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TABRIZ (pronounced ( listen )) (Persian : تبریز‎‎, Azerbaijani : تبریز) is the most populated city in Iranian Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, one of the historical capitals of Iran
Iran
and the present capital of East Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
province . Located in the Quru River valley, between long ridges of volcanic cones in the Sahand and Eynali mountains, Tabriz's elevation ranges between 1,350 and 1,600 metres (4,430 and 5,250 ft) above sea level. The valley opens up into a plain that gently slopes down to the eastern shores of Lake Urmia
Lake Urmia
, 60 kilometres (37 miles) to the west. With cold winters and temperate summers, Tabriz
Tabriz
is considered a summer resort. It was named World Carpet
Carpet
Weaving City by the World Crafts Council in October 2015 and Exemplary Tourist City of 2018 by the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation .

With a population of over 1.73 million (2016), Tabriz
Tabriz
is the largest economic hub and metropolitan area in Northwest Iran. The population is overwhelmingly Azerbaijani, though Persian is spoken by residents as a second language. Tabriz
Tabriz
is a major heavy industries hub for automobiles, machine tools, refineries, petrochemicals, textiles and cement production industries. The city is famous for its handicrafts, including hand-woven rugs and jewellery. Local confectionery, chocolate, dried nuts and traditional Tabrizi food are recognised throughout Iran
Iran
as some of the best. Tabriz
Tabriz
is also an academic hub and a site for some of the most prestigious cultural institutes in Northwest Iran.

Tabriz
Tabriz
contains many historical monuments, representing Iran's architectural transition throughout its deep history. Most of Tabriz's preserved historical sites belong to Ilkhanid , Safavid
Safavid
and Qajar . Among these is the grand Bazaar of Tabriz , inscribed as a World Heritage Site in 2010. From the early modern era, Tabriz
Tabriz
was pivotal in the development, movement and economy of three neighbouring regions; namely the Caucasus
Caucasus
, Eastern Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
and Central Iran. From the 19th century, it became the most important city in the country in many respects. As Iran's closest hub to Europe
Europe
, many aspects of early modernisation in Iran
Iran
began in Tabriz. Prior to forced ceding of Iran\'s Caucasian territories to Imperial Russia , following two Russo-Persian Wars in the first half of the 19th century, Tabriz
Tabriz
was at the forefront of Iranian rule over its Caucasian territories due to proximity. Throughout most of the Qajar period (up to 1925), it functioned as the seat of the crown prince.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Early history * 2.2 From the Arab conquest to the Constitutional Revolution * 2.3 Contemporary era * 2.4 Capital of Iran
Iran
* 2.5 Excavation sites

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Topography * 3.2 Climate * 3.3 Environment pollution

* 4 Governance

* 4.1 Historic municipal districts * 4.2 Modern municipal districts

* 5 Demographics

* 5.1 Language * 5.2 Religion

* 6 Culture and art

* 6.1 Literature * 6.2 Music * 6.3 Painting * 6.4 Cuisine

* 7 Main sights * 8 Parks and gardens

* 9 Economy

* 9.1 Industries * 9.2 Handcrafts ateliers * 9.3 Shopping * 9.4 Tabriz International Exhibition Center

* 10 Schools and libraries

* 10.1 Universities * 10.2 Famous high schools * 10.3 Religious schools * 10.4 Libraries

* 11 Infrastructure

* 11.1 Health systems * 11.2 Transportation

* 12 Sports

* 12.1 Football * 12.2 Futsal
Futsal
* 12.3 Cycling

* 13 Media * 14 Famous natives * 15 Sister cities and twin towns * 16 Consulates * 17 Panoramic view * 18 Tabriz
Tabriz
2016 * 19 See also * 20 References * 21 Sources * 22 Bibliography * 23 External links

ETYMOLOGY

According to some sources, including Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
, the name Tabriz
Tabriz
derives from tap-riz, from the many thermal springs in the area. Other sources claim that in AD 246, to avenge his brother's death, king Khosrov I of Armenia defeated Ardashir I
Ardashir I
of the Sassanid Empire and changed the name of the city from Shahistan to Tauris, deriving from "ta-vrezh" ("this revenge" in Grabar ). In AD 297, it became the capital of Tiridates III , king of Armenia. However, this story has a popular origin and no ancient source has recorded such event. This is based on accounts of Vardan , the Armenian historian in 13th century.

HISTORY

See also: Timeline of Tabriz , Iranian Azerbaijan , History of the Caucasus
Caucasus
, and History of Iran
Iran

EARLY HISTORY

The early history of Tabriz
Tabriz
is not well-documented. The earliest inscription about Tabriz, referring to the city as Tarui or Tauris, is on the Assyrian King Sargon II 's epigraph in 714 BC. Tabriz
Tabriz
has been chosen as the capital for some rulers commencing from Atropates era and his dynasty.

A recent excavation at the site of the Iron Age museum , in the north of the Blue Mosque
Mosque
site, uncovered a graveyard of 1st millennium BC. More likely the city has been destroyed multiple times either by natural disasters or by the invading armies.

The earliest elements of the present Tabriz
Tabriz
are claimed to be built either at the time of the early Sassanids in the 3rd or 4th century AD, or later in the 7th century. The Middle Persian
Middle Persian
name of the city was T'awrēš.

Egyptologist David Rohl suggested that the legendary Garden of Eden was near Tabriz. Archaeologist Eric H. Cline commented on Rohl's views, writing that "his suggestions have not caught on with the scholarly establishment. His argument is not helped by the fact that it depends upon speculations regarding the transmission of place-names for both the various rivers and nearby related areas from antiquity to the present. In the end, while Rohl’s suggestion is not out of the question, it seems no more probable than any other hypothesis, and less likely than those suggested by Speiser, Zarins, and Sauer."

FROM THE ARAB CONQUEST TO THE CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION

16th-century schematic map of Tabriz
Tabriz
by Matrakçı Nasuh

After the Muslims conquest of Iran
Iran
, the Arabic Azd tribe from Yemen resided in Tabriz. The development of post-Islamic Tabriz
Tabriz
began as of this time. The Islamic geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi says that Tabriz
Tabriz
was a village before Rawwad from the tribe of Azd arrive at Tabriz. In 791 AD, Zubaidah , the wife of Abbasid
Abbasid
caliph Harun al-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid
, rebuilt Tabriz
Tabriz
after a devastating earthquake and beautified the city so much as to obtain the credit for having been its founder.

In the ramadan of 1208, Tabriz, as well as its adjacent cities and territories were conquered by the Kingdom of Georgia under Tamar the Great , as a response to the massacre of 12,000 Christians in the Georgian-controlled city of Ani
Ani
on Easter
Easter
day by Muslims. In nearby Ardebil, conquered by the Georgians as well, as many as 12,000 Muslims were killed. The Georgians then pushed further, taking Khoy and Qazvin
Qazvin
along the way.

After the Mongol invasion, Tabriz
Tabriz
came to eclipse Maragheh as the later Ilkhanid Mongol capital of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
until it was sacked by Timur in 1392.

