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A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.[1][2] A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state, or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Typically a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights (often referred to as the throne or the crown) or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means. A monarch usually reigns for life or until abdication. If a young child is crowned the monarch, a regent is often appointed to govern until the monarch reaches the requisite adult age to rule. Monarchs' actual powers vary from one monarchy to another and in different eras; on one extreme, they may be autocrats (absolute monarchy) wielding genuine sovereignty; on the other they may be ceremonial heads of state who exercise little or no direct power or only reserve powers, with actual authority vested in a parliament or other body (constitutional monarchy). A monarch can reign in multiple monarchies simultaneously. For example, the monarchy of Canada
Canada
and the monarchy of the United Kingdom are separate states, but they share the same monarch through personal union.

Contents

1 Characteristics 2 Classification 3 Succession 4 History

4.1 Monarchs in Africa 4.2 Monarchs in Europe 4.3 Monarchs in Asia 4.4 Monarchs in the Americas 4.5 Monarchs in Oceania

5 Titles and precedence in Europe 6 Titles outside modern Europe

6.1 Titles by region

7 Use of titles by non-sovereigns 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Characteristics[edit] Monarchs, as such, bear a variety of titles – king or queen, prince or princess (e.g., Sovereign
Sovereign
Prince
Prince
of Monaco), emperor or empress (e.g., Emperor
Emperor
of China, Emperor
Emperor
of Ethiopia, Emperor
Emperor
of Japan, Emperor
Emperor
of India), archduke, duke or grand duke (e.g., Grand Duke
Duke
of Luxembourg), emir (e.g., Emir
Emir
of Qatar) or sultan (e.g., Sultan
Sultan
of Oman). Prince
Prince
is sometimes used as a generic term to refer to any monarch regardless of title, especially in older texts.[3] A king can also be a queen's husband and a queen can be a king's wife. If both people in a couple reign, neither person is generally considered to be a consort.[citation needed] Monarchy
Monarchy
is political or sociocultural in nature, and is generally (but not always) associated with hereditary rule. Most monarchs, both historically and in the present day, have been born and brought up within a royal family (whose rule over a period of time is referred to as a dynasty) and trained for future duties. Different systems of succession have been used, such as proximity of blood (male preference or absolute), primogeniture, agnatic seniority, Salic law, etc. While traditionally most monarchs have been male, female monarchs have also ruled, and the term queen regnant refers to a ruling monarch, as distinct from a queen consort, the wife of a reigning king. Some monarchies are non-hereditary. In an elective monarchy, the monarch is elected but otherwise serves as any other monarch. Historical examples of elective monarchy include the Holy Roman Emperors (chosen by prince-electors, but often coming from the same dynasty) and the free election of kings of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Modern examples include the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
Yang di-Pertuan Agong
of Malaysia, a position rotated among the nation's historically ruling dynasties, and the pope of the Roman Catholic Church, who serves as sovereign of the Vatican City
Vatican City
State and is elected to a life term by the College of Cardinals. In recent centuries, many states have abolished the monarchy and become republics (however see, e.g., United Arab Emirates). Advocacy of government by a republic is called republicanism, while advocacy of monarchy is called monarchism. A principal advantage of hereditary monarchy is the immediate continuity of national leadership, as illustrated in the classic phrase "The [old] King
King
is dead. Long live the [new] King!". In cases where the monarch serves mostly as a ceremonial figure (e.g. most modern constitutional monarchies) real leadership does not depend on the monarch. A form of government may in fact be hereditary without being considered monarchy, such as a family dictatorship. Classification[edit] Monarchies take a wide variety of forms, such as the two co-princes of Andorra, positions held simultaneously by the Roman Catholic Bishop of Urgel (Spain) and the elected President of France
President of France
(although strictly Andorra
Andorra
is a diarchy). Similarly, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
Yang di-Pertuan Agong
of Malaysia
Malaysia
is considered a monarch despite only holding the position for five years at a time. Succession[edit]

Contemporary European monarchies by type of succession   Absolute primogeniture   Male-preference cognatic primogeniture   Agnatic primogeniture   Elective/appointed

The Nine Sovereigns at Windsor for the funeral of King
King
Edward VII, photographed on 20 May 1910. Standing, from left to right: King
King
Haakon VII of Norway, Tsar
Tsar
Ferdinand of the Bulgarians, King
King
Manuel II of Portugal and the Algarve, Kaiser
Kaiser
Wilhelm II of Germany
Germany
and Prussia, King
King
George I of the Hellenes and King
King
Albert I of the Belgians. Seated, from left to right: King
King
Alfonso XIII of Spain, King
King
George V of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and King
King
Frederick VIII of Denmark.

Postcard from 1908 showing nineteen of the world's reigning monarchs: (left to right) King
King
Rama V/ Chulalongkorn
Chulalongkorn
of Siam, King
King
George I of Greece, King
King
Peter I of Serbia, King
King
Carol I of Romania, Emperor
Emperor
Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary, Tzar Ferdinand I of Bulgaria, Sultan
Sultan
Abdul Hamid II of the Ottoman Empire, King
King
Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, Emperor
Emperor
Nicholas II of the Russia, King
King
Edward VII
Edward VII
of Britain, Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany, King
King
Gustav V
Gustav V
of Sweden, King
King
Haakon VII of Norway, King
King
Frederick VIII of Denmark, Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands, Guangxu Emperor
Emperor
of China, Meiji Emperor
Emperor
of Japan, King Manuel II of Portugal
Manuel II of Portugal
and King
King
Alfonso XIII of Spain.

