Walking (also known as ambulation) is one of the main gaits of
locomotion among legged animals.
Walking is typically slower than
running and other gaits.
Walking is defined by an 'inverted pendulum'
gait in which the body vaults over the stiff limb or limbs with each
step. This applies regardless of the number of limbs—even
arthropods, with six, eight or more limbs, walk.
1 Difference from running
6 A leisure activity
7 In robotics
8 In child amputees
10 See also
13 External links
Difference from running
Main article: Running
See also: Jogging
Racewalkers at the World Cup Trials in 1987
The word walk is descended from the Old English wealcan "to roll". In
humans and other bipeds, walking is generally distinguished from
running in that only one foot at a time leaves contact with the ground
and there is a period of double-support. In contrast, running begins
when both feet are off the ground with each step. This distinction has
the status of a formal requirement in competitive walking events. For
quadrupedal species, there are numerous gaits which may be termed
walking or running, and distinctions based upon the presence or
absence of a suspended phase or the number of feet in contact any time
do not yield mechanically correct classification. The most
effective method to distinguish walking from running is to measure the
height of a person's centre of mass using motion capture or a force
plate at midstance. During walking, the centre of mass reaches a
maximum height at midstance, while during running, it is then at a
minimum. This distinction, however, only holds true for locomotion
over level or approximately level ground. For walking up grades above
10%, this distinction no longer holds for some individuals.
Definitions based on the percentage of the stride during which a foot
is in contact with the ground (averaged across all feet) of greater
than 50% contact corresponds well with identification of 'inverted
pendulum' mechanics and are indicative of walking for animals with any
number of limbs, although this definition is incomplete. Running
humans and animals may have contact periods greater than 50% of a gait
cycle when rounding corners, running uphill or carrying loads.
Speed is another factor that distinguishes walking from running.
Although walking speeds can vary greatly depending on many factors
such as height, weight, age, terrain, surface, load, culture, effort,
and fitness, the average human walking speed at crosswalks is about
5.0 kilometres per hour (km/h), or about 1.4 meters per second (m/s),
or about 3.1 miles per hour (mph). Specific studies have found
pedestrian walking speeds at crosswalks ranging from 4.51 kilometres
per hour (2.80 mph) to 4.75 kilometres per hour (2.95 mph)
for older individuals and from 5.32 kilometres per hour
(3.31 mph) to 5.43 kilometres per hour (3.37 mph) for
younger individuals; a brisk walking speed can be around 6.5
kilometres per hour (4.0 mph). Champion racewalkers can
average more than 14 kilometres per hour (8.7 mph) over a
distance of 20 kilometres (12 mi).
An average human child achieves independent walking ability at around
11 months old.
Main article: Physical exercise
Regular, brisk exercise of any kind can improve confidence, stamina,
energy, weight control and life expectancy and reduce stress. It
can also reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, strokes, diabetes,
high blood pressure, bowel cancer and osteoporosis. Scientific
studies have also shown that walking, besides its physical benefits,
is also beneficial for the mind, improving memory skills, learning
ability, concentration and abstract reasoning, as well as
ameliorating spirits.[clarification needed] Sustained walking sessions
for a minimum period of thirty to sixty minutes a day, five days a
week, with the correct walking posture, reduce health risks and
have various overall health benefits, such as reducing the chances of
cancer, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, anxiety disorder and
Life expectancy is also increased even for individuals
suffering from obesity or high blood pressure.
Walking also improves
bone health, especially strengthening the hip bone, and lowering the
harmful low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and raising the
useful high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Studies have
found that walking may also help prevent dementia and Alzheimer's.
Centers for Disease Control
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's fact sheet on the
Walking to Mortality Among U.S. Adults with Diabetes"
states that those with diabetes who walked for 2 or more hours a week
lowered their mortality rate from all causes by 39 per cent. "Walking
lengthened the life of people with diabetes regardless of age, sex,
race, body mass index, length of time since diagnosis, and presence of
complications or functional limitations." It has been suggested
that there is a relationship between the speed of walking and health,
and that the best results are obtained with a speed of more than
2.5 mph (4 km/h).
Governments now recognize the benefits of walking for mental and
physical health and are actively encouraging it. This growing emphasis
on walking has arisen because people walk less nowadays than
previously. In the UK, a Department of
Transport report found that
between 1995/97 and 2005 the average number of walk trips per person
fell by 16%, from 292 to 245 per year. Many professionals in local
authorities and the NHS are employed to halt this decline by ensuring
that the built environment allows people to walk and that there are
walking opportunities available to them. Professionals working to
encourage walking come mainly from six sectors: health, transport,
environment, schools, sport and recreation, and urban design.
