Qazvin (/kæzˈviːn/; Persian: قزوین,
IPA: [ɢæzˈviːn] ( listen), also Romanized as
Qazvīn, Caspin, Qazwin, or Ghazvin) is the largest city and capital
of the Province of
Qazvin in Iran.
Qazvin was an ancient capital in
Safavid dynasty and nowadays is known as the calligraphy capital
of Iran. It is famous for its Baghlava, carpet patterns, poets,
political newspaper and pahlavi (Middle Persian) influence on its
accent. At the 2011 census, its population was 381,598.
Located in 150 km (93 mi) northwest of Tehran, in the Qazvin
Province, it is at an altitude of about 1,800 m (5,900 ft)
above sea level. The climate is cold but dry, due to its position
south of the rugged
Alborz range called KTS Atabakiya.
4 Main sights
5.1 Colleges and universities
5.2 Modern towers
5.3 Shopping complexes
5.5 Famous hotels
5.6 Major parks
8 Notable Qazvinis
8.1 Pre-Modern time
8.2 Modern time
8.3 Notable people buried in Qazvin
9 Twin towns – sister cities
10 See also
12 External links
Shah Tahmasp I (1524–1576) made
Qazvin the capital of the Safavid
Peighambariyeh, burial place of four Jewish saints: Salam, Solum,
al-Qiya, and Sohuli.
The city was a capital of the Persian Empire under Safavids in
1548–1598. It is a provincial capital today that has been an
important cultural center throughout history.
Archeological findings in the
Qazvin plain reveal urban agricultural
settlements for at least nine millennia.
connects Tehran, Isfahan, and the
Persian Gulf to the Caspian seacoast
and Asia Minor, hence its strategic location throughout the ages.
The city today known as
Qazvin is thought to have been founded by
Shapur II, King of Persia in 250 CE, under the name Shad Shahpur (shad
can be read as 'happy'), when he built a fortification there to
control regional tensions.
Qazvin has sometimes been of central importance at major moments of
Iranian history. It was captured by invading Arabs (644 AD) and
Hulagu Khan (13th century). After the Ottoman capture of
Shah Tahmasp (1524–1576) made
Qazvin the capital of the
Safavid empire (founded in 1501 AD), a status that
Qazvin retained for
half a century until
Shah Abbas I
Shah Abbas I moved the capital to Isfahan.
In 1210 the city was damaged by the forces of
Kingdom of Georgia
Kingdom of Georgia sent
by Tamar the Great, as per the retribution for destroying
Ani by the Muslim forces that left 12,000
In the 19th century Qazin flourished as a center of trade because the
only all-year accessible road from the Caspian Sea to the Highland
started here and with enhanced traffic on the Caspian Sea the trade
volume grew. Its bazaars were enlarged. In the middle of the
century the Babi movement had one of its centers here and the first
massacre of Babis occurred in
Qazvin in 1847.
Salaam'Gaah Street in
Qazvin city (Photo credits goes to MKR)
In the second half of the 19th century
Qazvin was one of the centers
of Russian presence in northern Iran. A detachment of the Persian
Cossack Brigade under Russian officers was stationed here. From 1893
this was the headquarters of the Russian Company for Road construction
in Persia which connected
Qazvin by roads to
Tehran and Hamadan. The
company built a hospital and the St. Nicolas Church.
Qazvin was used as a base for the British Norperforce. The
1921 Persian coup d'état
1921 Persian coup d'état that led to the rise of the Pahlavi dynasty
was launched from Qazvin.
Qazvin has been one of the main pivots on which Persia’s history has
revolved and this is where its reputation as an impenetrable fortress
originates. During the fall of the Safavids,
Qazvin was the centre of
Persians reunion for the liberation of Persian territories invaded by
Ottoman, Russian, and
Afghan forces in the west, north, and east,
respectively. The deployed swordsmen from
Qazvin not only retrieved
Safavid boundaries, but also contributed to their expansion up to
China (east), after occupying India by
Nader Shah The Great, Daghestan
Baghdad (west). Similarly,
Qazvin hosted the base of
Assassins and was the training centre of the Nehzat-e Jangal (The
Jungle Movement) revolutionaries.
