RUNNING is a method of terrestrial locomotion allowing humans and
other animals to move rapidly on foot.
It is assumed that the ancestors of mankind developed the ability to
run for long distances about 2.6 million years ago, probably in order
to hunt animals. Competitive running grew out of religious festivals
in various areas. Records of competitive racing date back to the
Tailteann Games in Ireland in 1829 BCE, while the first recorded
Olympic Games took place in 776 BCE.
* 1 History
* 2.1 Footstrike * 2.2 Midstance * 2.3 Propulsion phase * 2.4 Swing phase * 2.5 Upper extremity function * 2.6 Footstrike debate * 2.7 Stride length, hip and knee function
* 3 Elements of good running technique
* 3.1 Upright posture and a slight forward lean * 3.2 Stride rate and types
* 4 Benefits of running
* 4.1 Cardiovascular benefits
* 5.1 High impact * 5.2 Chafing
* 6.1 Limits of speed
* 6.4 Events by distance
* 6.4.1 Sprints * 6.4.2 Middle distance * 6.4.3 Long distance
* 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links
A scene depicting long distance runners, originally found on a Panathenaic amphora from Ancient Greece, circa 333 BCE
It is thought that human running evolved at least four and a half million years ago out of the ability of the ape-like Australopithecus , an early ancestor of humans, to walk upright on two legs .
The theory proposed considered to be the most likely evolution of
running is of early humans' developing as endurance runners from the
practice of persistence hunting of animals, the activity of following
and chasing until a prey is too exhausted to flee, succumbing to
"chase myopathy " (Sears 2001), and that human features such as the
nuchal ligament , abundant sweat glands , the Achilles tendons , big
knee joints and muscular glutei maximi , were changes caused by this
type of activity (Bramble & Lieberman 2004, et al.). The theory as
first proposed used comparative physiological evidence and the natural
habits of animals when running, indicating the likelihood of this
activity as a successful hunting method. Further evidence from
observation of modern-day hunting practice also indicated this
likelihood (Carrier et al. 1984). According to Sears (p. 12)
scientific investigation (Walker "> The origins of the Olympics and
...I suspect that the sun, moon, earth, stars, and heaven, which are
still the Gods of many barbarians, were the only Gods known to the
aboriginal Hellenes. Seeing that they were always moving and running,
from their running nature they were called Gods or runners (Thus,
RUNNING KINEMATIC DESCRIPTION
Footstrike occurs when a plantar portion of the foot makes initial contact with the ground. Common footstrike types include forefoot, midfoot and heel strike types. These are characterized by initial contact of the ball of the foot, ball and heel of the foot simultaneously and heel of the foot respectively. During this time the hip joint is undergoing extension from being in maximal flexion from the previous swing phase. For proper force absorption, the knee joint should be flexed upon footstrike and the ankle should be slightly in front of the body. Footstrike begins the absorption phase as forces from initial contact are attenuated throughout the lower extremity. Absorption of forces continues as the body moves from footstrike to midstance due to vertical propulsion from the toe-off during a previous gait cycle.
Midstance is defined as the time at which the lower extremity limb of focus is in knee flexion directly underneath the trunk, pelvis and hips. It is at this point that propulsion begins to occur as the hips undergo hip extension, the knee joint undergoes extension and the ankle undergoes plantar flexion. Propulsion continues until the leg is extended behind the body and toe off occurs. This involves maximal hip extension, knee extension and plantar flexion for the subject, resulting in the body being pushed forward from this motion and the ankle/foot leaves the ground as initial swing begins.