One programme to encourage walking is "The
Walking the Way to Health
Initiative", organized by the British walkers association The
Ramblers, which is the largest volunteer led walking scheme in the
United Kingdom. Volunteers are trained to lead free
Health Walks from
community venues such as libraries and doctors' surgeries. The scheme
has trained over 35,000 volunteers and have over 500 schemes operating
across the UK, with thousands of people walking every week. A new
organization called "Walk England" launched a web site in June 2008 to
provide these professionals with evidence, advice and examples of
success stories of how to encourage communities to walk more. The site
has a social networking aspect to allow professionals and the public
to ask questions, post news and events and communicate with others in
their area about walking, as well as a "walk now" option to find out
what walks are available in each region. Similar organizations exist
in other countries and recently a "
Walking Summit" was held in the
United States. This "assembl[ed] thought-leaders and influencers from
business, urban planning and real estate, [along with] physicians and
public health officials," and others, to discuss how to make American
cities and communities places where "people can and want to walk".
A walking hamster.
It is theorized that "walking" among tetrapods originated underwater
with air-breathing fish that could "walk" underwater, giving rise to
the plethora of land-dwelling life that walk on four or two limbs.
While terrestrial tetrapods are theorised to have a single origin,
arthropods and their relatives are thought to have independently
evolved walking several times, specifically in insects, myriapods,
chelicerates, tardigrades, onychophorans, and crustaceans. Little
skates, members of the demersal fish community, can propel themselves
by pushing off the ocean floor with their pelvic fins, using neural
mechanisms which evolved as early as 420 million years ago, before
vertebrates set foot on land.,
Judging from footprints discovered on a former shore in Kenya, it is
thought possible that ancestors of modern humans were walking in ways
very similar to the present activity as many as 1.5 million years
Scrambling is a method of ascending a hill or mountain that involves
using both hands, because of the steepness of the terrain. Of
necessity it will be a slow and careful form of walking and with
possibly of occasional brief, easy rock climbing. Some scrambling
takes place on narrow exposed ridges where more attention to balance
will be required than in normal walking.
Snow shoeing – A snowshoe is footwear for walking over the snow.
Snowshoes work by distributing the weight of the person over a larger
area so that the person's foot does not sink completely into the snow,
a quality called "flotation". It is often said by snowshoers that if
you can walk, you can snowshoe. This is true in optimal conditions,
but snowshoeing properly requires some slight adjustments to walking.
The method of walking is to lift the shoes slightly and slide the
inner edges over each other, thus avoiding the unnatural and fatiguing
"straddle-gait" that would otherwise be necessary. A snowshoer must be
willing to roll his or her feet slightly as well. An exaggerated
stride works best when starting out, particularly with larger or
Beach walking is a sport that is based on walk on the sand of the
Beach walking can be developed on compact sand or non-compact
sand. There are beach walking competitions on non-compact sand. And
there are world records of beach walking on non-compact sand in
Beach walking has a specific technique of walk.
Nordic walking is a physical activity and a sport, which is performed
with specially designed walking poles similar to ski poles. Compared
to regular walking,
Nordic walking (also called pole walking) involves
applying force to the poles with each stride. Nordic walkers use more
of their entire body (with greater intensity) and receive fitness
building stimulation not present in normal walking for the chest,
lats, triceps, biceps, shoulder, abdominals, spinal and other core
muscles that may result in significant increases in heart rate at a
Nordic walking has been estimated as producing up to a
46% increase in energy consumption, compared to walking without
Pedestrianism is a sport that developed during the late eighteenth and
nineteenth centuries, and was a popular spectator sport in the British
Isles. By the end of the 18th century, and especially with the growth
of the popular press, feats of foot travel over great distances
(similar to a modern ultramarathon) gained attention, and were labeled
"pedestrianism". Interest in the sport, and the wagering which
accompanied it, spread to the United States, Canada, and
the 19th century. By the end of the 19th century,
largely displaced by the rise in modern spectator sports and by
controversy involving rules, which limited its appeal as a source of
wagering and led to its inclusion in the amateur athletics movement.
