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Parareptilia
Parareptilia
("at the side of reptiles") is a subclass or clade of reptiles which is variously defined as an extinct group of primitive anapsids, or a more cladistically correct alternative to Anapsida. Whether the term is valid depends on the phylogenetic position of turtles, whose relationships to other reptilian groups are still uncertain. History of classification[edit] The name Parareptilia
Parareptilia
was coined by Olson in 1947 to refer to an extinct group of Paleozoic
Paleozoic
reptiles, as opposed to the rest of the reptiles or Eureptilia
Eureptilia
("true reptiles").

Life restoration of Nyctiphruretus
Nyctiphruretus
acudens

The name fell into disuse until it was revived by cladistic studies, to refer to those anapsids that were thought to be unrelated to turtles. Gauthier et al. 1988 provided the first phylogenetic definitions for the names of many amniote taxa and argued that captorhinids and turtles were sister groups, constituting the clade Anapsida
Anapsida
(in a much more limited context than the definition given by Romer in 1967). A name had to be found for various Permian
Permian
and Triassic
Triassic
reptiles no longer included in the anapsids, and "parareptiles" was chosen. However, they did not feel confident enough to erect Parareptilia
Parareptilia
as a formal taxon. Their cladogram was as follows:

Amniota 

Synapsida

 Sauropsida 

 "Parareptiles" 

†Mesosauridae

†Procolophonidae

†Millerettidae

†Pareiasauria

 Reptilia 

 Anapsida 

†Captorhinidae

Testudines

 Romeriida 

†Protorothyrididae

Diapsida

Laurin and Reisz 1995 found a different cladogram, in which Reptilia were divided into Parareptilia
Parareptilia
(now a formal taxon they defined as " Testudines
Testudines
and all amniotes more closely related to them than to diapsids.") and Eureptilia. Captorhinidae
Captorhinidae
was transferred to Eureptilia, and Parareptilia
Parareptilia
included both early anapsid reptiles and turtles. The mesosaurs were placed outside both groups, as the sister group to the reptiles (but still sauropsids). The traditional group Anapsida
Anapsida
was rejected as paraphyletic. This gave the following result:

Amniota 

Synapsida

 Sauropsida 

†Mesosauridae

 Reptilia 

 Parareptilia 

†Millerettidae

 Procolophonia 

†Pareiasauria

 Testudinomorpha 

†Procolophonidae

Testudines

 Eureptilia 

†Captorhinidae

Romeriida

†Protorothyrididae

Diapsida

In contrast, Rieppel, 1994, 1995; Rieppel & deBraga, 1996; and deBraga & Rieppel, 1997 argued that turtles are actually related to the sauropterygians, and are diapsids. The diapsid affinities of turtles have been supported by molecular phylogenies (e.g. Zardoya and Meyer 1998; Iwabe et al., 2004; Roos et al., 2007; Katsu et al., 2010). The first genome-wide phylogenetic analysis was completed by Wang et al. (2013). Using the draft genomes of Chelonia mydas and Pelodiscus sinensis, the team used the largest turtle data set to date in their analysis and concluded that turtles are likely a sister group of crocodilians and birds (Archosauria).[1] This placement within the diapsids suggests that the turtle lineage lost diapsid skull characteristics as it now possesses an anapsid skull. This would make Parareptilia
Parareptilia
a totally extinct group with skull features that coincidentally resemble those of turtles. The cladogram below follows an analysis by M.S. Lee, in 2013.[2]

Amniota 

Synapsida

 Sauropsida 

 †Parareptilia 

†Millerettidae

†Eunotosaurus

 †Hallucicrania 

†Lanthanosuchoidea

†Procolophonia

†Procolophonoidea

†Pareiasauromorpha

 Eureptilia 

†Captorhinidae

 Romeriida 

†Paleothyris

 Diapsida 

†Araeoscelidia

 Neodiapsida 

†Claudiosaurus

†Younginiformes

Lepidosauromorpha

 Archosauromorpha 

†Choristodera

†Trilophosaurus

†Rhynchosauria

Archosauriformes

 Sauropterygia 

†Eosauropterygia

†Placodontia

†Sinosaurosphargis

†Odontochelys

†Proganochelys

Testudines

References[edit]

^ Wang, Zhuo; Pascual-Anaya, J; Zadissa, A; Li, W; Niimura, Y; Huang, Z; Li, C; White, S; Xiong, Z; Fang, D; Wang, B; Ming, Y; Chen, Y; Zheng, Y; Kuraku, S; Pignatelli, M; Herrero, J; Beal, K; Nozawa, M; Li, Q; Wang, J; Zhang, H; Yu, L; Shigenobu, S; Wang, J; Liu, J; Flicek, P; Searle, S; Wang, J; et al. (27 March 2013). "The draft genomes of soft-shell turtle and green sea turtle yield insights into the development and evolution of the turtle-specific body plan". Nature Genetics. 45 (701–706): 701–6. doi:10.1038/ng.2615. PMC 4000948 . PMID 23624526. Retrieved 15 November 2013.  ^ Lee, M. S. Y. (2013). " Turtle
Turtle
origins: Insights from phylogenetic retrofitting and molecular scaffolds". Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 26 (12): 2729–2738. doi:10.1111/jeb.12268. PMID 24256520. 