Hereditary succession within one patrilineal family has been most common (although, see the Rain Queen), with preference for children over siblings, sons over daughters. In Europe, some peoples practiced equal division of land and regalian rights among sons or brothers, as in the Germanic states of the Holy Roman Empire, until after the medieval era and sometimes (e.g., Ernestine duchies) into the 19th century. Other European realms practice one form or another of primogeniture, whereunder a lord was succeeded by his eldest son or, if he had none, by his brother, his daughters or sons of daughters. The system of tanistry was semi-elective and gave weight also to ability and merit.[citation needed] The Salic law, practiced in France
France
and in the Italian territories of the House of Savoy, stipulated that only men could inherit the crown. In most fiefs, in the event of the demise of all legitimate male members of the patrilineage, a female of the family could succeed (semi-Salic law). In most realms, daughters and sisters were eligible to succeed a ruling kinsman before more distant male relatives (male-preference primogeniture), but sometimes the husband of the heiress became the ruler, and most often also received the title, jure uxoris. Spain
Spain
today continues this model of succession law, in the form of cognatic primogeniture. In more complex medieval cases, the sometimes conflicting principles of proximity and primogeniture battled, and outcomes were often idiosyncratic. As the average life span increased, an eldest son was more likely to reach majority age before the death of his father, and primogeniture became increasingly favoured over proximity, tanistry, seniority and election. In 1980, Sweden
Sweden
became the first monarchy to declare equal primogeniture, absolute primogeniture or full cognatic primogeniture, meaning that the eldest child of the monarch, whether female or male, ascends to the throne.[4] Other nations have since adopted this practice: Netherlands
Netherlands
in 1983, Norway
Norway
in 1990, Belgium
Belgium
in 1991, Denmark
Denmark
in 2009, and Luxembourg
Luxembourg
in 2011.[5][6] The United Kingdom adopted absolute (equal) primogeniture on April 25, 2013, following agreement by the prime ministers of the sixteen Commonwealth Realms at the 22nd Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting. In some monarchies, such as Saudi Arabia, succession to the throne usually first passes to the monarch's next eldest brother and so on through his other brothers, and only after them to the monarch's children (agnatic seniority). In some other monarchies (e.g. Jordan), the monarch chooses who will be his successor within the royal family, who need not necessarily be his eldest son. Whatever the rules of succession, there have been many cases of a monarch being overthrown and replaced by a usurper who would often install his own family on the throne. History[edit] Monarchs in Africa[edit] Further information: Monarchies in Africa

Ramesses II, the third Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of the Nineteenth Dynasty
Dynasty
of Egypt

A series of Pharaohs ruled Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
over the course of three millennia (circa 3150 BC to 31 BC), until it was conquered by the Roman Empire. In the same time period several kingdoms flourished in the nearby Nubia
Nubia
region, with at least one of them, that of the so-called A-Group
A-Group
culture, apparently influencing the customs of Egypt itself. From the 6th to 19th centuries, Egypt was variously part of the Byzantine Empire, Islamic
Islamic
Empire, Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate, Ottoman Empire and British Empire
British Empire
with a distant monarch. The Sultanate of Egypt
Sultanate of Egypt
was a short lived protectorate of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
from 1914 until 1922, when it became the Kingdom of Egypt
Kingdom of Egypt
and Sultan
Sultan
Fuad I changed his title to King. After the Egyptian Revolution of 1952
Egyptian Revolution of 1952
the monarchy was dissolved and Egypt became a republic. West Africa
West Africa
hosted the Kanem Empire
Kanem Empire
(700–1376) and its successor, the Bornu principality which survives to the present day as one of the traditional states of Nigeria.

Mohamoud Ali Shire, the 26th Sultan
Sultan
of the Somali Warsangali Sultanate

In the Horn of Africa, the Kingdom of Aksum
Kingdom of Aksum
and later the Zagwe Dynasty, Ethiopian Empire
Ethiopian Empire
(1270–1974), and Aussa Sultanate
Aussa Sultanate
were ruled by a series of monarchs. Haile Selassie, the last Emperor
Emperor
of Ethiopia, was deposed in a communist coup. Various Somali Sultanates also existed, including the Adal Sultanate
Adal Sultanate
(led by the Walashma dynasty of the Ifat Sultanate), Sultanate
Sultanate
of Mogadishu, Ajuran Sultanate, Warsangali Sultanate, Geledi Sultanate, Majeerteen Sultanate
Sultanate
and Sultanate
Sultanate
of Hobyo. Central and Southern Africa
Southern Africa
were largely isolated from other regions until the modern era, but they did later feature kingdoms like the Kingdom of Kongo
Kingdom of Kongo
(1400–1914). The Zulu people
Zulu people
formed a powerful Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
in 1816, one that was subsequently absorbed into the Colony of Natal
Colony of Natal
in 1897. The Zulu king continues to hold a hereditary title and an influential cultural position in contemporary South Africa, although he has no direct political power. Other tribes in the country, such as the Xhosa and the Tswana, have also had and continue to have a series of kings and chiefs whose local precedence is recognised, but who exercise no legal authority. As part of the Scramble for Africa, Europeans conquered, bought, or established African kingdoms and styled themselves as monarchs due to them.[citation needed] Currently the African nations of Morocco, Lesotho
Lesotho
and Swaziland
Swaziland
are sovereign monarchies under dynasties that are native to the continent. Places like St. Helena, Ceuta, Melilla
Melilla
and the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
are ruled by the Queen of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland or the King
King
of Spain. So-called "sub-national monarchies" of varying sizes can be found all over the rest of the continent, e.g. the Yoruba city-state of Akure in south-western Nigeria
Nigeria
is something of an elective monarchy: its reigning Oba having to be chosen by an electoral college of nobles, from amongst a finite collection of royal princes of the realm. Monarchs in Europe[edit] Further information: Monarchies in Europe

A map of Europe exhibiting the continent's monarchies (red) and republics (blue)

Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
has been monarch of independent countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, Oceania and the Americas.