Pedestrianism was first codified in the last half of the 19th century,
evolving into what would become racewalking, By the mid 19th century,
competitors were often expected to extend their legs straight at least
once in their stride, and obey what was called the "fair heel and toe"
rule. This rule, the source of modern racewalking, was a vague
commandment that the toe of one foot could not leave the ground before
the heel of the next foot touched down. This said, rules were
customary and changed with competition. Racers were usually allowed to
jog in order to fend off cramps, and it was distance, not code, which
determined gait for longer races. Newspaper reports suggest that
"trotting" was common in events.
Power walking or speed walking is the act of walking with a speed at
the upper end of the natural range for walking gait, typically 7 to
9 km/h (4.5 to 5.5 mph). To qualify as power walking as
opposed to jogging or running, at least one foot must be in contact
with the ground at all times (see also fitwalking).
Racewalking is a long-distance athletic event. Although it is a foot
race, it is different from running in that one foot must appear to be
in contact with the ground at all times. Stride length is reduced, so
to achieve competitive speeds, racewalkers must attain cadence rates
comparable to those achieved by Olympic 800-meter runners, and
they must do so for hours at a time since the Olympic events are the
20 km (12.4 mi) race walk (men and women) and 50 km (31 mi) race
walk (men only), and 50 mile (80.5 km) events are also held. See
also pedestrianism above.
Afghan walking: The Afghan Walk is a rhythmic breathing technique
synchronized with walking. It was born in the 1980s on the basis of
the observations made by the Frenchman Édouard G. Stiegler, during
his contacts with Afghan caravaners, capable of making walks of more
than 60 km per day for dozens of days.
Human walking is accomplished with a strategy called the double
pendulum. During forward motion, the leg that leaves the ground swings
forward from the hip. This sweep is the first pendulum. Then the leg
strikes the ground with the heel and rolls through to the toe in a
motion described as an inverted pendulum. The motion of the two legs
is coordinated so that one foot or the other is always in contact with
the ground. The process of walking recovers approximately sixty per
cent of the energy used due to pendulum dynamics and ground reaction
Walking differs from a running gait in a number of ways. The most
obvious is that during walking one leg always stays on the ground
while the other is swinging. In running there is typically a ballistic
phase where the runner is airborne with both feet in the air (for
Another difference concerns the movement of the centre of mass of the
body. In walking the body "vaults" over the leg on the ground, raising
the centre of mass to its highest point as the leg passes the
vertical, and dropping it to the lowest as the legs are spread apart.
Essentially kinetic energy of forward motion is constantly being
traded for a rise in potential energy. This is reversed in running
where the centre of mass is at its lowest as the leg is vertical. This
is because the impact of landing from the ballistic phase is absorbed
by bending the leg and consequently storing energy in muscles and
tendons. In running there is a conversion between kinetic, potential,
and elastic energy.
There is an absolute limit on an individual's speed of walking
(without special techniques such as those employed in speed walking)
due to the upwards acceleration of the centre of mass during a stride
– if it's greater than the acceleration due to gravity the person
will become airborne as they vault over the leg on the ground.
Typically however, animals switch to a run at a lower speed than this
due to energy efficiencies.
Based on the 2D inverted pendulum model of walking, there are at least
five physical constraints that place fundamental limits on walking
like an inverted pendulum. These constraints are: take-off
constraint, sliding constraint, fall-back constraint, steady-state
constraint, high step-frequency constraint.
A leisure activity
Walking in Shilda, Georgia.
Main article: Hiking
Many people enjoy walking as a recreation in the mainly urban modern
world, and it is one of the best forms of exercise. For some,
walking is a way to enjoy nature and the outdoors; and for others the
physical, sporting and endurance aspect is more important.
There are a variety of different kinds of walking, including
bushwalking, racewalking, beach walking, hillwalking, volksmarching,
Nordic walking, trekking and hiking. Some people prefer to walk
indoors on a treadmill, or in a gym, and fitness walkers and others
may use a pedometer to count their steps.
Hiking is the usual word
used in Canada, the United States and
South Africa for long vigorous
walks; similar walks are called tramps in New Zealand, or hill walking
or just walking in Australia, the UK and the Irish Republic.
Australians also bushwalk. In English-speaking parts of North America
the term walking is used for short walks, especially in towns and
cities. Snow shoeing is walking in snow; a slightly different gait is
required compared with regular walking.
