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Romeriida
Romeriida
Romeriida
is a clade of reptiles that consists of diapsids and the extinct protorothyridid genus Paleothyris, if not the entire family Protorothyrididae. It is phylogenetically defined by Laurin & Reisz (1995) as the last common ancestor of Paleothyris
Paleothyris
and diapsids, and all its descendants.[1] It is named after Alfred Romer, a prominent vertebrate paleontologist of the twentieth century.[2] Protorothyridids were once placed in the family Romeriidae along with the captorhinid Romeria.[1] Because Romeria
Romeria
is now considered to be a captorhinid, and Captorhinidae
Captorhinidae
is placed outside Romeriida, the genus is excluded from the clade. Protorothyridids were once the collective term for several romeriid genera of uncertain classification
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Pennsylvanian (geology)
The Pennsylvanian (also known as Upper Carboniferous
Carboniferous
or Late Carboniferous) is in the ICS geologic timescale, the younger of two subperiods (or upper of two subsystems) of the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
Period. It lasted from roughly 323.2 million years ago to 298.9 million years ago Ma (million years ago). As with most other geochronologic units, the rock beds that define the Pennsylvanian are well identified, but the exact date of the start and end are uncertain by a few hundred thousand years. The Pennsylvanian is named after the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, where the coal-productive beds of this age are widespread.[1] The division between Pennsylvanian and Mississippian comes from North American stratigraphy
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Taxonomy (biology)
In biology, taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus, and species
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Synapomorphies
In phylogenetics, apomorphy and synapomorphy refer to derived characters of a clade – characters or traits that are derived from ancestral characters over evolutionary history.[2] An apomorphy is a character that is different from the form found in an ancestor, i.e., an innovation, that sets the clade apart ("apo") from other clades. A synapomorphy is a shared ("syn") apomorphy that distinguishes a clade from other organisms.[1][3] In other words, it is an apomorphy shared by members of a monophyletic group, and thus assumed to be present in their most recent common ancestor. The word synapomorphy, coined by German entomologist Willi Hennig, is derived from the Greek words σύν, syn = shared; ἀπό, apo = away from; and μορφή, morphe = shape. As an example, in most groups of mammals, the vertebral column is highly conserved, with the same number of vertebrae found in the neck of a giraffe, for example, as in mammals with shorter necks
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Family (biology)
Family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major hierarchical taxonomic ranks in Linnaean taxonomy; it is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks between the ranks of family and genus. The official family names are Latin
Latin
in origin; however, popular names are often used: for example, walnut trees and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, but that family is commonly referred to as being the "walnut family". What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Genus
A genus (/ˈdʒiːnəs/, pl. genera /ˈdʒɛnərə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses,[1] in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.E.g. Panthera leo
Panthera leo
(lion) and Panthera onca
Panthera onca
(jaguar) are two species within the genus Panthera. Panthera
Panthera
is a genus within the family Felidae. The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Carpus
The carpal bones are the eight small bones that make up the wrist (or carpus) that connects the hand to the forearm. This term derives its meaning from the Latin
Latin
carpus and the Greek καρπός (karpós), both meaning "wrist." In human anatomy, the main role of the wrist is to facilitate effective positioning of the hand and powerful use of the extensors and flexors of the forearm, and the mobility of individual carpal bones increase the freedom of movements at the wrist.[1] In tetrapods, the carpus is the sole cluster of bones in the wrist between the radius and ulna and the metacarpus. The bones of the carpus do not belong to individual fingers (or toes in quadrupeds), whereas those of the metacarpus do. The corresponding part of the foot is the tarsus
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Clade
A clade (from Ancient Greek: κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".[1] The common ancestor may be an individual, a population, a species (extinct or extant), and so on right up to a kingdom and further. Clades are nested, one in another, as each branch in turn splits into smaller branches. These splits reflect evolutionary history as populations diverged and evolved independently. Clades are termed monophyletic (Greek: "one clan") groups. Over the last few decades, the cladistic approach has revolutionized biological classification and revealed surprising evolutionary relationships among organisms.[2] Increasingly, taxonomists try to avoid naming taxa that are not clades; that is, taxa that are not monophyletic
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Tarsus (skeleton)
   Calcaneus
Calcaneus
  Talus bone    Cuboid bone
Cuboid bone
   Navicular
Navicular
bone    Cuneiform
Cuneiform