Most recent research, particularly regarding the footstrike debate, has focused solely on the absorption phases for injury identification and prevention purposes. The propulsion phase of running involves the movement beginning at midstance until toe off. From a full stride length model however, components of the terminal swing and footstrike can aid in propulsion. Set up for propulsion begins at the end of terminal swing as the hip joint flexes, creating the maximal range of motion for the hip extensors to accelerate through and produce force. As the hip extensors change from reciporatory inhibitors to primary muscle movers, the lower extremity is brought back toward the ground, although aided greatly by the stretch reflex and gravity. Footstrike and absorption phases occur next with two types of outcomes. This phase can be only a continuation of momentum from the stretch reflex reaction to hip flexion, gravity and light hip extension with a heel strike, which does little to provide force absorption through the ankle joint. With a mid/forefoot strike, loading of the gastro-soleus complex from shock absorption will serve to aid in plantar flexion from midstance to toe-off. As the lower extremity enters midstance, true propulsion begins. The hip extensors continue contracting along with help from the acceleration of gravity and the stretch reflex left over from maximal hip flexion during the terminal swing phase. Hip extension pulls the ground underneath the body, thereby pulling the runner forward. During midstance, the knee should be in some degree of knee flexion due to elastic loading from the absorption and footstrike phases to preserve forward momentum. The ankle joint is in dorsiflexion at this point underneath the body, either elastically loaded from a mid/forefoot strike or preparing for stand-alone concentric plantar flexion. All three joints perform the final propulsive movements during toe-off. The plantar flexors plantar flex, pushing off from the ground and returning from dorsiflexion in midstance. This can either occur by releasing the elastic load from an earlier mid/forefoot strike or concentrically contracting from a heel strike. With a forefoot strike, both the ankle and knee joints will release their stored elastic energy from the footstrike/absorption phase. The quadriceps group/knee extensors go into full knee extension, pushing the body off of the ground. At the same time, the knee flexors and stretch reflex pull the knee back into flexion, adding to a pulling motion on the ground and beginning the initial swing phase. The hip extensors extend to maximum, adding the forces pulling and pushing off of the ground. The movement and momentum generated by the hip extensors also contributes to knee flexion and the beginning of the initial swing phase.
Initial swing is the response of both stretch reflexes and concentric movements to the propulsion movements of the body. Hip flexion and knee flexion occur beginning the return of the limb to the starting position and setting up for another footstrike. Initial swing ends at midswing, when the limb is again directly underneath the trunk, pelvis and hip with the knee joint flexed and hip flexion continuing. Terminal swing then begins as hip flexion continues to the point of activation of the stretch reflex of the hip extensors. The knee begins to extend slightly as it swings to the anterior portion of the body. The foot then makes contact with the ground with footstrike, completing the running cycle of one side of the lower extremity. Each limb of the lower extremity works opposite to the other. When one side is in toe-off/propulsion, the other hand is in the swing/recovery phase preparing for footstrike. Following toe-off and the beginning of the initial swing of one side, there is a flight phase where neither extremity is in contact with the ground due to the opposite side finishing terminal swing. As the footstrike of the one hand occurs, initial swing continues. The opposing limbs meet with one in midstance and midswing, beginning the propulsion and terminal swing phases.
UPPER EXTREMITY FUNCTION
Upper extremity function serves mainly in providing balance in conjunction with the opposing side of the lower extremity. The movement of each leg is paired with the opposite arm which serves to counterbalance the body, particularly during the stance phase. The arms move most effectively (as seen in elite athletes) with the elbow joint at an approximately 90 degrees or less, the hands swinging from the hips up to mid chest level with the opposite leg, the Humerus moving from being parallel with the trunk to approximately 45 degrees shoulder extension (never passing the trunk in flexion) and with as little movement in the transverse plane as possible. The trunk also rotates in conjunction with arm swing. It mainly serves as a balance point from which the limbs are anchored. Thus trunk motion should remain mostly stable with little motion except for slight rotation as excessive movement would contribute to transverse motion and wasted energy. Mechanics of Propulsion
Recent research into various forms of running has focused on the differences, in the potential injury risks and shock absorption capabilities between heel and mid/forefoot footstrikes. It has been shown that heel striking is generally associated with higher rates of injury and impact due to inefficient shock absorption and inefficient biomechanical compensations for these forces. This is due to forces from a heel strike traveling through bones for shock absorption rather than being absorbed by muscles. Since bones cannot disperse forces easily, the forces transmitted to other parts of the body, including ligaments, joints and bones in the rest of the lower extremity all the way up to the lower back. This causes the body to use abnormal compensatory motions in an attempt to avoid serious bone injuries. These compensations include internal rotation of the tibia, knee and hip joints. Excessive amounts of compensation over time have been linked to higher risk of injuries in those joints as well as the muscles involved in those motions. Conversely, a mid/forefoot strike has been associated with greater efficiency and lower injury risk due to the triceps surae being used as a lever system to absorb forces with the muscles eccentrically rather than through the bone. Landing with a mid/forefoot strike has also been shown to not only properly attenuate shock but allows the triceps surae to aid in propulsion via reflexive plantarflexion after stretching to absorb ground contact forces. Thus a mid/forefoot strike may aid in propulsion. However, even among elite athletes there are variations in self selected footstrike types. This is especially true in longer distance events, where there is a prevalence of heel strikers. There does tend however to be a greater percentage of mid/forefoot striking runners in the elite fields, particularly in the faster racers and the winning individuals or groups. While one could attribute the faster speeds of elite runners compared to recreational runners with similar footstrikes to physiological differences, the hip and joints have been left out of the equation for proper propulsion. This brings up the question as to how heel striking elite distance runners are able to keep up such high paces with a supposedly inefficient and injurious foot strike technique.
