Tabriz ( fa|تبریز ; ) is the most populous city in northwestern Iran
, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan Province
. It is the fifth-most-populous city in Iran
. In the Quru River
valley in Iran's historic Azerbaijan
region between long ridges of volcanic cones in the Sahand
mountains, Tabriz's elevation ranges between above sea level. The valley opens up into a plain that gently slopes down to the eastern shores of Lake Urmia
, to the west. With cold winters and temperate summers, Tabriz is considered a summer resort. It was named World Carpet Weaving City by the World Crafts Council
in October 2015
and Exemplary Tourist City of 2018 by the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
With a population of over 1.7 million (2016),
Tabriz is the largest economic hub and metropolitan area in Northwest Iran. The population is overwhelmingly Azerbaijani, though Persian is spoken by residents as a second language. Tabriz is a major heavy industries hub for automobiles, machine tools, refineries, petrochemicals, textiles and cement production industries. The city is famous for its handicrafts, including hand-woven rugs and jewellery. Local confectionery, chocolate, dried nuts and traditional Tabrizi food are recognised throughout Iran as some of the best. Tabriz is also an academic hub and a site for some of the most prestigious cultural institutes in Northwest Iran.
Tabriz contains many historical monuments, representing Iran's architectural transition throughout its deep history. Most of Tabriz's preserved historical sites belong to Ilkhanid
Among these sites is the grand Bazaar of Tabriz
, which is designated a World Heritage Site
From the early modern era, Tabriz was pivotal in the development, movement and economy of its three neighboring regions; namely the Caucasus
, Eastern Anatolia
and Central Iran.
In modern era city played a vital role in the history of Iran. As the country's closest hub to Europe, many aspects of early modernisation in Iran began in Tabriz.
Prior to forced ceding of the Qajar dynasty
's Caucasian territories to Imperial Russia
, following two Russo-Persian Wars
in the first half of the 19th century, Tabriz was at the forefront of Iranian rule over its Caucasian territories. Until 1925, the city was the traditional residence of the Qajar crown princes.
According to some sources, including ''Encyclopædia Britannica
the name ''Tabriz'' derives from ''tap-riz'', from the many thermal springs in the area. Other sources claim that in AD 246, to avenge his brother's death, king Tiridates II of Armenia
repelled Ardashir I
of the Sassanid Empire
and changed the name of the city from Shahistan to Tauris, deriving from "''ta-vrezh''" ("this revenge" in Grabar
). In AD 297, it became the capital of Tiridates III
, king of Armenia.
However, this story has a popular origin and no ancient source has recorded such event. This is based on accounts of Vardan Areveltsi
, a 13th-century Armenian
''The Cambridge History of Iran
'' points to a connection between the "ancient stronghold of Tarui-Tarmakisa" (or Tarwi-Tarwakisa), which existed in the 8th century BC
, and the city of Tabriz, with Ernst Emil Herzfeld
's ''Archaeological History of Iran'' also directly equating ''"Tarwakisa"'' with Tabriz. Thus, some researchers believe that Tabriz may be considered a pre-Iranian toponym.
The early history of Tabriz is not well-documented. The earliest civilization signs in the city belongs to an Iron Age grave yard of 1st millennium B.C. which were unearthed in late 1990s in northern side of Blue Mosque
. The city also inscribed as old as 714 B.C. on as Tarui or Tauris, on the Assyrian King Sargon II
's epigraph in 714 BC.
Egyptologist David Rohl
suggested that the legendary Garden of Eden
was near Tabriz. Archaeologist Eric H. Cline
commented on Rohl's views, writing that "his suggestions have not caught on with the scholarly establishment. His argument is not helped by the fact that it depends upon speculations regarding the transmission of place-names for both the various rivers and nearby related areas from antiquity to the present. In the end, while Rohl’s suggestion is not out of the question, it seems no more probable than any other hypothesis, and less likely than those suggested by Speiser, Zarins, and Sauer."
Since the earliest documented history of Tabriz, it has been chosen as the capital for several rulers commencing from Atropates
era and his dynasty. It is likely the city has been destroyed multiple times either by natural disasters or by the invading armies. The earliest elements of the present Tabriz are claimed to be built either at the time of the early Sassanids
in the 3rd or 4th century AD, or later in the 7th century.
The city used to be called ''T'awrēš'' in Middle Persian
From the Arab conquest to the Constitutional Revolution
After the Muslim conquest of Iran
, the Arabian Azd
tribe from Yemen
resided in Tabriz. The development of post-Islamic Tabriz began as of this time. The Islamic geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi
says that Tabriz was a village before Rawwad from the tribe of Azd arrive at Tabriz.
In 791 AD, Zubaidah
, the wife of Abbasid
caliph Harun al-Rashid
, rebuilt Tabriz after a devastating earthquake and beautified the city so much as to obtain the credit for having been its founder.
In the Ramadan
of 1208, Tabriz, as well as its adjacent cities and territories were conquered by the Kingdom of Georgia
under Tamar the Great
, as a response to the massacre of 12,000 Christians in the Georgian-controlled city of Ani
day by Muslims. In nearby Ardebil, conquered by the Georgians as well, as many as 12,000 Muslims were killed. The Georgians
then pushed further, taking Khoy
along the way.
After the Mongol
invasion, Tabriz came to eclipse Maragheh
as the later Ilkhanid
Mongol capital of Azerbaijan
until it was sacked by Timur
Chosen as a capital by Abaqa Khan
, fourth ruler of the Ilkhanate, for its favored location in the northwestern grasslands,
[David Morgan, ''The Mongols'' p. 142]
in 1295, his successor Ghazan Khan
made it the chief administrative centre of an empire stretching from Anatolia
to the Oxus River
and from the Caucasus
to the Indian Ocean
. Under his rule, new walls were built around the city, and numerous public buildings, educational facilities, and caravansarais were erected to serve traders travelling on the ancient Silk Road
. The Byzantine Gregory Chioniades
is said to have served as the city's Orthodox
bishop during this time.
In the 13th century, many western expediters who visit Tabriz on their way to the east were amazed by the richness of the city, its magnificent buildings and its institutions.
, who travelled through the Silk Road and passed Tabriz about 1275, described it as: "a great city surrounded by beautiful and pleasant gardens. It is excellently situated so the goods brought to here coming from many regions. Latin merchants specially Genevis go there to buy the goods that come from foreign lands."
