QAZVIN (/kæzˈviːn/ ; Persian : قزوین, IPA: ( listen
), also Romanized as Qazvīn, Caspin, Qazwin, or Ghazvin) is the
largest city and capital of the Province of
Iran . Qazvin
was an ancient capital in the
Safavid dynasty and nowadays is known as
the calligraphy capital of Iran. It is famous for its
carpet patterns, poets, political newspaper and pahlavi (Middle
Persian ) influence on its accent. At the 2011 census, its population
Located in 150 km (93 mi) northwest of
Tehran , in the Qazvin
Province , it is at an altitude of about 1,800 m (5,900 ft) above sea
level. The climate is cold but dry, due to its position south of the
Alborz range called KTS Atabakiya.
* 1 History
* 2 People
* 3 Climate
* 4 Main sights
* 5 Economy
* 5.1 Colleges and universities
* 5.2 Modern towers
* 5.3 Shopping complexes
* 5.4 Bridges
* 5.5 Famous hotels
* 5.6 Major parks
* 5.7 Hypermarkets
* 6 Transportation
* 7 Sport
* 8 Notable Qazvinis
* 8.1 Pre-Modern time
* 8.2 Modern time
* 8.3 Notable people buried in
* 9 See also
* 10 References
* 11 External links
Shah Tahmasp I (1524–1576) made
Qazvin the capital of the
Safavid empire. Peighambariyeh, burial place of four Jewish
saints: Salam, Solum, al-Qiya, and Sohuli.
The city was a capital of the Persian Empire under Safavids in
1548-1598. It is a provincial capital today that has been an
important cultural center throughout history.
Archeological findings in the
Qazvin plain reveal urban agricultural
settlements for at least nine millennia.
connects Tehran, Isfahan, and the
Persian Gulf to the Caspian seacoast
Asia Minor , hence its strategic location throughout the ages.
The city today known as
Qazvin is thought to have been founded by
Shapur II , King of Persia in 250 CE, under the name SHAD SHAHPUR
(shad can be read as 'happy'), when he built a fortification there to
control regional tensions.
Qazvin has sometimes been of central importance at major moments of
Iranian history. It was captured by invading Arabs (644 AD) and
Hulagu Khan (13th century). After the Ottoman capture of
Shah Tahmasp (1524–1576) made
Qazvin the capital of the
Safavid empire (founded in 1501 AD), a status that
Qazvin retained for
half a century until
Shah Abbas I moved the capital to Isfahan.
In 1210 the city was conquered and sacked by the forces of Kingdom of
Georgia sent by
Tamar the Great , as per the retribution for
Ani by the Muslim forces that left
12,000 Christians dead.
In the 19th century Qazin flourished as a center of trade because the
only all-year accessible road from the Caspian Sea to the Highland
started here and with enhanced traffic on the Caspian Sea the trade
volume grew. Its bazaars were enlarged. In the middle of the century
the Babi movement had one of its centers here and the first massacre
of Babis occurred in
Qazvin in 1847.
In the second half of the 19th century
Qazvin was one of the centers
of Russian presence in northern Iran. A detachment of the Persian
Cossack Brigade under Russian officers was stationed here. From 1893
this was the headquarters of the Russian Company for Road construction
in Persia which connected
Qazvin by roads to
Tehran and Hamadan. The
company built a hospital and the St. Nicolas Church.
Qazvin was used as a base for the British
Norperforce . The
1921 Persian coup d\'état that led to the rise of the Pahlavi dynasty
was launched from Qazvin.
It became a state in 1996.
In Autumn 2015 portions of
Qazvin were struck by a meteorite .
The majority of the people of the city of
Qazvin are Persians . The
majority language is Persian with a
Qazvini accent. Azerbaijanis and
Tats Persians are the other largest ethnic groups of the city of
Qazvin. They speak Azerbaijani and Tati .
CLIMATE DATA FOR QAZVIN
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS
Source: World Meteorological Organisation
Qazvin contains several archeological excavations. In the middle of
the city lie the ruins of Meimoon Ghal\'eh , one of several Sassanid
edifices in the area.
Qazvin contains several buildings from the
Safavid era, dating to the
period in which it was capital of Persia. Perhaps the most famous of
the surviving edifices is the
Chehel sotoun, Qazvin , today a museum
in central Qazvin. Entrance of Masjed al-Nabi, Qazvin, Iran.
After Islam, the popularity of mystics (tasawwuf ), as well as the
prominence of tradition (
Hadith ), religious jurisprudence (fiqh ),
and philosophy in Qazvin, led to the emergence of many mosques and
religious schools. They include:
* Jame\' Atiq
* Heydarieh mosque
* Masjed Al-nabi (Soltani Mosque) : With an area of 14000 m2, this
mosque is one of the most glorious mosques of antiquity, built in the
Safavieh's monarchy era.