Within the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
different titles were used by nobles exercising various degrees of sovereignty within their borders (see below). Such titles were granted or recognised by the Emperor
Emperor
or Pope. Adoption of a new title to indicate sovereign or semi-sovereign status was not always recognized by other governments or nations, sometimes causing diplomatic problems. During the nineteenth century many small monarchies in Europe merged with other territories to form larger entities, and following World War I and World War II, many monarchies were abolished, but of those remaining all except Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, Andorra, Vatican City and Monaco
Monaco
were headed by a king or queen. As of 2015[update] in Europe there are twelve monarchies: seven kingdoms (Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden
Sweden
and the United Kingdom), one grand duchy (Luxembourg), one papacy (Vatican City), and two principalities ( Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
and Monaco), as well as one diarchy principality (Andorra). Monarchs in Asia[edit] Further information: Monarchies in Asia

From left to right, Japanese Emperor
Emperor
Hirohito, Crown Prince
Prince
Akihito, Crown Princess
Princess
Michiko and Empress
Empress
Nagako, 1959

In China, before the abolition of the monarchy in 1912, the Emperor
Emperor
of China was traditionally regarded as the ruler of "All under heaven". "King" is the usual translation for the term wang 王, the sovereign before the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
and during the Ten Kingdoms
Ten Kingdoms
period. During the early Han dynasty, China had a number of kingdoms, each about the size of a province and subordinate to the Emperor. In Korea, Daewang (great king), or Wang (king), was a Chinese royal style used in many states rising from the dissolution of Gojoseon, Buyeo, Goguryeo, Baekje, Silla
Silla
and Balhae, Goryeo, Joseon. The legendary Dangun
Dangun
Wanggeom founded the first kingdom, Gojoseon. Some scholars maintain that the term Dangun
Dangun
also refers to a title used by all rulers of Gojoseon, and that Wanggeom is the proper name of the founder. Gyuwon Sahwa (1675) describes The Annals of the Danguns as a collection of nationalistic legends. The monarchs of Goguryeo
Goguryeo
and some monarchs of Silla
Silla
used the title "Taewang", meaning the "Great king". The early monarchs of Silla have used the title of "Geoseogan", "Chachaung", "Isageum", and finally "Maripgan" until 503. The title "Gun" (prince) can refer to the dethroned rulers of Joseon
Joseon
dynasty as well. Under the Korean Empire
Empire
(1897–1910), the rulers of Korea were given the title of "Hwangje", meaning the "Emperor". Today, Members of the Korean Imperial Family continue to participate in numerous traditional ceremonies, and groups exist to preserve Korea's lmperial heritage.[citation needed] The Japanese monarchy is now the only monarchy to still use the title of Emperor. In modern history, between 1925 and 1979, Iran
Iran
was ruled by two Emperors from the Pahlavi dynasty
Pahlavi dynasty
that used the title of "Shahanshah" (or " King
King
of Kings"). The last Iranian Shahanshah was King
King
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who was forced to abdicate the throne as a result of a revolution in Iran. In fact Persian (Iranian) kingdom goes back to about 2,700 BC (see List of Kings of Persia), but reached its ultimate height and glory when King
King
Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
(Known as "The Great Kourosh" in Iran) started the Achaemenid dynasty, and under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia
Central Asia
and the Caucasus. From the Mediterranean sea and Hellespont
Hellespont
in the west to the Indus River
Indus River
in the east, Cyrus the Great created the largest empire the world had yet seen. Thailand
Thailand
and Bhutan
Bhutan
are like the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in that they are constitutional monarchies ruled by a King. Jordan
Jordan
and many other Middle Eastern monarchies are ruled by a Malik
Malik
and parts of the United Arab Emirates, such as Dubai, are still ruled by monarchs. Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
is the largest Arab state in Western Asia by land area and the second-largest in the Arab world (after Algeria). It was founded by Abdul-Aziz bin Saud in 1932, although the conquests which eventually led to the creation of the Kingdom began in 1902 when he captured Riyadh, the ancestral home of his family, the House of Saud; succession to the throne was limited to sons of Ibn Saud
Ibn Saud
until 2015, when a grandson was elevated to Crown Prince. The Saudi Arabian government has been an absolute monarchy since its inception, and designates itself as Islamic. The King
King
bears the title "Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques" in reference to the two holiest places in Islam: Masjid al-Haram
Masjid al-Haram
in Mecca, and Masjid al-Nabawi
Masjid al-Nabawi
in Medina.

Sultan
Sultan
Mehmed III
Mehmed III
from Ottoman Dynasty

Oman
Oman
is led by Monarch
Monarch
Sultan
Sultan
Qaboos bin Said Al Said. The Kingdom of Jordan
Jordan
is one of the Middle East's more modern monarchies is also ruled by a Malik. In Arab and arabized countries, Malik
Malik
(absolute King) is absolute word to render a monarch and is superior to all other titles. Nepal
Nepal
abolished their monarchy in 2008. Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
had a complex system of monarchies from 543BC to 1815. Between 47BC-42BC Anula of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
became the country's first female head of state as well as Asia's first head of state.[dubious – discuss] In Malaysia's constitutional monarchy, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
Yang di-Pertuan Agong
(The Supreme Lord
Lord
of the Federation) is de facto rotated every five years among the nine Rulers of the Malay states of Malaysia
Malaysia
(those nine of the thirteen states of Malaysia
Malaysia
that have hereditary royal rulers), elected by Majlis Raja- Raja
Raja
(Conference of Rulers). Under Brunei's 1959 constitution, the Sultan
Sultan
of Brunei
Brunei
is the head of state with full executive authority, including emergency powers, since 1962. The Prime Minister of Brunei
Brunei
is a title held by the Sultan. As the prime minister, the Sultan
Sultan
presides over the cabinet. Cambodia
Cambodia
has been a kingdom since the 1st century. The power of the absolute monarchy was reduced when it became the French Protectorate of Cambodia
Cambodia
from 1863 to 1953. It returned to an absolute monarchy from 1953 until the establishment of a republic following the 1970 coup. The monarchy was restored as a constitutional monarchy in 1993 with the king as a largely symbolic figurehead.

Sri Lankan King
King
Devanampiya Tissa, Queen consort
Queen consort
Anula, and Prince Uththiya, c. 307 BC

In the Philippines, the pre-Colonial Filipino nobility, variously titled the harì (today meaning "king"), Lakan, Raja
Raja
and Datu
Datu
belonged to the caste called Uring Maharlika
Maharlika
(Noble Class). When the islands were annexed to the Spanish Empire
Empire
in the late 16th century, the Spanish monarch became the sovereign while local rulers often retained their prestige as part of the Christianised nobility called the Principalía. After the Spanish–American War, the country was ceded to the United States of America and made into a territory and eventually a Commonwealth, thus ending monarchism. While the Philippines
Philippines
is currently a republic, the Sultan
Sultan
of Sulu and Sultan
Sultan
of Maguindanao retain their titles only for ceremonial purposes, but are considered ordinary citizens by the 1987 Constitution. Bhutan
Bhutan
has been an independent kingdom since 1907. The first Druk Gyalpo (Dragon King) was elected and thereafter became a hereditary absolute monarchy. It became a constitutional monarchy in 2008. Tibet
Tibet
was a monarchy since the Tibetan Empire
Empire
in the 6th century. It was ruled by the Yuan Dynasty
Dynasty
following the Mongol invasion in the 13th century and became an effective diarchy with the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
as co-ruler. It came under the rule of the Chinese Qing Dynasty
Dynasty
from 1724 until 1912 when it gained de facto independence. The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
became absolute temporal monarch until incorporation of Tibet
Tibet
into the People's Republic
Republic
of China in 1951. Nepal
Nepal
was a monarchy for most of its history until becoming a federal republic in 2008. Monarchs in the Americas[edit] Further information: Monarchies in the Americas