Benton, M. J. (2000). Vertebrate Palaeontology (2nd ed.). London: Blackwell Science Ltd. ISBN 0-632-05614-2. , 3rd ed. 2004 ISBN 0-632-05637-1 deBraga, M.; Rieppel, O. (1997). " Reptile
Reptile
phylogeny and the interrelationships of turtles". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 120 (3): 281–354. doi:10.1006/zjls.1997.0079.  deBraga, M.; Reisz, R. R. (1996). "The Early Permian
Permian
reptile Acleistorhinus
Acleistorhinus
pteroticus and its phylogenetic position". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 16 (3): 384–395. doi:10.1080/02724634.1996.10011328.  Gauthier, J.; A. G. Kluge; T. Rowe (1988). "The early evolution of the Amniota". In M. J. Benton (ed.). The phylogeny and classification of the tetrapods, Volume 1: amphibians, reptiles, birds. 103-155. Oxford: Clarendon Press. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) Iwabe, N.; Hara, Y.; Kumazawa, Y.; Shibamoto, K.; Saito, Y.; Miyata, T.; Katoh, K. (2004-12-29). "Sister group relationship of turtles to the bird-crocodilian clade revealed by nuclear DNA-coded proteins". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 22 (4): 810–813. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi075. PMID 15625185. Retrieved 2010-12-31. 

Katsu, Y.; Braun, E. L.; Guillette, L. J. Jr.; Iguchi, T.; Guillette (2010-03-17). "From reptilian phylogenomics to reptilian genomes: analyses of c-Jun and DJ-1 proto-oncogenes". Cytogenetic and Genome Research. 127 (2–4): 79–93. doi:10.1159/000297715. PMID 20234127. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

Laurin, M.; Gauthier, J. A. (1996). " Phylogeny
Phylogeny
and Classification of Amniotes". at the Tree of Life Web Project.  Laurin, M.; Reisz, R. R. (1995). "A reevaluation of early amniote phylogeny". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 113 (2): 165–223. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1995.tb00932.x.  (abstract) Olson, E. C. (1947). "The family Diadectidae and its bearing on the classification of reptiles". Fieldiana Geology. 11: 1–53. ISSN 0096-2651.  Rieppel, O. (1994). "Osteology of Simosaurus gaillardoti and the relationships of stem-group sauropterygia". Fieldiana Geology. 1462: 1–85. ISSN 0096-2651.  Rieppel, O. (1995). "Studies on skeleton formation in reptiles: implications for turtle relationships". Zoology-Analysis of Complex Systems. 98: 298–308.  Rieppel, O.; deBraga, M. (1996). "Turtles as diapsid reptiles". Nature. 384 (6608): 453–455. doi:10.1038/384453a0.  Romer, A. S. (1967). Vertebrate Paleontology (3rd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-7167-1822-7.  Roos, Jonas; Aggarwal, Ramesh K.; Janke, Axel (Nov 2007). "Extended mitogenomic phylogenetic analyses yield new insight into crocodylian evolution and their survival of the Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 45 (2): 663–673. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.06.018. PMID 17719245. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

Zardoya, R.; Meyer, A. (1998). "Complete mitochondrial genome suggests diapsid affinities of turtles". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 95 (24): 14226–14231. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.24.14226. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 24355 . PMID 9826682. 

External links[edit]

Parareptilia re Reptilian Subclass Parareptilia? - Dinosaur Mailing List archives

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Parareptilia

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Sauropsida

Basal Parareptiles

Mesosauria

Mesosauridae

Brazilosaurus Mesosaurus Stereosternum

Millerosauria

 ?Eunotosaurus

Millerettidae

Broomia Heleophilus Milleretta Millerosaurus Milleropsis Nanomilleretta

Procolophonomorpha

Australothyris Ankyramorpha

Bolosauria

Erpetonyx

Bolosauridae

Belebey Bolosaurus Eudibamus

Related clades

Eureptilia

Hallucicrania
Hallucicrania
(=Ankyramorpha)

Lanthanosuchoidea

Colobomycter Delorhynchus Feeserpeton

Acleistorhinidae

Acleistorhinus

Lanthaniscidae

Lanthaniscus

Lanthanosuchidae

Chalcosaurus Lanthanosuchus

Procolophoniformes

Microleter

Nyctiphruretidae

Abyssomedon Nyctiphruretus

Procolophonia

Pareiasauromorpha Procolophonoidea

Pareiasauromorpha

Nycteroleteridae

Bashkyroleter Emeroleter Macroleter Nycteroleter Rhipaeosaurus

Pareiasauria

Bradysaurus Bunostegos Deltavjatia Embrithosaurus Nochelesaurus Parasaurus

Pareiasauridae

Arganaceras Elginia Obirkovia Pareiasaurus Pareiasuchus Sanchuansaurus Scutosaurus Shansisaurus Shihtienfenia

Pumiliopareiasauria

Anthodon Nanopareia Provelosaurus Pumilopareia

Procolophonoidea

Owenettidae

Barasaurus Candelaria Owenetta Ruhuhuaria Saurodektes

Procolophonidae

Coletta  ?Gomphiosauridion  ?Kinelia Kitchingnathus Lasasaurus Phaanthosaurus Pintosaurus Sauropareion  ?Spondylolestes Tichvinskia  ?Xenodiphyodon

Leptopleuroninae

Koiloskiosaurus Neoprocolophon Pentaedrusaurus Phonodus

Leptopleuronini

Hypsognathus Leptopleuron Libognathus Soturnia

Sclerosaurini

 ?Basileosaurus Sclerosaurus Scoloparia

Procolophoninae

Anomoiodon Burtensia Eumetabolodon  ?Insulophon  ?Lestanshoria Orenburgia Kapes Procolina Procolophon  ?Samaria Teratophon Timanophon Thelephon Thelerpeton

Theledectinae

Theledectes

Related articles and categories

Pareiasaurs Parareptiles Parareptile

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q1719140 EoL: 42340506 Fossil

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