From 1375 to 1468, Tabriz was the capital of Qara Qoyunlu
state in Azerbaijan, until defeat of Qara Qoyunlu ruler, Jahan Shah
by Ag Qoyunlu
warriors. Ag Qoyunlus selected Tabriz as their capital from 1469 to 1501. Some of the existing historical monuments including the Blue Mosque
belong to the Qara Qoyunlu period.
In 1501, Ismail I
entered Tabriz and proclaimed it the capital of his Safavid
state. In 1514, after the Battle of Chaldiran
, Tabriz was sacked by Selim I
. On 16 July 1534, prior to Ottoman conquest of Baghdad
, Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha
occupied Tabriz. In 1555, Tahmasp I
transferred its capital to Qazvin
to avoid the growing threat of the Ottoman army to his capital.
Between 1585 and 1603, Tabriz was under occupation by Ottomans
. After it was retaken by the Safavid
s under Abbas I of Persia
, the city grew as a major commerce centre, conducting trade with the Ottoman Empire
, Russia, and the Caucasus
. Tabriz was occupied and sacked by Ottoman Murad IV
in 1635, during the Ottoman–Safavid War (1623–39)
, before being returned to Persia in the Treaty of Zohab
In summer of 1721, a large earthquake
shocked Tabriz, killing about eighty thousand of its residents. The devastation continued in 1724–1725, when the city was invaded by an Ottoman army.
During this round of invasion, the Ottomans imprisoned many in Tabriz and killed about two hundred thousand residents. The city was subsequently retaken by the Iranian army, after which a widespread famine, combined with the spread of fatal diseases, killed more of those who still remained. In 1780, a major earthquake
hit near Tabriz and killed as many as two hundred thousand people, leaving only about thirty thousand survivors.
At the end of the 18th century, the city was divided into several districts, each of which was ruled by a family, until 1799, when the Qajar Prince Abbas Mirza
was appointed as the governor of the city. During the Qajar dynasty
the city was the residence for the Crown Prince. The crown prince normally served as governor of Azerbaijan province as well. Some of the most important events in this period were the wars
between Qajar Iran and neighbouring Imperial Russia
. Prior to the forced cession of Iran's Caucasian territories—comprising what is now Georgia
, southern Dagestan
, and Armenia
—to Imperial Russia following the two Russo-Persian Wars
of the first half of the 19th century, Tabriz, being strategically located, was instrumental to the implementation of Iranian rule in its Caucasian territories. During the last Russo-Persian War, the Russo-Persian War of 1826–1828
, the city was captured for Russia
in 182 by General Prince Eristov, who marched into the city with 3,000 soldiers.
First Encyclopaedia of Islam: 1913–1936
' BRILL, 1993 p. 591
After Abbas Mirza and Ivan Paskevich
signed the peace treaty
, which granted for the irrevocable cession of the last remaining Caucasian
territories, the Russian army retreated from the city. Nevertheless, Russian political and military influence remained a major force in Tabriz and north-northwestern Iran even until the fall of the Russian empire in the early 20th century.
After the retreat of the Russian army, Abbas Mirza
, the Qajar Crown Prince, launched a modernization scheme from Tabriz, during which he introduced Western-style institutions, imported industrial machinery, installed the first regular postal service, and undertook military reforms in the city. He also began a rebuilding campaign and established a modern taxation system.
File:Tabriz by Eugène Flandin.jpg|Saheb-ol-Amr Mosque and Quru river, Eugène Flandin 1841.
File:City Gate , Tabriz by Eugène Flandin.jpg|Sketch of the gate of Tabriz, Eugène Flandin 1841.
File:House Hussein Khan, Tabriz by Eugène Flandin.jpg|A sketch of a 19th-century house in Tabriz, Eugène Flandin.
File:Jules Laurens 16.jpg|Painting of Blue mosque, Jules Laurens, 1872.
Thanks to the geographical closeness to the West and to communications with nearby countries' enlightenment movements, Tabriz became the centre of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution
movements between 1905 and 1911, which led to the establishment of a parliament in Iran and the formation of a constitution. Sattar Khan
and Bagher Khan
, two Tabrizi reformists who led Tabriz people's solidarity against the absolute monarchy, had a great role in achievement to the goals of Iran's constitutional revolution. In 1909, Tabriz was occupied by the Russian forces. Four months after the constitutional revolution's success, in December 1911, the Russians reinvaded Tabriz
. After crushing the local resistance by invading Russian troops, they started suppressing the constitutional revolutionaries and residents of the city. Following the invasion, Russian troops executed about 1,200 of Tabriz residents.
As a result of the campaign, Tabriz was occupied by the Russian forces between 1911 and 1917.
File:Tabriz Map 1908.jpg|Siege of Tabriz during Constitutional Revolution, September 27, 1908.
File:Revolutionists defending Davachi bridge, Tabriz (May 1, 1909).jpg|Constitutional revolutionists defending Davachi bridge against monarchists, May 1, 1909.
File:TabrizRevolutionaries.JPG|Constitutionals in Tabriz, 1911.
Arg-Tabriz-USA.jpg|Ark of Tabriz and US flag in the days after constitutional revolution, 1911.
From the very start of World War I
, Iran declared neutrality. When the war erupted on a full scale, Tabriz and much of northwestern-northern Iran had already been ''de facto'' occupied by Russia for several years. In later years of World War I, the Ottoman
troops intervened and took control of the city by defeating the Russian troops stationed there.
By this time, the Ottoman army led by Enver Pasha
threatened the whole Russian army
in the Caucasus region.
Russian troops recaptured the city from the Ottomans at a later stage of the war. By escalation of the revolution in Russia
, the Russian armies in Iranian Azerbaijan were evacuated, and the actual power passed into the hands of the local committee of the democrat party, with Ismail Nawbari at its head.
Following Russia's retreat, the Ottomans captured the city once again for a few months until the decisive end of the war, and retreated thereafter. After World War I, a new era in the county's history began. Reza Shah
, brigadier-general of the Persian Cossack Brigade
, declared himself the king of the country following a coup d'état
. He started with promises of modernization programs in Iran which was concentrated on the unification of the country, under the idea of ''one country, one nation''. This included centralization of the power and imposing restrictions on the local culture, heritage, and language in Iranian Azerbaijan, and the city of Tabriz. The modernization and nationalization plan of Reza Shah continued until the surge of World War II.