Chosen as a capital by Abaqa Khan , fourth ruler of the Ilkhanate, for its favored location in the northwestern grasslands, in 1295, his successor Ghazan Khan made it the chief administrative center of an empire stretching from Anatolia
Anatolia
to the Oxus River and from the Caucasus
Caucasus
to the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
. Under his rule new walls were built around the city, and numerous public buildings, educational facilities, and caravansarais were erected to serve traders traveling on the ancient Silk Road . The Byzantine Gregory Choniades is said to have served as the city's Orthodox bishop during this time.

In the 13th century many western expediters who visit Tabriz
Tabriz
on their way to the east were amazed by the richness of the city, its magnificent buildings and its institutions.

Marco Polo
Marco Polo
, who traveled thorough the Silk Road and passed Tabriz about 1275, described it as: "a great city surrounded by beautiful and pleasant gardens. It is excellently situated so the goods brought to here come from many regions. Latin merchants specially Genevis go there to buy the goods that come from foreign lands."

During the Middle Ages, a Jewish
Jewish
community existed in the town. In the 16th century a Jewish
Jewish
Yemenite traveler to the town described the deteriorating conditions of Jewish
Jewish
life there.

From 1375 to 1468, Tabriz
Tabriz
was the capital of Qara Qoyunlu state in Azerbaijan, until defeat of Qara Qoyunlu ruler, Jahan Shah by Ag Qoyunlu warriors. Ag Qoyunlus selected Tabriz
Tabriz
as their capital from 1469 to 1501. Some of the existing historical monuments including the Blue Mosque
Mosque
belong to the Qara Qoyunlu period.

In 1501, Shah Ismail I
Shah Ismail I
entered Tabriz
Tabriz
and proclaimed it the capital of his Safavid
Safavid
state. In 1514, after the Battle of Chaldiran , Tabriz was temporarily occupied by the Ottomans . Tabriz
Tabriz
retaken by Iranian forces and it remained the capital of Safavid
Safavid
Iranian empire until 1548. In that year Shah Tahmasp I transferred it to Qazvin
Qazvin
to avoid the growing threat of Ottoman army to his capital. Panoramic view of Tabriz
Tabriz
sketched by Jean Chardin, 1673

Between 1585 and 1603, Tabriz
Tabriz
was under occupation by Ottomans . Safavid
Safavid
king, Abbas I of Persia
Abbas I of Persia
retake Tabriz
Tabriz
after which the city grows as a major commerce center, conducting trade with the Ottoman Empire , Russia
Russia
, and the Caucasus
Caucasus
. The City was occupied and sacked by Ottoman Murad IV
Murad IV
in 1635, during the Ottoman- Safavid
Safavid
war 1623-1639 , before being returned to Persia in the Treaty of Zohab in 1639.

In summer of 1721, a large earthquake shocked Tabriz, killing about eighty thousand of its residents. The devastation continued on 1724-1725 by a crucial invasion of the city by Ottoman army . During this round of invasion Ottmans imprisoned many and killed about two hundred thousand of Tabriz
Tabriz
inhabitants. Tabriz
Tabriz
retaken by the Iranian army. In the years after retaking a widespread hunger combined with spread of fatal diseases killed some more of the remaining residents of the city. In 1780, a major earthquake hit near Tabriz
Tabriz
killing over 200,000 people. The tragic devastation reduced the number of inhabitants to about thirty thousand and turned the city to a mere ghost town.

At the end of the 18th century the city was divided to several districts each of which was ruled by a family, until 1799 when the Qajar Prince Abbas Mirza was appointed as the governor of the city. During the Qajar dynasty
Qajar dynasty
the city was the residence for the Crown Prince. The crown prince normally served as governor of Azerbaijan province as well. One of the most important events in this period were the wars between Qajar Iran
Iran
and neighboring Imperial Russia . Prior to the forced ceding of Iran's Caucasian territories to Imperial Russia following the two Russo-Persian Wars of the first half of the 19th century, comprising what is now Georgia , southern Dagestan
Dagestan
, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, and Armenia
Armenia
, Tabriz
Tabriz
was the main city in the implementation of Iranian rule for its Caucasian territories due to its proximity. With the last series of the Russo-Persian Wars, the Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828 , the city was captured by Russia
Russia
in 1827 by General Prince Eristov, who marched into the city with 3,000 soldiers. After Abbas Mirza and Ivan Paskevich signed the peace treaty , which granted for the irrevocable cession of the last remaining Caucasian territories, the Russian army retreated from the city however the Russian political and military influence remained a major thing in Tabriz
Tabriz
and north-northwestern Iran
Iran
up to the fall of Russian empire in the early 20th century. After the retreat of the Russian army, Abbas Mirza , Qajar prince of crown, started a modernization scheme launched from Tabriz. He introduced Western-style institutions, imported industrial machinery, installed the first regular postal service, and undertook military reforms in the city. He rebuilt the remnants of Tabriz
Tabriz
and established a modern taxation system.

*

Saheb-ol-Amr Mosque and Quru river, Eugène Flandin
Eugène Flandin
1841. *

Sketch of the gate of Tabriz, Eugène Flandin
Eugène Flandin
1841. *

A sketch of a 19th-century house in Tabriz, Eugène Flandin
Eugène Flandin
. *

Painting of Blue mosque , Jules Laurens , 1872.

CONTEMPORARY ERA

Thanks to the geographical closeness to the West and to communications with nearby countries' enlightenment movements, Tabriz became the center of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution
Iranian Constitutional Revolution
movements between 1905 and 1911, which led to the establishment of a parliament in Iran
Iran
and the formation of a constitution. Sattar Khan and Bagher Khan , two Tabrizi reformists who led Tabriz
Tabriz
people's solidarity against absolute monarchy, had a great role in achievement to the goals of Iran's constitutional revolution. In 1909, Tabriz
Tabriz
was occupied by the Russian forces.{sfnCronin2013page=323}} Four months after the constitutional revolution's success, in December 1911, the Russians reinvaded Tabriz
Tabriz
. After crushing the local resistance by invading Russian troops, they started suppressing the constitutional revolutionaries and residents of the city. Following the invasion Russian troops executed about 1200 of Tabriz
Tabriz
residents. As a result of the campaign, Tabriz
Tabriz
was occupied by the Russian forces between 1911 and 1917.

*

Siege of Tabriz
Tabriz
during Constitutional Revolution , September 27, 1908. *

Constitutional revolutionists defending Davachi bridge against monarchists, May 1, 1909. *

Constitutionals in Tabriz, 1911. *

Ark of Tabriz
Tabriz
and US flag in the days after constitutional revolution, 1911.