In terms of tourism the possibilities range from guided walking tours
in cities, to organized trekking holidays in the Himalayas. In the UK
the term walking tour also refers to a multi-day walk or hike
undertaken by a group or individual. Well-organized systems of trails
exist in many other European counties, as well as Canada, United
States, New Zealand, and Nepal. Systems of lengthy waymarked walking
trails now stretch across
Norway to Turkey,
Cyprus. Many also walk the traditional pilgrim routes, of which
the most famous is El Camino de Santiago, The Way of St. James.
Numerous walking festivals and other walking events take place each
year in many countries. The world's largest multi-day walking event is
International Four Days Marches Nijmegen
International Four Days Marches Nijmegen in the Netherlands. The
"Vierdaagse" (Dutch for "Four day Event") is an annual walk that has
taken place since 1909; it has been based at
Nijmegen since 1916.
Depending on age group and category, walkers have to walk 30, 40 or 50
kilometers each day for four days. Originally a
military event with a few civilians, it now is a mainly civilian
event. Numbers have risen in recent years, with over 40,000 now taking
part, including about 5,000 military personnel. Due
to crowds on the route, since 2004 the organizers have limited the
number of participants. In the U.S., there is the annual Labor Day
walk on Mackinac Bridge, Michigan, which draws over 60,000
participants; it is the largest single-day walking event;[citation
needed] while the
Chesapeake Bay Bridge
Chesapeake Bay Bridge Walk in
Maryland draws over
50,000 participants each year. There are also various
walks organised as charity events, with walkers sponsored for a
specific cause. These walks range in length from two miles (3 km)
or five km to 50 miles (80 km). The
MS Challenge Walk is an
80 km or 50 mile walk which raises money to fight multiple
sclerosis, while walkers in the Oxfam Trailwalker cover 100 km or
In Britain, The Ramblers, a registered charity, is the largest
organisation that looks after the interests of walkers, with some
100,000 members. Its "Get
Walking Keep Walking" project provides
free route guides, led walks, as well as information for people new to
Long Distance Walkers Association
Long Distance Walkers Association in the UK is for
the more energetic walker, and organizes lengthy challenge hikes of 20
or even 50 miles (30 to 80 km) or more in a day. The LDWA's
annual "Hundred" event, entailing walking 100 miles or 160 km in
48 hours, takes place each British
Spring Bank Holiday
Spring Bank Holiday weekend.
Main article: Walkability
Gauchetière Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
There has been a recent focus among urban planners in some communities
to create pedestrian-friendly areas and roads, allowing commuting,
shopping and recreation to be done on foot. The concept of walkability
has arisen as a measure of the degree to which an area is friendly to
walking. Some communities are at least partially car-free, making them
particularly supportive of walking and other modes of transportation.
In the United States, the active living network is an example of a
concerted effort to develop communities more friendly to walking and
other physical activities.
An example of such efforts to make urban development more pedestrian
friendly is the pedestrian village. This is a compact,
pedestrian-oriented neighborhood or town, with a mixed-use village
center, that follows the tenets of New Pedestrianism.
Shared-use lanes for pedestrians and those using bicycles, Segways,
wheelchairs, and other small rolling conveyances that do not use
internal combustion engines. Generally, these lanes are in front of
the houses and businesses, and streets for motor vehicles are always
at the rear. Some pedestrian villages might be nearly car-free with
cars either hidden below the buildings or on the periphery of the
Venice, Italy is essentially a pedestrian village with
canals. The canal district in Venice, California, on the other hand,
combines the front lane/rear street approach with canals and walkways,
or just walkways.
Walking is also considered to be a clear example of a sustainable mode
of transport, especially suited for urban use and/or relatively
shorter distances. Non-motorised transport modes such as walking, but
also cycling, small-wheeled transport (skates, skateboards, push
scooters and hand carts) or wheelchair travel are often key elements
of successfully encouraging clean urban transport. A large variety
of case studies and good practices (from European cities and some
worldwide examples) that promote and stimulate walking as a means of
transportation in cities can be found at Eltis, Europe's portal for
The development of specific rights of way with appropriate
infrastructure can promote increased participation and enjoyment of
walking. Examples of types of investment include pedestrian malls, and
foreshoreways such as oceanways and also river walks.
The first purpose-built pedestrian street in
Europe is the
Rotterdam, opened in 1953. The first pedestrianised shopping centre in
United Kingdom was in
Stevenage in 1959. A large number of
European towns and cities have made part of their centres car-free
since the early 1960s. These are often accompanied by car parks on the
edge of the pedestrianised zone, and, in the larger cases, park and
ride schemes. Central
Copenhagen is one of the largest and oldest: It
was converted from car traffic into pedestrian zone in 1962.