bones (Medial, Intermediate, Lateral)DetailsIdentifiersLatin ossa tarsiMeSH D013639TA A02.5.09.001FMA 24491Anatomical terms of bone [edit on Wikidata]The tarsus is a cluster of seven articulating bones in each foot situated between the lower end of tibia and fibula of the lower leg and the metatarsus. It is made up of the midfoot (cuboid, medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiform, and navicular) and hindfoot (talus and calcaneus). The tarsus articulates with the bones of the metatarsus, which in turn articulate with the proximal phalanges of the toes
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Metapodial
Metapodials are long bones of the hand (metacarpals) and feet (metatarsals) which connect the digits to the centers. In humans, five are present in each hand and foot. In quadrupeds, these form the lower limb, rather than being part of the extremity, thus what looks to be the elbow of a sheep is actually the wrist.This human musculoskeletal system article is a stub
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Holocene
The Holocene
Holocene
( /ˈhɒləˌsiːn, ˈhoʊ-/)[2][3] is the current geological epoch. It began after the Pleistocene[4], approximately 11,650 cal years before present.[5] The Holocene
Holocene
is part of the Quaternary
Quaternary
period. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words ὅλος (holos, whole or entire) and καινός (kainos, new), meaning "entirely recent".[6] It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1, and is considered by some to be an interglacial period. The Holocene
Holocene
encompasses the growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all its written history, development of major civilizations, and overall significant transition toward urban living in the present
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Cladogram
A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms. A cladogram is not, however, an evolutionary tree because it does not show how ancestors are related to descendants, nor does it show how much they have changed; nevertheless, many evolutionary trees can be inferred from a single cladogram.[1][2][3][4][5] A cladogram uses lines that branch off in different directions ending at a clade, a group of organisms with a last common ancestor. There are many shapes of cladograms but they all have lines that branch off from other lines. The lines can be traced back to where they branch off
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Synapsida
Theropsida
Theropsida
Seeley, 1895[1]Synapsids (Greek, 'fused arch'), synonymous with theropsids (Greek, 'beast-face'), are a group of animals that includes mammals and every animal more closely related to mammals than to other living amniotes.[2] They are easily separated from other amniotes by having a temporal fenestra, an opening low in the skull roof behind each eye, leaving a bony arch beneath each; this accounts for their name.[3] Primitive synapsids are usually called pelycosaurs or pelycosaur-grade synapsids; more advanced mammal-like ones, therapsids. The non-mammalian members are described as mammal-like reptiles in classical systematics;[4][5] they can also be called stem mammals or proto-mammals.[6] Synapsids evolved from basal amniotes and are one of the two major groups of the later amniotes; the other is the sauropsids, a group that includes modern reptiles and birds
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Thuringothyris
Thuringothyris is an extinct genus of Early Permian
Early Permian
eureptiles known from the Thuringian Forest
Thuringian Forest
in central Germany.[1][2] Description[edit] Thuringothyris is known from the holotype MNG 7729, articulated well-preserved skull and partial postcranial skeleton, and from the referred specimens MNG 10652, poorly preserved skull and partial vertebral column, MNG 10647, disarticulated cranial and postcranial remains of at least four individuals, MNG 10183, slightly crushed skull and partial postcranial skeleton and MNG 11191, poorly preserved skull and partial limbs. All specimens were collected from the Tambach-Sandstein Member, the uppermost part of the Tambach Formation, dating to the Artinskian stage of the Late Cisuralian
Cisuralian
Series (or alternatively upper Rotliegend), about 284-279.5 million years ago
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Chordate
And see textA chordate (/kɔːrdeɪt/) is an animal constituting the phylum Chordata. During some period of their life cycle, chordates possess a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail: these five anatomical features define this phylum. Chordates are also bilaterally symmetric; and have a coelom, metameric segmentation, and a circulatory system. The Chordata
Chordata
and Ambulacraria
Ambulacraria
together form the superphylum Deuterostomia. Chordates are divided into three subphyla: Vertebrata (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals); Tunicata
Tunicata
(salps and sea squirts); and Cephalochordata
Cephalochordata
(which includes lancelets). There are also extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia
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Romeria (genus)
Romeria is an extinct genus of Early Permian
Early Permian
captorinid known from Texas
Texas
of the United States. It was first named by Llewellyn Ivor Price in 1937 and the type species is Romeria texana. R. texana is known from the holotype MCZ 1480, a three-dimensionally preserved skull. It was collected in the Archer City Bonebed 1 site, from the Archer City Formation, dating to the Asselian stage of the Cisuralian epoch, about 299-294.6 million years ago.[1] A second species, Romeria primus, was first named by Clark and Carroll in 1973. In 1979, it was corrected as Romeria prima by Heaton. R. prima is known from the holotype MCZ 1963, a three-dimensionally preserved skull. It was collected in the Cottonwood Creek site, from the same horizon as the type species.[2] References[edit]^ Llewellyn Ivor Price (1937). "Two new cotylosaurs from the Permian of Texas"
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