See also: Invasion of Tabriz, World War I Further information: Persian Campaign and Caucasus
Caucasus
Campaign

From the very start of World War I
World War I
, Iran
Iran
declared neutrality. When the war erupted on a full scale, Tabriz
Tabriz
and much of northwestern-northern Iran
Iran
had already been de facto occupied by Russia
Russia
for several years. In later years of World War I, the Ottoman troops intervened and took control of the city by defeating the Russian troops stationed there. By this time, the Ottoman army led by Enver Pasha threatened the whole Russian army in the Caucasus
Caucasus
region. Russian troops recaptured the city from the Ottomans at a later stage of the war. By escalation of the revolution in Russia
Russia
, the Russian armies in Iranian Azerbaijan were evacuated, and the actual power passed into the hands of the local committee of the democrat party, with Ismail Nawbari at its head. Following Russia's retreat, the Ottomans captured the city once again for a few months until the decisive end of the war, and retreated thereafter. After World War I, a new era in the county's history began. Reza Shah , brigadier-general of the Persian Cossack Brigade
Persian Cossack Brigade
, declared himself the king of the country following a coup d\'état . He started with promises of modernization programs in Iran
Iran
which was concentrated on the unification of the country, under the idea of one country, one nation. This included centralization of the power and imposing restrictions on the local culture, heritages, and language in Iranian Azerbaijan, and the city of Tabriz. The modernization and nationalization plan of Reza Shah continued until the surge of World War II. Tabriz Municipality Palace , built on 1934

At the final year of the World War II
World War II
despite the declaration of the neutrality by the Iranian government, the country was occupied by the allied forces. The allied forces then urged Reza Shah to abdicate and installed his son Mohammad Reza as the new king of the country. The postwar situation was further complicated by Soviet aid to set up a local government called Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
People\'s Government in Northwest Iran
Iran
, having Tabriz
Tabriz
as its capital. The new Soviet-backed local government was run by Ja\'far Pishevari and held power for one year starting from 1946. Pishevari's government gave more freedom to speech and education in Azerbaijani language and promoted local cultural heritage and gained some popularity among the residents. However, after withdrawal of Soviet forces, Pishevari's limited armed forces were crushed by the Imperial Iranian army and the Iranian government retook control of the city. One of the major establishments in the period of Pishevari's government was opening of the University of Tabriz
Tabriz
which played a major role in the later political movements and protests in the region.

*

Russian Invasion of Tabriz, 1911 . *

Soviet artillery units passing through Tabriz, World War II. *

Soviet Tank and troops marching through Tabriz, World War II. *

Soviet T-26 Tank passing through main street of Tabriz, World War II.

For the next 30 years, after the collapse of Azerbaijan's Soviet-backed government, Tabriz
Tabriz
enjoyed a stable era until the revolution in 1979. During this period the city enjoyed a lot of investment in industries and had transformed into a heavy industries hub in the northwest of Iran. The need for a strong workforce increased the immigration from all around Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
toward Tabriz. During this era and because of the continuous policy of the government centralization in Tehran
Tehran
as well as changes in communication and transportation, the city lost its historical dominance in favor of being the gate for reform and modernization in the country.

Starting with 1978 and with the heat of the Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
, Tabriz
Tabriz
played a major role in the revolution. After revolution, the residents of the city were unsatisfied with the outcome, mainly because of the ignorance of the revolutionary government about the rights of the Azerbaijani minority. The other major source of dissatisfaction was the support of most of Iranian Azerbaijanis including Tabriz
Tabriz
residents from a more liberal cleric, grand Ayatollah Shariatmadari , who was against the new constitutions content which was mixing religion and state together. The unrest in the city calmed down after brutal crush of the protesters in Tabriz
Tabriz
and after house arrest of Shariatmadari. Aerial view of northeast Tabriz, May 2012

In the 1980s, due to the Iraq- Iran
Iran
war , like the rest of the country, most of the construction and development projects in the city were stopped in order to fund the war costs. In addition to the indirect effects of the war, city's industrial zone, specially the oil refinery was also a major target for air strikes by Iraqi's air forces because of the closeness to the Iraqi border lines, and their strategic roles in the country's economy. With escalation of the war the attacks turned to War of the Cities and the air attacks later turned into the random strikes on the residential areas of the city in the later phase of the war.

In recent years, Tabriz
Tabriz
is much more stable and the new developments in the city are rapidly changing the face of the city.

CAPITAL OF IRAN

Tabriz
Tabriz
was chosen as the capital by several rulers commencing from the time of Atropates . It was the capital of the Ilkhanate (Mongol) dynasty since 1265. During the Ghazan Khan era, who came into power in 1295, the city reached its highest splendour. The later realm stretched from the Amu Darya in the East to the Egypt
Egypt
borders in the West and from the Caucasus
Caucasus
in the North to the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
in the South. It was again the capital of Iran
Iran
during the Qara Qoyunlu dynasty from 1375 to 1468 and then during the Ag Qoyunlu within 1468–1501. Finally, it was capital of the Iranian Empire in the Safavid
Safavid
period from 1501 until their defeat in 1555 .

During the Qajar dynasty, Tabriz
Tabriz
was used as residence center of Iranian Crown Prince (1794–1925).

EXCAVATION SITES

See also: Iron Age museum

In 2002, during a construction project at the north side of the Blue Mosque
Mosque
(Part of Silk Road Project), an ancient graveyard was revealed. This was kept secret until a construction worker alerted the authorities. Radiocarbon analysis by Allameh Tabatabi University has shown the background of the graves to be more than 3800 years old. A museum of these excavations including the Blue Mosque
Mosque
was opened to public in 2006.

The other excavation site is in Abbasi Street at the site of Rab\'-e Rashidi , which was the location for an academic institution since approximately 700 years ago. It was established in Ilkhanid period.

GEOGRAPHY

TOPOGRAPHY

Tabriz
Tabriz
is located in northwest of Iran
Iran
in East Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
province between Eynali and Sahand mountains in a fertile area in shore of Aji River and Ghuri River . The local area is earthquake-prone and during its history, the city has been devastated and rebuilt several times.

CLIMATE

Tabriz
Tabriz
has a semi-arid climate with regular seasons (Köppen BSk). The annual precipitation is around 280 millimetres (11 in), a good deal of which falls as snow during the winter months and rain in spring and autumn . The city enjoys mild and fine climate in spring, dry and semi-hot in summer, humid and rainy in autumn and snowy cold in winter. The average annual temperature is 12.6 °C (54.7 °F). Cool winds blow from east to west mostly in summer. The inhabitants' overall evaluation of climate is pretty negative; there is a popular saying that "Təbrizin alti ayii qişdir, altisi də qəmişdir!" (in Tabriz, six months of the year are winter and the other six months are a nuisance).

CLIMATE DATA FOR TABRIZ (1951–2010, EXTREMES 1951–2010)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 16.0 (60.8) 19.0 (66.2) 25.6 (78.1) 31.2 (88.2) 33.8 (92.8) 39.0 (102.2) 42.0 (107.6) 41.0 (105.8) 38.0 (100.4) 30.6 (87.1) 23.4 (74.1) 21.8 (71.2) 42.0 (107.6)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 2.3 (36.1) 4.9 (40.8) 10.6 (51.1) 17.0 (62.6) 22.8 (73) 28.8 (83.8) 32.8 (91) 32.7 (90.9) 28.3 (82.9) 20.7 (69.3) 12.0 (53.6) 5.2 (41.4) 18.2 (64.8)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) −1.7 (28.9) 0.5 (32.9) 5.6 (42.1) 11.5 (52.7) 16.7 (62.1) 22.1 (71.8) 26.0 (78.8) 25.9 (78.6) 21.4 (70.5) 14.5 (58.1) 7.1 (44.8) 1.2 (34.2) 12.6 (54.7)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −5.7 (21.7) −3.9 (25) 0.6 (33.1) 6.0 (42.8) 10.7 (51.3) 15.4 (59.7) 19.3 (66.7) 19.1 (66.4) 14.5 (58.1) 8.4 (47.1) 2.1 (35.8) −2.9 (26.8) 7.0 (44.6)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −25.0 (−13) −22.0 (−7.6) −19.0 (−2.2) −12.0 (10.4) 0.6 (33.1) 4.0 (39.2) 7.0 (44.6) 10.0 (50) 4.0 (39.2) −4.0 (24.8) −17.0 (1.4) −19.5 (−3.1) −25.0 (−13)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 22.0 (0.866) 24.2 (0.953) 40.0 (1.575) 51.6 (2.031) 41.1 (1.618) 16.4 (0.646) 5.6 (0.22) 3.3 (0.13) 7.9 (0.311) 22.5 (0.886) 27.1 (1.067) 22.1 (0.87) 283.8 (11.173)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS 4.9 5.3 7.7 8.8 7.3 3.2 1.2 0.6 1.3 4.3 4.9 5.0 54.5

