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Rhizophorales

Aspidopterys cordata (Malpighiaceae)

The Malpighiales
Malpighiales
comprise one of the largest orders of flowering plants, containing about 16,000 species, about 7.8% of the eudicots.[2] The order is very diverse, containing plants as different as the willow, violet, poinsettia, and coca plant, and are hard to recognize except with molecular phylogenetic evidence. It is not part of any of the classification systems based only on plant morphology. Molecular clock
Molecular clock
calculations estimate the origin of stem group Malpighiales
Malpighiales
at around 100 million years ago (Mya) and the origin of crown group Malpighiales
Malpighiales
at about 90 Mya.[3] The Malpighiales
Malpighiales
are divided into 32 to 42 families, depending upon which clades in the order are given the taxonomic rank of family.[4] In the APG III system, 35 families are recognized.[1] Medusagynaceae, Quiinaceae, Peraceae, Malesherbiaceae, Turneraceae, Samydaceae, and Scyphostegiaceae are consolidated into other families. The largest family, by far, is the Euphorbiaceae, with about 6300 species in about 245 genera.[5] In a 2009 study of DNA
DNA
sequences of 13 genes, 42 families were placed into 16 groups, ranging in size from one to 10 families. Almost nothing is known about the relationships among these 16 groups.[4] Malpighiales
Malpighiales
and Lamiales
Lamiales
are the two large orders whose phylogeny remains mostly unresolved.[6]

