l'intégration du NO de la péninsule ibérique dans l'orbis Romanum (estuaire du Rio Lima, NO du Portugal), Oxford, Archaeopress. ^ Celia Martín-Puertas; et al. (March 2009). "The Iberian–Roman Humid Period (2600–1600 cal yr BP) in the Zoñar Lake varve record (Andalucía, southern Spain)". Quaternary Research. doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2008.10.004. Retrieved 25 Aug 2014.  ^ a b Leonard A Curchin (2004). The Romanization of Central Spain: Complexity, Diversity and Change in a Provincial Hinterland. Routledge. p. 7. ISBN 1134451121.  ^ a b Michael McCormick et al. (Autumn 2012). "Climate Change during and after the Roman Empire: Reconstructing the Past from Scientific and Historical Evidence" (PDF). Journal of Interdisciplinary History. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-07-14. Retrieved 24 Aug 2014. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ancient Roman architecture in Spain.

Detailed map of the Pre-Roman Peoples of Iberia (around 200 BC) HISPANIA: A Map of Roman Spain
Spain
and Portugal. Roman buildings in Barcelona Amphorae ex Hispania

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