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Reign
A REIGN is the period of a person's or dynasty 's occupation of the office of monarch of a nation (e.g., Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, Belgium , Andorra ), of a people (e.g., the Franks , the Zulus ) or of a spiritual community (e.g., Roman Catholicism , Tibetan Buddhism , Nizari Ismailism ). In most hereditary monarchies and some elective monarchies (e.g., Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
) there have been no limits on the duration of a sovereign's reign or incumbency , nor is there a term of office . Thus, a reign usually lasts until the monarch dies, unless the monarchy itself is abolished or the monarch abdicates or is deposed. In elective monarchies , there may be a fixed period of time for the duration of the monarch's tenure in office (e.g., Malaysia )
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Elective Monarchy
An ELECTIVE MONARCHY is a monarchy ruled by an elected monarch, in contrast to a hereditary monarchy in which the office is automatically passed down as a family inheritance. The manner of election, the nature of candidate qualifications, and the electors vary from case to case. Historically it is not uncommon for elective monarchies to transform into hereditary ones over time, or for hereditary ones to acquire at least occasional elective aspects
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Term Limit
A TERM LIMIT is a legal restriction that limits the number of terms an officeholder may serve in a particular elected office . When term limits are found in presidential and semi-presidential systems they act as a method to curb the potential for monopoly, where a leader effectively becomes "president for life ". This is intended to protect a democracy from becoming a de facto dictatorship . Sometimes, there is an absolute limit on the number of terms an officeholder can serve, while, in other cases, the restrictions are merely on the number of consecutive terms. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Ancient * 1.2 Modern * 2 Types * 3 Notable examples * 3.1 Relaxed term limits * 3.2 Tightened term limits * 3.3 People who would have run afoul of modern term limits * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYANCIENTTerm limits have a long history
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Incumbent
The INCUMBENT is the current holder of a political office . This term is usually used in reference to elections , in which races can often be defined as being between an incumbent and non-incumbent(s). For example, in the 2012 United States presidential election , Barack Obama was the incumbent, because he had been the president in the previous term while the election sought to determine the president for the current term. A race without an incumbent is referred to as an OPEN SEAT
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Holy Roman Empire
The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE ( Latin
Latin
: Sacrum Imperium Romanum; German : Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and continued until its dissolution in 1806. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany
Kingdom of Germany
, though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
, the Kingdom of Burgundy , the Kingdom of Italy , and numerous other territories. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
as Emperor , reviving the title in Western Europe , more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire

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Russian Revolution (1917)
The RUSSIAN REVOLUTION was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy
Tsarist autocracy
and led to the rise of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. The Russian Empire
Russian Empire
collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917 (March in the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
; the older Julian calendar
Julian calendar
was in use in Russia at the time). Alongside it arose grassroots community assemblies (called 'soviets ') which contended for authority. In the second revolution that October, the Provisional Government was toppled and all power was given to the soviets
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Dominion
DOMINIONS were semi-independent polities under the British Crown , constituting the British Empire
Empire
, beginning with Canadian Confederation
Confederation
in 1867. They included Canada
Canada
, Australia
Australia
, New Zealand , Newfoundland , South Africa
South Africa
, and the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
, and then from the late 1940s also India , Pakistan
Pakistan
, and Ceylon
Ceylon
(now Sri Lanka ). The Balfour Declaration of 1926 recognised the Dominions as "autonomous Communities within the British Empire", and the 1931 Statute of Westminster confirmed their full legislative independence. Earlier usage of dominion to refer to a particular territory dates to the 16th century and was used to describe Wales
Wales
from 1535 to 1801 and New England between 1686 and 1689
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United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Ireland
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND was established as a sovereign state on 1 January 1801 by the Acts of Union 1800
Acts of Union 1800
, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland
Ireland
. The growing desire for an Irish Republic
Irish Republic
led to the Irish War of Independence
Irish War of Independence
, which resulted in Ireland
Ireland
seceding from the Union and forming the Irish Free State in 1922. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
remained part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, and the state was consequently renamed the " United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland". The UK financed the European coalition that defeated France in 1815 in the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars

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Scotland
