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Qazvin
Qazvin
Qazvin
(/kæzˈviːn/; Persian: قزوین‎, IPA: [ɢæzˈviːn] ( listen), also Romanized as Qazvīn, Caspin, Qazwin, or Ghazvin) is the largest city and capital of the Province of Qazvin
Qazvin
in Iran. Qazvin
Qazvin
was an ancient capital in the Safavid
Safavid
dynasty and nowadays is known as the calligraphy capital of Iran. It is famous for its Baghlava, carpet patterns, poets, political newspaper and pahlavi (Middle Persian) influence on its accent. At the 2011 census, its population was 381,598.[1] Located in 150 km (93 mi) northwest of Tehran, in the Qazvin Province, it is at an altitude of about 1,800 m (5,900 ft) above sea level
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Alborz
The Alborz
Alborz
( listen (help·info) Persian: البرز‎), also spelled as Alburz, Elburz or Elborz, is a mountain range in northern Iran
Iran
that stretches from the border of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
along the western and entire southern coast of the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
and finally runs northeast and merges into the Aladagh Mountains in the northern parts of Khorasan. This mountain range is divided into Western, Central, and Eastern Alborz
Alborz
Mountains. The Western Alborz
Alborz
Range (usually called the Talysh) runs south-southeastward almost along the western coast of the Caspian Sea
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Köppen Climate Classification
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Russian German climatologist Wladimir Köppen
Wladimir Köppen
in 1884,[2][3] with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936.[4][5] Later, German climatologist Rudolf Geiger (1954, 1961) collaborated with Köppen on changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.[6][7] The Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
system has been further modified, within the Trewartha climate classification
Trewartha climate classification
system in the middle 1960s (revised in 1980)
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Ani
Ani
Ani
(Armenian: Անի; Greek: Ἄνιον, Ánion;[5] Latin: Abnicum;[6][7] Georgian: ანი, Ani, or ანისი, Anisi;[8] Turkish: Ani)[9] is a ruined medieval Armenian city now situated in Turkey's province of Kars, next to the closed border with Armenia. Between 961 and 1045, it was the capital of the Bagratid Armenian kingdom that covered much of present-day Armenia
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1921 Persian Coup D'état
Persian Cossack Brigade
Persian Cossack Brigade
victorypower takeover by Sayyed Ziaoddin Tabatabaee suppression of Colonel Pessian's revolt and dissolution of the Autonomous Government of Khorasan dissolution of the Republic of Gilan continuing conflict with Simko Shikak
Simko Shikak
until
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Hulagu Khan
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu (Mongolian: Хүлэгү/ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠦ, translit. Hu’legu’/Qülegü; Chagatay: ہلاکو; Persian: هولاکو خان‎, Hulâgu xân; Chinese: 旭烈兀; pinyin: Xùlièwù [ɕû.ljê.û]; c. 1218 – 8 February 1265), was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Western Asia. Son of Tolui
Tolui
and the Keraite princess Sorghaghtani Beki, he was a grandson of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and brother of Ariq Böke, Möngke Khan, and Kublai Khan. Hulagu's army greatly expanded the southwestern portion of the Mongol Empire, founding the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
of Persia, a precursor to the eventual Safavid dynasty, and then the modern state of Iran
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Shapur II Of Persia
Shapur II (Middle Persian: 𐭱𐭧𐭯𐭥𐭧𐭥𐭩‎ Šāpuhr), also known as Shapur II the Great, was the tenth Shahanshah of the Sasanian Empire. The longest-reigning monarch in Iranian history, he reigned for his entire 70-year life from 309 to 379. He was the son of Hormizd II (r. 302–309). His reign saw the military resurgence of the country, and the expansion of its territory, which marked the start of the first Sasanian golden era. He is thus along with Shapur I and Khosrow I regarded as one of the most illustrious Sasanian kings. His three direct successors, on the other hand, were less successful. Shapur II pursued a harsh religious policy. Under his reign, the collection of the Avesta, the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, was completed, heresy and apostasy were punished, and Christians were persecuted. The latter was a reaction against the Christianization of the Roman Empire by Constantine the Great
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Asia Minor
Anatolia
Anatolia
(Modern Greek: Ανατολία, Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ, modern pronunciation Anatolí;[needs IPA] Turkish: Anadolu "east" or "(sun)rise"), also known as Asia
Asia
Minor (in Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία, Mīkrá AsíaTurkish: Küçük Asya, , modern pronunciation Mikrá Asía – "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the north, the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the south, and the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
to the west
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Persian Gulf
The Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
(Persian: شاخاب پارس‬‎, translit. Xalij-e Fârs, lit. 'Gulf of Fars') is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia. The body of water is an extension of the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
(Gulf of Oman) through the Strait of Hormuz
Strait of Hormuz
and lies between Iran
Iran
to the northeast and the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
to the southwest.[1] The Shatt al-Arab
Shatt al-Arab
river delta forms the northwest shoreline. The Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
was a battlefield of the 1980–1988 Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers
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Pahlavi Dynasty
The Pahlavi dynasty
Pahlavi dynasty
(Persian: دودمان پهلوی‬‎) was the ruling house of the Imperial State of Iran
Iran
from 1925
1925
until 1979, when the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution. The dynasty was founded by Reza Shah
Reza Shah
Pahlavi in 1925, a former Brigadier-General of the Persian Cossack Brigade, whose reign lasted until 1941 when he was forced to abdicate by the Allies after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran
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Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye[dn 5]), also historically known in Western Europe
Europe
as the Turkish Empire[8] or simply Turkey,[9] was a state that controlled much of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman.[10] After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Altitude
Altitude
Altitude
or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more). As a general definition, altitude is a distance measurement, usually in the vertical or "up" direction, between a reference datum and a point or object. The reference datum also often varies according to the context
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Tehran
Tehran
Tehran
(/tɛˈræn, -ˈrɑːn, ˌtɛhə-, ˌteɪə-/; Persian: تهران‎ Tehrân [tʰehˈɾɒːn] ( listen)) is the capital of Iran
Iran
and Tehran
Tehran
Province. With a population of around 8.8 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran
Tehran
is the most populous city in Iran
Iran
and Western Asia,[4] and has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East
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Russian Empire
The Russian Empire
Empire
(Russian: Российская Империя) or Russia
Russia
was an empire that existed across Eurasia
Eurasia
from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.[6] The third largest empire in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire
Empire
was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire
Empire
happened in association with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia and the Ottoman Empire
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Persian Language
Persian (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/), also known by its endonym Farsi[8][9] (فارسی fārsi [fɒːɾˈsiː] ( listen)), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(officially known as Dari since 1958),[10] and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era),[11] and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran
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