STRIDE LENGTH, HIP AND KNEE FUNCTION
Biomechanical factors associated with elite runners include increased hip function, use and stride length over recreational runners. An increase in running speeds causes increased ground reaction forces and elite distance runners must compensate for this to maintain their pace over long distances. These forces are attenuated through increased stride length via increased hip flexion and extension through decreased ground contact time and more force being used in propulsion. With increased propulsion in the horizontal plane, less impact occurs from decreased force in the vertical plane. Increased hip flexion allows for increased use of the hip extensors through midstance and toe-off, allowing for more force production. The difference even between world class and national level distance runners has been associated with more efficient hip joint function. The increase in velocity likely comes from the increased range of motion in hip flexion and extension, allowing for greater acceleration and velocity. The hip extensors and hip extension have been linked to more powerful knee extension during toe-off, which contributes to propulsion. Stride length must be properly increased with some degree of knee flexion maintained through the terminal swing phases, as excessive knee extension during this phase along with footstrike has been associated with higher impact forces due to braking and an increased prevalence of heel striking. Elite runners tend to exhibit some degree of knee flexion at footstrike and midstance, which first serves to eccentrically absorb impact forces in the quadriceps muscle group. Secondly it allows for the knee joint to concentrically contract and provides major aid in propulsion during toe-off as the quadriceps group is capable of produce large amounts of force. Recreational runners have been shown to increase stride length through increased knee extension rather than increased hip flexion as exhibited by elite runners, which serves instead to provide an intense breaking motion with each step and decrease the rate and efficiency of knee extension during toe-off, slowing down speed. Knee extension however contributes to additional stride length and propulsion during toe-off and is seen more frequently in elite runners as well.
ELEMENTS OF GOOD RUNNING TECHNIQUE
UPRIGHT POSTURE AND A SLIGHT FORWARD LEAN
Leaning forward places a runner's center of mass on the front part of the foot, which avoids landing on the heel and facilitates the use of the spring mechanism of the foot. It also makes it easier for the runner to avoid landing the foot in front of the center of mass and the resultant braking effect. While upright posture is essential, a runner should maintain a relaxed frame and use his/her core to keep posture upright and stable. This helps prevent injury as long as the body is neither rigid nor tense. The most common running mistakes are tilting the chin up and scrunching shoulders.
STRIDE RATE AND TYPES
Exercise physiologists have found that the stride rates are extremely consistent across professional runners, between 185 and 200 steps per minute. The main difference between long- and short-distance runners is the length of stride rather than the rate of stride.
During running, the speed at which the runner moves may be calculated
by multiplying the cadence (steps per second) by the stride length.
BENEFITS OF RUNNING
Further information: Neurobiological effects of physical exercise
While there exists the potential for injury while running (just as there is in any sport), there are many benefits. Some of these benefits include potential weight loss , improved cardiovascular and respiratory health (reducing the risk of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases), improved cardiovascular fitness, reduced total blood cholesterol , strengthening of bones (and potentially increased bone density), possible strengthening of the immune system and an improved self-esteem and emotional state. Running, like all forms of regular exercise, can effectively slow or reverse the effects of aging.