Contents

1 Affinities 2 History 3 Circumscription 4 Phylogeny

4.1 2009 4.2 2012

5 References 6 External links

Affinities[edit] Malpighiales
Malpighiales
is a member of a supraordinal group called the COM clade, which consists of the orders Celastrales, Oxalidales, and Malpighiales.[7] Some describe it as containing a fourth order, Huales, separating the family Huaceae
Huaceae
into its own order, separate from Oxalidales.[8] Some recent studies have placed Malpighiales
Malpighiales
as sister to Oxalidales sensu lato (including Huaceae),[4][9] while others have found a different topology for the COM clade.[3][7][10] The COM clade is part of an unranked group known as Fabidae
Fabidae
or eurosids I.[11] The fabids, in turn, are part of a group that has long been recognized, namely, the rosids.[12] History[edit] The great French botanist Charles Plumier named the genus Malpighia
Malpighia
in honor of Marcello Malpighi's work on plants; Malpighia
Malpighia
is the type genus for the Malpighiaceae, a family of tropical and subtropical flowering plants. The family Malpighiaceae
Malpighiaceae
was the type family for one of the orders created by Jussieu in his 1789 work Genera
Genera
Plantarum.[13] Friedrich von Berchtold and Jan Presl described such an order in 1820.[14] Unlike modern taxonomists, these authors did not use the suffix "ales" in naming their orders. The name "Malpighiales" is attributed by some to Carl von Martius.[12] In the 20th century, it was usually associated with John Hutchinson, who used it in all three editions of his book, The Families of Flowering Plants.[15] The name was not used by those who wrote later, in the 1970s, '80s, and '90s. The taxon was largely presaged by Hans Hallier in 1912 in an article in the Archiv. Néerl. Sci. Exact. Nat. titled "L'Origine et le système phylétique des angiospermes", in which his Passionales and Polygalinae were derived from Linaceae
Linaceae
(in Guttales), with Passionales containing seven (of eight) families that also appear in the current Malpighiales, namely Passifloraceae, Salicaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Achariaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Malesherbiaceae, and Turneraceae, and Polygalinae containing four (of 10) families that also appear in the current Malpighiales, namely Malpighiaceae, Violaceae, Dichapetalaceae, and Trigoniaceae.[16] The first semblance of Malpighiales
Malpighiales
as now known came from a phylogeny of seed plants published in 1993 and based upon DNA
DNA
sequences of the gene rbcL.[17] This study recovered a group of rosids unlike any group found in any previous system of plant classification. To make a clear break with classification systems being used at that time, the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Phylogeny
Group resurrected Hutchinson's name, though his concept of Malpighiales
Malpighiales
included much of what is now in Celastrales and Oxalidales.[18] Circumscription[edit] Malpighiales
Malpighiales
is monophyletic and in molecular phylogenetic studies, it receives strong statistical support.[2] Since the APG II system was published in 2003, minor changes to the circumscription of the order have been made. The family Peridiscaceae has been expanded from two genera to three, and then to four, and transferred to Saxifragales.[4][19] The genera Cyrillopsis (Ixonanthaceae), Centroplacus (Centroplacaceae), Bhesa (Centroplacaceae), Aneulophus (Erythroxylaceae), Ploiarium (Bonnetiaceae), Trichostephanus (Samydaceae), Sapria
Sapria
(Rafflesiaceae), Rhizanthes
Rhizanthes
(Rafflesiaceae), and Rafflesia
Rafflesia
(Rafflesiaceae) had been either added or confirmed as members of Malpighiales
Malpighiales
by the end of 2009.[4] Some family delimitations have changed, as well, most notably, the segregation of Calophyllaceae
Calophyllaceae
from Clusiaceae
Clusiaceae
sensu lato when it was shown that the latter is paraphyletic.[4] Some differences of opinion on family delimitation exist, as well. For example, Samydaceae and Scyphostegiaceae may be recognized as families or included in a large version of Salicaceae.[20] The group is difficult to characterize phenotypically, although members often have dentate leaves, with the teeth having a single vein running into a congested and often deciduous apex (i.e., violoid, salicoid, or theoid).[21] Also, zeylanol has recently been discovered in Balanops and Dichapetalum [22] which are in the balanops clade (so-called Chrysobalanaceae
Chrysobalanaceae
s. l.). The so-called parietal suborder (the clusioid clade and Ochnaceae
Ochnaceae
s. l. were also part of Parietales) corresponds with the traditional Violales as 8 (Achariaceae, Violaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Lacistemataceae, Scyphostegiaceae, Turneraceae, Malesherbiaceae, and Passifloraceae) of the order's 10 families along with Salicaceae, which have usually been assigned as a related order or suborder,[23] are in this most derived malpighian suborder, so that eight of the 10 families of this suborder are Violales. The Flacourtiaceae family has proven to be polyphyletic as the cyanogenic members have been placed in Achariaceae
Achariaceae
and the ones with salicoid teeth were transferred to Salicaceae.[21] Phylogeny[edit] 2009[edit] As of 2009, the phylogeny of Malpighiales
Malpighiales
is, at its deepest level, an unresolved polytomy of 16 clades. It has been estimated that complete resolution of the phylogeny will require at least 25000 base pairs of DNA sequence
DNA sequence
data per taxon.[24] A similar situation exists with Lamiales
Lamiales
and it has been analyzed in some detail.[25] The phylogenetic tree shown below is from Wurdack and Davis (2009). The statistical support for each branch is 100% bootstrap percentage and 100% posterior probability, except where labeled, with bootstrap percentage followed by posterior probability.

Malpighiales

98/100

Putranjivaceae

Lophopyxidaceae

Irvingiaceae

84/100

Centroplacaceae

Caryocaraceae

Pandaceae

Ixonanthaceae

Humiriaceae

Linaceae

Elatinaceae

Malpighiaceae

84/100

Ctenolophonaceae

Rhizophoraceae s.l.  

Erythroxylaceae

Rhizophoraceae

99/100

Balanopaceae

Chrysobalanaceae s.l.  

Trigoniaceae

Dichapetalaceae

Euphroniaceae

Chrysobalanaceae

Ochnaceae s.l.  

Ochnaceae

Medusagynaceae

Quiinaceae

clusioids  

 92/98 

Bonnetiaceae

Clusiaceae

Calophyllaceae

Hypericaceae

Podostemaceae

phyllanthoids  

Picrodendraceae

Phyllanthaceae

Peraceae

 90/90 

Rafflesiaceae

 85/100 

Euphorbiaceae

parietal clade  

Achariaceae

 76/98 

Goupiaceae

 82/100 

Violaceae

Passifloraceae s.l.  

