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Running
Running
Running
is a method of terrestrial locomotion allowing humans and other animals to move rapidly on foot. Running
Running
is a type of gait characterized by an aerial phase in which all feet are above the ground (though there are exceptions[1])
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Metabolism
Metabolism
Metabolism
(from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments
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Triceps Surae Muscle
The triceps surae (/ˈtraɪsɛps ˈsjʊəriː/) (from Latin
Latin
caput and sura
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Tailtiu
Tailtiu or Tailltiu (Old Irish pronunciation: [ˈtalʲtʲu]; modern spelling: Tailte) (also known as Talti) is the name of a presumed goddess from Irish mythology. The goddess's name is linked to Teltown
Teltown
(< OI Óenach Tailten) in Co. Meath, site of the Óenach Tailten. A legendary dindsenchas "lore of places" poem relates a myth connecting the presumed goddess Tailtiu with the site
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Socrates
Socrates
Socrates
(/ˈsɒkrətiːz/;[2] Ancient Greek: Σωκρᾰ́της, translit. Sōkrátēs, [sɔːkrátɛːs]; c. 470 – 399 BC)[3][4] was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher,[5][6] of the Western ethical tradition of thought.[7][8][9] An enigmatic figure, he made no writings, and is known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers writing after his lifetime, particularly his students Plato
Plato
and Xenophon. Other sources include the contemporaneous Antisthenes, Aristippus, and Aeschines of Sphettos
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Eadweard Muybridge
Eadweard Muybridge
Eadweard Muybridge
(/ˌɛdwərd ˈmaɪbrɪdʒ/; 9 April 1830 – 8 May 1904, born Edward James Muggeridge) was an English photographer important for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion, and early work in motion-picture projection. He adopted the first name Eadweard as the original Anglo-Saxon form of Edward, and the surname Muybridge believing it to be similarly archaic.[1] At age 20, he emigrated to America as a bookseller, first to New York, and then to San Francisco
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Hip Joint
In vertebrate anatomy, hip (or "coxa"[1] in medical terminology) refers to either an anatomical region or a joint. The hip region is located lateral and anterior to the gluteal region (i.e., the buttock), inferior to the iliac crest, and overlying the greater trochanter of the femur, or "thigh bone".[2] In adults, three of the bones of the pelvis have fused into the hip bone or acetabulum which forms part of the hip region. The hip joint, scientifically referred to as the acetabulofemoral joint (art. coxae), is the joint between the femur and acetabulum of the pelvis and its primary function is to support the weight of the body in both static (e.g. standing) and dynamic (e.g. walking or running) postures. The hip joints are the most important part in retaining balance
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Stretch Reflex
The stretch reflex (myotatic reflex) is a muscle contraction in response to stretching within the muscle. It is a monosynaptic reflex which provides automatic regulation of skeletal muscle length. When a muscle lengthens, the muscle spindle is stretched and its nerve activity increases. This increases alpha motor neuron activity, causing the muscle fibers to contract and thus resist the stretching. A secondary set of neurons also causes the opposing muscle to relax. The reflex functions to maintain the muscle at a constant length. Gamma motoneurons
Gamma motoneurons
regulate how sensitive the stretch reflex is by tightening or relaxing the fibers within the spindle. There are several theories as to what may trigger gamma motoneurons to increase the reflex's sensitivity. For example, alpha-gamma co-activation might keep the spindles taut when a muscle is contracted, preserving stretch reflex sensitivity even as the muscle fibers become shorter
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Dorsiflexion
Motion, the process of movement, is described using specific anatomical terms. Motion includes movement of organs, joints, limbs, and specific sections of the body. The terminology used describes this motion according to its direction relative to the anatomical position of the joints. Anatomists use a unified set of terms to describe most of the movements, although other, more specialized terms are necessary for describing the uniqueness of the movements such as those of the hands, feet, and eyes. In general, motion is classified according to the anatomical plane it occurs in. Flexion
Flexion
and extension are examples of angular motions, in which two axes of a joint are brought closer together or moved further apart. Rotational motion may occur at other joints, for example the shoulder, and are described as internal or external. Other terms, such as elevation and depression, describe movement above or below the horizontal plane
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Injury
Injury
Injury
is damage to the body caused by external force.[1] This may be caused by accidents, falls, hits, weapons, and other causes.[1] Major trauma is injury that has the potential to cause prolonged disability or death. In 2013, 4.8 million people died from injuries, up from 4.3 million in 1990
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Speed
In everyday use and in kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity (the rate of change of its position); it is thus a scalar quantity.[1] The average speed of an object in an interval of time is the distance travelled by the object divided by the duration of the interval;[2] the instantaneous speed is the limit of the average speed as the duration of the time interval approaches zero. Speed
Speed
has the dimensions of distance divided by time. The SI unit
SI unit
of speed is the metre per second, but the most common unit of speed in everyday usage is the kilometre per hour or, in the US and the UK, miles per hour
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Knee Joint
The knee joins the thigh with the leg and consists of two joints: one between the femur and tibia (tibiofemoral joint), and one between the femur and patella (patellofemoral joint).[1] It is the largest joint in the human body.[2] The knee is a modified hinge joint, which permits flexion and extension as well as slight internal and external rotation
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Speedsuit
A speedsuit is an item of unisex exercise attire or an industrial uniform used when quick clothing changes are necessary. It is either a single piece of clothing which tightly fits the torso and, optionally, varying amounts of the arms and legs; overall, it is similar to a leotard, though intentionally made especially tight and constricting to hug the body for varying purposes of warmth (when used in snowboarding or skiing) and hydrodynamics (when used in swimming and other water sports), or it is a tight fitting collared jumpsuit similar to coveralls.Contents1 In popular culture 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksIn popular culture[edit] A running gag in The Venture Bros., beginning with the episode "Hate Floats" is Dr. Venture's assertions regarding the superiority of a "speedsuit" and his desire to outfit his son Dean in a speedsuit, initially for his birthday and later as a rite of passage
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Weight Loss
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue. Weight loss
Weight loss
can either occur unintentionally due to malnourishment or an underlying disease or arise from a conscious effort to improve an actual or perceived overweight or obese state
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Circulatory System
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis. The circulatory system includes the lymphatic system, which circulates lymph.[1] The passage of lymph for example takes much longer than that of blood.[2] Blood
Blood
is a fluid consisting of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets that is circulated by the heart through the vertebrate vascular system, carrying oxygen and nutrients to and waste materials away from all body tissues
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Respiratory System
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants. The anatomy and physiology that make this happen varies greatly, depending on the size of the organism, the environment in which it lives and its evolutionary history. In land animals the respiratory surface is internalized as linings of the lungs.[1] Gas exchange
Gas exchange
in the lungs occurs in millions of small air sacs called alveoli in mammals and reptiles, but atria in birds. These microscopic air sacs have a very rich blood supply, thus bringing the air into close contact with the blood.[2] These air sacs communicate with the external environment via a system of airways, or hollow tubes, of which the largest is the trachea, which branches in the middle of the chest into the two main bronchi
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