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Running
RUNNING is a method of terrestrial locomotion allowing humans and other animals to move rapidly on foot. Running is a type of gait characterized by an aerial phase in which all feet are above the ground (though there are exceptions ). This is in contrast to walking , where one foot is always in contact with the ground, the legs are kept mostly straight and the center of gravity vaults over the stance leg or legs in an inverted pendulum fashion. A characteristic feature of a running body from the viewpoint of spring-mass mechanics is that changes in kinetic and potential energy within a stride occur simultaneously, with energy storage accomplished by springy tendons and passive muscle elasticity. The term running can refer to any of a variety of speeds ranging from jogging to sprinting . It is assumed that the ancestors of mankind developed the ability to run for long distances about 2.6 million years ago, probably in order to hunt animals
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Gait
GAIT is the pattern of movement of the limbs of animals, including humans , during locomotion over a solid substrate. Most animals use a variety of gaits, selecting gait based on speed , terrain , the need to maneuver, and energetic efficiency. Different animal species may use different gaits due to differences in anatomy that prevent use of certain gaits, or simply due to evolved innate preferences as a result of habitat differences. While various gaits are given specific names, the complexity of biological systems and interacting with the environment make these distinctions 'fuzzy' at best. Gaits are typically classified according to footfall patterns, but recent studies often prefer definitions based on mechanics. The term typically does not refer to limb-based propulsion through fluid mediums such as water or air, but rather to propulsion across a solid substrate by generating reactive forces against it (which can apply to walking while underwater as well as on land)
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Horse Gait
HORSE GAITS are the various ways in which a horse can move, either naturally or as a result of specialized training by humans. CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 Walk * 3 Trot * 4 Canter and gallop * 4.1 Canter * 4.2 Gallop * 5 Pace * 6 "Ambling" gaits * 7 References * 8 External links CLASSIFICATIONGaits are typically categorized into two groups: the "natural" gaits that most horses will use without special training, and the "ambling " gaits that are various smooth-riding four-beat footfall patterns that may appear naturally in some individuals, but which usually occur only in certain breeds . Special
Special
training is often required before a horse will perform an ambling gait in response to a rider 's command. Another system of classification that applies to quadrupeds uses three categories: walking and ambling gaits, running or trotting gaits, and leaping gaits
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Dog Gait
The GAIT OF A DOG is its quality of movement. It is given a great deal of importance in the breed standard of some breeds , of lesser importance in other standards, and in some breeds gait is not described in the standard at all. A dog's gait is much similar to a horse's. A dog judge must know the gait requirements in the Standard of the breed he or she is judging. The Miniature Pinscher
Miniature Pinscher
, for example, must have what is called a hackney gait, reminiscent of the gait of a horse . In working small breeds such as the Miniature Fox Terrier
Miniature Fox Terrier
, a hackney gait is a serious or disqualifying fault . TYPES OF GAIT Walk Gaiting pattern in which three legs are in support of the body at all times, each foot lifting from the ground one at a time in regular sequence. Amble A relaxed, easy gait in which the legs on either side move almost, but not quite, as a pair
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Running (other)
RUNNING is a gait of terrestrial locomotion, typically faster than walking. RUNNING or RUNNIN\' may also refer to: CONTENTS* 1 Music * 1.1 Albums * 1.2 Songs * 2 Television and film * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSICALBUMS * Running
Running
(The Desert Rose Band album) , 1988 * Running
Running
(Trapeze album) , 1979SONGS * "Running" (András Kállay-Saunders song) , 2014 * "Runnin\' (Dying to Live) ", by 2Pac featuring The Notorious B.I.G., 2002 * "Runnin\'" (David Dallas song) , 2013 * "Runnin\'" (Doman font-style: italic;">This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title RUNNING. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Running_(other) additional terms may apply
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Eadweard Muybridge
EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE (/ˌɛdwərd ˈmaɪbrɪdʒ/ ; 9 April 1830 – 8 May 1904, born EDWARD JAMES MUGGERIDGE) was an English photographer important for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion , and early work in motion-picture projection . He adopted the first name Eadweard as the original Anglo-Saxon form of Edward, and the surname Muybridge believing it to be similarly archaic. At age 20, he emigrated to America as a bookseller, first to New York, and then to San Francisco. On a return trip to England in 1860, he suffered serious head injuries in a stagecoach crash in Texas. He spent the next few years recuperating in England, where he took up professional photography , learning the wet-plate collodion process, and secured at least two British patents for his inventions. He went back to San Francisco in 1867, and in 1868 his large photographs of Yosemite Valley made him world-famous
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Terrestrial Locomotion
TERRESTRIAL LOCOMOTION has evolved as animals adapted from aquatic to terrestrial environments. Locomotion on land raises different problems than that in water, with reduced friction being replaced by the effects of gravity
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Walking
