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Reign
A REIGN is the period of a person's or dynasty 's occupation of the office of monarch of a nation (e.g., Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, Belgium , Andorra ), of a people (e.g., the Franks , the Zulus ) or of a spiritual community (e.g., Roman Catholicism , Tibetan Buddhism , Nizari Ismailism ). In most hereditary monarchies and some elective monarchies (e.g., Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
) there have been no limits on the duration of a sovereign's reign or incumbency , nor is there a term of office . Thus, a reign usually lasts until the monarch dies, unless the monarchy itself is abolished or the monarch abdicates or is deposed. In elective monarchies , there may be a fixed period of time for the duration of the monarch's tenure in office (e.g., Malaysia ). The term of a reign can be indicated with the abbreviation "r." after a sovereign's name, such as the following: George VI, King of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(r. 1936–1952) CONTENTS* 1 Regnal periods * 1.1 Abdications * 1.2 Abolitions * 2 See also * 3 References REGNAL PERIODSNotable reigns have included the following
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Dynasty
A DYNASTY (UK : /ˈdɪnəsti/ , US : /ˈdaɪnəsti/ ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes also appearing in elective republics . The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house "; which may be styled "royal ", "princely ", "comital ", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states , such as Ancient Egypt , the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China , using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase"). The word "dynasty" itself is often dropped from such adjectival references ("a Ming vase "). Until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to increase the territory , wealth, and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan , the Yamato dynasty , whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. Dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally , such as under the Frankish Salic law . Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house
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Monarch
A MONARCH is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy . A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state , or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Typically a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights (often referred to as _the throne_ or _the crown _) or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means. A monarch usually reigns for life or until abdication . If a young child is crowned the monarch, a regent is often appointed to govern until the monarch reaches the requisite adult age to rule. Monarchs' actual powers vary from one monarchy to another and in different eras; on one extreme, they may be autocrats (absolute monarchy ) wielding genuine sovereignty; on the other they may be ceremonial heads of state who exercise little or no power or only reserve powers , with actual authority vested in a parliament or other body (constitutional monarchy ). A monarch can reign in multiple monarchies simultaneously. For example, the monarchy of Canada
Canada
and the monarchy of the United Kingdom are separate states, but they share the same monarch through personal union
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Saudi Arabia
SAUDI ARABIA (/ˌsɔːdiː əˈreɪbiə/ ( listen ), /ˌsaʊ-/ ( listen )), officially the KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA (KSA), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula . With a land area of approximately 2,150,000 km2 (830,000 sq mi), Saudi Arabia
Arabia
is geographically the fifth-largest state in Asia and second-largest state in the Arab
Arab
world after Algeria
Algeria
. Saudi Arabia
Arabia
is bordered by Jordan
Jordan
and Iraq
Iraq
to the north, Kuwait
Kuwait
to the northeast, Qatar
Qatar
, Bahrain
Bahrain
and the United Arab
Arab
Emirates to the east, Oman
Oman
to the southeast and Yemen
Yemen
to the south. It is separated from Israel
Israel
and Egypt
Egypt
by the Gulf of Aqaba . It is the only nation with both a Red Sea
Red Sea
coast and a Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
coast and most of its terrain consists of arid desert and mountains
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List Of Belgian Monarchs
This is a LIST OF BELGIAN MONARCHS from 1831 when the first Belgian king, Leopold I , ascended the throne, after Belgium seceded from the Kingdom of the Netherlands during the Belgian Revolution of 1830. Under the Belgian Constitution , the Belgian monarch is styled "King of the Belgians" (French : _Roi des Belges_, Dutch : _Koning der Belgen_, German : _König der Belgier_) rather than "King of Belgium" in order to reflect the monarchy's constitutional and popular function. Since 1831, there have been seven Kings of the Belgians and two regents