At the final year of the World War II
despite the declaration of the neutrality by the Iranian government, the country was occupied by the allied forces. The allied forces then urged Reza Shah to abdicate and installed his son Mohammad Reza
as the new king of the country. The postwar situation was further complicated by Soviet
aid to set up a local government called Azerbaijan People's Government
in Northwest Iran
, having Tabriz as its capital. The new Soviet-backed local government was run by Ja'far Pishevari
and held power for one year starting from 1946. Pishevari's government gave more freedom to speech and education in Azerbaijani language and promoted local cultural heritage and gained some popularity among the residents. However, after the withdrawal of Soviet forces, Pishevari's limited armed forces were crushed by the Imperial Iranian army and the Iranian government retook control of the city. One of the major establishments in the period of Pishevari's government was opening of the University of Tabriz
which played a major role in the later political movements and protests in the region.
Russian flag on top of Ark, 1911.png|Russian Invasion of Tabriz, 1911.
File: Soviet six horse foot artillery team on the streets of Tabriz.jpg|Soviet artillery units passing through Tabriz, World War II.
File: Soviet tankmen of the 6th Armoured Division drive through the streets of Tabriz (2).jpg|Soviet Tank and troops marching through Tabriz, World War II.
File: Soviet tankmen of the 6th Armoured Division drive through the streets of Tebriz.jpg|Soviet T-26 Tank passing through the main street of Tabriz, World War II.
For the next 30 years, after the collapse of Azerbaijan's autonomous government, Tabriz enjoyed a stable era until the revolution in 1979. During this period the city received many of investors in its industries and had transformed into a heavy industries hub in the northwest of Iran. The need for a strong workforce increased immigration from all around Azerbaijan toward Tabriz. During this era and because of the continuous policy of the government centralization in Tehran as well as changes in communication and transportation, the city lost its historical dominance in favour of being the gate for reform and modernization in the country.
Starting with 1978 and with the heat of the Iranian Revolution
, revolutionary movements of some of Tabriz residents played a major role in the revolution. After the revolution, the residents of the city were unsatisfied with the outcome, mainly because of the ignorance of the revolutionary government about the rights of the Azerbaijani minority . Another major source of dissatisfaction was the support of most of Iranian Azerbaijanis including Tabriz residents from a more liberal cleric, Grand Ayatollah Shariatmadari
, who was against the content of the new constitution which was mixing religion and state together. The unrest in the city calmed down after brutal crush of the protesters in Tabriz and after house arrest of Shariatmadari.
In the 1980s, due to the Iran–Iraq War
, like the rest of the country, most of the construction and development projects in the city were stopped in order to fund the war costs. In addition to the indirect effects of the war, city's industrial zone, especially the oil refinery was also a major target for airstrikes by Iraqi's air forces because of the closeness to the Iraqi borderlines, and their strategic roles in the country's economy. With the escalation of the war, the attacks turned to War of the Cities
and the air attacks later turned into the random strikes on the residential areas of the city in the later phase of the war.
In recent years, Tabriz is much more stable and the new developments in the city are rapidly changing the face of the city.
Capital of Iran
Tabriz was chosen as the capital by several rulers commencing from the time of Atropates
. It was the capital of the Ilkhanate
(Mongol) dynasty since 1265. During the Ghazan
Khan era, who came into power in 1295, the city reached its highest splendour. The later realm stretched from the Amu Darya
in the East to the Egypt
borders in the West and from the Caucasus
in the North to the Indian Ocean in the South. It was again the capital of Iran during the Qara Qoyunlu
dynasty from 1375 to 1468 and then during the Ag Qoyunlu
within 1468–1501. Finally, it was capital of the Iranian Empire
in the Safavid
period from 1501 until their defeat in 1555
During the Qajar
dynasty, Tabriz was used as residence centre of Iranian Crown Prince (1794–1925).
In 2002, during a construction project at the north side of the Blue Mosque
(Part of Silk Road
Project), an ancient graveyard was revealed. This was kept secret until a construction worker alerted the authorities. Radiocarbon analysis by Allameh Tabatabai University has shown the background of the graves to be more than 3800 years old. A museum of these excavations including the Blue Mosque
was opened to the public in 2006.
The other excavation site is in Abbasi Street at the site of Rab'-e Rashidi
, which was the location for an academic institution since approximately
700 years ago. It was established in Ilkhanid
"Firsts" in Iran
''The City of Firsts'' or city of pioneers is an unofficial motto for Tabriz, a major city and provincial capital in north west of Iran
. The motto is given because of the pioneering role of the city in modernization signs in Iran and its leading role in movement toward the formation of modern Iran. Firsts of Tabriz in the Iranian History:
* ''Printing Industry'' : The first publication
house was founded by Prince Abbas Mirza
in Tabriz, And 12 years later a second publication was established in Tehran
'' : Tarbiat library
, Iran's first public library was founded by Muhammad Ali tarbiat in 1921.
* ''Guest house
'' or Hotel: Tabriz is the first city in Iran where the new style hotels and motels have been built.
'': The first public cinema in Iran (1900)
'': The first school of primary education (New approach) in Iran was founded by Haji-Mirza Hassan Roshdieh
in Tabriz (1893).
* ''Kindergartens and school for the Deaf & Mute'' : Jabbar Baghtcheban
the first children's book author and publisher and founder of the first school for the Deaf & Mute in Iran.
* ''New Literature'' : Mirza Abdul'Rahim Talibov Tabrizi
, founder of new composition and Mirza Fatali Akhundov
, founder of the playwright in Iran. also Mirza-Agha Tabrizi the first Iranian playwright who has written plays to Persian language.
'' : During the ''Ghikhatukhan'' in Mongol empire, name of money was ''Chaw'' . But people did not accept it and after a while stopped printing it.
* ''Chamber of Commerce
'' : The first "Chamber of Commerce of Iran" in Tabriz (1906)
'' : The first municipality in Iran Founded in 1908.
'' : The first firefighting Was established in 1842.
'' : The first city in Iran that was equipped with telephone system (1901).
* ''Power Plant
'' : the Iran's first power plant and factory in 1902.
* ''Charity Foundation NGO
'' : The first Charity Foundation NGO in Iran Founded in 1952.
* ''Air Taxi
'' : The first air taxi flight was conducted from Tabriz to Aras Free Zone
* ''Colonel Pessian
'' : The first Iranian pilot and aviator.
* ''Hossein Sadaghiani
'' : The first Iran's football legionnaire (1929) and first coach of Iran national football team
(1941 —- 1951).