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The first successful attempts at walking robots tended to have six
legs. The number of legs was reduced as microprocessor technology
advanced, and there are now a number of robots that can walk on two
legs. One, for example, is ASIMO. Although robots have taken great
strides in advancement, they still don't walk nearly as well as human
beings as they often need to keep their knees bent permanently in
order to improve stability.
In 2009, Japanese roboticist
Tomotaka Takahashi developed a robot that
can jump three inches off the ground. The robot, named Ropid, is
capable of getting up, walking, running, and jumping.
In child amputees
Walking for normal able bodied children is a lot different than
walking for below-knee-amputees.
Walking is less fluid and symmetrical
for the children who are amputees. Research was conducted in order to
find the best way to get the amputee children to develop a more
symmetrical and fluid walking form like normal able bodied children.
Because of the results of the study which showed that the normal
bodied children can withstand a lot more external loading than the
amputees, researchers are now looking into the manufacturing and
design of the prosthetics that these amputees use. Potentially, they
could come up a new idea or a model that can improve the walking
capabilities of these amputee children.
Main article: Terrestrial locomotion
See also: Gait
Two king penguins and one gentoo penguin walking on a beach on South
Georgia, British overseas territory
Main article: Horse gait
The walk, a four-beat gait
The walk is a four-beat gait that averages about 4 miles per hour
(6.4 km/h). When walking, a horse's legs follow this sequence:
left hind leg, left front leg, right hind leg, right front leg, in a
regular 1-2-3-4 beat. At the walk, the horse will always have one foot
raised and the other three feet on the ground, save for a brief moment
when weight is being transferred from one foot to another. A horse
moves its head and neck in a slight up and down motion that helps
Ideally, the advancing rear hoof oversteps the spot where the
previously advancing front hoof touched the ground. The more the rear
hoof oversteps, the smoother and more comfortable the walk becomes.
Individual horses and different breeds vary in the smoothness of their
walk. However, a rider will almost always feel some degree of gentle
side-to-side motion in the horse's hips as each hind leg reaches
The fastest "walks" with a four-beat footfall pattern are actually the
lateral forms of ambling gaits such as the running walk, singlefoot,
and similar rapid but smooth intermediate speed gaits. If a horse
begins to speed up and lose a regular four-beat cadence to its gait,
the horse is no longer walking, but is beginning to either trot or
An Asian elephant walking
Elephants can move both forwards and backwards, but cannot trot, jump,
or gallop. They use only two gaits when moving on land, the walk and a
faster gait similar to running. In walking, the legs act as
pendulums, with the hips and shoulders rising and falling while the
foot is planted on the ground. With no "aerial phase", the fast gait
does not meet all the criteria of running, although the elephant uses
its legs much like other running animals, with the hips and shoulders
falling and then rising while the feet are on the ground.
Fast-moving elephants appear to 'run' with their front legs, but
'walk' with their hind legs and can reach a top speed of 18 km/h
(11 mph). At this speed, most other quadrupeds are well into
a gallop, even accounting for leg length.
A mudskipper, a type of walking fish, perched on land.
Walking fish, sometimes called ambulatory fish, is a general term that
refers to fish that are able to travel over land for extended periods
of time. The term may also be used for some other cases of nonstandard
fish locomotion, e.g., when describing fish "walking" along the sea
floor, as the handfish or frogfish.
Arm swing in human locomotion
International charter for walking
Preferred walking speed
Tobler's hiking function
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^ "Study Compares Older and Younger
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Mayo Clinic Proper walking technique
AARP - The Numerous Benefits of Walking
^ "Study finds path to avoiding dementia measures 14.5km". Sydney
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^ "Relationship of walking to mortality among U.S. adults". Centers
for Disease Control. 20 May 2011. Archived from the original on 29
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^ Paul T. Williams mail; Paul D. Thompson (November 19, 2013). "The
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^ "Statistics - Department for Transport" (PDF). Dft.gov.uk. Retrieved
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^  Walk Unlimited
^ Choi, Charles (2011-12-12). "Hopping fish suggests walking
originated underwater; Discovery might redraw the evolutionary route
scientists think life took from water to land". Msnbc.msn.com.
