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Isfahan
Isfahan
(Persian: اصفهان‎, translit. Esfahān [esfæˈhɒːn] ( listen)), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province
Isfahan Province
in Iran, located about 340 kilometres (211 miles) south of Tehran. The Greater Isfahan Region
Greater Isfahan Region
had a population of 2,101,220 in the 2016 Census, the third most populous metropolitan area in Iran
Iran
after Tehran and Mashhad. Borkhar County, Najafabad
Najafabad
County, Khomeyni Shahr
Khomeyni Shahr
County, Shahin Shahr
Shahin Shahr
and Meymeh
Meymeh
County, Mobarakeh
Mobarakeh
County, Falavarjan
Falavarjan
County, Tiran and Karvan County, Lenjan County
Lenjan County
and Isfahan
Isfahan
County[3] all constitute the metropolitan city of Isfahan. Isfahan
Isfahan
is located on the main north–south and east–west routes crossing Iran, and was once one of the largest cities in the world. It flourished from 1050 to 1722, particularly in the 16th and 17th centuries under the Safavid
Safavid
dynasty, when it became the capital of Persia for the second time in its history. Even today, the city retains much of its past glory. It is famous for its Persian–Islamic architecture, with many beautiful boulevards, covered bridges, palaces, mosques, and minarets. This led to the Persian proverb "Esfahān nesf-e- jahān ast" ( Isfahan
Isfahan
is half of the world).[4] The Naghsh-e Jahan Square
Naghsh-e Jahan Square
in Isfahan
Isfahan
is one of the largest city squares in the world. It has been designated by UNESCO
UNESCO
as a World Heritage Site. The city also has a wide variety of historic monuments and is known for the paintings, history and architecture.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Etymology 1.2 Prehistory 1.3 Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
era 1.4 Islamic era 1.5 Modern age

2 Geography and climate 3 Main places

3.1 Bazaars 3.2 Bridges 3.3 Churches and cathedrals 3.4 Emamzadehs 3.5 Gardens and parks 3.6 Houses 3.7 Mausoleums and tombs 3.8 Minarets 3.9 Mosques 3.10 Museums 3.11 Schools (madresse) 3.12 Palaces and caravanserais 3.13 Squares and streets 3.14 Synagogues 3.15 Tourist attractions 3.16 Other sites

4 Education 5 Transportation

5.1 Road transport

6 Culture 7 Notable people 8 Sports 9 Twin towns – sister cities 10 See also 11 References 12 Sources 13 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Isfahan Etymology[edit]

See also: Names of Isfahan (fa)

The name of the region derives from Middle Persian
Middle Persian
Spahān. Spahān is attested in various Middle Persian
Middle Persian
seals and inscriptions, including that of Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
Magi Kartir,[5] and is also the Armenian name of the city (Սպահան). The present-day name is the Arabicized form of Ispahan (unlike Middle Persian, and similar to Spanish, New Persian does not allow initial consonant clusters such as sp[6]). The region appears with the abbreviation GD (Southern Media) on Sasanian numismatics. In Ptolemy's Geographia it appears as Aspadana, translating to "place of gathering for the army". It is believed that Spahān derives from spādānām 'the armies', Old Persian plural of spāda (from which derives spāh 'army' and spahi (soldier – lit. of the army) in Middle Persian). Prehistory[edit] Human habitation of the Isfahan
Isfahan
region can be traced back to the Palaeolithic period. In recent discoveries, archaeologists have found artifacts dating back to the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze and Iron ages. Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
era[edit]

Isfahan
Isfahan
at the end of 6th century (top), consisting of two separate areas of Sassanid
Sassanid
Jay and Jewish Yahudia. At 11th century (bottom), these two areas are completely merged.