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS 9.3 7.9 4.9 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 1.8 6.2 31.4

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 72 69 61 56 50 40 36 36 39 51 65 71 53

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 125.9 146.3 179.7 200.8 268.7 334.3 352.5 337.7 301.4 231.6 180.3 136.8 2,796

Source: Iran
Iran
Meteorological Organization (records), (temperatures), (precipitation), (humidity), (days with precipitation),

(sunshine)

ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION

Air pollution is one of the major environmental issues in Tabriz. Air pollution is due to increase of number of cars in the commuting in the city and the polluting industries such as thermal power plants, petrochemical complexes and the oil refinery in the west of the city, air pollution levels increased continuously in the second half of the 20th century. With a mandate of national environmental codes by heavy industries the industrial air pollution is reduced in recent years. However the air quality in the city is far away from world norms for clean air.

An immediate environmental threat is the shrinkage and drying out of the Lake Urmia
Lake Urmia
located in outskirts of Western Tabriz. The lake has faced a grave crisis since the late 20th century. Water depth reduction, increasing water salinity to saturation level and the appearance of vast salt fields around the lake, are alarming indications of gradual total desiccation of a unique ecosystem. This occurred due to global warming and ever increasing demands for inadequate fresh water sources in the basin. It is feared in the near future low-lying clouds of airborne salt and minerals may hover over large areas around the lake, posing serious health hazards.

GOVERNANCE

Saat Tower , Municipality Museum and former municipality office. Main Municipality Office Further information: List of Tabriz Mayors

Authority for the city lies with the Mayor, who is elected by a municipal board. The municipal board is periodically elected by the city's residents. The Municipal central office is located at the Tabriz Municipality Palace .

HISTORIC MUNICIPAL DISTRICTS

Tabriz
Tabriz
is divided into 10 municipal districts. Each municipal district retains a number of the older neighborhoods that are of cultural and historical interest.

* Ahrab (اهراب) * Akhmaqaya (آخماقایا) * Amraqiz (امره قیز) * Bahar (باهار) * Baghmasha (باغ‌مئشه) * Baghshoumal (باغ‌شومال) * Baron Avak (Barnava) (بارناوا، بارون‌آواک) * Bazaar
Bazaar
(بازار) * Beylanki (Beylankooh) (بیلانکی) * Charandab (چرنداب)

* Chousdouzan (چوس‌دوزان) * Davachi (دوچی) * Gajil (گجیل) * Gazran (Re. Khayyam) (گزران) * Imamieh (امامیه) * Hokmavar (حکم‌آوار) * Kouchebagh (کوچه‌باغ) * Khatib (hatib) (خطیب، حطیب) * Khayyam (خیام)

* Khiyavan (خیاوان) * Laklar (لک لر) * Lalah (لاله) * Lilava (Leilabad) (لیلاوا لیل‌آباد) * Manzariya (منظریه) * Maghsoudia (مقصودیه) * Maralan (مارالان) * Nobar (نوبار) * Qaraghaj (قره‌آغاج) * Qaramalik (قارا‌ ملیک)

* Rastakucha (راستاکوچه) * Sarlak (سرلک) * Selab (سئلاب) * Shanb-e- Ghazan
Ghazan
(شنب غازان) * Shah-goli
Shah-goli
(شاه‌گؤلی، شاه‌گؤلو) * Sheshghelan (ششگلان) * Sirkhab (سیرخاب) * Tapalibagh (تپه لی باغ) * Vardjibashi (Vidjooya) (ورجی باشی، ویجویه)

MODERN MUNICIPAL DISTRICTS

This is table of modern Tabriz
Tabriz
districts.

* Parvaz (Persian : شهرک پرواز‎‎) * Golshahr (Persian : گلشهر‎‎) * Zafaranieh (Persian : زعفرانیه‎‎) * Rajae Shahr (Persian : رجائی شهر‎‎) * Yaghchian (Persian : شهرک شهید یاغچیان‎‎) * Marzdaran (Persian : شهرک مرزداران‎‎) * Eram (Persian : شهرک ارم‎‎)

* Abresan (Persian : آبرسان)‎‎ * Vali Asr (Persian : کوی ولی عصر‎‎) * Elahi Parast (Persian : کوی الهی پرست‎‎) * Ferdows / Shah Gölü (Persian : کوی فردوس-شاهگلی‎‎) * Fereshteh (Persian : کوی فرشته‎‎) * Roshdieh (Persian : شهرک رشدیه‎‎) * Mirdamad (Persian : میرداماد‎‎)

DEMOGRAPHICS

According to an official 2016 census, the population of Tabriz
Tabriz
is 1,733,033. The majority of the city's population are Azerbaijani Turks , followed by Persians , Armenians and Assyrians .

LANGUAGE

Main article: Azerbaijani language § South Azerbaijani See also: Old Azeri language

The predominant language spoken in Tabriz
Tabriz
is Azerbaijani Turkish (Azerbaijani people call it Türkü or Türki language), which is a Turkic language mutually intelligible with modern Turkish dialects . The language has a strong Iranian substratum since it has been in close contact with the Persian language
Persian language
for many centuries. Similar to the other parts of Iran, the official language is Persian and the most inhabitants have native or near-native knowledge of Persian language
Persian language
, which is the major medium of education. Nevertheless, the Iranian constitution respects the right to speak and have limited educational facilities in other native languages, including Azerbaijani. For the first time, an academic program on Azerbaijani language opened at the University of Tabriz in 1999. Other than Azerbaijani, there is a notable minority of Armenian speakers and a smaller minority of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic speakers. A Page from the only manuscript of Safina-yi Tabriz . It contains a Persian and a Pahlavi poem

It is believed that before the gradual increase and dominance of Azerbaijani language in the area, other Iranian languages
Iranian languages
similar to Farsi were spoken in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Tabriz. The 13th-century manuscript Safina-yi Tabriz has poems in what its Tabriz-born author has called the Tabrizi language (Zabān-e-Tabrizi) which is similar to Farsi language. Samples of the Tabrizi dialect of the Old Azeri language include quatrains recorded in Tabrizi dialect by Abd al-Qadir Maraghi , phrases from Baba Faraji Tabrizi and poems in Tabrizi in the Safina-yi Tabriz , and poetry from Homam Tabrizi , Mama Esmat Tabrizi, Maghrebi Tabrizi and others.