Jacques I, Emperor
Emperor
of Haiti, 1804

Pedro II, Emperor
Emperor
of Brazil

Francisco Pizarro meets with the Inca emperor Atahualpa, 1532

The concept of monarchy existed in the Americas long before the arrival of European colonialists.[7][8] When the Europeans arrived they referred to these tracts of land within territories of different aboriginal groups to be kingdoms, and the leaders of these groups were often referred to by the Europeans as Kings, particularly hereditary leaders.[9] Pre-colonial titles that were used included:

Cacique
Cacique
– Aboriginal Hispaniola
Hispaniola
and Borinquen Tlatoani
Tlatoani
– Nahuas Ajaw
Ajaw
– Maya Qhapaq Inka
Qhapaq Inka
– Tawuantin Suyu (Inca Empire) Morubixaba – Tupi tribes Sha-quan – King
King
of the world used in some Native American tribes

The first local monarch to emerge in North America after colonization was Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who declared himself Emperor
Emperor
of Haiti on September 22, 1804. Haiti again had an emperor, Faustin I from 1849 to 1859. In South America, Brazil[10] had a royal house ruling as emperor between 1822 and 1889, under Emperors Pedro I and Pedro II. Between 1931 and 1983 nine other previous British colonies attained independence as kingdoms. All, including Canada, are in a personal union relationship under a shared monarch. Therefore, though today there are legally ten American monarchs, one person occupies each distinct position. In addition to these sovereign states, there are also a number of sub-national ones. In Bolivia, for example, the Afro-Bolivian king claims descent from an African dynasty that was taken from its homeland and sold into slavery. Though largely a ceremonial title today, the position of king of the Afro-Bolivians is officially recognized by the government of Bolivia.

Male
Male
title Female
Female
title Realm Examples

Emperor Empress Empire Haiti (1804–1806) & (1849–1859), Brazil (1822–1889), Mexico (1821–1823) & (1864–1867), Sapa Inca

King Queen Kingdom Haiti (1811–1820), Brazil (1815-1822), Canada, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Saint Kitts and Nevis

Prince Princess Principality Brazil (1645-1815)

Monarchs in Oceania[edit] Further information: Monarchies in Oceania

Kamehameha IV, King
King
of Hawaii

Polynesian societies were ruled by an ariki from ancient times. The title is variously translated as "supreme chief", "paramount chief" or "king". The Kingdom of Tahiti
Kingdom of Tahiti
was founded in 1788. Sovereignty
Sovereignty
was ceded to France
France
in 1880 although descendants of the Pōmare Dynasty
Dynasty
claim the title of King
King
of Tahiti. The Kingdom of Hawaii
Kingdom of Hawaii
was established in 1795 and overthrown in 1893. An independent Kingdom of Rarotonga
Kingdom of Rarotonga
was established in 1858. It became a protectorate of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
at its own request in 1893. Seru Epenisa Cakobau
Seru Epenisa Cakobau
ruled the short lived Kingdom of Fiji, a constitutional monarchy, from 1871 to 1874 when he voluntarily ceded sovereignty of the islands to the United Kingdom. After independence in 1970, the Dominion of Fiji
Dominion of Fiji
retained the British monarch as head of state until it became a republic following a military coup in 1987. Australia, New Zealand
New Zealand
(including the Cook Islands
Cook Islands
and Niue), Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
and Tuvalu
Tuvalu
are sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
that currently have Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
as their reigning constitutional monarch. The Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
are part of the British Overseas Territories
British Overseas Territories
with Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
as the reigning constitutional monarch. Tonga
Tonga
is the only remaining sovereign kingdom in Oceania. It has had a monarch since the 10th century and became a constitutional monarchy in 1875. In 2008, King
King
George Tupou V
George Tupou V
relinquished most of the powers of the monarchy and the position is now largely ceremonial. In New Zealand
New Zealand
the position of Māori King
King
was established in 1858. The role is largely cultural and ceremonial, and has no legal power. Uvea, Alo and Sigave
Sigave
in the French territory of Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna
have non-sovereign elective monarchs. Titles and precedence in Europe[edit] For commonly used names for specific monarchs, see List of monarchs by nickname. The usage and meaning of a monarch's specific title has historically been defined by tradition, law and diplomatic considerations. Note that some titles borne by monarchs have several meanings and may not exclusively designate a monarch. A Prince
Prince
may be a person of royal blood (some languages uphold this distinction, see Fürst). A Duke
Duke
may belong to a peerage and hold a dukedom (title) but no duchy (territory). In Imperial Russia, a Grand Duke
Duke
was a son or patrilineal grandson of the Tsar
Tsar
or Tsarina. Holders of titles in these alternative meanings did not enjoy the same status as monarchs of the same title. Within the Holy Roman Empire, there were numerous titles used by noblemen whose authority within their territory sometimes approached sovereignty, even though they acknowledged the Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
as suzerain; Elector, Grand Duke, Margrave, Landgrave
Landgrave
and Count
Count
Palatine, as well as secular princes like kings, dukes, princes and "princely counts" (Gefürstete Grafen), and ecclesiastical princes like Prince-Archbishops, Prince-Bishops and Prince-Abbots. A ruler with a title below emperor or king might still be regarded as a monarch, outranking a nobleman of the same ostensible title (e.g., Antoine, Duke
Duke
of Lorraine, a reigning sovereign, and his younger brother, Claude, Duke
Duke
of Guise, a nobleman in the peerage of France). The table below lists titles in approximate order of precedence. According to protocol any holder of a title indicating sovereignty took precedence over any non-sovereign titleholder.