* Sanjideh Mosque: Another mosque of
Qazvin dating back to
pre-Islamic Iran; a former fire temple. Its present-day form is
attributed to the Seljukian era.
* Panjeh Ali Mosque: A former place of worship for royal harem
members in the
* Peighambarieh School-Mosque: Founded 1644 according to
* Peighambarieh Shrine: Where four Jewish saints who foretold the
coming of Christ, are buried.
* Molla Verdikhani School-Mosque: Founded in 1648.
* Salehieh Madrasa and Mosque: Founded in 1817 by Mulla Muhammad
Salih Baraghani .
* Sheikhol Islam School-Mosque: Renovated in 1903.
* Eltefatieh School: Dating back to the Il-Khanid period.
* Sardar School- Mosque: Made by two brothers Hossein Khan and
Hassan Khan Sardar in 1815, as a fulfillment of their promise if they
came back victorious from a battle against the Russians.
* Shazdeh Hosein Shrine (location: 36°15′26″N
50°00′02″E / 36.257253°N 50.000678°E / 36.257253;
50.000678 ); a c.15C CE shrine to a c.9C CE Shiite saint.
Caravanserai of Sa\'d al-Saltaneh . The
Russian Church of
Qazvin today sits adjacent to the campus of Islamic
Azad University of Qazvin. Chehel sotoun .
About 100 km (62 mi) south-west of
Qazvin are the tombs of two
Saljuki era princes — Abu Saeed Bijar, son of Sa'd, and Abu Mansur
Iltai, son of Takin — located in two separate towers known as the
Kharraqan twin towers . Constructed in 1067 CE, these were the first
Islamic architecture to include a non-conic two-layered
dome. Both towers were severely damaged by a devastating earthquake in
Qazvin has three buildings built by Russians in the late 19th/early
20th century. Among these is the current Mayor's office (former Ballet
Hall) and a water reservoir. St. Nicholas church was built in 1904 by
the Russian Company for Roads in Persia which had its headquarter
here. The church was in use until being decommissioned in 1984 because
the community of Russian emigres in
Qazvin did not exist any more. The
iconostasis and bell was removed to
Tehran and the building handed
over to the Iranian government which keeps it available to the public
as a historic monument. In front of the church is a 1906 memorial to a
Russian road engineer.
A memorial of the many Qazvinis who died during the revolution
Iran and during the
Iran–Iraq War .
Qazvin today is a center of textile trade, including cotton , silk
and velvet , in addition to leather . It is on the railroad line and
the highway between
Qazvin has one of the largest
power plants feeding electricity into Iran's national power grid, the
Shahid Raja'i facility, which provides 7% of Iran's electrical power.
COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES
Qazvin has several institutes of higher education:
Imam Khomeini International University
Islamic Azad University of Qazvin
* Payam-e-Nur University of Qazvin
Qazvin University of Medical Sciences
* Raja University
* Shahid Babaee Technical Institute
* Kar University
* University of Qazvin
Some famous residential towers are: Punak (536 units), Aseman,
Elahieh, Bademestan (440 units in 17 floors) and Tejarat tower with 28
* City Star in Khayam Street
* Ferdowsi in Ferdowsi Street
* Iranian in Adl Street
* Narvan in Ferdowsi Street
* Noor in Felestin Street
* meh ro mah bouali Street
Persian Gulf (Khalij Fars)
* Imam Ali
* mir emad
* behrouzi historical house
Grand Hotel, Qazvin
* Fadak (Barajin)
* molla khalila
* Proma Hypermarket (closed) HyperKeper is new Brand .
* Refah Chain Stores Co
* noor shopping mall hyper market * easy to access near city center
Qazvin railway station .
Qazvin Airport .
Qazvin is a well-known city because of its famous athletes. The city
has highly focused on athletic teams along recent years. Techmash is a
basketball team which entered
Iranian Basketball Super League in 2013.
Qazvin is an ancient city containing fine examples of Iranian
architecture from various ages. This is the Shazdeh Hosein Shrine.
There have been an abundance of known people who lived in Qazvin, or
came from Qazvin, whose tombs are scattered throughout the cities and
villages of the province. These include:
Ibn Majah , author of the last of the six canonical hadith
collections recognized by
Hamdollah Mostowfi : the great Il-Khanid historian and writer.
Ubayd Zakani : famous 8th-century poet noted for his satire and
Mir Emad Hassani : famous Nasta\'liq calligrapher
* Darvish Ablulmajid : famous Shekaste Nasta\'liq calligrapher
Yousef Alikhani : contemporary fiction writer and researcher.