RELIGION

After being crowned at Tabriz
Tabriz
in 1501, Shah Ismail I
Shah Ismail I
announced the Twelver branch of Shia Islam
Shia Islam
as the official region of the Safavid Empire . As a result of this royal order, the mostly Sunni population of Tabriz
Tabriz
converted to Shia. Currently, the majority of people are followers of Shia Islam. The city has a visible Armenian Apostolic minority who follow Christianity
Christianity
. There used to be a small Jewish community, but most of them have moved to Tehran
Tehran
. Tabriz
Tabriz
is also home to a very large number of the followers of Yarsanism , a Kurdish folk religion. There is a small, embattled Baha\'i community in the city.

CULTURE AND ART

LITERATURE

Sahand , o mountain of pure snow, Descended from Heaven with Zoroaster Fire in your heart, snow on your shoulders, with storm of centuries, And white hair of history on your chest ...

Yadollah Maftun Amini (born in 1926)

The proximity to Sahand , a mountain in the south of the city, has been a source of inspiration for contemporary revolutionaries and poets alike. The power of this inspiring source, however, goes to much earlier times. Tabriz
Tabriz
was a house for numerous Iranian writers, poets, and illumination movements. In old times the city notables, supported poets and writers by organizing periodical meetings. Within its long history it was a residence for many well known Iranian writers and poets. The list can start from the old time Rumi
Rumi
, Qatran , Khaqani to recent years Samad Behrangi , Gholam-Hossein Sa\'edi , Parvin E\'tesami . The prominent Iranian Azeri poet Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar was born in Tabriz. The culture, social values, language and the music is a mixture of what exists in rest of Iran
Iran
.

Tabriz
Tabriz
also has a special place in Persian literature , as the following sample of verses from some of Iran\'s best poets and authors illustrates:

ساربانا بار بگشا ز اشتران شهر تبريز است و کوی دلبران

Oh Sārbān, have camels' cargo unloaded, For Tabriz
Tabriz
is neighborhood of the beloved. ―Molana

عزیزی در اقصای تبریز بود که همواره بیدار و شبخیز بود

A beloved lived in Tabriz
Tabriz
away from sight, who was always alert and awake at night ―Bustan of Sadi

تا به تبریزم دو چیزم حاصل است نیم نان و آب مهران رود و بس

As long as I live in Tabriz, two things I need not worry of, The half loaf of bread and the water of Mehranrud are enough! ― Khaqani

اين ارك بلند شهر تبريز است افراشته قامتِ رسايش را

This is the tall Arg of Tabriz City, Raised its outstanding height there! ―Maftun

MUSIC

Main article: Music of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan

A century long autocratic nation building policies of central governments in Iran
Iran
has succeeded in cultural assimilation in the favor of a government sanctioned culture. As a result, Tabriz, by the turn of the 20th century had nearly become devoid of its once characteristic cultural identity. Thanks to the more liberal policies of the Khatami era (1998-2006, a cultural renaissance took place and the local music was revitalized.

The traditional Azeri music is divided into two distinct types, the music of "ashugh " and the "mugham ". Mugham, despite its similarity to Persian classic music, was not common among Iranian Azeris. In recent years, however, mugham is gaining popularity among educated middle class young generation. For instance, Nasir Atapur, from Tabriz, was the laureate of Mugam contest 2007.

The ashugh music had survived in mountainous region of Qaradağ and presently is identified as the characteristic form of music in all Azerbaijan. The ashugh music, throughout its long history, had been associated with nomadic life in mountainous regions and used to be dismissed as back-country folklore. The recent identity renaissance of Azeri speaking people has elevated the status of ashughs as the guardians of national culture.The new found unprecedented popularity and frequent concerts and performances in urban settings have resulted in rapid innovative developments aiming to enhance the urban-appealing aspects of this ashugh performances. A main factor for this developments was the opening of academic style music classes in Tabriz by master Ashugs, such as Aşiq Imran Heydəri.

Ashugs (Aşiq in Azeri language stemmed from the Arabic word for lover) were travelling bards who sang and played saz, an eight or ten string plucking instrument in the form of a long necked lute. Their roots can be traced back to at least the 7th century according to the Turkic epic Dede Korkut. Naturally, the music was evolved in the course of the grand migration and ensuing feuds with the original inhabitants the acquired lands. Still, the essence of the original epics, i.e. metamorphic description of life in pastoral terms withdirect reference to mountainous landscape, persists to the present time. The characteristic aspect of the Ashugh music is its frequent allusions to a mountain with the intention of arousing an emotional state with a tone of mild melancholy in a listener. The first verses of a contemporary Ashug song, composed by Məhəmməd Araz, may well represent the essence of Ashugh music may clarify the said statement.

Bəlkə bu yerlərə birdə gəlmədim (I may not come to these mountains again)

duman səlamət qal dağ səlamət qal (Farewell to the Mist and to the mountain)

arxamca su səpir göydə bulutlar (Clouds sprinkle drops of rain)

leysan səlamət qal yağ səlamət qal (Farewell to summer days, farewell to the rain) Tabriz
Tabriz
style in Iranian miniature

PAINTING

"Tabrizian style" painting was shaped in the era of Ilkhanids , Kara Koyunlu and the Safavids . The paintings date back to the early 14th century and show significant influence from Chinese and Chinese-influenced pictures. Over years Tabriz
Tabriz
became the center of the famous school of Persian miniature painting. A fascinating fictional account of "Tabrizian style" painting in the Safavids era is narrated by Orhan Pamuk in My Name Is Red .

CUISINE

Main article: Iranian Cuisine See also: Azerbaijani cuisine

Famous dishes in Tabriz
Tabriz
include:

Ash is a kind of soup prepared with bouillon , various vegetables , carrots , noodles and spices.

Abgoosht or Shorva (آب‌گوشت) is a hearty soup made of mutton (sheep meat) and chickpeas. It has been cooked in Iran
Iran
for many years and, until recently, was the main dish of most families in Tabriz.

Chelow kabab , kebab and roasted tomatoes (and roasted hot peppers occasionally) served on a plate of steamed rice , is the national dish of Iran. Tabriz
Tabriz
is famous for the quality of its chelow kabab.

Dolma
Dolma
is a traditional delicious Azerbaijani food. It is prepared with eggplant, capsicum, tomato or zucchini filled with a mixture of meat, split pea , onion and various spices.

Garniyarikh (meaning "the torn abdomen" in Azeri ) is a kind of dolma filled with meat, garlic , almonds and spices .

Tabriz köfte is a special recipe from Tabriz
Tabriz
with the appearance of big meatballs, which are prepared with a mixture of ground meat, rice, leeks and some other ingredients. The word kofta is derived from Persian kūfta: in Persian, kuftan (کوفتن) means "to beat" or "to grind".

*

A table of some of Tabriz
Tabriz
traditional foods (köfte and syrup with sangak and Bonab Kababi with rice) *

Kufteh Tabrizi *

Abgoosht *

Dolma
Dolma
*

Cutlet *

Qurutli ash, a thick soup made of qurut

There are also confections, biscuits and cookies, some of which are Tabriz
Tabriz
specialties including Qurabiya , Tabrizi Lovuez , Riss, Nougat , Tasbihi, Latifeh, Ahari, Lovadieh, and Lokum
Lokum
.