Male
Male
version Female
Female
version Realm Adjective Notes and examples

Pope Women cannot hold the office of Pope Papacy Papal/Pontifical Successor of St. Peter, Bishop of Rome, Head of the Roman Catholic Church, Monarch
Monarch
of the Papal States
Papal States
and later Sovereign
Sovereign
of the State of Vatican City. As senior ruler in Medieval Christendom, the Pope held precedence over all other titles and offices. The Papacy
Papacy
is a celibate office always forbidden to women; in English however, reports of female popes such as ( Pope
Pope
Joan) refer to them as pope and Popess; the term is used, among other things, for the second trump in the Tarot
Tarot
deck; some European languages also have a feminine form of the word pope, such as the Italian papessa, the French papesse, the Portuguese papisa and the German Päpstin.

Emperor Empress Empire Imperial Today: Japan
Japan
(the only remaining enthroned emperor in the world). Historical: Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, First and Second Bulgarian Empire, Serbian Empire, Holy Roman Empire, Russian Empire, Korean Empire, Mongol Empire, Imperial China, First and Second French Empire, Austrian Empire, First Mexican Empire, Empire
Empire
of Brazil, German Empire (none left in Europe after 1918), Emperor
Emperor
of India
India
(ceased to be used after 1947 when India
India
was granted independence from the British Empire). The German title Kaiser
Kaiser
and the Bulgarian/Serbian title Tsar
Tsar
were both derived from the Latin
Latin
word Caesar, intended to mean Emperor. One of the titles of the Sultan
Sultan
of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
was Kaysar-i-Rûm ( Emperor
Emperor
of Rome), Kaysar being a rough transliteration of Caesar (Emperor) into Ottoman Turkish. Kaisar-i-Hind, derived from the German word Kaiser, was the Urdu
Urdu
translation of " Emperor
Emperor
of India".

King Queen Kingdom Royal/Majestic/Kingly Common in larger sovereign states. Similar titles on other Germanic languages, e.g. Konge/Dronning in Danish, Koning/Koningin in Dutch, König/Königin in German.

Viceroy Vicereine Viceroyalty Viceregal Historical: Spanish Empire
Empire
( Viceroy
Viceroy
of Peru, Viceroy
Viceroy
of New Spain, Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata, Viceroyalty of New Granada), Portuguese Empire
Empire
( Viceroy
Viceroy
of India, Viceroy
Viceroy
of Brazil), British Empire
Empire
( Viceroy
Viceroy
of India), Russian Empire
Empire
( Viceroyalty of the Caucasus). The title Viceré was used in the Italian Colonial Empire. An equivalent office called the "Exarch" was used in the Byzantine Empire.

Archduke Archduchess Archduchy Archducal Historical: Unique to the House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
which ruled the Archduchy of Austria; title used for all members of dynasty

Grand Duke Grand Duchess Grand Duchy Grand Ducal Today: Grand Duchy
Grand Duchy
of Luxembourg. Historical examples include Grand Duchy of Moscow, Grand Duchy
Grand Duchy
of Finland and Grand Duchy
Grand Duchy
of Tuscany.

Duke Duchess Duchy, Dukedom Ducal There are no remaining independent duchies, although there are the sub-national Duchies of Cornwall and Lancaster in England. Historical examples include the Duchy of Normandy, Duchy of Milan and Duchy of Prussia .

Prince Princess Principality, Princely state, Princedom Princely Today: Monaco, Liechtenstein, Sovereign
Sovereign
Military Order of Malta; Andorra
Andorra
(Co-Princes). Historical: Principality
Principality
of Albania, Serbia. Self-proclaimed micronations claiming to be principalities include the Sealand, Seborga
Seborga
and Hutt River.

Marquis Marquise Marquisate/March Marquisal A continental rank below that of a Duke
Duke
but above a Count. British version is Marquess. Although Margrave
Margrave
shares word-origin, in Germany it referred to rulers (of Margraviates) rather than nobles. Historical examples: Marquess
Marquess
of Queensbury, Marquisate of Saluzzo, Marquisate of Mantua

Count/Earl Countess County/Earldom/Shire Countly/comital Count
Count
is most common term for a continental, middle-ranked noble. British equivalent is Earl
Earl
(whose female counterpart or wife is "Countess"). There are no remaining independent counties and the word county is used to denote an administrative district. Historical examples include County
County
of Toulouse, County
County
of Castile, County
County
of Barcelona and Earldom of Orkney. Etymological equivalent male/female/territory titles include Comte/Comtesse/Comté in French, Conte/Contessa/Contea in Italian, Conde/Condesa/Condado in Spanish, Conde/Condessa/Condado in Portuguese, Graf/Gräfin/Grafschaft in German, Graaf/Gravin/Graafschap in Dutch, Greve/Grevinna/Grevskap in Swedish.

Viscount Viscountess Viscountcy Viscountly Literally a vice or deputy count, from visconte in Old French. Vicomte is the equivalent in modern French. Vizconde is the equivalent in Spanish. The German Burggraf and Dutch Burggraaf are historical equivalents although they are not translated as "Viscount"; a rank above Baron
Baron
but below Count. There are no remaining viscountcies but Viscount
Viscount
remains a title in Belgium, France, Spain
Spain
and the UK. Historical examples: Viscountcy of Béarn, Burgraviate of Nuremberg (Burggrafschaft Nürnberg).

Lord Lady Lordship Lordly Today: Isle of Man; historical: Lordship
Lordship
of Ireland, Lord
Lord
of the Isles

Baron Baroness Barony Baronial The equivalent title is still legally borne in Belgium, Denmark, France, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden
Sweden
and the United Kingdom. Surviving examples include Kendal and Westmorland in England, the Lordship
Lordship
and Barony of Hailes in Scotland and Barony Rosendal in Norway. Equivalent titles include Barone in Italian, Barón in Spanish, Barão in Portuguese, Boyar
Boyar
in Bulgarian, Wallachian, and Moldavian, Freiherr in German (sometimes used concurrently with Baron), Friherre is the title in the nobility of Sweden
Sweden
while the spoken address is Baron, Vapaaherra in the nobility of Finland.