Whereby an optimal amount of vigorous aerobic exercise such as running might bring benefits related to lower cardiovascular disease and life extension, it should be noted that in an excessive dose (e.g., marathons ) it might have an opposite effect associated with cardiotoxicity . Soldier running to maintain his health.
WEIGHT LOSS BENEFITS
In animal models, running has been shown to increase the number of
newly born neurons within the brain. This finding could have
significant implications in aging as well as learning and memory. A
recent study published in Cell
Further information: Running-related injuries
Many injuries are associated with running because of its high-impact nature. Change in running volume may lead to development of patellofemoral pain syndrome , iliotibial band syndrome , patellar tendinopathy , plica syndrome , and medial tibial stress syndrome . Change in running pace may cause Achilles Tendinitis , gastrocnemius injuries, and plantar fasciitis . Repetitive stress on the same tissues without enough time for recovery or running with improper form can lead to many of the above. Runners generally attempt to minimize these injuries by warming up before exercise, focusing on proper running form, performing strength training exercises, eating a well balanced diet, allowing time for recovery, and "icing" (applying ice to sore muscles or taking an ice bath).
Some runners may experience injuries when running on concrete
surfaces. The problem with running on concrete is that the body
adjusts to this flat surface running, and some of the muscles will
become weaker, along with the added impact of running on a harder
surface. Therefore, it is advised to change terrain occasionally –
such as trail, beach, or grass running. This is more unstable ground
and allows the legs to strengthen different muscles. Runners should be
wary of twisting their ankles on such terrain.
Barefoot running has been promoted as a means of reducing running related injuries, but this remains controversial and a majority of professionals advocate the wearing of appropriate shoes as the best method for avoiding injury. However, a study in 2013 concluded that wearing neutral shoes is not associated with increased injuries. Chafing of skin following a marathon run
Another common, running-related injury is chafing , caused by repetitive rubbing of one piece of skin against another, or against an article of clothing. One common location for chafe to occur is the runner's upper thighs. The skin feels coarse and develops a rash-like look. A variety of deodorants and special anti-chafing creams are available to treat such problems. Chafe is also likely to occur on the nipple . There are a variety of home remedies that runners use to deal with chafing while running such as band-aids and using grease to reduce friction. Prevention is key which is why form fitting cloths are important.
LIMITS OF SPEED
FOOTSPEED , or SPRINT SPEED, is the maximum speed at which a human can run. It is affected by many factors, varies greatly throughout the population, and is important in athletics and many sports.
The fastest human footspeed on record is 44.7 km/h (12.4 m/s, 27.8
mph), seen during a 100-meter sprint (average speed between the 60th
and the 80th meter) by
RUNNING SPEED OVER INCREASING DISTANCE BASED ON WORLD RECORD TIMES
(see Category:Athletics (track and field) record progressions ) Maximum human speed and pace per distance (portrait orientation)
DISTANCE METRES MEN M/S WOMEN M/S
100 10.44 9.53
200 10.42 9.37
400 9.26 8.44
800 7.92 7.06
1,000 7.58 6.71
1,500 7.28 6.51
1,609 mile 7.22 6.36
2,000 7.02 6.15
3,000 6.81 6.17
5,000 6.60 5.87
10,000 track 6.34 5.64
10,000 road 6.23 5.49
15,000 road 6.02 5.38
20,000 track 5.91 5.09
20,000 road 6.02 5.30
21,285 One hour run 5.91 5.14
25,000 track 5.63 4.78
25,000 road 5.80 5.22
30,000 track 5.60 4.72
30,000 road 5.69 5.06
90,000 Comrades 4.68 4.23
100,000 4.46 4.24
303,506 24-hour run 3.513 2.82
EVENTS BY TYPE
Track running events are individual or relay events with athletes
racing over specified distances on an oval running track. The events
are categorised as sprints , middle and long-distance , and hurdling .
Cross country running
EVENTS BY DISTANCE
Sprints are short running events in athletics and track and field.