What was to become the city of Isfahan
Isfahan
in later historical periods probably emerged as a locality and settlement that gradually developed over the course of the Elamite civilization
Elamite civilization
(2700–1600 BCE). Under Median rule, this commercial entrepôt began to show signs of a more sedentary urbanism, steadily growing into a noteworthy regional centre that benefited from the exceptionally fertile soil on the banks of the Zayandehrud River in a region called Aspandana or Ispandana. Once Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
(reg. 559–529 BCE) unified Persian and Median lands into the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
(648–330 BCE), the religiously and ethnically diverse city of Isfahan
Isfahan
became an early example of the king's fabled religious tolerance. It is said that after Cyrus the Great freed the Jews from the Babylonian captivity, some Jews returned to Jerusalem whereas some others decided to live in Persia and settle in what is now known as Isfahan. Actually this happened later in the Sassanid
Sassanid
period, when a Jewish colony was made in the vicinity.[7][better source needed] The 10th-century Persian historian Ibn al-Faqih wrote:

"When the Jews emigrated from Jerusalem, fleeing from Nebuchadnezzar, they carried with them a sample of the water and soil of Jerusalem. They did not settle down anywhere or in any city without examining the water and the soil of each place. They did all along until they reached the city of Isfahan. There they rested, examined the water and soil and found that both resembled Jerusalem. Upon they settled there, cultivated the soil, raised children and grandchildren, and today the name of this settlement is Yahudia."[8]

The Parthians
Parthians
(250 BCE – 226 CE) continued the tradition of tolerance after the fall of the Achaemenids, fostering the Hellenistic dimension within Iranian culture and political organization introduced by Alexander the Great's invading armies. Under the Parthians, Arsacid governors administered a large province from Isfahan, and the city's urban development accelerated to accommodate the needs of a capital city.

An ancient artifact from Isfahan City Center
Isfahan City Center
museum

The next empire to rule Persia, the Sassanids (226–652 CE), presided over massive changes in their realm, instituting sweeping agricultural reform and reviving Iranian culture and the Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
religion. The city was then called by the name and the region by the name Aspahan or Spahan. The city was governed by "Espoohrans" or the members of seven noble Iranian families who had important royal positions, and served as the residence of these noble families as well. Extant foundations of some Sassanid-era bridges in Isfahan
Isfahan
suggest that the kings were also fond of ambitious urban planning projects. While Isfahan's political importance declined during the period, many Sassanid
Sassanid
princes would study statecraft in the city, and its military role developed rapidly. Its strategic location at the intersection of the ancient roads to Susa
Susa
and Persepolis
Persepolis
made it an ideal candidate to house a standing army, ready to march against Constantinople
Constantinople
at any moment. The words 'Aspahan' and 'Spahan' are derived from the Pahlavi or Middle Persian
Middle Persian
meaning 'the place of the army'.[9] Although many theories have been mentioned about the origin of Isfahan, in fact little is known of Isfahan
Isfahan
before the rule of the Sasanian
Sasanian
dynasty (c. 224–c. 651 CE). The historical facts suggest that in the late 4th and early 5th centuries Queen Shushandukht, the Jewish consort of Yazdegerd I
Yazdegerd I
(reigned 399–420) settled a colony of Jews in Yahudiyyeh (also spelled Yahudiya), a settlement 3 kilometres (1.9 miles) northwest of the Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
city of (the Achaemid and Parthian 'Gabae' or 'Gabai', the Sasanid 'Gay' and the Arabicized form 'Jay') that was located just on the northern bank of the Zayanderud
Zayanderud
River. The gradual population decrease of Gay (Jay) and the simultaneous population increase of Yahudiyyeh and its suburbs after the Islamic conquest of Iran
Iran
resulted in the formation of the nucleus of what was to become the city of Isfahan. The words Aspadana, Ispadana, Spahan and Sepahan
Sepahan
from which the word Isfahan
Isfahan
is derived all referred to the region in which the city was located. The original plan of Isfahan
Isfahan
and Jayy were both circular, which was a characteristic of other Parthian and Sasanian
Sasanian
cities.[10] Islamic era[edit]

Isfahan, capital of the Kingdom of Persia

Isfahan
Isfahan
to the south side, drawing by Eugène Flandin

Russian army in Isfahan
Isfahan
in the 1890s

Mobarakeh
Mobarakeh
Steel Company, one of the largest steel companies in the region