Titles outside modern Europe[edit]

Male
Male
version Female
Female
version Realm Adjective Notes and examples

Sultan Sultana Sultanate Sultanic Used throughout the Muslim
Muslim
world. Equivalent to King. Current examples: Brunei, Oman, states of Malaysia. Historical examples: Seljuk Sultanate, Delhi Sultanate, Sultanate
Sultanate
of Malacca, Warsangali Sultanate.

Harì/Lakan/Datu Reyna/Dayang Kingdom

One of many ancient titles adopted by the Maharlika
Maharlika
caste in pre-colonial Philippines. Harì survives today as a generic Filipino word for "king", while reyna is a Spanish loanword. Dayang (loosely, "princess") was another title for royal ladies, e.g. the queen regnant Dayang Kalangitan of Tondo.

Malik Malikah/Malekeh Mamlaka Malaky Used throughout the Muslim
Muslim
world. Equivalent to King. Current examples: Bahrain, Jordan, Morocco. Also used by tribal leaders among the Pashtun people. Historical examples: Malik
Malik
al-'Iraq (" King
King
of Iraq"), Malik
Malik
al-Mamlaka al-Mutawakkiliyya al-Yamaniyya (" King
King
of the Mutawakkilite Yemeni Kingdom").

Emir Emira Emirate Amiri Used throughout the Muslim
Muslim
world. Roughly equivalent to Prince. Current examples: constituent emirates of the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar. Historical examples: Emirate
Emirate
of Crete, Emirate
Emirate
of Córdoba, Emirate
Emirate
of Afghanistan.

Caliph

Caliphate Caliphal Used throughout the Muslim
Muslim
world. Equivalent to Emperor. There are no current recognised caliphates. Historical examples: Rashidun Caliphate, Umayyad Caliphate, Caliphate
Caliphate
of Córdoba, Abbasid Caliphate, Ottoman Caliphate
Caliphate
.

Samraat Samrãjñī Samrajya

Ancient Indian title sometimes translated into modern English as Emperor.

Chhatrapati

Indian royal title most equivalent to Emperor.

Maharaja Maharani Princely state

Used historically princely states in South Asia. A "high king" above a Raja.

Raja Rani Rajahnate Raj - Used historically in princely states in South Asia
South Asia
and pre-colonial chiefdoms in the Philippines. Equivalent to King.

Arasan Arasi Arasangam Arasa Tamil titles used in ancient Tamilakam. The emperor title was called "Perarasan" and his realm was a "Perarasu". The word "Arasangam" is used today for the government.

Nawab Begum

Used historically for semi-autonomous Muslim
Muslim
rulers of princely states in South Asia.

Padishah

A superlative title equivalent to "Great King" or " King
King
of Kings". Used historically by several West Asian
West Asian
empires such as the Shāhanshāh of Iran
Iran
( King
King
of Kings of Persia), Mughal Emperors
Mughal Emperors
of the Indian Subcontinent
Indian Subcontinent
(who used the Arabic version of the title, Badshah) and Sultan
Sultan
of the Ottoman Empire.

Shah Shahbanu

Used historically in Persia, Greater Iran
Iran
and the Mughal Empire. Variously translated into English as King
King
or Emperor.

Khagan Khanum Khaganate

Imperial rank in the Mongolian and Turkic languages
Turkic languages
equal to the status of Emperor. Historical example: Rus' Khaganate

Khan Khatun Khanate

Imperial rank in the Mongolian and Turkic languages
Turkic languages
equal to the status of King. Historical examples: Khanate of Kazan, Crimean Khanate.

Pharaoh Pharaoh

Used historically in Ancient Egypt.

Satrap Satrap

Used historically in Ancient Persia
Persia
to refer to local rulers of provinces under the Persian King. Also used for provincial rulers of Alexander the Great's Empire.

Khedive

Khedivate Khedivial Largely equivalent to Viceroy
Viceroy
in the Ottoman Empire. Examples: Khedivate of Egypt.

Titles by region[edit] When a difference exists below, male titles are placed to the left and female titles are placed to the right of the slash.

Region Title Description and use

Africa Almami Fulani
Fulani
people of west Africa

Asantehene Title of the king of the Ashanti people
Ashanti people
in Ghana

Bey Ruler of Tunisia
Tunisia
until 1957; originally Turkish for governor[11]

Boqor Regal style used by rulers of some of the Somali Sultanates

Chieftain Leader of a people

Eze Igbo people
Igbo people
of Nigeria

Kabaka Baganda
Baganda
people of Buganda in Uganda Mangi for Chaggas in Northern Tanzania

Malik King
King
of Morocco

Mansa Emperor
Emperor
of Mali

Mwami In both Rwanda
Rwanda
and Burundi
Burundi
during the Tutsi
Tutsi
domination of these countries, now the acknowledged ruling sections of only their fellow Tutsis

Negus Emperor
Emperor
of Ethiopia; properly Negus
Negus
Negust, meaning " King
King
of Kings".[11] Also used among the Tigrinyas
Tigrinyas
and in Eritrea
Eritrea
to refer to kings.

Oba Yoruba and Bini peoples of Nigeria

Omukama Bunyoro, title of some kings in Uganda

Pharaoh Emperor
Emperor
of Ancient Egypt

Sarki King
King
of the Hausa people

Asia Akhoond Title of the ruler of the Swat in present-day Pakistan[11]

Chakrawarti Raja India
India
Sri Lanka

Chogyal "Divine Ruler"; ruled Sikkim until 1975

Datu title of leaders of small principalities in Ancient Philippines; equivalent to "Prince".

Druk Gyalpo Hereditary title given to the king of Bhutan

Emperor
Emperor
of China Also known as Huángdì, rule the Imperial China with supreme power.