WALKING (also known as AMBULATION) is one of the main gaits of locomotion among legged animals. Walking is typically slower than running and other gaits. Walking is defined by an 'inverted pendulum' gait in which the body vaults over the stiff limb or limbs with each step. This applies regardless of the number of limbs—even arthropods , with six, eight or more limbs, walk. CONTENTS * 1 Difference from running * 2 Health benefits * 3 Origins * 4 Variants * 5 Biomechanics * 6 A leisure activity * 6.1 Walkability * 7 In robotics * 8 Animals * 8.1 Horses * 8.2 Elephants * 8.3 Walking fish * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Bibliography * 12 External links DIFFERENCE FROM RUNNING Main article: Running See also: Jogging Racewalkers at the World Cup Trials in 1987 The word _walk_ is descended from the Old English _wealcan_ "to roll"
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Center Of Gravity
In physics , the CENTER OF MASS of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating. The distribution of mass is balanced around the center of mass and the average of the weighted position coordinates of the distributed mass defines its coordinates. Calculations in mechanics are often simplified when formulated with respect to the center of mass. It is a hypothetical point where entire mass of an object may be assumed to be concentrated to visualise its motion. In other words, the center of mass is the particle equivalent of a given object for application of Newton's laws of motion. In the case of a single rigid body , the center of mass is fixed in relation to the body, and if the body has uniform density, it will be located at the centroid
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Jogging
JOGGING is a form of trotting or running at a slow or leisurely pace. The main intention is to increase physical fitness with less stress on the body than from faster running, or to maintain a steady speed for longer periods of time. Performed over long distances, it is a form of aerobic endurance training . CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 History * 3 Exercise * 4 Benefits * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 General bibliography * 8 External links DEFINITION Evening jogger in Skien , Norway . Jogging is running at a gentle pace. The definition of jogging as compared with running is not standard. One definition describes jogging as running slower than 6 miles per hour (10 km/h). Running is sometimes defined as requiring a moment of no contact to the ground, whereas jogging often sustains the contact
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Sprint (running)
SPRINTING is running over a short distance in a limited period of time. It is used in many sports that incorporate running, typically as a way of quickly reaching a target or goal, or avoiding or catching an opponent. Human physiology
Human physiology
dictates that a runner's near-top speed cannot be maintained for more than 30–35 seconds due to the depletion of phosphocreatine stores in muscles, and perhaps secondarily to excessive metabolic acidosis as a result of anaerobic glycolysis . In athletics and track and field , SPRINTS (OR DASHES) are races over short distances. They are among the oldest running competitions. The first 13 editions of the Ancient Olympic Games featured only one event—the stadion race , which was a race from one end of the stadium to the other
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Tailteann Games
TAILTEANN GAMES or AONACH TAILTEANN may refer to: * Tailteann Games (ancient) sporting and religious festival in Gaelic Ireland * Tailteann Games (Irish Free State) held 1924–32 * Tailteann Games, Athletics Ireland schools' inter-provincial championships, held since 1963 This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title TAILTEANN GAMES. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tailteann_Games additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Australopithecus
†_A. africanus _ †_A. deyiremeda _ †_ A. garhi _ †_ A. sediba _ _ALSO CALLED PARANTHROPUS _ †_P. aethiopicus _ †_P. robustus _ †_P. boisei _ _ALSO CALLED PRAEANTHROPUS _ †_A. afarensis _ †_ A. anamensis _ †_ A. bahrelghazali _ _AUSTRALOPITHECUS_ (_AW-struh-loh-PITH-i-kuhs_ , /ˌɒstrələˈpɪθᵻkəs, ˌɔː-, -loʊ-/ ; etymology Latin _australis_ "southern", Greek πίθηκος _pithekos_ "ape"; informal AUSTRALOPITHECINE or AUSTRALOPITH) is an extinct genus of hominins . From paleontological and archaeological evidence, the _Australopithecus_ genus apparently evolved in eastern Africa around 4 million years ago before spreading throughout the continent and eventually becoming extinct somewhat after two million years ago. During that time, a number of australopithecine species emerged, including _ Australopithecus afarensis , A. africanus , A. anamensis , A
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Bipedalism
BIPEDALISM is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs . An animal or machine that usually moves in a BIPEDAL manner is known as a BIPED /ˈbaɪpɛd/ , meaning "two feet" (from the Latin
Latin
bis for "double" and pes for "foot"). Types of bipedal movement include walking , running , or hopping . Few modern species are habitual bipeds whose normal method of locomotion is two-legged. Within mammals , habitual bipedalism has evolved multiple times, with the macropods , kangaroo rats and mice , springhare , hopping mice , pangolins and homininan apes, as well as various other extinct groups evolving the trait independently
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Myopathy
MYOPATHY is a disease of the muscle in which the muscle fibers do not function properly. This results in muscular weakness . "Myopathy" simply means muscle disease (Greek myo- "muscle" + patheia < -pathy "suffering"). This meaning implies that the primary defect is within the muscle, as opposed to the nerves ("neuropathies " or "neurogenic " disorders) or elsewhere (e.g., the brain). Muscle
Muscle
cramps , stiffness , and spasm can also be associated with myopathy. MUSCULAR DISEASE can be classified as neuromuscular or musculoskeletal in nature. Some conditions, such as myositis , can be considered both neuromuscular and musculoskeletal. CONTENTS * 1 Signs and symptoms * 2 Systemic diseases * 2.1 Inherited forms * 2.2 Acquired * 2.3 Differential diagnosis * 3 Treatments * 4 References * 5 External links SIGNS AND SYMPTOMSCommon symptoms include muscle weakness, cramps , stiffness , and tetany
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