* ''Yahya Adl
'' : Father's surgery.
* ''Javad Heyat
'' : The vanguards of modern medicine in Iran (1962).
* ''Ahmad Hussein Adl
'' : Vanguard mechanization agricultural in Iran (1930).
* ''Mostafa Adl
'' : Father's Rights and Justice.
* ''Hamid Notghi
'' : Founder and father of modern public relations in Iran
* Azim Gheichisaz
: The first Iranian mountain climber joined 8000ers
* and first of Football Museum (2014), Police (1907), Association for Women (1908), Seismographic station (1855), Faculty of Nursing (1916), Faculty of carpet (1994), Association of note issue, Public limited company (1900), Kindergarten (1924), Guesthouse, The formation of popular councils, Credit Card bus, Was established in Tabriz.
Tabriz is located in northwest of Iran
in East Azerbaijan
province between Eynali
mountains in a fertile area in shore of Aji River
and Ghuri River
The local area is earthquake-prone and during its history, the city has been devastated and rebuilt several times.
Tabriz has a Continental climate
with regular season
''Dsa'') bordering cold semi-arid climate
''BSk''). The annual precipitation is around , a good deal of which falls as snow
during the winter
months and rain
. The city enjoys mild and fine climate in spring, dry and semi-hot in summer, humid and rainy in autumn and snowy cold in winter. The average annual temperature is . Cool winds blow from east to west mostly in summer.
Air pollution is one of the major environmental issues in Tabriz. Air pollution is due to increase of a number of cars in the commuting in the city and the polluting industries such as thermal power plants, petrochemical complexes and the oil refinery in the west of the city, air pollution levels increased continuously in the second half of the 20th century. With a mandate of national environmental codes by heavy industries, industrial air pollution is reduced in recent years. However, the air quality in the city is far away from world norms for clean air.
An immediate environmental threat is the shrinkage and drying out of the Lake Urmia
located in outskirts of Western Tabriz. The lake has faced a grave crisis since the late 20th century. Water depth reduction, increasing water salinity to saturation level and the appearance of vast salt fields around the lake, are alarming indications of gradual total desiccation of a unique ecosystem. This occurred due to global warming and ever-increasing demands for inadequate freshwater sources in the basin. It is feared in the near future low-lying clouds of airborne salt and minerals may hover over large areas around the lake, posing serious health hazards.
thumb|right|upright|Main Municipality Office
Authority for the city lies with the Mayor, who is elected by a municipal board. The municipal board is periodically elected by the city's residents. The Municipal central office is located at the Tabriz Municipality Palace
Historic municipal districts
Tabriz is divided into 12 municipal districts. Each municipal district retains a number of the older neighborhoods that are of cultural and historical interest.
* Bahar (باهار)
* Baghshoumal (باغ شمال)
* Baron Avak
(Barnava) (بارناوا، بارونآواک)
* Bazaar (بازار)
* Beylanki (Beylankooh) (بیلانکی)
* Charandab (چرنداب)
* Chousdouzan (چوسدوزان)
* Gazran (Re. Khayyam) (گزران)
* Kouchebagh (کوچه باغ)
* Khayyam (خیام)
* Khiyavan (خیاوان)
* Laklar (لک لر)
* Lalah (لاله)
* Maghsoudia (مقصودیه)
* Rastakucha (راستا کوچه)
* Sarlak (سرلک)
* Selab (سیلاب)
* Sirkhab (سیرخاب)
* Tapalibagh (تپه لی باغ)
* Vardjibashi (Vidjooya) (ورجی باشی، ویجویه)
Modern municipal districts
This is table of modern Tabriz districts.
* Parvaz ( fa|پرواز)
* Golshahr ( fa|گلشهر)
* Zafaranieh ( fa|زعفرانیه)
* Rajae Shahr ( fa|رجائی شهر)
* Hafez ( fa|حافظ)
* Mandana ()
* Nesfrah ()
* Valieamr ()
* Narmak ()
* Yaghchian ( fa| یاغچیان)
* Marzdaran ( fa| مرزداران)
* Baghmishe ( fa| باغمیشه)
* Elahiyeh ()
* Abrisham ()
* Baharestan ()
* Misagh ()
* Sahand ()
* Ashkan ()
* Jamaran ()
* Abresan ( fa|آبرسان)
* Vali Asr ( fa| ولیعصر)
* Elahi Parast ( fa|الهی پرست)
* Ferdows / ( fa|فردوس)
* North Fereshteh ( fa|فرشته شمالی)
* Roshdieh ( fa| رشدیه)
* Mirdamad ( fa|میرداماد)
* Andishe ()
* Khavaran ()
According to an official 2016 census, the population of Tabriz is 1,733,033.
The majority of the city's population are Azerbaijani people
, followed by Persians
, and other People of Caucasus
The predominant language spoken in Tabriz is Azerbaijani language
call it ''Türkü'' or ''Türki'' language), which is a Turkic language
mutually intelligible with modern Turkish dialects
. The language has a strong Iranian superstratum since it has been in close contact with the Persian language for many centuries. Similar to the other parts of Iran, the official language is Persian
and the most inhabitants have native or near-native knowledge of Persian language
, which is the major medium of education.
Nevertheless, the Iranian constitution respects the right to speak and have limited educational facilities in other native languages, including Azerbaijani. For the first time, an academic program on Azerbaijani language opened at the University of Tabriz
in 1999. Other than Azerbaijani, there is a notable minority of Armenian
speakers and a smaller minority of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
It is believed that before the gradual increase and dominance of Azerbaijani language in the area, other Iranian languages
similar to Persian were spoken in Azerbaijan
and Tabriz. The 13th-century manuscript Safina-yi Tabriz
has poems in what its Tabriz-born author has called the Tabrizi language (''Zabān-e-Tabrizi'') which is similar to Persian
After being crowned at Tabriz in 1501, Shah Ismail I
announced the Twelver
branch of Shia Islam
as the official religion of the Safavid Empire
. As a result of this royal order, the most Sunni
population of Tabriz converted to Shia.
Currently, the majority of people are followers of Shia Islam. The city has a visible Armenian Apostolic
minority who follow Christianity
. There used to be a small Jewish
community, but most of them have moved to Tehran
There is a small, embattled community of the Baháʼí Faith
in the city.
Culture and art
Sahand, o mountain of pure snow,
Descended from Heaven with Zoroaster
Fire in your heart, snow on your shoulders,
with storm of centuries,
And white hair of history on your chest ...