Malesherbiaceae

Turneraceae

Passifloraceae

Lacistemataceae

Salicaceae s.l.  

Samydaceae

Scyphostegiaceae

Salicaceae

2012[edit] In 2012, Xi et al. managed to obtain a more resolved phylogenetic tree than previous studies through the use of data from a large number of genes. They included analyses of 82 plastid genes from 58 species (they ignored the problematic Rafflesiaceae), using partitions identified a posteriori by applying a Bayesian mixture model. Xi et al. identified 12 additional clades and three major, basal clades.[26][27]

Oxalidales (outgroup)

Malpighiales

euphorbioids

Euphorbiaceae

Peraceae

phyllanthoids

Picrodendraceae

Phyllanthaceae

linoids

Linaceae

Ixonanthaceae

parietal clade

salicoids

Salicaceae

Scyphostegiaceae

Samydaceae

Lacistemataceae

Passifloraceae

Turneraceae

Malesherbiaceae

Violaceae

Goupiaceae

Achariaceae

Humiriaceae

clusioids

Hypericaceae

Podostemaceae

Calophyllaceae

Clusiaceae

Bonnetiaceae

ochnoids

Ochnaceae

Quiinaceae

Medusagynaceae

Rhizophoraceae

Erythroxylaceae

Ctenolophonaceae

Pandaceae

Irvingiaceae

chrysobalanoids

Chrysobalanaceae

Euphroniaceae

Dichapetalaceae

Trigoniaceae

Balanopaceae

malpighioids

Malpighiaceae

Elatinaceae

Centroplacaceae

Caryocaraceae

putranjivoids

Putranjivaceae

Lophopyxidaceae

References[edit]

