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In sport, racing is a competition of speed, against an objective criterion, usually a clock or to a specific point. The competitors in a race try to complete a given task in the shortest amount of time. Typically this involves traversing some distance, but it can be any other task involving speed to reach a specific goal. A race may be run continuously to finish or may be made of several segments called heats, stages or legs. A heat is usually run over the same course at different times. A stage is a shorter section of a much longer course or a time trial. Early records of races are evident on pottery from ancient Greece, which depicted running men vying for first place. A chariot race is described in Homer's Iliad.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Forms 3 Sprint finishes 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Etymology[edit] The word race comes from a Norse word.[1] This Norse word arrived in France
France
during the invading of Normandy
Normandy
and gave the word raz which means "swift water" in Brittany, as in a mill race; it can be found in "Pointe du Raz" (the most western point of France, in Brittany), and "raz-de-marée" (tsunami). The word race to mean a "contest of speed" was first recorded in the 1510s.[2] A race and its name are often associated with the place of origin, the means of transport and the distance of the race. As a couple of examples, see the Dakar Rally
Dakar Rally
or the Athens Marathon. Forms[edit] Further information: List of forms of racing Running
Running
a distance is the most basic form of racing, but races may be conducted in vehicles, such as boats, cars, cycles and aircraft; or with animals such as horses or dogs. Races may also be conducted with other modes of transport such as skis, kicksled, skates or wheelchair; or other forms of movement such as swimming or walking. In a relay race members of a team take turns in racing parts of a circuit or performing a certain racing form. Orienteering
Orienteering
races add an additional task of using a map and compass to navigate from point to point in diverse and usually unfamiliar terrain. A race can also involve any other type of goal like eating. A common race involving eating is a hot dog eating race, where contestants try to eat more hot dogs than the other racers. Racing
Racing
can also be done in more humoristic and entertaining ways such as the Sausage Race, the Red Bull Trolley Grand Prix and wok racing. Racing
Racing
can be entertained from around the world.[clarification needed] Sprint finishes[edit] A sprint finish is a racing tactic used in many forms of racing where a competitor accelerates towards top speed in the final stages of a race. This tactic is mostly associated with long-distance forms of running and cycling, which often feature large groups of competitors racing at a slower pace for much of the race – this slower aerobic racing allows for the subsequent anaerobic activity required for sprinting.[3] The tactic relies upon keeping greater energy reserves than your opponent until the last part of the race in order to be able to reach the finish point first. It is the opposing tactic to keeping a steady optimal pace throughout a race to maximise your energy efficiency (see running economy).[4] In track and field, distances from 1500 metres
1500 metres
upwards often feature sprint finishes. They can also be found in cross country and road running events, even up to the marathon distance. A runner's ability to sprint at the end of a race is also known as their finishing kick.[5] Multisport races, such as the triathlon, often have running as the final section and sprint finish tactics are applied as they are in running-only events.[6] In cycling, sprint finishes are an integral part of the sport and are used in both track cycling and road cycling. Cycling sprints are often highly tactical, particularly on the track, with cyclists occasionally coming to a near halt at points before reaching a high speed finish.[7] The longer track races such as scratch races often feature sprint finishes, as maintaining a steady pace within the peloton allows opponents to conserve energy through drafting.[8][clarification needed] Road races are similar in this respect, in both short criterium races and long-distance races. Sprint tactics also form a major part of points classifications in road events, where cycling sprinters specialise in reaching an intermediate point first, thus gaining extra points and resulting prizes.[9][10] Sprint finish tactics are also used in speedskating, cross-country skiing, long-distance swimming,[11] horse racing and other animal racing sports.[12][13] The finishes of races which are outright sprinting events in themselves, such as the 100 metres
100 metres
track race, are not normally referred to as sprint finishes, as all competitors are already sprinting by default (thus it is not a racing tactic). See also[edit]

Sport Gambling Totalisator Pacemaker Nuclear arms race Space Race Racing
Racing
game

References[edit]

^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 28 June 2010.  ^ "Race". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved July 13, 2012.  ^ Ronald J Maughan, & Michael Gleeson (20 May 2010). "Energy Supply". The Biochemical Basis of Sports Performance (pg. 129). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199208289 ^ Stevenson, Roy. Developing a fast finish for your road races. Multi Briefs. Retrieved on 2014-04-17. ^ Fitzgerald, Matt (2013-11-18). Kick Your Way To Better Race Times. Competitor. Retrieved on 2014-04-17. ^ Stevenson, Roy (2013-07-13). Developing a fast finish. Triathlon & Multisport Magazine. Retrieved on 2014-04-17. ^ The individual sprint . BBC Sport. Retrieved on 2014-04-17. ^ Scratch Race. Cycling Calendar. Retrieved on 2014-04-17. ^ Gitz, Jarred (2014-04-05). The Points Classification . Jareds Cycling. Retrieved on 2014-04-17. ^ Smith, Mark (2008-05-01). Technique: Sprint finishing. Bike Radar. Retrieved on 2014-04-17. ^ Open Water Swimming. Masters Swimming. Retrieved on 2014-04-17. ^ Minella best in sprint finish. British Horse Racing
Racing
Authority. Retrieved on 2014-04-17. ^ James, Dave (2014-02-24). Matt breaks record as doping hits Sochi. China Post/Agence France
France
Presse. Retrieved on 2014-04-17.

External links[edit]

Look up racing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Racing
Racing
teams

v t e

Racing

Running

Track running

Sprinting Middle-distance running Long-distance running Relay race Hurdling Steeplechase

Road running

Half marathon Marathon Ultramarathon Ekiden

Off-road running

Adventure running Cross country running Fell running Trail running

Other

Tower running Racewalking

Orienteering

Foot orienteering Mountain bike orienteering Ski orienteering Trail orienteering Radio orienteering Canoe orienteering Rogaining Mountain marathon Car orienteering

Bicycle racing

Road bicycle racing Cyclo-cross Mountain bike racing Track cycling BMX racing Cycle speedway Keirin

Animal
Animal
racing

Camel racing Greyhound racing Horse racing Pigeon racing Sled dog racing

Swimming

Open water swimming Marathon
Marathon
swimming Paralympic swimming

Motor racing

Auto racing

Formula racing Sports car racing Touring car racing Stock car racing Rallying Drag racing Off-road racing

Motorcycle racing

Beach racing Motocross Rally raid Track racing

Motorboat racing

Drag boat racing Hydroplane racing Jet sprint boat racing Inshore powerboat racing Offshore powerboat racing

Other

Kart racing Radio-controlled car
Radio-controlled car
racing Slot car racing

Multi-sport racing

Adventure racing Duathlon Triathlon

List of forms of racing

v t e

Orienteering

History of orienteering List of orienteering events

Sport
Sport
disciplines

IOF-governed

Foot orienteering Mountain bike orienteering Ski orienteering Trail orienteering

IARU-governed

Amateur radio direction finding

Fox Oring Radio Orienteering
Orienteering
in a Compact Area

Other sports

Canoe orienteering Car orienteering Mountain marathon Mounted orienteering Rogaining

Related

Adventure racing Alleycat race Fell running Relay race Transmitter hunting

Equipment

Event

Control point Course Map

Personal

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Exceptions

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Fundamentals

Map

orienteering map

Navigation

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Racing

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Organisations / lists

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Orienteering
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members

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by country innovators

List of events

Non-sport related

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geocaching poker run

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O-Ringen Jukola Tiomila Kainuu Orienteering
Orienteering
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World Championships

Category WikiProject

Authority control

.