Yadollah Maftun Amini
(born in 1926)
The proximity to Sahand
, a mountain in the south of the city, has been a source of inspiration for contemporary revolutionaries and poets alike. The power of this inspiring source, however, goes to much earlier times. Tabriz was a house for numerous Iranian writers, poets, and illumination movements. In old times the city notables supported poets and writers by organizing periodical meetings. Within its long history, it was a residence for many well known Iranian writers and poets. The list can start from the old-time Rumi
to recent years Samad Behrangi
, Gholam-Hossein Sa'edi
, Parvin E'tesami
. The prominent Iranian Azeri
poet Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar
was born in Tabriz. The culture, social values, language and music is a mixture of what exists in the rest of Iran
Tabriz also has a special place in Persian literature
, as the following sample of verses from some of Iran's best poets and authors
ساربانا بار بگشا ز اشتران
شهر تبريز است و کوی دلبران
Oh Sārbān, have camels' cargo unloaded,
For Tabriz is the neighborhood of the beloved.
عزیزی در اقصای تبریز بود
که همواره بیدار و شبخیز بود
A beloved lived in Tabriz away from sight,
who was always alert and awake at night
―''Bustan of Sadi''
تا به تبریزم دو چیزم حاصل است
نیم نان و آب مهران رود و بس
As long as I live in Tabriz, two things I need not worry about,
The half loaf of bread and the water of Mehranrud iverare enough!
اين ارك بلند شهر تبريز است
افراشته قامتِ رسايش را
This is the tall Arg of Tabriz City,
Raised its outstanding height there!
A century-long autocratic nation-building policy of central governments in Iran has succeeded in cultural assimilation in the favour of a government-sanctioned culture. As a result, Tabriz, by the turn of the 20th century had nearly become devoid of its once characteristic cultural identity. Thanks to the more liberal policies of the Khatami era (1998–2006), a cultural renaissance took place and the local music was revitalized.
The traditional Azeri music is divided into two distinct types, the music of "ashugh
" and the "mugham
". Mugham, despite its similarity to Persian classical music, was not common among Iranian Azeris. In recent years, however, mugham is gaining popularity among the educated middle-class young generation. For instance, Nasir Atapur, from Tabriz, was the laureate of Mugam contest 2007.
The ashugh music had survived in a mountainous region of Qaradağ
and presently is identified as the characteristic form of music in all Azerbaijan. The ashugh music, throughout its long history, had been associated with nomadic life in mountainous regions and used to be dismissed as back-country folklore. The recent identity renaissance of Azeri speaking people has elevated the status of Ashughs as the guardians of national culture. The newfound unprecedented popularity and frequent concerts and performances in urban settings have resulted in rapid innovative developments aiming to enhance the urban-appealing aspects of these ashugh performances. The main factor for these developments was the opening of academic style music classes in Tabriz by master Ashugs, such as Aşiq Imran Heydəri.
s (Aşiq in Azeri language stemmed from the Arabic word for lover) were travelling bards who sang and played saz, an eight or ten string plucking instrument in the form of a long-necked lute. Their roots can be traced back to at least the 7th century according to the Turkic epic Dede Korkut. Naturally, the music has evolved in the course of the grand migration and ensuing feuds with the original inhabitants the acquired lands. Still, the essence of the original epics, i.e. metamorphic description of life in pastoral terms with direct reference to the mountainous landscape, persists to the present time. The characteristic aspect of the Ashugh
music is its frequent allusions to a mountain with the intention of arousing an emotional state with a tone of mild melancholy in a listener. The first verses of a contemporary Ashug
song, composed by Məhəmməd Araz, may well represent the essence of Ashugh
music may clarify the said statement.
''Bəlkə bu yerlərə birdə gəlmədim'' (I may not come to these mountains again)
''duman səlamət qal dağ səlamət qal'' (Farewell to the Mist and to the mountain)
''arxamca su səpir göydə bulutlar'' (Clouds sprinkle drops of rain)
''leysan səlamət qal yağ səlamət qal'' (Farewell to summer days, farewell to the rain)
"Tabrizian style" painting was shaped in the era of Ilkhanid
s, Kara Koyunlu
and the Safavid
s. The paintings date back to the early 14th century and show significant influence from Chinese and Chinese-influenced pictures. Over the years Tabriz became the centre of the famous school of Persian miniature painting. A fascinating fictional account of "Tabrizian style" painting in the Safavid
s era is narrated by Orhan Pamuk
in ''My Name Is Red
Famous dishes in Tabriz include:
'' is a kind of soup prepared with bouillon
, various vegetables
s and spices.
'' or ''Shorva'' (آبگوشت
) is a hearty soup made of mutton (sheep meat) and chickpeas. It has been cooked in Iran for many years and, until recently, was the main dish of most families in Tabriz.
and roasted tomatoes (and roasted hot peppers occasionally) served on a plate of steamed rice
'','' is the national dish of Iran. Tabriz is famous for the quality of its ''chelow kabab''.
'' is a traditional delicious Azerbaijani
food. It is prepared with eggplant, capsicum, tomato or zucchini filled with a mixture of meat, split pea
, onion and various spices.
'' (meaning "the torn abdomen" in Azeri
) is a kind of dolma
filled with meat, garlic
s and spice
'' is a special recipe from Tabriz with the appearance of big meatballs, which are prepared with a mixture of ground meat, rice, leeks and some other ingredients. The word ''kofta'' is derived from Persian
''kūfta'': in Persian, ''kuftan'' (کوفتن) means "to beat" or "to grind".
Koofteh Tabrizi and Bonab Kababi.jpg|A table of some of Tabriz traditional foods (köfte and syrup with sangak and Bonab Kababi with rice)
Qurutli ash.png|Qurutli Aash, a thick soup made of qurut
There are also confections, biscuits and cookies, some of which are Tabriz specialties including Qurabiya
, Tabrizi Lovuez
, Riss, Nougat
, Tasbihi, Latifeh, Ahari, Lovadieh, and Lokum
Konjod.png|Konjod Halvasi, a laminal sesame cookie.
