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Reign
A reign is the period of a person's or dynasty's occupation of the office of monarch of a nation (e.g., Saudi Arabia, Belgium, Andorra), of a people (e.g., the Franks, the Zulus) or of a spiritual community (e.g., Roman Catholicism, Tibetan Buddhism, Nizari Ismailism). In most hereditary monarchies and some elective monarchies (e.g., Holy Roman Empire) there have been no limits on the duration of a sovereign's reign or incumbency, nor is there a term of office. Thus, a reign usually lasts until the monarch dies, unless the monarchy itself is abolished or the monarch abdicates or is deposed. In elective monarchies, there may be a fixed period of time for the duration of the monarch's tenure in office (e.g., Malaysia). The term of a reign can be indicated with the abbreviation "r." (for Latin
Latin
rexit) after a sovereign's name, such as the following:George VI, King of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions, Emperor of India (r
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Abdication
Abdication
Abdication
is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority; To give up leadership.Contents1 Terminology 2 Western classical antiquity 3 British and Commonwealth history 4 Japanese history 5 Abdications 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksTerminology[edit]Tomb effigy of heart of King John II Casimir Vasa
John II Casimir Vasa
at Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés in Paris, showing removal of the crownThe word abdication derives from the Latin
Latin
abdicatio meaning to disown or renounce (from ab, away from, and dicare, to dedicate or relinquish). In its broadest sense abdication is the act of renouncing and resigning from any formal office, but it is applied especially to the supreme office of state
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Term Limit
A term limit is a legal restriction that limits the number of terms an officeholder may serve in a particular elected office. When term limits are found in presidential and semi-presidential systems they act as a method to curb the potential for monopoly, where a leader effectively becomes "president for life". This is intended to protect a democracy from becoming a de facto dictatorship. Sometimes, there is an absolute limit on the number of terms an officeholder can serve, while, in other cases, the restrictions are merely on the number of consecutive terms.Contents1 History1.1 Ancient 1.2 Modern2 Types 3 Notable examples3.1 Relaxed term limits 3.2 Tightened term limits 3.3 People who would have run afoul of modern term limits4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] Ancient[edit] Term limits have a long history
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Duke Of Windsor
The Duke
Duke
of Windsor was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created on 8 March 1937, for the Prince Edward, former King Edward VIII, following his abdication on 11 December 1936. The dukedom takes its name from the town where Windsor Castle, a residence of English monarchs
English monarchs
since the time of Henry I, following the Norman Conquest, is situated. Windsor has been the house name of the Royal Family since 1917.Contents1 History 2 Dukes of Windsor
Dukes of Windsor
(1936) 3 Royal Arms 4 See also 5 ReferencesHistory[edit]The Duke
Duke
of Windsor in 1945Edward had abdicated on 11 December 1936, so that he could marry the American divorcée Wallis Simpson, who upon their marriage became the Duchess of Windsor. At the time of the abdication, there was controversy as to how the ex-King should be titled
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Death
Death
Death
is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.[citation needed] Phenomena which commonly bring about death include aging, predation, malnutrition, disease, suicide, homicide, starvation, dehydration, and accidents or trauma resulting in terminal injury.[1] In most cases, bodies of living organisms begin to decompose shortly after death.[2] Death
Death
– particularly the death of humans – has commonly been considered a sad or unpleasant occasion, due to the affection for the being that has died and the termination of social and familial bonds with the deceased. Other concerns include fear of death, necrophobia, anxiety, sorrow, grief, emotional pain, depression, sympathy, compassion, solitude, or saudade
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Pope John XXIII
Pope
Pope
Saint
Saint
John XXIII (Latin: Ioannes; Italian: Giovanni; born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, Italian pronunciation: [ˈandʒelo dʒuˈzɛppe roŋˈkalli]; 25 November 1881 – 3 June 1963) was head of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and ruler of the Vatican City
Vatican City
State from 28 October 1958 to his death in 1963 and was canonized on 27 April 2014.[7] Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli was the fourth of fourteen children born to a family of sharecroppers who lived in a village in Lombardy.[8] He was ordained to the priesthood on 10 August 1904 and served in a number of posts, as nuncio in France and a delegate to Bulgaria, Greece
Greece
and Turkey
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United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Ireland
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland
Ireland
was a sovereign country in western Europe, the predecessor to the modern United Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
and Northern Ireland. It was established on 1 January 1801 by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. Britain financed the European coalition that defeated France in 1815 in the Napoleonic Wars. Britain, with its unsurpassed Royal Navy
Royal Navy
and British Empire, became the foremost world power for the next century. The Crimean War
Crimean War
with Russia and the Boer wars were relatively small operations in a largely peaceful century.[1] Rapid industrialisation that began in the decades prior to the state's formation continued up until the mid-19th century
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Dominion
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.[1][2] They included Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland, South Africa, and the Irish Free State, and then from the late 1940s also India, Pakistan, and Ceylon
Ceylon
(now Sri Lanka)
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England
England
England
is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.[6][7][8] It shares land borders with Scotland
Scotland
to the north and Wales
Wales
to the west. The Irish Sea
Irish Sea
lies northwest of England
England
and the Celtic Sea
Celtic Sea
lies to the southwest. England
England
is separated from continental Europe
Europe
by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel
English Channel
to the south
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Scotland
Scotland
Scotland
(/ˈskɒtlənd/; Scots: [ˈskɔtlənd]; Scottish Gaelic: Alba
Alba
[ˈal̪ˠapə] ( listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.[16][17][18] It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands,[19] including the Northern Isles
Northern Isles
and the Hebrides. The Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
and continued to exist until 1707
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Epilepsy
Epilepsy
Epilepsy
is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.[10][11] Epileptic seizures
Epileptic seizures
are episodes that can vary from brief and nearly undetectable periods to long periods of vigorous shaking.[1] These episodes can result in physical injuries, including occasionally broken bones.[1] In epilepsy, seizures te
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Elective Monarchy
An elective monarchy is a monarchy ruled by an elected monarch, in contrast to a hereditary monarchy in which the office is automatically passed down as a family inheritance. The manner of election, the nature of candidate qualifications, and the electors vary from case to case
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Incumbent
The incumbent is the current holder of a political office. This term is usually used in reference to elections, in which races can often be defined as being between an incumbent and non-incumbent(s). For example, in the Hungarian presidential election, 2017, János Áder was the incumbent, because he had been the president in the term before the term for which the election sought to determine the president
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Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and continued until its dissolution in 1806.[6] The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.[7][8][9] On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
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Aga Khan
Aga Khan
Aga Khan
(Persian: آقاخان‎; also transliterated as Aqa Khan and Agha Khan[1]) is a title used also as a name by the Imam
Imam
of the Nizari
Nizari
Ismailis. The current user of the name is the 49th Imam (1957–present), Prince Shah Karim Al Husseini Aga Khan IV
Aga Khan IV
(b. 1936). The title is made up of the titles agha and khan. The Turkish "agha" is "aqa" (Āqā) in Persian
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