^ a b Angiosperm Phylogeny
Phylogeny
Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x.  ^ a b Peter F. Stevens (2001 onwards). Malpighiales
Malpighiales
At: Angiosperm Phylogeny
Phylogeny
Website At: Missouri Botanical Garden Website ^ a b Susana Magallón & Amanda Castillo (2009), "Angiosperm diversification through time", American Journal of Botany, 96 (1): 349–365, doi:10.3732/ajb.0800060, PMID 21628193  ^ a b c d e f Kenneth J. Wurdack & Charles C. Davis (2009), " Malpighiales
Malpighiales
phylogenetics: Gaining ground on one of the most recalcitrant clades in the angiosperm tree of life", American Journal of Botany, 96 (8): 1551–1570, doi:10.3732/ajb.0800207, PMID 21628300  ^ Alan Radcliffe-Smith. 2001. Genera
Genera
Euphorbiacearum. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Richmond, England. ^ Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Endress, Peter K.; Chase, Mark W. (2005), Phylogeny
Phylogeny
and Evolution of the Angiosperms, Sunderland, MA, USA: Sinauer, ISBN 978-0-87893-817-9  ^ a b Hengchang Wang; Michael J. Moore; Pamela S. Soltis; Charles D. Bell; Samuel F. Brockington; Roolse Alexandre; Charles C. Davis; Maribeth Latvis; Steven R. Manchester & Douglas E. Soltis (10 Mar 2009), "Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (10): 3853–3858, doi:10.1073/pnas.0813376106, PMC 2644257 , PMID 19223592  ^ Alexander B. Doweld. 2001. Prosyllabus Tracheophytorum. Tentamen systematis plantarum vascularium (Tracheophyta). Geos: Moscow, Russia. ^ Li-Bing Zhang & Mark P. Simmons (2006), " Phylogeny
Phylogeny
and delimitation of the Celastrales
Celastrales
inferred from nuclear and plastid genes", Systematic Botany, 31 (1): 122–137, doi:10.1600/036364406775971778  ^ J. Gordon Burleigh; Khidir W. Hilu & Douglas E. Soltis (2009), "Inferring phylogenies with incomplete data sets: a 5-gene, 567-taxon analysis of angiosperms", BMC Evolutionary Biology, 9: 61, doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-61, PMC 2674047 , PMID 19292928  ^ Philip D. Cantino; James A. Doyle; Sean W. Graham; Walter S. Judd; Richard G. Olmstead; Douglas E. Soltis; Pamela S. Soltis & Michael J. Donoghue (2007), "Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta" (PDF), Taxon, 56 (3): 822–846., doi:10.2307/25065865  ^ a b Peter F. Stevens (2001), Angiosperm Phylogeny
Phylogeny
Website  ^ Antoine Laurent de Jussieu
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu
(1789), Genera
Genera
Plantarum, Paris: Herrisant and Barrois, p. 252  ^ James L. Reveal (2008), "A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants", Home page of James L Reveal and C. Rose Broome  ^ John Hutchinson The Families of Flowering Plants 3rd edition. 1973. Oxford University Press. ^ Lawrence, George. 1960. Taxonomy of Vascular Plants, p. 132. Macmillan, New York ^ Mark W. Chase et alii (42 authors). 1993. "Phylogenetics of seed plants: An analysis of nucleotide sequences from the plastid gene rbcL". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 80(3):528-580. ^ The Angiosperm Phylogeny
Phylogeny
Group (2003), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 141 (4): 399–436, doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x  ^ Soltis, Douglas E.; Clayton, Joshua W.; Davis, Charles C.; Gitzendanner, Matthew A.; Cheek, Martin; Savolainen, Vincent; Amorim, André M.; Soltis, Pamela S. (2007). "Monophyly and relationships of the enigmatic family Peridiscaceae". Taxon. 56 (1): 65–73.  ^ Mac H. Alford. 2007. "Samydaceae". Version 6 February 2007". In: The Tree of Life Web Project. ^ a b Judd, W.S.; Olmstead, R.G. (2004). "A survey of tricolpate(eudicot) phylogenetic relationships". Amer. J. Bot. 91: 1627–1644. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1627. PMID 21652313.  ^ Darbah, V. F.; Oppong, E. K.; Eminah, J. K. (2012). "Chemical investigation of the stem bark of Dichapetalum magascariennse Poir". International Journal of Applied Chemistry. 8 (3): 199–207.  ^ Brummitt, 1992. Vascular Plant
Plant
Families and Genera. Kew. ^ Shuguang Jian; Pamela S. Soltis; Matthew A. Gitzendanner; Michael J. Moore; Ruiqi Li; Tory A. Hendry; Yin-Long Qiu; Amit Dhingra; Charles D. Bell & Douglas E. Soltis (2008), "Resolving an Ancient, Rapid Radiation in Saxifragales", Systematic Biology, 57 (1): 38–57, doi:10.1080/10635150801888871, PMID 18275001  ^ Wortley, Alexandra H.; Rudall, Paula J.; Harris, David J.; Scotland, Robert W. (2005). "How Much Data are Needed to Resolve a Difficult Phylogeny? Case Study in Lamiales". Systematic Biology. 54 (5): 697–709. doi:10.1080/10635150500221028. PMID 16195214.  ^ Catalogue of Organisms: Malpighiales: A Glorious Mess of Flowering Plants ^ Xi, Z.; Ruhfel, B. R.; Schaefer, H.; Amorim, A. M.; Sugumaran, M.; Wurdack, K. J.; Endress, P. K.; Matthews, M. L.; Stevens, P. F.; Mathews, S.; Davis, C. C. (2012). "Phylogenomics and a posteriori data partitioning resolve the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
angiosperm radiation Malpighiales". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (43): 17519. doi:10.1073/pnas.1205818109. PMC 3491498 . PMID 23045684. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Malpighiales.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Malpighiales

Taxon
Taxon
identifiers

Wd: Q21887 EoL: 4188 EPPO: 1MALO GBIF: 1414 ITIS: 822428 NCBI: 3646 VASCAN

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