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The Info List - Captorhinidae





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Synonyms

Romeriidae Price, 1937 Cotylosauria

Captorhinidae
Captorhinidae
(also known as cotylosaurs) is one of the earliest and most basal reptile families, all members of which are extinct.

Contents

1 Description 2 Discovery and history 3 Classification

3.1 Taxonomy 3.2 Phylogeny

4 Paleobiology

4.1 Caudal autotomy

5 References

Description[edit]

Life restoration of Labidosaurus
Labidosaurus
hamatus

Captorhinids are a clade of small to very large lizard-like reptiles that date from the late Carboniferous
Carboniferous
through the Permian. Their skulls were much stronger than those of their relatives, the Protorothyrididae, and had teeth that were better able to deal with tough plant material. The postcranial skeleton is very similar to that of advanced reptiliomorph amphibians, so much in fact that the amphibian Seymouriamorpha
Seymouriamorpha
and Diadectomorpha
Diadectomorpha
were thought to be reptiles and grouped together in "Cotylosauria" as the first reptiles in the early 20th century.[1] Captorhinids have broad, robust skulls that are generally triangular in shape when seen in dorsal view. The premaxillae are characteristically downturned. Early, smaller forms possessed single rows of teeth, while larger, more derived forms such as Captorhinus
Captorhinus
and the herbivorous Moradisaurus which could reach an estimated snout-vent length of 2 meters (6.5 feet),[2] possessed multiple rows of teeth. Discovery and history[edit]

An impression of Labidosaurikos

Until recently, Concordia cunninghami was thought to be the basalmost known member of Captorhinidae. A novel phylogenic study of primitive reptile relationships by Muller & Reisz in 2006 recovered Thuringothyris as a sister taxon of the Captorhinidae.[3] The same results were obtained in later phylogenic analyses.[4][5] Concordia is still the earliest known captorhinid as all other captorhinid taxa are known only from Permian
Permian
deposits.[3] Captorhinidae
Captorhinidae
contains a single subfamily, the Moradisaurinae. Moradisaurinae
Moradisaurinae
was named and assigned to the family Captorhinidae
Captorhinidae
by A. D. Ricqlès and P. Taquet in 1982. Moradisaurinae
Moradisaurinae
was defined as "all captorhinids more closely related to Moradisaurus than to Captorhinus". The moradisaurines inhabited what is now China, Morocco, Niger, Russia, Texas
Texas
and Oklahoma.[4] The moradisaurines were insectivores/herbivores, meaning that they only ate insects and plant life.[6] Captorhinids were once thought to be the ancestors of turtles. The Middle Permian
Permian
reptile Eunotosaurus
Eunotosaurus
from South Africa
South Africa
was seen as the "missing link" between cotylosaurs and chelonians throughout much of the early 20th century.[7] However, more recent fossil finds have shown that Eunotosaurus
Eunotosaurus
is a parareptile unrelated to either turtles or captorhinids.[8] Classification[edit] Taxonomy[edit] The following taxonomy follows Reisz et al., 2011 and Sumida et al., 2010 unless otherwise noted.[4][5]

Family Captorhinidae

Captorhinoides? Eocaptorhinus? Acrodenta[9] Baeotherates[10] Captorhinus Concordia Labidosaurus Protocaptorhinus Reiszorhinus Rhiodenticulatus Romeria Saurorictus Subfamily Moradisaurinae

Captorhinikos Gansurhinus Gecatogomphius[6] Kahneria[6] Labidosaurikos Moradisaurus Rothianiscus

Dubious Captorhinids

Puercosaurus Riabininus

Phylogeny[edit] The cladogram below was recovered in a study by Sumida et al., 2010.[5]

Thuringothyris

 Captorhinidae 

Concordia

Romeria

Protocaptorhinus

Reiszorhinus

Rhiodenticulatus

Saurorictus

Captorhinus

Labidosaurus

Labidosaurikos

The cladogram below follows the topology from a 2011 analysis by paleontologists Robert R. Reisz, Jun Liu, Jin-Ling Li and Johannes Müller.[4]

Paleothyris

Thuringothyris

 Captorhinidae 

Concordia

Rhiodenticulatus

Romeria

Protocaptorhinus

Saurorictus

 Captorhinus 

C. laticeps

C. aguti

C. magnus

Captorhinikos

Labidosaurus

 Moradisaurinae 

Labidosaurikos

Moradisaurus

Rothianiscus

Gansurhinus

Paleobiology[edit] Caudal autotomy[edit] Histological and SEM analysis of Captorhinid tail vertebrae concluded in a 2018 study that Captorhinid reptiles were the first amniotes to develop caudal autotomy as a defensive function. In studied specimens a split line is present in certain caudal vertebrae that is similar to those found in modern reptiles that perform caudal autonomy. Survey of other amniotes from the locality as well as worldwide lead the authors to consider this the first presence of caudal autotomy in an amniote. This behaviour represented significant evolutionary benefit for the animals, allowing for escape and distracting predators, as well as minimizing blood loss at an injury site. In carnivore-dominated ecosystems, this behaviour would have been extremely beneficial.[11] References[edit]