Qazvin became a state in 1996. In Autumn 2015 portions of
struck by a meteorite.
The majority of the people of the city of
Qazvin are Persians. The
majority language is Persian with a Qazvini accent. Azerbaijanis
and Tats Persians are the other largest ethnic groups of the city of
Qazvin. They speak Azerbaijani and Tati.
Qazvin is a
multicultural city and has hosted Armenian, Romanian, Georgian and
Kurdish minorities which have fled to
Qazvin mainly for saving their
Climate data for Qazvin
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days
Source: World Meteorological Organisation
Qazvin contains several archeological excavations. In the middle of
the city lie the ruins of Meimoon Ghal'eh, one of several Sassanid
edifices in the area.
Qazvin contains several buildings from the
Safavid era, dating to the
period in which it was capital of Persia. Perhaps the most famous of
the surviving edifices is the Chehel sotoun, Qazvin, today a museum in
Entrance of Masjed al-Nabi, Qazvin, Iran.
After Islam, the popularity of mystics (tasawwuf), as well as the
prominence of tradition (Hadith), religious jurisprudence (fiqh), and
philosophy in Qazvin, led to the emergence of many mosques and
religious schools. They include:
Mosque of Qazvin
Masjed Al-nabi (Soltani Mosque): With an area of 14000 m2, this
mosque is one of the most glorious mosques of antiquity, built in the
Safavieh's monarchy era.
Sanjideh Mosque: Another mosque of
Qazvin dating back to pre-Islamic
Iran; a former fire temple. Its present-day form is attributed to the
Panjeh Ali Mosque: A former place of worship for royal harem members
Peighambarieh School-Mosque: Founded 1644 according to inscription.
Peighambarieh Shrine: Where four Jewish saints who foretold the coming
of Christ, are buried.
Molla Verdikhani School-Mosque: Founded in 1648.
Salehieh Madrasa and Mosque: Founded in 1817 by Mulla Muhammad Salih
Sheikhol Islam School-Mosque: Renovated in 1903.
Eltefatieh School: Dating back to the Il-Khanid period.
Sardar School- Mosque: Made by two brothers Hossein Khan and Hassan
Khan Sardar in 1815, as a fulfillment of their promise if they came
back victorious from a battle against the Russians.
Shazdeh Hosein Shrine (location: 36°15′26″N 50°00′02″E /
36.257253°N 50.000678°E / 36.257253; 50.000678); a c.15C CE
shrine to a c.9C CE Shiite saint.
Caravanserai of Sa'd al-Saltaneh.
The Russian Church of
Qazvin today sits adjacent to the campus of
Islamic Azad University of Qazvin.
About 100 km (62 mi) south-west of
Qazvin are the tombs of
two Saljuki era princes — Abu Saeed Bijar, son of Sa'd, and Abu
Mansur Iltai, son of Takin — located in two separate towers known as
the Kharraqan twin towers. Constructed in 1067 CE, these were the
first monuments in
Islamic architecture to include a non-conic
two-layered dome. Both towers were severely damaged by a devastating
earthquake in March 2003.
Sepah Street (خیابان سپه , pronounced "Cepah" referring to
ancient Persian army and not the revolutionary guards pronounced
"Sipaahe") is known as the first modern street in Iran. This street
entirely is carpeted with carved gray stone and is surrounded by
craftsmen gift shops (used to be bars or bygone liquorshops, called
May'kadeh) and hosts historical places such as Qazvin's Ali Qapu gate,
entrance of Jame' Atiq mosque and historical schools.
Qazvin has three buildings built by Russians in the late 19th/early
20th century. Among these is the current Mayor's office (former Ballet
Hall) and a water reservoir. St. Nicholas church was built in 1904 by
the Russian Company for Roads in Persia which had its headquarter
here. The church was in use until being decommissioned in 1984 because
the community of Russian emigres in
Qazvin did not exist any more. The
iconostasis and bell was removed to
Tehran and the building handed
over to the Iranian government which keeps it available to the public
as a historic monument. In front of the church is a 1906 memorial to a
Russian road engineer.