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Co-Prince Of Andorra
The CO-PRINCES OF ANDORRA are jointly the head of state (Cap de l'Estat) of the Principality
Principality
of Andorra
Andorra
, a landlocked microstate lying in the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
mountains between France
France
and Spain
Spain
. Founded in 1278 through a treaty between the Bishop of Urgell and the French Count of Foix , this unique diarchical arrangement has persisted through medieval times to the present day. Currently, the Bishop of Urgell ( Joan Enric Vives Sicília ) and the President of France ( Emmanuel Macron ) serve as Andorra's Co-Princes, following the transfer of the Count of Foix's claims to the Crown of France
France
and, thence, to the President of the French Republic . Each Co-Prince appoints a personal representative, the French Co-Prince currently being represented by Patrick Strzoda and the Episcopal Co-Prince by Josep Maria Mauri . CONTENTS * 1 Origin and development of the co-principality * 2 Recent history * 3 Contemporary political role * 4 List of rulers * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CO-PRINCIPALITY This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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List Of Frankish Kings
The FRANKS were originally led by dukes (military leaders) and reguli (petty kings). The Salian Merovingians rose to dominance among the Franks and conquered most of Roman Gaul . They also conquered the Gaulish territory of the Visigothic Kingdom in 507. The sons of Clovis conquered the Burgundians and Alamanni . They acquired Provence and made the Bavarii and Thuringii their clients. The Merovingians were later replaced by a new dynasty called the Carolingians in the 8th century. By the end of the 9th century, the Carolingians themselves were replaced throughout much of their realm by other dynasties. The idea of a "King of the Franks" or _Rex Francorum_ gradually disappeared over the 12th and 13th centuries. A timeline of Frankish rulers is difficult since the realm was, according to old Germanic practice, frequently divided among the sons of a leader upon his death and then eventually reunited
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List Of Zulu Kings
The following is a LIST OF ZULU KINGS, which includes Zulu chieftains and kings from their earliest known history up to the present time. CONTENTS * 1 Chieftains of the Zulus (Pre–c. 1727) * 2 Chieftains of the Zulus (c. 1727–1816) * 3 Kings of the Zulus (1816–present) * 4 See also * 5 References CHIEFTAINS OF THE ZULUS (PRE–C. 1727) * Mnguni * Luzumana * Malandela kaLuzumana * Zulu I kaMalandela , founder of the clan * Nkosinkulu kaZulu I * Ntombela kaNkosinkulu * Zulu II kaNtombela * Gumede kaZulu * Phunga kaGumede CHIEFTAINS OF THE ZULUS (C. 1727–1816) * Mageba kaGumede (c. 1667 – c. 1745), son of Gumede, chief of the Zulu clan from c. 1727 to c. 1745 * Ndaba kaMageba , son of Mageba, chief of the Zulu clan from c. 1745 to 1763 * Jama kaNdaba (c. 1757–1781), son of Ndaba, chief of the Zulu clan from 1763 to 1781 * Senzangakhona kaJama (c. 1762–1816), son of Jama, chief of the Zulu clan from 1781 to 1816 * Sigujana kaSenzangakhona , son of Senzangakhona, chief of the Zulu clan c. 1816KINGS OF THE ZULUS (1816–PRESENT) Zulu Kingdom (Independent, 1816–1879) Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image SHAKA KASENZANGAKHONA * * c
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Papacy
The POPE ( Latin : _papa_ from Greek : πάππας _pappas_, a child's word for "father"), also known as the PONTIFF, is the Bishop of Rome , and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church . The primacy of the Roman bishop is largely derived from his role as the apostolic successor to Saint Peter , to whom Jesus is supposed to have given the keys of Heaven and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the church would be built. The Pope is also head of state of Vatican City , a sovereign city-state entirely enclaved within Rome. The current pope is Francis , who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI . The office of the pope is the PAPACY. His ecclesiastical jurisdiction , the Diocese of Rome , is often called "the Holy See " or "the Apostolic See ", the latter name being based on the belief that the Bishop of Rome is the apostolic successor to Saint Peter. The pope is considered one of the world's most powerful people because of his diplomatic and cultural influence. The papacy is one of the most enduring institutions in the world and has had a prominent part in world history . The popes in ancient times helped in the spread of Christianity and the resolution of various doctrinal disputes
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Dalai Lama