SCOTLAND (/ˈskɒt.lənd/ ; Scots : ; Scottish Gaelic : Alba
Alba
( listen )) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
. It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean , with the North Sea to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides . The Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707
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Pope John XXIII
POPE JOHN XXIII (Latin : Ioannes XXIII; Italian : Giovanni XXIII; born ANGELO GIUSEPPE RONCALLI, Italian pronunciation: ; 25 November 1881 – 3 June 1963) reigned as Pope
Pope
from 28 October 1958 to his death in 1963 and was canonized on 27 April 2014. Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli was the fourth of fourteen children born to a family of sharecroppers who lived in a village in Lombardy . He was ordained to the priesthood on 10 August 1904 and served in a number of posts, including papal nuncio in France and a delegate to Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey. In a consistory on 12 January 1953 Pope Pius XII made Roncalli a cardinal as the Cardinal-Priest of Santa Prisca in addition to naming him as the Patriarch of Venice . Roncalli was elected pope on 28 October 1958 at age 76 after 11 ballots. His selection was unexpected, and Roncalli himself had come to Rome
Rome
with a return train ticket to Venice
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Aga Khan
AGA KHAN (Persian : آقاخان‎‎; also transliterated as Aqa Khan and Agha Khan ) is a name used by the Imam
Imam
of the Nizari
Nizari
Ismailis . The current user of the name is the 49th Imam
Imam
(1957–present), Prince Shah Karim Al Husseini Aga Khan IV (b. 1936). The title is made up of the titles agha and khan . The Turkish "agha" is "aqa" (Āqā) in Persian . The word "agha" comes from the Old Turkic and Mongolian "aqa", meaning "elder brother", and "khan" means king, ruler in Turkic and Mongolian languages. According to Farhad Daftary , Aga Khan
Aga Khan
is an honorific title bestowed on Hasan Ali
Ali
Shah (1800–1881), the 46th Imam
Imam
of Nizari Ismailis (1817–1881), by Persian king Fath- Ali
Ali
Shah Qajar
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Death
DEATH is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism . Phenomena which commonly bring about death include senescence , predation , malnutrition , disease , suicide , homicide , starvation , dehydration , and accidents or trauma resulting in terminal injury . In most cases, bodies of living organisms begin to decompose shortly after death. Death
Death
– particularly the death of humans – has commonly been considered a sad or unpleasant occasion, due to the affection for the being that has died and the termination of social and familial bonds with the deceased. Other concerns include fear of death , necrophobia , anxiety , sorrow , grief , emotional pain , depression , sympathy , compassion , solitude , or saudade . Many cultures and religions have the idea of an afterlife , and also hold the idea of reward or judgement and punishment for past sin
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Russian Empire
The RUSSIAN EMPIRE (also known as RUSSIA) was an empire that existed from 1721 until it was overthrown by the short-lived February Revolution in 1917 . One of the largest empires in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire
Empire
was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire
Empire
happened in association with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire
Empire
, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
, Persia and the Ottoman Empire
Empire
. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon 's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south
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Monarch
A MONARCH is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy . A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state , or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Typically a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights (often referred to as the throne or the crown ) or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means. A monarch usually reigns for life or until abdication
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Duke Of Windsor
DUKE OF WINDSOR was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. It was created on 8 March 1937, for the Prince Edward, former King Edward VIII , following his abdication in December 1936. The dukedom takes its name from the town where Windsor Castle
Windsor Castle
, a residence of English monarchs since the time of Henry I , following the Norman Conquest , is situated. Windsor has been the house name of the Royal Family since 1917. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Royal Arms * 3 See also * 4 References HISTORY The Duke
Duke
of Windsor in 1945 Edward had abdicated on 11 December 1936, so that he could marry the American divorcée Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
, who upon their marriage became the Duchess of Windsor
Duchess of Windsor
. At the time of the abdication, there was controversy as to how the ex-King should be titled
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Epilepsy
EPILEPSY is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures . Epileptic seizures are episodes that can vary from brief and nearly undetectable to long periods of vigorous shaking. These episodes can result in physical injuries including occasionally broken bones . In epilepsy, seizures tend to recur and as a rule, have no immediate underlying cause. Isolated seizures that are provoked by a specific cause such as poisoning are not deemed to represent epilepsy. People with epilepsy in some areas of the world experience stigma due to the condition. The cause of most cases of epilepsy is unknown. Some cases occur as the result of brain injury , stroke , brain tumors , infections of the brain, and birth defects , through a process known as epileptogenesis . Known genetic mutations are directly linked to a small proportion of cases
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