Engku or Ungku Malaysia, to denote particular family lineage akin to royalty

Gaekwad The title of the ruler of Baroda (India). The word means "cowherd" in Marathi[11]

Gat Honorary title of the leaders in the Philippines

Hang Limbu King
King
of East Nepal
Nepal
Limbuwan

Harì Ancient and modern Filipino equivalent of king

Holkar The title of the ruler of Indore
Indore
(India)[11]

Huángdì 皇帝 as in Chinese, the Imperial China Emperor

Hwangje States that unified Korea

Lakan title used by the rulers of the Kingdom of Tondo
Kingdom of Tondo
(now part of the Philippines)

Mannan Used in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and Sri Lanka

Maha Raja Used in India
India
and Sri Lanka

Maha Raju Used in Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
(India)

Meurah Title used in Aceh
Aceh
before Islam

Nawab Used in Bhopal, Junagadh, Radhanpur, Jaora, Tonk and some other Indian princely states[11]

Nizam Used in Hyderabad (India)

Padshahanshah Padshah Shahinshah Shah Emperor
Emperor
or High Emperor
Emperor
of Iran
Iran
or Hindustan
Hindustan
(India); also the monarch of Britain as Emperor
Emperor
of India[11]

Preah Karuna Preah Bat Sâmdech Preah Bâromneath King
King
of Cambodia
Cambodia
Khmer, the title literally means "The feet of the Greatest Lord
Lord
who is on the heads (of his subjects)" (This royal title does not refer directly to the king himself but to his feet, according to traditions).[citation needed]

Patabenda Sub- king Sri Lanka

Phrabat Somdej Phrachaoyuhua King
King
of Thailand
Thailand
(Siam), the title literally means "The feet of the Greatest Lord
Lord
who is on the heads (of his subjects)" (This royal title does not refer directly to the king himself but to his feet, according to traditions.)[citation needed]

Qaghan Central Asian Tribes

Racha Thailand
Thailand
same meaning as Raja

Raja Malaysia, Raja
Raja
denotes royalty in Perak and certain Selangor royal family lineages, is roughly equivalent to Prince
Prince
or Princess; also King
King
of Nepal, and many Indian states

Rajah pre-colonial title for monarchs in the Philippines; equivalent of "king" (pronounced "RA-ha" due to Spanish influence).

Rani Nepali Queen

Rao or Maharao Used in Indian states of Cutch, Kotah and Sirohi[11]

Rawal or Maharawal Used in northern and western India, Yaduvanshis.

Susuhunan
Susuhunan
or Sunan The Indonesian princely state of Surakarta.

Saopha Shan, king of Shan, today as a part of Myanmar

Sayyid Honorific title given throughout the Islamic
Islamic
regions. Title given to males accepted as descendants of the Islamic
Islamic
prophet Muhammad. Syed/Sharifah in Perlis if suffixed by the royal clan name, is roughly equivalent to Prince
Prince
or Princess.

Scindia Title of the ruler of Gwalior
Gwalior
(India)[11]

Shōgun Japanese military dictator, always a Samurai

Sultan Aceh, Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam, Java, Oman, Malaysia, Sultan
Sultan
is the title of seven (Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Pahang, Perak, Selangor, and Terengganu) of the nine rulers of the Malay states.

Sumeramikoto, Okimi Japan, king

Tengku Malaysia, Tengku
Tengku
(also spelled Tunku in Johor), Negeri Sembilan and Kedah is roughly equivalent to Prince
Prince
or Princess

Tennō or Mikado Japan

Thakur Title of the ruler of Gondal (India)[11]

Veyndhan, ko/Arasi Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
(India)

Wali Title of the ruler of Kalat (Pakistan)[11]

Wang Pre-Imperial China/Russia. "King" is the usual translation for the Chinese term wang 王.

Wang The king of Korea that control over all of Korea. It is called 'Im-Geum-nym' or 'Im-Geum'

Yang di-Pertuan Agong Monarch
Monarch
of Malaysia
Malaysia
who is elected every five years by the reigning kings of the Malaysian constituent states, all of whom also serve as the only electoral candidates in each of the elections

America Imperador Emperor
Emperor
of Brazil.

Tlatoani Nahuatl King. The word literally means "speaker", but may be translated into English as "king"

Sapa Inca also known as Apu ("divinity"), Inka Qhapaq ("mighty Inca"), or simply Sapa ("the only one") was the ruler of the Kingdom of Cusco and later, the Emperor
Emperor
of the Inca Empire
Empire
(Tawantinsuyu).

Europe Anax "King" during Mycenaean Greece

Tagavor/Tagouhi or Arqa Armenian King/Queen

Autokrator Greek term for the Roman and Byzantine Emperors

Ban Croatia, medieval Romania
Romania
(Wallachia, Oltenia), medieval Bosnia
Bosnia
and limited use in medieval Bulgaria

Basileus "King" in ancient Greece, Thrace, Macedonia, Crimea, Asia Minor. "Emperor" in the Byzantine Empire. "King" in modern Greece

Brenin/Brenhines, Welsh for king and queen; used in Wales by the petty kinglets during the Early Middle Ages. During the High Middle Ages, the kinglets mediatised into principalities and employed the title 'prince/princess' (tywysog/tywysoges).[citation needed] Brenhines is the title used in Welsh for Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
of the United Kingdom.

Despot Byzantine Empire, Second Bulgarian Empire, Danubian Principalities, Serbian Despotate
Serbian Despotate
(originating from Byzantium)

Domn Medieval Romania
Romania
(Moldova, Wallachia)

Fejedelem Ancient/Medieval Hungarian

Germanic king

Giray Crimean
Crimean
Tartars King

Imperator The Ruler of Imperial Russia

Ioan Medieval Romanian title "Io" derived from the name of the Bulgarian tzars of Asen dynasty
Asen dynasty
Ioan Asen I and Ioan Asen I

Jupan (Župan) medieval: Hungaria, Serbia, Bosnia, Croatia, Romania, limited in Bulgaria

Kaiser Imperial Germany
Germany
and Austria-Hungary

Knyaz, Knez Slavic title in: Bulgaria, Kievan Rus
Kievan Rus
and Rusia, Great Moravia, Bohemia, Slovakia, Croatia, Serbia, Lithuania( Grand Duchy
Grand Duchy
of Lithuania). Generally translated as "prince" or "duke".

