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Salicaceae
Abatieae Bembicieae Flacourtieae Homalieae Prockieae Saliceae Samydeae Scolopieae SYNONYMS Bembiciaceae Caseariaceae Flacourtiaceae Homaliaceae Poliothyrsidaceae Prockiaceae Samydaceae Scyphostegiaceae and see text The SALICACEAE are a family, the WILLOW FAMILY, of flowering plants . The traditional family ( Salicaceae
Salicaceae
sensu stricto) included the willows, poplar, aspen, and cottonwoods. Recent genetic studies summarized by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group have greatly expanded the circumscription of the family to contain 56 genera and about 1220 species. In the Cronquist system
Cronquist system
, the Salicaceae
Salicaceae
were assigned to their own order, Salicales, and contained three genera (Salix , Populus
Populus
, and Chosenia ). The family is placed by the APG in the order Malpighiales
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies
Picea abies
. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature )
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Tribe (biology)
In biology , a TRIBE is a taxonomic rank above genus , but below family and subfamily . It is sometimes subdivided into SUBTRIBES. In zoology , examples include the tribes Caprini (goat-antelopes), Hominini (hominins), Bombini (bumblebees), and Thunnini (tunas). The standard ending for the name of a zoological tribe is "-ini". The tribe Hominini is divided into subtribes by some scientists; subtribe Hominina then comprises "humans". The standard ending for the name of a zoological subtribe is "-ina". In botany , examples include the tribes Acalypheae and Hyacintheae . The standard ending for the name of a botanical tribe is "-eae". The tribe Hyacintheae is divided into subtribes, including the subtribe Massoniinae. The standard ending for the name of a botanical subtribe is "-inae"
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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Flowering Plant
sweet bay SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae
Plantae
Subkingdom: Embryophyta
Embryophyta
(unranked): Spermatophyta
Spermatophyta
(unranked): ANGIOSPERMS GROUPS (APG IV) Basal angiosperms * Amborellales * Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
* Austrobaileyales
Austrobaileyales
Core angiosperms * magnoliids * Chloranthales * monocots * Ceratophyllales * eudicots SYNONYMS * Anthophyta Cronquist * Angiospermae Lindl. * Magnoliophyta Cronquist , Takht. in other words, a fruiting plant. The term comes from the Greek words angeion ("case" or "casing") and sperma ("seed")
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Angiosperm Phylogeny Group
The ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP, or APG, refers to an informal international group of systematic botanists who collaborate to establish a consensus on the taxonomy of flowering plants (angiosperms) that reflects new knowledge about plant relationships discovered through phylogenetic studies. As of 2016 , four incremental versions of a classification system have resulted from this collaboration, published in 1998, 2003, 2009 and 2016. An important motivation for the group was what they considered deficiencies in prior angiosperm classifications since they were not based on monophyletic groups (i.e., groups that include all the descendants of a common ancestor). APG publications are increasingly influential, with a number of major herbaria changing the arrangement of their collections to match the latest APG system
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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Charles-François Brisseau De Mirbel
CHARLES-FRANçOIS BRISSEAU DE MIRBEL (27 March 1776 – 12 September 1854) was a French botanist and politician . He was a founder of the science of plant cytology . A native Parisian , at the age of twenty, he became an assistant-naturalist with the French National Museum of Natural History . While there he began to examine plant tissue under a microscope. In 1802, Mirbel published his treatise Traité d'anatomie et de physiologie végétale which established his position as a founder of cytology , plant histology and plant physiology in France. He proposed that all plant tissue is modified from parenchyma (supporting tissue). His observation, in 1809, that each plant cell is contained in a continuous membrane, remains a central contribution to cytology. In 1803, Mirbel obtained the post of superintendent of the gardens of Napoleon's Château de Malmaison . There he studied and published on structure of plant tissue and the development of plant organs
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. In one sense (circumscription ), the term refers to GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Extinction
In biology and ecology , EXTINCTION is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon ), normally a species . The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively. This difficulty leads to phenomena such as Lazarus taxa , where a species presumed extinct abruptly "reappears" (typically in the fossil record ) after a period of apparent absence. More than 99 percent of all species, amounting to over five billion species, that ever lived on Earth are estimated to be extinct. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described
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Angiosperms
sweet bay SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae Subkingdom: Embryophyta (unranked): Spermatophyta (unranked): ANGIOSPERMS GROUPS (APG IV) Basal angiosperms * Amborellales
Amborellales
* Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
* Austrobaileyales
Austrobaileyales
Core angiosperms * magnoliids * Chloranthales * monocots * Ceratophyllales * eudicots SYNONYMS * Anthophyta Cronquist * Angiospermae Lindl. * Magnoliophyta Cronquist , Takht. in other words, a fruiting plant. The term comes from the Greek words angeion ("case" or "casing") and sperma ("seed"). The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period , 245 to 202 million years ago (mya), and the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya
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Rosids
The ROSIDS are members of a large clade (monophyletic group) of flowering plants , containing about 70,000 species , more than a quarter of all angiosperms. The clade is divided into 16 to 20 orders , depending upon circumscription and classification . These orders, in turn, together comprise about 140 families . Fossil rosids are known from the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period. Molecular clock estimates indicate that the rosids originated in the Aptian or Albian stages of the Cretaceous, between 125 and 99.6 million years ago. CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 Relationships * 3 Classification * 3.1 Orders * 4 Phylogeny
Phylogeny
* 5 References * 6 External links NAMEThe name is based upon the name " Rosidae ", which had usually been understood to be a subclass
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Eudicots
The EUDICOTS, EUDICOTIDAE or EUDICOTYLEDONS are a monophyletic clade of flowering plants that had been called TRICOLPATES or NON-MAGNOLIID DICOTS by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots. The close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was initially seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters . These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots
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Salix Caprea
SALIX CAPREA (GOAT WILLOW, also known as the PUSSY WILLOW or GREAT SALLOW) is a common species of willow native to Europe and western and central Asia . It is a deciduous shrub or small tree , reaching a height of 8–10 m (26–33 ft), rarely to 13 m. The leaves are 3–12 cm long and from 2–8 cm wide, broader than most other willows. The flowers are soft silky, and silvery 3-7-cm-long catkins are produced in early spring before the new leaves appear; the male and female catkins are on different plants (dioecious ). The male catkins mature yellow at pollen release, the female catkins mature pale green. The fruit is a small capsule 5–10 mm long containing numerous minute seeds embedded in fine, cottony hairs. The seeds are very small (about 0.2 mm) with the fine hairs aiding dispersal; they require bare soil to germinate . The two varieties are: * S. c. var
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Samydaceae
SAMYDACEAE is a family of tropical and subtropical woody plants, its best known genus being Casearia . It has always been of uncertain placement, in the past usually being submerged in the family Flacourtiaceae . A 2002 paper included the Samydaceae in the family Salicaceae . However, this placement has by no means been universally accepted. REFERENCES * ^ Mark W. Chase, Sue Zmarzty, M. Dolores Lledó, Kenneth J. Wurdack, Susan M. Swensen and Michael F. Fay (2002), "When in Doubt, Put It in Flacourtiaceae: A Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis Based on Plastid rbcL DNA Sequences", Kew Bulletin, 57 (1): 141–181, doi :10.2307/4110825 CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ Alford, Mac H. 2007. Samydaceae. Version 6 February 2007 (under construction)
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