Baglava, Tabriz, Iran.jpg|Tabriz's Baklava
Dried fried nuts.png|Dried, Fried, and Salted Nuts
Tabriz was devastated by several earthquakes during its history (e.g., in 858, 1041, and 1721) and as a result, from numerous monuments only few of them or part of them have survived until now. Moreover, some of the historical monuments have been destroyed fully or partially within construction projects (the Arg of Tabriz is in danger of destruction now, because of the ongoing nearby construction project of Mosal'laye Emam). Nonetheless, there are still numerous monuments remaining until now, which include:
* Aji Chay Bridge
* Amir Nezam House
* Arg of Tabriz
* Azerbaijan Museum
* Baghmasha gate
* Bazaar of Tabriz
, a world heritage site
* Behnam House
(school of architecture)
* Blue Mosque
* Boulourchian house
* Constitutional Revolution House of Tabriz
(faculty of education)
* Document Museum
* East-Azerbaijan State Palace
* Ferdowsi street
* Ghadaki house
* Qari Bridge
* Haidarzadeh house
* Hariree house
* House of Seghat ol Islam
* Imamzadeh Hamzah, Tabriz
* Imamzadeh Ibrahim
* Iranian municipalities
* Iron Age museum
* Jamee mosque of Tabriz
* Madrasah Akbarieh
(tomb of poets)
* Mansoor bridge
* Measure museum
* Muharram museum
* Municipality of Tabriz
* Museum of Ostad Bohtouni
* Nobar bath
* On ibn Ali's shrine
* Ordobadi house
* Pahlavi street
* Pol Sanghi
* Post museum
* Pottery museum
* Protestant church of Tabriz
* Qur'an museum
* Roshdieh school
* Rug museum
* Ruins of Rabe Rashidi
* Saheb ol Amr
* Saint Mary Church of Tabriz
* Salmasi house Measure museum
* Seventh-day Adventist Church
* Seyed Hamzeh shrine
* Shahnaz street
* Sharbatoglu house
literature museum (house of Shahryar
* Shohada Mosque
* Sorkheh-i house
* Tabriz Art University
(former Charmsazi Khosravi)
* Tabriz Fire Fighting Tower
* Tabriz Museum of Natural History
* Tabriz Railway Station
* Tarbiyat street
* Two Kamals tomb
File:Saat 4.jpg|Saat Tower
File:Carpet Bazaar of Tabriz.JPG|The Grand Bazaar
File:Eternal Love.jpg|Iron Age museum
File:Amir Nezam House 1.jpg|Amir Nezam House (Qajar museum)
File:House-of-Constitutional-Revolution.jpg|Constitution House of Tabriz
File:Musée mesures tabriz.jpg|Measure museum of Tabriz
File:Behnam's House, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Azerbaijan, Iran, 08-19-2006.jpg|Behnam House
File:Ghari Bridge.JPG|Qari Bridge
File:TabrizAzerbaijanMuseum 2.JPG|Azerbaijan Museum
File:Blue Mosque, Tabriz, Iran.jpg|Blue Mosque
File:The Virgin Mary (Gerigury) church.jpg|Saint Mary Church of Tabriz
File:Chay kenar - Tabriz.jpg|Chay kenar (river side) at night
File:Masjed+imamzadeh tabriz.jpg|Seyed Hamzeh shrine and mosque
File:Tabriz.masque.111.jpg|a mosque in Tabriz
Parks and gardens
Tabriz has 132 parks, including 97 small parks, 31 regional and 4 city parks. According to 2005 statistics, the area of parks in Tabriz is 2,595 km2
, and the area of green spaces of Tabriz is 8,548 km2
, which is 5.6 sq.m per person. A study published in 2018 found that "Most of the urban green space
s are located on the urban fringes and in low-density higher income residential areas." It also found that "Greenspace per capita provision in Tabriz is much lower than the national and international standards (some districts offer only 0–1 sq.m. per capita green space)..."
The oldest park in Tabriz, Golestan Baği
, was established at first Pahlavi
's era in the city center. Tabriz also has 8 traveller-parks with the capacity of 10.000 travellers.
* Baghlar Baghi
* Khaqani Park
* Ghaem Magham
* Golestan Park
* Saeb Tabrizi
* Shah Goli
* Shams Tabrizi
state forest park.
* Baghmesha Park.
File:Shah Goli and Pars hotel.JPG|Shah Goli Park
File:Eynali picknick.jpg|Eynali artificial forest in the north of the Tabriz
File:Week-end ritual.jpg|A week-end ritual at Eynali peak
Tabriz is the largest economic center in Northwest Iran. The economy of Tabriz is based on commerce, services, health care and pharmaceutical, small and heavy industries, and handcrafts. Tabriz is the main site for four of Iran's Fortune 100 companies including: ITMCO
, Palaz Moket, Kashi Tabriz, Shirin Asal
Modern industries in Tabriz established since early 20 century by match manufacturing industries. Currently manufacturing industries in the city include manufacturing of machinery, vehicles, chemicals and petrochemical
, electrical and electronic equipment, home appliances, textiles and leather, nutrition and dairy, woodcraft, and pharmaceuticals.
There are hundreds of industrial complexes in Tabriz's industrial area. Among them is the Iran Tractor Manufacturing Co (ITMCO)
which is one of the biggest industrial complexes in the region. This complex alone has the highest foundry and forging capacity in the Middle East and it is the biggest tractor manufacturer in Iran with several production branches within Iran and other countries. Behind ITMCO there are several other industrial complexes including Mashin Sazi Tabriz
Co, Iran Diesel Engine Manufacturing Co (IDEM), Pump Iran, Tabriz Petrochemical Complex, Tabriz Oil Refinery and a couple of industrial regions which include hundreds of small industries.
Tabriz is also a site for abundant food and some of the most famous chocolate factories in Iran which honoured the city as the ''Chocolate City'' of Iran. This includes Dadash and Baradar Industrial Co. with the brand mark of Aidin, Soniz which is one of the biggest factories of its kind in the region.
A vast portion of the city's population is involved in small businesses like shoemaking ateliers, stone-cutting, furniture
, printing and dry nuts.
Due to its distinct handicrafts and carpets Tabriz is selected as the world city of crafts and carpet.
Tabriz is the main centre for the production of the famous Iranian Rugs
. The distinctive durability of Tabriz's carpets and its unique designs made it a famous brand in the world's carpet markets. Tabrizi rugs
s usually have ivory backgrounds with blue, rose, and indigo motifs. They often feature symmetrical and balanced designs. They usually have a single medallion that is surrounded by vines and palmettos.