A memorial of the many Qazvinis who died during the revolution of Iran
and during the Iran–Iraq War.
Qazvin today is a center of textile trade, including cotton, silk and
velvet, in addition to leather. It is on the railroad line and the
Tehran and Tabriz.
Qazvin has one of the largest power
plants feeding electricity into Iran's national power grid, the Shahid
Raja'i facility, which provides 7% of Iran's electrical power.
Colleges and universities
Qazvin has several institutes of higher education:
Imam Khomeini International University
Islamic Azad University of Qazvin
Payam-e-Nur University of Qazvin
Qazvin University of Medical Sciences
Shahid Babaee Technical Institute
University of Qazvin
Some famous residential towers are: Punak (536 units), Aseman,
Elahieh, Bademestan (440 units in 17 floors) and Tejarat tower with 28
City Star in Khayam Street
Ferdowsi in Ferdowsi Street
Iranian in Adl Street
Narvan in Ferdowsi Street
Noor in Felestin Street
meh ro mah bouali Street
Persian Gulf (Khalij Fars)
behrouzi historical house
Grand Hotel, Qazvin
Proma Hypermarket (closed) HyperKeper is new Brand .
Refah Chain Stores Co
noor shopping mall hyper market * easy to access near city center
Qazvin railway station.
Qazvin Bus terminal
Qazvin is a well-known city because of its famous athletes. The city
has highly focused on athletic teams along recent years. Techmash is a
basketball team which entered
Iranian Basketball Super League
Iranian Basketball Super League in 2013.
Qazvin is an ancient city containing fine examples of Iranian
architecture from various ages. This is the Shazdeh Hosein Shrine.
There have been an abundance of known people who lived in Qazvin, or
came from Qazvin, whose tombs are scattered throughout the cities and
villages of the province. These include:
Ibn Majah, author of the last of the six canonical hadith collections
Hamdollah Mostowfi: the great Il-Khanid historian and writer.
Ubayd Zakani: famous 8th-century poet noted for his satire and obscene
Mir Emad Hassani: famous
Darvish Ablulmajid: famous Shekaste
Yousef Alikhani: contemporary fiction writer and researcher.
Azizi family: a well-known family that originates from
Sheikh Ahmad Azizi]], known research and medical doctor Dr. Sadegh
Pirooz Azizi, the former Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1997–2005
Mr. Ahmad Azizi, hadi Azizi and Abolghasem Azizi.
Ali Akbar Dehkhoda: prominent linguist and author of Iran's first
modern Persian dictionary.
Abdul Hossein Darki: known doctor.
Jamal Karimi-Rad: former Minister of Justice (2005–2006).
Hadi Mirmiran: architect.
Shirin Neshat: Famous contemporary Iranian artist.
Mojabi family: a prominent family that originates from Qazvin
Mojabi and Zohreh Mojabi.
Molla Khalil Ibn Ghazi Qazvini: famous faqih (religious jurist) and
commentator of the
Qur'an in the
Safavid period (d. 1678).
Aref Qazvini: poet, lyricist, and musician.
Ra'ees ol-Mojahedin: The late Mirza Hassan Sheikh al-Islam, son of
Mirza Masoud Sheikh al-Islam, leader of the liberals and
constitutionalists of Qazvin.
Shahid Saless: killed in 1846. The third religious leader after Imam
Ali who was murdered during prayer.
Kázim-i-Samandar: a famous follower of Bahaullah.
Monir Shahroudy Farmanfarmaian: Famous contemporary Iranian artist.
Táhirih: influential poet and theologian of the Bábí Faith.
Nasser Takmil Homayoun: a contemporary historian.
Nasser Yeganeh: Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (1975–79).
Haj seyed Javadi: politician in early 1980s.
Abbas Babaei: Brigadier General in the Islamic Republic of
Notable people buried in Qazvin
Uwais Qarni: a celebrity of early Islam, thought to have been killed
here while fighting against an army of Deilamian origin.[citation
Ahmad Ghazali: famous Iranian sufi who died in 1126 CE and was buried
beside Shahzadeh Hossein.