*

Qurabiya *

Tabrizi Lovuez *

Nouga ( Nougat ) *

Riss *

Konjod Halvasi, a laminal sesame cookie. *

Tabriz's Baklava
Baklava
*

Dried, Fried, and Salted Nuts

MAIN SIGHTS

Tabriz
Tabriz
was devastated by several earthquakes during its history (e.g., in 858, 1041, and 1721) and as a result, from numerous monuments only few of them or part of them have survived until now. Moreover, some of the historical monuments have been destroyed fully or partially within construction projects (the Arg of Tabriz is in danger of destruction now, because of the ongoing nearby construction project of Mosal'laye Emam). Nonetheless, there are still numerous monuments remaining until now, which include:

* Aji Chay Bridge * Amir Nezam House (Qajar museum) * Arg of Tabriz * Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Museum * Baghmasha gate * Bazaar of Tabriz , a world heritage site * Behnam House (school of architecture) * Blue Mosque
Mosque
(Goy Masjid) * Boulourchian house * Constitutional Revolution House of Tabriz (Mashrouteh museum) * Daneshsara (faculty of education)

* Document Museum * East- Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Palace * Ferdowsi street * Ghadaki house * Qari Bridge * Haidarzadeh house * Hariree house * House of Seghat ol Islam * Imamzadeh Hamzah, Tabriz * Imamzadeh
Imamzadeh
Ibrahim * Iranian municipalities

* Iron Age museum * Jamee mosque of Tabriz * Madrasah Akbarieh * Maqbaratoshoara (tomb of poets) * Mansoor bridge * Measure museum * Muharram museum * Municipality of Tabriz * Museum of Ostad Bohtouni * Nobar bath * On ibn Ali\'s shrine

* Ordobadi house * Pahlavi street (Imam St.) * Pol Sanghi (Stone bridge) * Post museum * Pottery museum * Protestant church of Tabriz * Qur\'an museum * Roshdieh school * Rug museum * Ruins of Rabe Rashidi University * Saheb ol Amr mosque * Saint Mary Church of Tabriz (Armenian church) * Salmasi house Measure museum

* Seventh-day Adventist Church
Seventh-day Adventist Church
, Armenian * Seyed Hamzeh shrine * Shahnaz street * Sharbatoglu house * Shahryar literature museum (house of Shahryar ) * Shohada Mosque * Sorkheh-i house * Tabriz Art University (former Charmsazi Khosravi) * Tabriz Fire Fighting Tower * Tabriz Museum of Natural History * Tabriz Railway Station * Tarbiyat street * Two Kamals tomb

*

Saat Tower *

The Grand Bazaar
Bazaar
*

Iron Age museum *

Amir Nezam House (Qajar museum) *

Constitution House of Tabriz *

Measure museum of Tabriz
Tabriz
*

Behnam House *

Qari Bridge *

Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Museum *

Blue Mosque
Mosque
*

Shah-goli
Shah-goli
park *

Saint Mary Church of Tabriz *

Chay kenar (river side) at night *

Seyed Hamzeh shrine and mosque

PARKS AND GARDENS

Tabriz
Tabriz
has 132 parks, including 97 small parks, 31 regional and 4 city parks. According to 2005 statistics, the area of parks in Tabriz is 2,595 km2, and the area of green spaces of Tabriz
Tabriz
is 8,548 km2, which is 5.6 sq.m per person. The oldest park in Tabriz, Golestan Baği , was established at first Pahlavi 's era in city center. Tabriz also has 8 traveler-parks with capacity of 10.000 travelers.

* Baghlar Baghi * Khaqani Park * Ghaem Magham * Golestan Park * Mashrouteh Park * Saeb Tabrizi Garden * Shah Goli Park * Shams Tabrizi
Shams Tabrizi
Garden * Eynali state forest park. * Baghmesha Park.

An interesting park-like popular location is Eynali , a mountain at the north-east extremity of the city. Eynali was a barren mountain on top of which there was a huge white rectangular antenna facing Tabriz city. The old building was claimed to be a shrine that housed the burial site of an Imamzadeh
Imamzadeh
(a descendant of the profit of Islam). In recent years trees have been planted on mountain slopes and the place has the appearance of a vast park. Every Friday morning many walk the site to enjoy the relatively cleaner breezes and watch the ever-growing jungle of high-rise buildings on the flat, arid plateau. Generally, the brief picnic ends with drinking a few cups of tea that has been brewed on a smoking fire. Making fire is a challenge as the scanty vegetation consists of trees that have been planted in recent years and are jealously guarded behind barbed wires. However, the crowds enjoy the challenge as a pleasant part of the weekly ritual. In older times, only groups of young men would climb near the shrine. In more recent years the presence of women is noticeable.

*

Shah Goli Park *

Eynali artificial forest in the north of the Tabriz
Tabriz
*

A week-end ritual at Eynali peak

ECONOMY

Skyscrapers in Tabriz
Tabriz
World Trade Center Bolor Tower
Tower
See also: Economy of Iran
Iran

Tabriz
Tabriz
is the largest economic center in Northwest Iran. The economy of Tabriz
Tabriz
is based on commerce, services, health care and pharmaceutical, small and heavy industries, and handcrafts. Tabriz
Tabriz
is the main site for four of Iran's Fortune 100 companies including: ITMCO , Palaz Moket, Kashi Tabriz, Shirin Asal , Aydin.

INDUSTRIES

Modern industries in Tabriz
Tabriz
established since early 20 century by match manufacturing industries. Currently manufacturing industries in the city include manufacturing of machinery, vehicles, chemicals and petrochemical materials, refinery , cement , electrical and electronic equipment, home appliances, textiles and leather, nutrition and dairy, woodcraft, and pharmaceuticals.

There are hundreds of industrial complexes in Tabriz's industrial area. Among them is the Iran
Iran
Tractor Manufacturing Co (ITMCO) which is one of the biggest industrial complexes in the region. This complex alone has the highest foundry and forging capacity in the Middle East and it is the biggest tractor manufacturer in Iran
Iran
with several production branches within Iran
Iran
and other countries. Behind ITMCO there are several other industrial complexes including Mashin Sazi Tabriz
Tabriz
Co, Iran
Iran
Diesel Engine Manufacturing Co (IDEM), Pump Iran, Tabriz
Tabriz
Petrochemical Complex, Tabriz
Tabriz
Oil Refinery and a couple of industrial regions which include hundreds of small industries.

Tabriz
Tabriz
is also a site for abundant food and some of the most famous chocolate factories in Iran
Iran
which honored the city as the Chocolate City of Iran. This includes Dadash and Baradar Industrial Co. with the brand mark of Shoniz, which is one of the biggest factories of its kind in the region.

A vast portion of the city's population is involved in small businesses like shoe making ateliers, stone-cutting, furniture ateliers, confectionery , printing and dry nuts.

HANDCRAFTS ATELIERS

Main articles: Persian carpet
Persian carpet
and Azerbaijani carpet See also: Tabriz rug

Due to its distinct handicrafts and carpets Tabriz
Tabriz
is selected as the world city of crafts and carpet. Tabriz
Tabriz
is the main center for the production of the famous Iranian Rugs . The distinctive durability of Tabriz's carpets and its unique designs made it a famous brand in the world's carpet markets. Tabrizi rugs and carpets usually have ivory backgrounds with blue, rose, and indigo motifs. They often feature symmetrical and balanced designs. They usually have a single medallion that is surrounded with vines and palmettos. One of the main quality characteristics of Tabriz
Tabriz
rugs is the weaving style, using specialties that guarantee the durability of the rug in comparison for example with Kashan rugs .