One of the main quality characteristics of Tabriz rugs
is the weaving style, using specialities that guarantee the durability of the rug in comparison for example with Kashan rugs
Other than carpets, the city is famous for several other handicrafts including silver
s, Ghalamzani (Irania style of toreutics
), Moarraq (Iranian style of Mosaic
File:TCarpet2.jpg|A sample of Tabriz rugs
File:Iranian Astrolab.jpg|A newly made bronze Astrolabe, as a sample of Ghalamzani in Tabriz
File:Tabriz Graver 001.jpg|An engraver in Tabriz
Shopping centres are mostly located in the city centre, including Grand Bazaar of Tabriz
, pedestrian malls on Tarbiyat street
, Shahnaz street
and Ferdowsi street
. Also, there are some malls and a lot of elegant & luxurious boutiques of jewellery, rugs, clothes, handicrafts, confectionery and nuts, home appliances and so on in the Abresan intersection, Roshdiyeh
district and Kouy Valiasr
The special feature of Tabriz's malls is that most of them are designated to a particular order, such as home appliances, jewelry, shoes, clothes, wedding ceremonies, ladies/babies/men specialties, leather products, handicrafts, agricultural products, computers, electronic components, industrial equipment, piping equipment, chemical materials, agricultural machines, stationery, books, rugs, construction stuff and others.
Likewise, there are seasonal/occasional shopping fairs opened mainly in the Tabriz International Exhibition Center.
Tabriz International Exhibition Center
Tabriz International Exhibition Center
which is located in the eastern part of the city holds tens of exhibitions based on yearly schedule. The most famous fair is TEXPO which is a general trade fair. Established in 1992, it usually holds exhibitions around August 4–9 every year.
Schools and libraries
Tabriz is the site for 14 of Iran's most prominent universities and higher education institutes. Established in 1947, University of Tabriz
is the most prestigious university in north-western Iran. University of Tabriz
is also considered one of five mother universities in the country which works as the regional hub of science for the region. Besides University of Tabriz
, there are several other public universities, operating in the city and its suburbs. Among them the famous ones are:
* Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
has departments from various medical and paramedical branches. This University was part of University of Tabriz
until the early 1980s.
* Sahand University of Technology
is established in 1989 and have majored in different fields of Engineering and Technology related sciences.
* Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem
is established in 1987. Azerbaijan University is a general university. Its main campus is located based in Azarshahr
* Tabriz Islamic Arts University
is a public university established in 1997.
* the Payam-e Noor University of Tabriz, is part of Payame Noor University
network of the remote educational university.
There are couple of private universities and higher educational institutes serving student as well, including: Islamic Azad University of Tabriz, Daneshvaran Higher Education Institute, Seraj Higher Education Institute, University College of Nabi Akram, Khajeh Rashid University.
There are few technical colleges, which serve the students as well: Elmi-Karbordi University of Tabriz, Tabriz College of Technology, Roshdiyeh Higher Education Institute of Tabriz, Jahad Daneshgahi (ACECR) Higher Education Institute (East Azerbaijan Branch), Alzahra College of Technology, State Organization of Technical and Vocational Training.
There are a couple of research centers supported by Iranian government in the city including: East Azerbaijan Park of Science & Technology, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tabriz.
Furthermore, a couple of Iranian universities have branches in Tabriz, including: Imam Hossein University
, Shahid Beheshti Training Teacher Center of Tabriz.
Famous high schools
Hundreds of public and private schools serve students using the Iranian education system. Students attend primary school for five years, middle school for three years, and secondary school for a final three years. Those entering university must attend one year in college first. While the prominent language in Tabriz is Azerbaijani
is used in school classrooms. Some of the high schools are famous because of their history or higher educational quality.
Here is a list of most famous high schools in the city:
* Memorial school (American School of Tabriz
) was opened in 1891 and is one of the most famous schools of American Missionary Schools in Iran. After World War II
, the school's name was changed to Parvin High School, under Iran
education ministry's management. Currently, it is divided into three separate high schools, and the original building is under reconstruction. Howard Baskerville
used to teach in Memorial school.
* Roshdieh school is the first modern Iran
ian school, which was established by Haji-Mirza Hassan Roshdieh
. Currently, its building is used as the Tabriz branch of the National Iran
ian Documents and Library Office.
* Vahdat Technical College is another famous school in Tabriz. It was developed by the Germans
before World War II
* Ferdowsi high school is one of the largest and most prominent high schools in Tabriz. The original building was constructed by German
engineers before World War II
originally as a hospital with an aerial shape of H. Later on, it was used as Ferdowsi high school.
* Mansur High School
(established 1945) was one of the highest-ranking schools in Tabriz. Later on, the school divided into Mansur (Taleghani) High School
and Motahhari high school. The reconstruction of the school in 2010 has caused tension between alumnus of the school and administrators of the education office of Tabriz.
* Shahid Madani and Farzanegan or so-called Tiz-houshan high schools (which are part of SAMPAD
) were established in 1989. The students are admitted to these schools through a competitive entrance exam. These schools are famous because of the higher rate of admission of their graduates through Iranian universities entrance exam.
Valiasr Religious School and Talebieh Islamic Science School are two major religious schools in the city which are used for teaching Islamic literature.
Tabriz National Library
, also known as Central Library of Tabriz, is the largest and the most famous library in the city. The Tabriz National Library has the biggest collection of classic handwritten Persian
literature in the northwest region of Iran. There are many other public libraries all around the city such as Tarbiat library
, Helal Ahmar, Shahid Motahhari, Shahriyar, Jafarieh, and Farhangsara.
The Ministry of Health
operates most of the public hospitals and health centres in the Tabriz metropolitan region, some of which are aligned with the Tabriz Medical School.
Tabriz residents mostly commute by public bus, shuttle taxis, metro, bike, and personal cars. Tabriz public bus lines connect its districts and some of its suburbs to the city centre of Tabriz. Tabriz also has a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) line which runs through an from ''Train Station
'' in West of Tabriz to ''Baseej Square'' in far East of the city.
Tabriz also has a public shuttle taxi service which connects city centres to major districts of the city. There is another taxi service running in the city calls Telephone Taxi which operates by private companies.
Part of Tabriz subway
line 1 is operational since 2015 which goes from Shahgoli to Shahriyar. Several lines are planned to connect districts of Tabriz to its city center however the construction is six years behind the schedule.
The government of Iran
had planned to finish of line No.1 of the network in 2006, but this was not achieved due to financial problems and currently only half of the track for the metro line has been laid.