DALAI LAMA /ˈdɑːlaɪ ˈlɑːmə/ (US ), /ˌdælaɪ ˈlɑːmə/ (UK ) ( Standard Tibetan :ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་, Sanskrit : दलै लामा, Chinese : 达赖喇嘛) is a title given to spiritual leaders of the Tibetan people . They are monks of the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" school of Tibetan Buddhism , the newest of the schools of Tibetan Buddhism founded by Je Tsongkhapa . The Dalai Lama title was created by Altan Khan , the Prince of Shunyi granted by Ming Dynasty , in 1578. The 14th and current Dalai Lama is Tenzin Gyatso . The Dalai Lama has always been an important figure of the Gelug tradition. Although finding dominance in Central Tibet, the Dalai Lama has been an important figure beyond sectarian boundaries. The Dalai Lama figure is important for many reasons. Since the time of the Fifth Dalai Lama his personage has always been a symbol of unification of the state of Tibet, where he has represented Buddhist values and traditions. The Fifth Dalai Lama was granted a golden seal of authority and golden sheets for the exercise of leadership over Buddhism under the heaven by the Shunzhi Emperor of China
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Aga Khan
AGA KHAN (Persian : آقاخان‎‎; also transliterated as _Aqa Khan_ and _Agha Khan_ ) is a name used by the Imam
Imam
of the Nizari Ismailis . The current user of the name is the 49th Imam (1957–present), Prince Shah Karim Al Husseini Aga Khan IV (b. 1936). The title is made up of the titles agha and khan . The Turkish "agha" is "aqa" (Āqā) in Persian . The word "agha" comes from the Old Turkic and Mongolian "aqa", meaning "elder brother", and "khan" means king, ruler in Turkic and Mongolian languages. According to Farhad Daftary , _Aga Khan_ is an honorific title bestowed on Hasan Ali
Ali
Shah (1800–1881), the 46th Imam
Imam
of Nizari Ismailis (1817–1881), by Persian king Fath- Ali
Ali
Shah Qajar . However, Daftary contradicts what the Aga Khan III noted in a famous legal proceeding in India: that _Aga Khan_ is not a title but instead a sort of alias or "pet name" that was given to the Aga Khan I when he was a young man. During the latter stages of the First Anglo-Afghan War (1841-1842), Hasan Ali
Ali
Shah and his cavalry officers provided assistance to General Nott in Kandahar Province
Kandahar Province
and to General England in his advance from Sindh
Sindh
to join Nott
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Holy Roman Empire
The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE ( Latin : _Sacrum Imperium Romanum_; German : _Heiliges Römisches Reich_) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany , though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia , the Kingdom of Burgundy , the Kingdom of Italy , and numerous other territories. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor , reviving the title in Western Europe , more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire . The title continued in the Carolingian family until 888 and from 896 to 899, after which it was contested by the rulers of Italy in a series of civil wars until the death of the last Italian claimant, Berengar , in 924. The title was revived in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne and beginning a continuous existence of the empire for over eight centuries. Some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire, while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning
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Incumbent
The INCUMBENT is the current holder of a political office . This term is usually used in reference to elections , in which races can often be defined as being between an incumbent and non-incumbent(s). For example, in the 2012 United States presidential election , Barack Obama was the incumbent, because he had been the president in the previous term while the election sought to determine the president for the current term. A race without an incumbent is referred to as an OPEN SEAT. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Incumbency advantage * 2.1 Sophomore surge * 3 Anti-incumbency * 4 See also * 5 Further reading * 6 References ETYMOLOGYThe word "incumbent" is derived from the Latin verb _incumbere_, literally meaning "to lean or lay upon" with the present participle stem _incumbent-_, "leaning a variant of _encumber,_ while encumber is derived from the root _cumber_, most appropriately defined: "To occupy obstructively or inconveniently; to block fill up with what hinders freedom of motion or action; to burden, load." INCUMBENCY ADVANTAGEIn general, incumbents have structural advantages over challengers during elections . The timing of elections may be determined by the incumbent instead of a set schedule. For most political offices, the incumbent often has more name recognition due to their previous work in the office
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Term Limit
A TERM LIMIT is a legal restriction that limits the number of terms an officeholder may serve in a particular elected office . When term limits are found in presidential and semi-presidential systems they act as a method to curb the potential for monopoly, where a leader effectively becomes "president for life ". This is intended to protect a democracy from be