^ Goodrich, E.S. (1916). "On the classification of the Reptilia". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. 89B: 261–276. doi:10.1098/rspb.1916.0012.  ^ Multiple tooth-rowed captorhinids from the early Permian
Permian
fissure fills of the Bally Mountain Locality of Oklahoma ^ a b Muller, J. and Reisz, R.R. (2006). "The phylogeny of early eureptiles: Comparing parsimony and Bayesian approaches in the investigation of a basal fossil clade." Systematic Biology, 55(3):503-511. doi:10.1080/10635150600755396 ^ a b c d Robert R. Reisz; Jun Liu; Jin-Ling Li; Johannes Müller (2011). "A new captorhinid reptile, Gansurhinus qingtoushanensis, gen. et sp. nov., from the Permian
Permian
of China". Naturwissenschaften. 98 (5): 435–441. doi:10.1007/s00114-011-0793-0. PMID 21484260.  ^ a b c Sumida, S.S.; Dodick, J.; Metcalf, A.; Albright, G. (2010). " Reiszorhinus olsoni, a new single-tooth-rowed captorhinid reptile of the Lower Permian
Permian
of Texas". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 30 (3): 704–714. doi:10.1080/02724631003758078.  ^ a b c The Paleobiology Database: Moradisaurinae
Moradisaurinae
Archived 2011-10-04 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Watson, D.M.S. (1914). " Eunotosaurus
Eunotosaurus
africanus Seeley and the ancestors of the Chelonia". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 11: 1011–1020.  ^ "Facts About Turtles: Eunotosaurus
Eunotosaurus
And Turtle
Turtle
Evolution". All-About-Reptiles.com. Retrieved 1 August 2010.  ^ Nor-Eddine Jalil; Jean-Michel Dutuit (1996). " Permian
Permian
captorhinid reptiles from the Argana formation, Morocco" (PDF). Palaeontology. 39 (4): 907–918. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-25.  ^ W. J. May & Richard L. Cifelli (1998). "Baeotherates fortsillensis, A New Captorhinid Reptile
Reptile
from the Fort Sill Fissures, Lower Permian
Permian
of Oklahoma". Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Geology Notes. 58: 128–137.  ^ LeBlanc, A. R. H.; MacDougall, M. J.; Haridy, Y.; Scott, D.; Reisz, R. R. (2018-03-05). "Caudal autotomy as anti-predatory behaviour in Palaeozoic reptiles". Scientific Reports. 8 (1). doi:10.1038/s41598-018-21526-3. ISSN 2045-2322. 

Paleontology portal

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Eureptiles

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Reptilia

†Basal eureptiles

Brouffia Coelostegus

†Captorhinidae

Acrodenta Baeotherates Captorhinikos Captorhinoides Captorhinus Concordia Gecatogomphius Kahneria Labidosaurus Opisthodontosaurus Protocaptorhinus  ?Puercosaurus Reiszorhinus Rhiodenticulatus  ?Riabininus Romeria Saurorictus Thuringothyris

†Moradisaurinae

Gansurhinus Labidosaurikos Moradisaurus Rothianiscus

Romeriida

†Hylonomus †Paleothyris

†Protorothyrididae

Anthracodromeus Cephalerpeton Protorothyris

Diapsida

†Araeoscelidia

Spinoaequalis Dictybolus

†Araeoscelidae

Aphelosaurus Araeoscelis Kadaliosaurus Zarcasaurus

†Petrolacosauridae

Petrolacosaurus

Neodiapsida

†Claudiosaurus †Kenyasaurus †Lanthanolania †Orovenator †Palaeagama †Saurosternon

†Tangasauridae

Acerosodontosaurus Hovasaurus Tangasaurus

†Younginidae

Galesphyrus Thadeosaurus Younginia

†Weigeltisauridae

Coelurosauravus Rautiania  ?Wapitisaurus Weigeltisaurus

†Ichthyosauromorpha

Hupehsuchia Cartorhynchus Ichthyopterygia

Sauria

Archosauromorpha

Includes Archosauria

includes dinosaurs, crocodilians and birds

Lepidosauromorpha

Includes Lepidosauria

includes scaled lizards

?Pantestudines

†Sauropterygia †?Eunotosaurus †Pappochelys †Odontochelys Testudinata

includes turtles

†?Thalattosauria

Askeptosauroidea Thalattosauroidea

Related categories

Prehistoric reptiles Carboniferous
Carboniferous
reptiles Permian
Permian
reptiles Triassic
Triassic
reptiles

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q141936 EoL: 4530539 Fossilworks: 37495 G

.