Ali Ibn Shazan: great scholar of the fifth century.
Shahzadeh Hossein: Shiite saint.
Twin towns – sister cities
Malaysia (Oct. 2011)
Portugal (Jan. 2014)
Lebanon (Oct. 2015)
South Korea (2016)
South Korea (2016)
Italy (Sep. 2016)
Mesjed Koucheek, Qazvin, in 1921. Today this building is referred to
as Shazdeh Hosein Shrine.
List of famous ab anbars of Qazvin
Qazwini (other), a personal name meaning "from Qazwin"
Qazvin / قزوين (Iran): Province & Cities – Population
Statistics in Maps and Charts
^ a b
Iran (5th ed., 2008), by Andrew Burke and Mark Elliott, p. 28
Archived June 7, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., Lonely Planet
Publications, ISBN 978-1-74104-293-1
^ Mikaberidze, Alexander (2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic
World: A Historical Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Santa Barbara, California,
USA: ABC-CLIO. p. 196. ISBN 1598843362.
^ L. Baker, Patricia; Smith, Hilary; Oleynik, Maria (2014). Iran.
London, United Kingdom: Bradt Travel Guides. p. 158.
^ "Qazvin" in Historic Cities of the Islamic World, p. 435
^ Baha'i History of Qazvin
^ Haldane, J. Aylmer L. Sir (2005), The insurrection in Mesopotamia,
1920, London: The Imperial War Museum in association with The Battery
Press, ISBN 1904897169, OCLC 60688896, 1904897169
^ Large meteorite impacts
Iran causing serious damage to Qazvin,
numerous towns affected
^ The official Media from Qazvin- February 10-2010 Archived November
2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Tats of
Iran and Caucasus, Ali Abdoli, 2010.
^ Arash Nooraghayee
^ iranian.com: Nima Kasraie,
Qazvin water reservoirs
^ Peighambarieh Mausoleum in Qazvin: Burial place of Israeli prophets
^ РУССКАЯ ПРАВОСЛАВНАЯ ЦЕРКОВЬ В
ПЕРСИИ – ИРАНЕ (1597–2001 гг.) Игумен
Александр (Заркешев) Санкт-Петербург
2002 – Russian Orthodox Church in Persia-
Iran 1597–2001, by abbot
Alexander Zarkeshev, St Peterburg 2002, pp 70f and 110 Archived
December 10, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.; the church is sometimes
referred to as "Kantur" church from the name of the area where it
^ Raja University
^ afshbq.ac.ir Archived December 12, 2004, at the Wayback Machine.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Qazvin.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Qazvin.
Satellite Picture by Google Maps
FallingRain Map – elevation = 1285 m (Red dots are railways)
How to go to
Qazvin from Tehran? (Bus, Taxi or Train)
Counties and cities
Buin Zahra County
Caravanserai of Sa'd al-Saltaneh
Ab anbars of Qazvin
Mosque of Qazvin
Shazdeh Hosein shrine
List of cities, towns and villages in
Mahmudabad-e Alam Khani
Mazraeh Parseh Ay
Mazraeh-ye Mian Chal
Kia Kalayeh-ye Olya
Ilat-e Qaqazan-e Gharbi
(West Ilat-e Qaqazan)
Astin Dar-e Olya
Astin Dar-e Sofla
Astin Dar-e Vosta
Qazvin-Rasht Road Construction Company
Ilat-e Qaqazan-e Sharqi
(East Ilat-e Qaqazan)
Moallem Khani-ye Bala
Duljak Khan-e Mohammadabad
Mir Khavand-e Olya
Mir Khavand-e Sofla
Zaj Kan-e Olya
Zaj Kan-e Sofla
Dalan e Vorudi
Persian Garden (hayāt)
Theory and analysis
Traditional Persian residential architecture
Traditional water sources of Persian antiquity
Architects of Iran
Args, castles, and ghal'ehs
List of ab anbars of Qazvin
List of mosques
List of ziyarat-gahs