Tabriz is linked to Europe through Turkey's roads
: بازرگان ) border. Tabriz is connected to Tehran
by Freeway 2 (Iran)
The city is linked to Iran
National Railways (IRIR
: رجا ) also to Europe by Turkey's railways via Ghotour
(Azerbaijani, Persian قطور) bridge in West Azerbaijan
province of Iran. Tabriz was the first city in Iran
to be served by railways with the construction of the Tabriz-Jolfa
line in 1912–1914 (later converted to broad-gauge in 1916). Tabriz Railway Station
is located in the western part of the city, at the end of Khomeyni
Tabriz International Airport
opened in 1950 and is the only international airport in East Azerbaijan
(since 1991). It has daily and weekly domestic flights to Tehran
, Kish Island
, and Mashhad
. It also has daily and weekly flights to Istanbul
Tabriz is a hub for the major sports events in the region. The city has a couple of sports complexes. The major sports complex inside the city is Bagh Shomal
complex which includes a soccer stadium, swimming pool, an arena for basketball and volleyball. There is also a bigger sports complex which is named the Olympic village which has a soccer stadium
and a cycling track
. They are several other smaller complexes for martial arts, swimming pools, and gymnasiums. Among many different sports activities soccer
got more attention because of the cities teams and international events which are held in the city.
Football is a major part of the city's culture. The huge number of fans made Tabriz home to two Iran
ian major Football
, and Machine Sazi FC
Tractor and Machine Sazi play in the Iran Pro League
. Tractor is very popular in northwestern Iran. The home stadium for Tractor is the city's major stadium, Sahand Stadium
which has the capacity of 80,000 people and Machine Sazi plays in its own 15,000 seated Stadium.
In June 1976 Bagh Shomal Stadium
of Tabriz hosted part of the final tournament of the AFC Asian Cup
The city's main futsal
club is Dabiri Tabriz
which was founded in 1998 and plays at the Oloum Pezeshki Arena in the city. The club won the Iranian Futsal Super League
in 2014 and finished third in Asia. The cities other futsal team is Shahrdari Tabriz
who play at the larger Shahid Poursharifi Arena
. The club is usually a mid-table team and has less support throughout the city.
Tabriz is also home for Azerbaijan Cycling Tour
which is held on a yearly based calendar since 1986. This cycling tour is the most prestigious cycling tour in Iran. Tabriz is also home for Tabriz Petrochemical Cycling Team
, a cycling team which is competing in UCI
-sanctioned competitions through Asian continents.
ski resorts are located in an hour drive from Tabriz. Depending on the perception, both resorts start operation from late December till early March.
Tabriz has one state television channel called Sahand TV
that broadcasts in both Persian
languages. It broadcasts internationally through the Arabsat and Intelsat satellites.
The city has one government-controlled radio channel broadcasting in both Persian
The 14 weekly magazines and 8 main newspapers published in the city include: Amin, Mahd Azadi, Asr Azadi, Fajr Azarbaijan, Saeb Tabriz, Payam Noor, Navaye Misho and Saheb.
Within its long history, Tabriz was always the origin for many Iranian illumination and modernization movements. This is why the city was the hometown of numerous Iranian dominant figures including many Iranian politicians, revolutionaries, artists, and military leaders. Here a partial list of some of the most notable people who born or lived in Tabriz.
''For a complete list see: :Category:People from Tabriz
and List of people from Tabriz
File:Khoy - Shams Tabrizi's tomb 8 - Information in page 1 - panoramio.jpg|Shams Tabrizi, poet.
File:Naser al din(5).jpg|King Naser al-Din Shah Qajar.
File:Iraj mirza picture.jpg|Iraj Mirza, poet.
File:Saib Tabrizi.jpeg|Saib Tabrizi, Persian poet.
File:Sattar khan.jpg|Sattar Khan, a pivotal figure in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution.
File:Bagherkhan.jpg|Bagher Khan, a pivotal figure in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution.
File:Shahbanu of Iran.jpg|Farah Pahlavi, is the widow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and was the Shahbanu (empress) of Iran.
File:Colonel pesyan.jpg|Mohammad Taqi Pessian, gendarme and pilot.
File:Ahmad Kasravi portrait.jpg|Ahmad Kasravi, linguist, nationalist, religious reformer, historian and cleric.
File:Farhad Fakhreddini 02 (cropped).jpg|Farhad Fakhreddini composer, conductor and founder of Iran's National Orchestra.
File:Shahriar.jpg|Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar, poet.
File:Gholam-Hossein Saedi.jpg|Gholam-Hossein Sa'edi, writer.
File:Samad Behrangi.JPG|Samad Behrangi, teacher, social critic, folklorist, translator, and writer.
File:Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i - 1940s.jpg|Muhammad Husayn Tabatabai, Allamah.
File:Tahmineh Milani.jpg|Tahmineh Milani, film director.
File:Azim Gheichisaz (portrait).jpg|Azim Gheychisaz, mountain climber and Summiter of all 14 Eight-thousanders
File:Parvin etesami.jpg|Parvin Etesami, 20th-century Persian poet of Iran.
File:Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari - March 1982 (cropped).jpg|Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari, Iranian Grand Ayatollah.
File:Dariush Shayegan 1.jpg|Dariush Shayegan, Philosopher and former University Professor.
File:Tehran derby by Mojnews 2.jpg|Karim Bagheri, professional football player and coach.
File:Major General Fakori 2.JPG|Javad Fakoori, prominent military official and defence minister.
Twin towns – sister cities
Tabriz is twinned
, Azerbaijan (1980)
, Turkey (2011)
, Azerbaijan (2015)
* Gaza City
, Palestine (2013)
, Turkey (2010)
, Iraq (2016)
, Russia (2004)
, Tajikistan (2011)
, Belarus (2012)
, China (2019)
Azerbaijan and Turkey have consulate offices in Tabriz. Formerly the Soviet Union
and the United States had consulate offices in Tabriz. The US consulate office closed after the 1979 Islamic revolution
and the USSR's office closed after the collapse of the USSR
* Pardis Animal Shelter
* Tabriz Khanate
* Timeline of Tabriz
* North, S.J.R., Guide to Biblical Iran, Rome 1956, p. 50
Category:Populated places in Tabriz County
Category:Cities in East Azerbaijan Province
Category:Iranian provincial capitals
Category:Ancient Iranian cities
Category:Populated places along the Silk Road
Category:Architecture of Iran
Category:Archaeological sites in Iran
Category:Former capitals of Iran
Category:Cities destroyed by earthquakes