* Azizi family : a well-known family that originates from Qazvin
includes Sheikh Ahmad Azizi]], known research and medical doctor Dr.
Sadegh Pirooz Azizi , the former Minister of Foreign Affairs from
1997–2005 Mr. Ahmad Azizi, hadi Azizi and Abolghasem Azizi .
Ali Akbar Dehkhoda : prominent linguist and author of Iran's first
modern Persian dictionary.
* Abdul Hossein Darki : known doctor.
Jamal Karimi-Rad : former Minister of Justice (2005–2006).
Hadi Mirmiran : architect.
Shirin Neshat : Famous contemporary Iranian artist.
Mojabi family : a prominent family that originates from Qazvin
Mojabi and Zohreh
* Molla Khalil Ibn Ghazi
Qazvini : famous faqih (religious jurist)
and commentator of the Qur\'an in the
Safavid period (d. 1678).
Qazvini : poet, lyricist, and musician.
* Ra\'ees ol-Mojahedin : The late Mirza Hassan Sheikh al-Islam, son
of Mirza Masoud Sheikh al-Islam, leader of the liberals and
constitutionalists of Qazvin.
* Shahid Saless : killed in 1846. The third religious leader after
Imam Ali who was murdered during prayer.
Kázim-i-Samandar : a famous follower of Bahaullah.
Monir Shahroudy Farmanfarmaian : Famous contemporary Iranian
Táhirih : influential poet and theologian of the Bábí Faith.
Nasser Takmil Homayoun : a contemporary historian.
Nasser Yeganeh : Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (1975–79).
* Haj seyed Javadi : politician in early 1980s.
* Abbas Babaei: Brigadier General in the Islamic Republic of Iran
NOTABLE PEOPLE BURIED IN QAZVIN
Uwais Qarni : a celebrity of early Islam, thought to have been
killed here while fighting against an army of Deilamian origin.
Ahmad Ghazali : famous Iranian sufi who died in 1126 CE and was
buried beside Shahzadeh Hossein.
* Ali Ibn Shazan : great scholar of the fifth century.
* Shahzadeh Hossein : Shiite saint.
Mesjed Koucheek, Qazvin, in 1921. Today this building is
referred to as Shazdeh Hosein Shrine.
List of famous ab anbars of Qazvin
Qazwini (other) , a personal name meaning "from Qazwin"
Qazvin / قزوين (Iran): Province & Cities - Population
Statistics in Maps and Charts
* ^ A B
Iran (5th ed., 2008), by Andrew Burke and Mark Elliott, p.
28 Archived June 7, 2011, at the
Wayback Machine ., Lonely Planet
Publications, ISBN 978-1-74104-293-1
* ^ Mikaberidze, Alexander (2011). Conflict and Conquest in the
Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Santa Barbara,
California, USA: ABC-CLIO. p. 196. ISBN 1598843362 .
* ^ L. Baker, Patricia; Smith, Hilary; Oleynik, Maria (2014). Iran.
London, United Kingdom: Bradt Travel Guides. p. 158. ISBN 1841624020 .
* ^ "Qazvin" in Historic Cities of the Islamic World, p. 435
* ^ Baha\'i History of Qazvin
* ^ Haldane, J. Aylmer L. Sir (2005), The insurrection in
Mesopotamia, 1920, London: The Imperial War Museum in association with
The Battery Press, ISBN 1904897169 ,
OCLC 60688896 , 1904897169
* ^ Large meteorite impacts
Iran causing serious damage to Qazvin,
numerous towns affected
* ^ The official Media from Qazvin- February 10-2010 Archived
November 2, 2013, at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Tats of
Iran and Caucasus, Ali Abdoli, 2010.
* ^ Qazvin
* ^ Arash Nooraghayee
* ^ iranian.com: Nima Kasraie,
Qazvin water reservoirs
* ^ Peighambarieh Mausoleum in Qazvin: Burial place of Israeli
* ^ РУССКАЯ ПРАВОСЛАВНАЯ ЦЕРКОВЬ В
ПЕРСИИ - ИРАНЕ (1597-2001 гг.) Игумен
Александр (Заркешев) Санкт-Петербург
2002 - Russian Orthodox Church in Persia-
Iran 1597-2001, by abbot
Alexander Zarkeshev, St Peterburg 2002, pp 70f and 110 Archived
December 10, 2014, at the
Wayback Machine .; the church is sometimes
referred to as "Kantur" church from the name of the area where it
* ^ qiau.ac.ir
* ^ Raja University
* ^ afshbq.ac.ir Archived December 12, 2004, at the Wayback Machine
* ^ kar.ac.ir
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for QAZVIN .
Wikimedia Commons has media related to QAZVIN .
* Satellite Picture by