Other than carpets, the city is famous for several other handicrafts including silverwares , wood engraving, pottery and ceramics , Ghalamzani (Irania style of toreutics ), Moarraq (Iranian style of Mosaic
Mosaic
), Monabbat , embroider .

*

A sample of Tabriz
Tabriz
rugs *

A newly made bronze Astrolabe
Astrolabe
, as a sample of Ghalamzani in Tabriz
Tabriz
*

An engraver in Tabriz
Tabriz

SHOPPING

Bazaar
Bazaar
vendor of electrical goods

Shopping centers are mostly located in the city center, including Grand Bazaar of Tabriz , pedestrian malls on Tarbiyat street , Shahnaz street and Ferdowsi street . Also, there are some malls and a lot of elegant "> University of Tabriz as seen from the Applied Physics Faculty

* Tabriz University of Medical Sciences has departments from various medical and paramedical branches. This University was part of University of Tabriz until the early 1980s. * Sahand University of Technology is established in 1989 and have majored in different fields of Engineering and Technology related sciences. * Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem is established in 1987. Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
University is a general university. Its main campus is located based in Azarshahr county. * Tabriz Islamic Arts University is a public university established in 1997. * Payam-e Noor University of Tabriz, is part of Payame Noor University network of the remote educational university.

There are couple of private universities and higher educational institutes serving student as well, including: Islamic Azad University of Tabriz, Daneshvaran Higher Education Institute, Seraj Higher Education Institute, University College of Nabi Akram, Khajeh Rashid University.

There are few technical colleges, which serve the students as well: Elmi-Karbordi University of Tabriz, Tabriz
Tabriz
College of Technology, Roshdiyeh Higher Education Institute of Tabriz, Jahad Daneshgahi (ACECR) Higher Education Institute (East Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Branch), Alzahra College of Technology, State Organization of Technical and Vocational Training.

There are a couple of research centers supported by Iranian government in the city including: East Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Park of Science "> Tabriz Railway Station

Tabriz
Tabriz
residents mostly commute by public bus, shuttle taxis, metro, bike, and personal cars. Tabriz
Tabriz
public bus lines connect its districts and some of its suburbs to the city center of Tabriz. Tabriz
Tabriz
also have a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) line which runs through an 18 km (11 mi) from Train Station in West of Tabriz
Tabriz
to Baseej Square in far East of the city.

Tabriz
Tabriz
also has a public shuttle taxi service which connects city centers to major districts of the city. There is another taxi service running in the city calls Telephone Taxi which operates by private companies. Tabriz Metro

Part of Tabriz
Tabriz
subway line 1 is operational since 2015 which goes from Shahgoli to Shahriyar. Several lines are planned to connect districts of Tabriz
Tabriz
to its city center however the construction is six years behind the schedule. The government of Iran
Iran
had planned to finish 6 km (4 mi) of line No.1 of the network in 2006, but this was not achieved due to financial problems and currently only half of the track for the metro line has been laid.

Tabriz
Tabriz
is linked to Europe
Europe
through Turkey
Turkey
's roads and Bazargan (Azerbaijani , Persian : بازرگان ) border. Tabriz
Tabriz
is connected to Tehran
Tehran
by Freeway 2 (Iran)
Freeway 2 (Iran)
.

The city is linked to Iran
Iran
National Railways ( IRIR , Persian : رجا ) also to Europe
Europe
by Turkey
Turkey
's railways via Ghotour (Azerbaijani, Persian قطور) bridge in West Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
province of Iran. Tabriz was the first city in Iran
Iran
to be served by railways with the construction of the Tabriz-Jolfa line in 1912–1914 (later converted to broad-gauge in 1916). Tabriz Railway Station is located in the western part of the city, at the end of Khomeyni Street.

Tabriz International Airport opened in 1950 and is the only international airport in East Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(since 1991). It has daily and weekly domestic flights to Tehran
Tehran
, Isfahan
Isfahan
, Kish Island , Shiraz , and Mashhad . It also has daily and weekly flights to Istanbul
Istanbul
, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
, Baghdad
Baghdad
and Baku
Baku
.

SPORTS

Sahand Stadium in a Tractor Sazi football match

Tabriz
Tabriz
is a hub for the major sports events in the region. The city has a couple of sports complexes. The major sports complex inside the city is Bagh Shomal complex which includes a soccer stadium, swimming pool, an arena for basketball and volleyball. There is also a bigger sports complex which is named the Olympic village which has a soccer stadium and a cycling track . They are several other smaller complexes for martial arts, swimming pools, and gymnasiums. Among many different sports activities soccer and cycling got more attention because of the cities teams and international events which are held in the city.

FOOTBALL

Football is a major part of the city's culture. The huge number of fans made Tabriz
Tabriz
home to four Iranian major Football teams: Tractor FC , Machine Sazi FC , and Gostaresh Foolad FC . Tractor Sazi and machine sazı and Gostaresh Foolad play in the Iran
Iran
Pro League . Tractor Sazi is very popular in northwestern Iran. The home stadium for Tractor and machine sazı is the city's major stadium, Sahand Stadium which has the capacity of 80,000 people. Gostaresh plays in its own 12,000 seated Stadium , which was recently built in 2012. The matches of and Shahrdari Tabriz
Tabriz
who play in the lower leagues are held in the older stadium of Bagh Shomal Stadium which is located near downtown Tabriz.

On June 1976 Bagh Shomal Stadium of Tabriz
Tabriz
hosted part of the final tournament of the AFC Asian Cup games.

FUTSAL

The city's main futsal club is Dabiri Tabriz
Tabriz
which was founded in 1998 and plays at the Oloum Pezeshki Arena in the city. The club won the Iranian Futsal
Futsal
Super League in 2014 and finished third in Asia. The cities other futsal team is Shahrdari Tabriz
Tabriz
who play at the larger Shahid Poursharifi Arena . The club is usually a mid table team and has less support throughout the city.

CYCLING

Tabriz
Tabriz
is also home for Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Cycling Tour which is held on a yearly based calendar since 1986. This cycling tour is the most prestigious cycling tour in Iran. Tabriz
Tabriz
is also home for Tabriz Petrochemical Cycling Team , a cycling team which is competing in UCI -sanctioned competitions through Asian continents.

MEDIA

Sahand TV main building

Tabriz
Tabriz
has one state television channel called Sahand TV that broadcasts in both Persian and Azerbaijani languages. It broadcasts internationally through the Arabsat and Intelsat satellites.

The city has one government-controlled radio channel broadcasting in both Persian and Azerbaijani languages.

The 14 weekly magazines and 8 main newspapers published in the city include: Amin, Mahd Azadi, Asr Azadi, Fajr Azarbaijan, Saeb Tabriz, Payam Noor, Navaye Misho and Saheb.

FAMOUS NATIVES

Within its long history Tabriz
Tabriz
was always the origin for many Iranian illumination and modernization movements. This is why the city was the hometown of numerous Iranian dominant figures including many Iranian politicians, revolutionaries, artists, and military leaders. Here a partial list of some of most notable people who born or lived in Tabriz.