Konge/Dronning Denmark, Norway

Koning/Koningin Netherlands

Kral (Kralj) Bosnia, Croatia, Serbia

Kung (Konung)/Drottning Sweden

Kunigaikshtis
Kunigaikshtis
(Kunigaikštis) duke as in Grand Duchy
Grand Duchy
of Lithuania. In official Old Belarusian language documentation the title has been Knyaz
Knyaz
(Belarusian: Князь) or grand duke, Vialiki kniaz (Belarusian: Вялікі князь)

Mbret Albanian King

Mepe Georgian King
King
and Queen

Rí Gaelic king. Also Ruiri (regional overking), ruirech (provincial king of overkings), and Ard (pre-eminent ruirech)

Tsar/Tsaritsa/Czar Bulgaria, pre-imperial Russia, very short in medieval Serbia

Vezér Ancient Hungarian

Voivode, Voievod Medieval: Bulgaria, Serbia, Hungaria, Romania, Poland

Middle-East Shah Persian/Iranian and Afghanistan King Padishah(Ottoman Empire) Han Version of Central Asian Khan Used by the Ottoman Turks

Shahenshah Persian/Iranian " King
King
of Kings" or Emperor

Mir A title given to Kurdish rulers in Kurdistan
Kurdistan
during medieval centuries.

Melekh (מלך) King
King
of Ancient Israel (e.g. Saul, David
David
and Solomon)

Malik Arabic King, (Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Jordan)

Emir Arabic Prince, (Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates)

Sultan/Sultana Arabic King
King
( Oman
Oman
and Ottoman Empire)

Oceania Chieftain Leader of a tribe or clan.

Houʻeiki, matai, aliʻi, tūlafale, tavana, ariki, Patu-iki Usually translated as "chief" in various Polynesian countries.

Mo'i Normally translated as King, a title used by Hawaiian monarchs since unification in 1810. The last person to hold that title was Queen Lili'uokalani.

Tuʻi or Tui Kings in Oceania: Tonga, Wallis and Futuna, Nauru

Use of titles by non-sovereigns[edit] It is not uncommon that people who are not generally seen as monarchs nevertheless use monarchical titles. There are at least five cases of this:

Claiming an existing title, challenging the current holder. This has been very common historically. For centuries, the British monarch used, among his other titles, the title King
King
of France, despite the fact that he had had no authority over mainland French territory since the sixteenth century. Other cases include the numerous antipopes who have claimed the Holy See. Retaining the title of an extinct monarchy. This can be coupled with a claim that the monarchy was in fact never, or should never have been, extinct. An example of the first case is the Prince
Prince
of Seborga. Examples of the second case are several deposed monarchs or otherwise pretenders to thrones of abolished monarchies, e.g., Leka, Crown Prince
Prince
of Albania
Albania
who is styled by some as the " King
King
of The Albanians". Retaining the title of an extinct monarchy can, however, be totally free of claims of sovereignty, for example it was customary in numerous European monarchies to include " King
King
of Jerusalem" in their full titles. When it comes to deposed monarchs, it is customary to continue the usage of their monarchical title (e.g., Constantine II, King
King
of the Hellenes) as a courtesy title, not a constitutional position, for the duration of their lifetime. However the title then dies with them and is not used by subsequent heirs or claimants unless the crown is restored constitutionally. Monarchs who have freely abdicated are sometimes addressed by a lesser style (although, see Juan Carlos I of Spain
Spain
and Jean, Grand Duke
Duke
of Luxembourg. However, where a monarch abdicated under duress (e.g., Michael I of Romania), it is usual (especially outside their former realm) to continue to use their monarchical style for their lifetime as a traditional courtesy. Inventing a new title. This is common among founders of micronations, and also may or may not come with a claim of sovereignty, not usually recognised abroad. A notable example is Paddy Roy Bates, styling himself the " Prince
Prince
of Sealand", but not recognized as such by any national government, thus failing at least the constitutive condition for statehood (see Sealand for a fuller discussion of his claims). Another known example is that of Norton I, who invented the title " Emperor
Emperor
of the United States of America" and later declared himself "Protector of Mexico". Usage of a monarchical title by a fictional character. This is common in fairy tales and other works geared to children, as well as works of fantasy. Examples include Princess
Princess
Leia and Princess
Princess
Summerfall Winterspring. Honorific nicknames in popular music
Honorific nicknames in popular music
and other aspects of popular culture, such as " King
King
of Rock and Roll", Count
Count
Basie or Emperor Norton.

See also[edit]

Politics portal Royalty portal

Archontology List of current constituent monarchs List of current sovereign monarchs List of living former sovereign monarchs Overlord

References[edit]

^ "monarch". Oxford Dictionaries. 2014.  ^ Webster's II New College Dictionary. Monarch. Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. ISBN 0-395-96214-5 ^ Pine, L.G. (1992). Titles: How the King
King
became His Majesty. New York: Barnes & Noble. p. 86. ISBN 978-1-56619-085-5.  ^ SOU 1977:5 Kvinnlig tronföljd, p. 16. ^ http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-15489544 ^ http://www.wort.lu/en/luxembourg/new-ducal-succession-rights-for-grand-duchy-4f60cf15e4b047833b93fca0 ^ Canada: History Archived 2007-02-19 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Ferguson, Will; The Lost Kingdom; Macleans, October 27, 2003[dead link] ^ The Four Indian Kings ^ L Gomes. 1889: como um imperador cansado, um marechal vaidoso e um professor injustiçado contribuíram para a o fim da monarquia e programação da republica no Brasil. Globo Livros. 2013. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k The Wordsworth Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Wordsworth Reference. pp. 943–944. ISBN 1-84022-310-3. 

Girard, Philippe R. (2011). The Slaves Who Defeated Napoleon: Toussaint Louverture and the Haitian War of Independence 1801–1804. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: The University of Alabama Press. ISBN 978-0-8173-1732-4.  Schutt-Ainé, Patricia (1994). Haiti: A Basic Reference Book. Miami, Florida: Librairie Au Service de la Culture. pp. 33–35, 60. ISBN 0-9638599-0-0.  TiCam (27 September 2006). "17 October: Death of Dessalines". haitiwebs.com. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 16 October 2006. 

External links[edit]

Look up monarch or kingship in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

A Glossary of European Noble, Princely, Royal and Imperial Titles Regnal Chronologies King
King
lists worldwide Archontology African Kingdoms Imperial Throne Leadership and Enthronements

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