Races over short distances are among the oldest running competitions.
The first 13 editions of the
Ancient Olympic Games featured only one
event – the stadion race , which was a race from one end of the
stadium to the other. There are three sprinting events which are
currently held at the Olympics and outdoor World Championships: the
At the professional level, sprinters begin the race by assuming a crouching position in the starting blocks before leaning forward and gradually moving into an upright position as the contest progresses and momentum is gained. Athletes remain in the same lane on the running track throughout all sprinting events, with the sole exception of the 400 m indoors. Races up to 100 m are largely focused upon acceleration to an athlete's maximum speed. All sprints beyond this distance increasingly incorporate an element of endurance. Human physiology dictates that a runner's near-top speed cannot be maintained for more than thirty seconds or so as lactic acid builds up, and leg muscles begin to be deprived of oxygen .
60 metres is a common indoor event and it an indoor world
championship event. Other less-common events include the
50 metres ,
55 metres ,
300 metres and
500 metres which are used in some high and
collegiate competitions in the United States. The 1
50 metres , though
rarely competed, has a star-studded history:
Pietro Mennea set a world
best in 1983, Olympic champions Michael Johnson and Donovan Bailey
went head-to-head over the distance in 1997, and
Main article: Middle-distance running
Middle distance running events are track races longer than sprints up
to 3000 metres. The standard middle distances are the
800 metres ,
500 metres and mile run , although the
Main article: Long-distance running
Examples of longer-distance running events are long distance track races , marathons , ultramarathons , and multiday races .
* Sports portal
* ^ Biewener, A. A. 2003. Animal Locomotion. Oxford University
Press, US. ISBN 978-0-19-850022-3 , books.google.com
* ^ Cavagna, G. A.; Saibene, F. P.; Margaria, R. (1964).
"Mechanical Work in Running". Journal of applied physiology. 19:
249–256. PMID 14155290 .
* ^ Discover Magazine (2006). "Born To Run – Humans can outrun
nearly every other animal on the planet over long distances.". p. 3.
* ^ A B Alpha, Rob (2015). What Is Sport: A Controversial Essay
About Why Humans Play Sports. BookBaby. ISBN 9781483555232 .
* ^ Soviet Sport: The Success Story. p. 49, V. Gerlitsyn, 1987
* ^ "The Evolution of Human Running: Training & Racing".
runtheplanet.com. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
* ^ Ingfei Chen (May 2006). "Born To Run:". Discover. Retrieved 26
* ^ Louis Liebenberg (December 2006). "Persistence Hunting by
Modern Hunter‐Gatherers". Current Anthropology & The University of
* ^ A B C D E F G Hammer, S.R. (2010). "Muscle contributions to
propulsion and support during running". Journal of Biomechanics. 43
(14): 2709–2716. doi :10.1016/j.jbiomech.2010.06.025 .
* ^ A B Ardigo, L.P. (2008). "Metabolic and mechanical aspects of
foot landing type, forefoot and rearfoot strike, in human running".
Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. 155 (1): 17–22. doi
* ^ A B C Bergmann, G. (2000). "Influence of shoes and heel strike
on the loading of the hip joint". Journal of Biomechanics. 28 (7):
817–827. doi :10.1016/0021-9290(94)00129-r .
* ^ A B C Lieberman, D. (2010). "Foot strike patterns and collision
forces in habitually barefoot versus shod runners". Nature. 463
(7280): 531–535. PMID 20111000 . doi :10.1038/nature08723 .
* ^ A B Williams, D.S. (2000). "Lower Extremity Mechanics in
Runners with a Converted Forefoot Strike Pattern". Journal of Applied
Biomechanics. 16: 210–218.
* ^ A B Kubo, K. (2000). "Elastic properties of muscle-tendon
complex in long-distance runners". European Journal of Applied
Physiology. 81 (3): 181–187. doi :10.1007/s004210050028 .
* ^ A B Magness, S. "How to Run:
* Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * Quotations from Wikiquote * Learning resources from Wikiversity
* Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Running". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
* v * t * e
Animal locomotion on land
Comparative foot morphology
* v * t * e
Long-distance track event
List of forms o