For a complete list see: Category:People from Tabriz
Tabriz
and List of people from Tabriz
Tabriz

*

Shams Tabrizi
Shams Tabrizi
, poet. *

King Naser al-Din Shah Qajar . *

Iraj Mirza , poet. *

Colonel Pessian , military commander and first Iranian pilot. *

Sattar Khan , pivotal figure in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution. *

Farhad Fakhreddini composer, conductor and founder of Iran’s National Orchestra . *

Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar , poet. *

Gholam-Hossein Sa\'edi , writer. *

Samad Behrangi , teacher, social critic, folklorist, translator, and writer. *

Hossein Shahabi , film director. *

Tahmineh Milani , film director. *

Karim Bagheri , coach and former football player. *

Azim Gheychisaz , mountain climber and Summiter of all 14 Eight-thousanders

SISTER CITIES AND TWIN TOWNS

Tabriz
Tabriz
is twinned with the following cities:

COUNTRY CITY STATE / PROVINCE / REGION / GOVERNORATE SINCE

Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan

BAKU

Absheron Economic Region 1980

Palestine

GAZA

Gaza Governorate

Russia
Russia

KAZAN

Republic of Tatarstan 2009

Turkey
Turkey

ISTANBUL

Istanbul
Istanbul
Province 2010

Turkey
Turkey

İZMIR

İzmir
İzmir
Province 2010

China
China

WUHAN

Hubei
Hubei
2010

Turkey
Turkey

Erzurum

ERZURUM PROVINCE 2011

Tajikistan

KHUJAND

Sughd Province 2011

Belarus
Belarus

MOGILEV

Mogilev Region 2012

Turkey
Turkey

KONYA

Konya
Konya
Province 2013

Vietnam
Vietnam

HO CHI MINH CITY

Ho Chi Minh Municipality 2015

Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan

GANJA

Ganja Municipality 2015

Iraq
Iraq

KARBALA

Karbala Governorate 2016

CONSULATES

Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Turkey
Turkey
have consulate offices in Tabriz. Formerly the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the United States
United States
had consulate offices in Tabriz. The US consulate office closed after the 1979 Islamic revolution and the USSR's office closed after the collapse of the USSR in 1991.

PANORAMIC VIEW

Panoramic view of Tabriz
Tabriz
from El Goli, August 2010

TABRIZ 2016

Tabriz
Tabriz
from Roshdieh , March 2016

SEE ALSO

* Iran
Iran
portal

* Arg of Tabriz * Rab\'-e Rashidi * Tabriz Khanate * Timeline of Tabriz * University of Tabriz * Pardis Animal Shelter

REFERENCES

* ^ "نتايج سرشماري - جمعيت و خانوار به ترتيب استان، شهرستان". Statistical Center of Iran. * ^ "جمعیت شهرهای ایران بر اساس سرشماری سال 1390". Iramozesh.com. 2012-11-11. Retrieved 2013-02-11. * ^ "Celebration of the “World Carpet
Carpet
Weaving City” on 6 Oct, 2015, in Tabriz, Iran". World Crafts Council Asia
Asia
Pacific region. Retrieved 25 May 2017. * ^ " Tabriz
Tabriz
named as exemplary tourism city for 2018". realiran. December 24, 2015. Retrieved July 9, 2016. * ^ " Tabriz
Tabriz
selected OIC City of Tourism
Tourism
for 2018". IRNA . December 24, 2015. Retrieved July 9, 2016. * ^ "نتايج سرشماري - جمعيت و خانوار به ترتيب استان، شهرستان". Statistical Center of Iran. * ^ "2011 Census - Natayej" (PDF). Iran: Statistical Centre. Retrieved 2008-02-27. * ^ "Results of national 2007 census". Statistical Center of Iran. Retrieved 2013-02-11. * ^ A B C D E "East Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Geography". Editorial Board. Iranian Ministry of Education. 2000. Archived from the original on 2012-01-10.

* ^ "de beste bron van informatie over tabrizcity. Deze website is te koop!". tabrizcity.org. Archived from the original on 2007-02-16. Retrieved 2012-04-02. * ^ A B C "Lonely Planet Travel Guides and Travel Information". Lonelyplanet.com. 2012-03-28. Retrieved 2012-04-02. * ^ " Tabriz
Tabriz
Historic Bazaar
Bazaar
Complex". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. UNESCO. 2010-07-31. Retrieved 2012-04-02. * ^ Assari, Ali; Mahesh, T.M. (December 2011). "Compatitive Sustainability of bazaar in Iranian traditional cities : Case Studies in Isfahan
Isfahan
and Tabriz" (PDF). International Journal on Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering. 3 (9): 18–24. Retrieved 2013-01-07. * ^ A B electricpulp.com. "TABRIZ v. The city in the 19th century – Encyclopaedia Iranica". * ^ Gholam-Reza Sabri-Tabrizi. Iran: A Child's Story, a Man's Experience, International Publishers Co., 1989, p. 72, ISBN 0-7178-0682-0 * ^ " Tabriz
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* ^ "Monthly Total Precipitation
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SOURCES

* Cronin, Stephanie, ed. (2013). Iranian-Russian Encounters: Empires and Revolutions Since 1800. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415624336 . * North, S.J.R., Guide to Biblical Iran, Rome 1956, p. 50

BIBLIOGRAPHY

See also: Bibliography of the history of Tabriz
Tabriz

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for TABRIZ .

Wikimedia Commons has media related to TABRIZ .

* Official website

Preceded by Ghazna CAPITAL OF KHWARAZMIAN EMPIRE (PERSIA) 1225–1231 Succeeded by -

Preceded by Maragha CAPITAL OF ILKHANATE (PERSIA) 1265-1306 Succeeded by Soltaniyeh

Preceded by - CAPITAL OF KARA KOYUNLU DYNASTY 1375–1468 Succeeded by -

Preceded by Amid CAPITAL OF AQ QOYUNLU DYNASTY 1468–1478 Succeeded by -

Preceded by Samarkand
Samarkand
CAPITAL OF SAFAVID EMPIRE (PERSIA) 1501–1555 Succeeded by Qazvin
Qazvin

* v * t * e

Tabriz
Tabriz
landmarks

FAMOUS AND HISTORIC STRUCTURES

* Arg of Tabriz * Bazaar of Tabriz * Maqbaratoshoara * Rab\'-e Rashidi * Tomb of Two Kamals * Tabriz Fire Fighting Tower * Nobar bath * Aji Chay Bridge * Sangi Bridge * Qari Bridge * Vadi-e Rahmat

PLACES OF WORSHIP

* Imamzadeh Hamzah, Tabriz * Jameh Mosque of Tabriz * Saheb-ol-Amr Mosque * Blue Mosque, Tabriz * Shohada Mosque * Catholic Church of Tabriz * Saint Mary Church of Tabriz * Protestant church of Tabriz * On ibn Ali\'s shrine

NATURE AND PARKS

* Khaqani Park * El-Gölü * Ghaem Magham * Golestan Park

ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION

* Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Museum * Iron Age museum * Museum of Ostad Bohtouni * Pottery museum of Tabriz
Tabriz
* Tabriz Museum of Natural History *

.