^ Evolution of the
Insects - David Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel - Google
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the sea in Science News, Feb. 8, 2018
^ Dunham, Will (February 26, 2009). "Footprints show human ancestor
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values in: access-date= (help)
^ Harmon, Katherine (February 26, 2009). "Researchers Uncover 1.5
Million-Year-Old Footprints". Scientific American. Retrieved August
2009. Check date values in: access-date= (help)
^ See Terry Adby and Stuart Johnston, The Hillwalker's Guide to
Mountaineering, (Milnthorpe: Cicerone, 2003), ISBN 1-85284-393-4,
pp. 62–65 for more on defining scrambles.
^ Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 27, No. 4 April
^ Cooper Institute, Research Quarterly for
Exercise and Sports, 2002
^ Church TS, Earnest CP, Morss GM (2013-03-25). "Field testing of
physiological responses associated with Nordic Walking". Res Q Exerc
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^ Phil Howell (1986).
^ "Walk without waste". ABC Online Index. January 2001. Retrieved
August 2009. Check date values in: access-date= (help)
^ Uyar, Erol; Baser, Özgün; Baci, Recep; Özçivici, Engin (before
2003). "Investigation of Bipedal
Gait Dynamics and
Control" (PDF). Izmir, Turkey: Dokuz Eylül University - Faculty of
Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering. Retrieved August
2009. Check date values in: access-date=, date= (help)
^ Patnaik, Lalit et. al. (October 2015). "Physical constraints,
fundamental limits, and optimal locus of operating points for an
inverted pendulum based actuated dynamic walker". Bioinspiration &
Biomimetics. 10 – via IOP Publishing.
^ Ramblers. "
Walking benefits". Ramblers.org.uk. Retrieved
^ See European long-distance paths
Walking website". Getwalking.org. Retrieved
^ [Ramblers, " Our History".http://www.ldwa.org.uk/history.php] Long
Distance Walkers Association: History.
^ a b New
^ New Urbanism and New
Pedestrianism in the 21st Century
^ Michael E. Arth, The Labors of Hercules: Modern Solutions to 12
Herculean Problems. 2007 Online edition. Labor IX: Urbanism
^ Michael E. Arth, "
Pedestrian Villages are the Antidote to Sprawl"
The DeLand-Deltona Beacon, May 29, 2003. p. 1D.
^ "Non Motorised Transport, Teaching and
Eu-portal.net. Retrieved 2012-08-22.
^ European Local
Transport Information Service (ELTIS) provides case
studies concerning walking as a local transport concept
Ropid the robot can walk, run, and hop". CBS Interactive. Retrieved
^ Harris, Susan E. Horse Gaits, Balance and Movement New York: Howell
Book House 1993 ISBN 0-87605-955-8 pp. 32–33
^ Shoshani, J.; Walter, R. C.; Abraha, M.; Berhe, S.; Tassy, P.;
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(2006). "A proboscidean from the late Oligocene of Eritrea, a "missing
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Amata, Joseph, On Foot, A History of Walking. New York: New York
University Press, 2004.
Gros, Frédéric. A Philosophy of Walking, translated by John Howe.
London, New York: Verso, 2014.
Korolija Fontana-Giusti, Gordana. (2007), 'Urban Strolling as a
Measure of Quality', Architectural Research Quarterly, vol. 11, no.
Nicholson, Geoff, The Lost Art of Walking: The History, Science and
Literature of Pedestrianism, Harbour Books, 2010.
Solnit, Rebecca, Wanderlust: A History of Walking. London: Penguin
Look up walk in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Walking.
Transport Information Service (ELTIS) provides case
studies concerning walking as a local transport concept.
Walking at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Henry David Thoreau
Henry David Thoreau 
Animal locomotion on land
Arboreal locomotion (Brachiation)
Comparative foot morphology
Animal locomotion on the surface layer of water
Activities of daily living
Used to refer to daily self-care activities
Voluntary urinary and bowel control
Care (of self, children, the elderly)
Personal care assistant
Care of residents
Outline of exercise
Neurobiological effects of physical exercise
27.5 Mountain bike
Downhill mountain biking
Enduro (mountain biking)
Flat bar road bike
Glossary of cycling
Small wheel bicycle
Rowing (fixed seat)
Hand and foot power
Rowing (sliding seat)
Snow and ice
Alpine touring skis
Fatbiking (biking in snow with bikes with wide tires)
Bicycle- and human-powered vehicle museums
BNF: cb131627530 (d