When the Arabs captured Isfahan
Isfahan
in 642, they made it the capital of al-Jibal ("the Mountains") province, an area that covered much of ancient Media. Isfahan
Isfahan
grew prosperous under the Persian Buyid (Buwayhid) dynasty, which rose to power and ruled much of Iran
Iran
when the temporal authority of the Abbasid caliphs waned in the 10th century. The Turkish conqueror and founder of the Seljuq dynasty, Toghril Beg, made Isfahan
Isfahan
the capital of his domains in the mid-11th century; but it was under his grandson Malik-Shah I
Malik-Shah I
(r. 1073–92) that the city grew in size and splendour.[11] After the fall of the Seljuqs (c. 1200), Isfahan
Isfahan
temporarily declined and was eclipsed by other Iranian cities such as Tabriz
Tabriz
and Qazvin, but it regained its important position during the Safavid
Safavid
period (1501–1736). The city's golden age began in 1598 when the Safavid ruler Shah Abbas I (reigned 1588–1629) made it his capital and rebuilt it into one of the largest and most beautiful cities of the 17th century. In 1598 Shah Abbas the Great moved his capital from Qazvin
Qazvin
to the more central and Persian Isfahan, called Ispahān in early New Persian, so that it wouldn't be threatened by his archrival, the Ottomans. This new importance ushered in a golden age for the city, with architecture, prestige, and Persian culture flourishing. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the city was also settled by thousands of deportees and migrants from the Caucasus
Caucasus
that Abbas I and other Safavid
Safavid
rulers had settled en masse in Persia's heartland. Therefore, many of the city’s inhabitants were of Georgian, Circassian, and Daghistani descent.[12] Engelbert Kaempfer, who was in Safavid
Safavid
Persia in 1684-85, estimated their number at 20,000.[12][13] During the Safavid
Safavid
era, the city would form a very large Armenian community as well. As part of Abbas' forced resettlement of peoples from within his empire, he resettled many hundreds of thousands of Armenians
Armenians
(up to 300,000[14][15]) from near the unstable Safavid-Ottoman border, and primarily from the very wealthy Armenian town of Jugha
Jugha
(also known as Old Julfa), in mainland Iran.[15] In Isfahan, he ordered the foundation of a new quarter for the resettled Armenians, primarily meant for the Armenians
Armenians
from Old Julfa, and thus the Armenian Quarter of Isfahan
Isfahan
was named New Julfa.[14][15] Today, the New Jolfa district of Isfahan
Isfahan
remains a heavily Armenian-populated district, with Armenian churches and shops, the Vank Cathedral
Vank Cathedral
being especially notable for its combination of Armenian Christian and Iranian Islamic elements. It is still one of the oldest and largest Armenian quarters in the world. Following an agreement between Shah Abbas I and his Georgian subject Teimuraz I of Kakheti
Teimuraz I of Kakheti
("Tahmuras Khan"), whereby the latter submitted to Safavid
Safavid
rule in exchange for being allowed to rule as the region’s wāli (governor) and for having his son serve as dāruḡa ("prefect") of Isfahan
Isfahan
in perpetuity, the Georgian prince converted to Islam and served as governor.[12] He was accompanied by a certain number of soldiers, and they spoke in Georgian among themselves.[12] Some were also Georgian Orthodox
Georgian Orthodox
Christians.[12] The royal court in Isfahan
Isfahan
had a great number of Georgian ḡolāms (military slaves) as well as Georgian women.[12] Although they spoke Persian or Turkic, their mother tongue was Georgian.[12] During the time of Abbas and on Isfahan
Isfahan
was very famous in Europe, and many European travellers made an account of their visit to the city, such as Jean Chardin. This all lasted until it was sacked by Afghan invaders in 1722 during the Safavids
Safavids
heavy decline. Isfahan
Isfahan
declined once more, and the capital was subsequently moved to Mashhad
Mashhad
and Shiraz
Shiraz
during the Afsharid
Afsharid
and Zand periods respectively until it was finally settled in Tehran
Tehran
in 1775 by Agha Mohammad Khan the founder of the Qajar
Qajar
dynasty.[citation needed] In the early years of the 19th century, efforts were made to preserve some of Ifsahan's archeologically important buildings, first by Mohammad Hossein Khan
Mohammad Hossein Khan
during the reign of Fath Ali Shah.[16] In the 20th century Isfahan
Isfahan
was resettled by a very large number of people from southern Iran, firstly during the population migrations in the early century, and again in the 1980s following the Iran–Iraq War. Modern age[edit] Today Isfahan, the third largest city in Iran, produces fine carpets, textiles, steel, handicrafts, specific sweet and traditional delicious foods. Isfahan
Isfahan
also has nuclear experimental reactors as well as facilities for producing nuclear fuel (UCF). Isfahan
Isfahan
has one of the largest steel-producing facilities in the entire region, as well as facilities for producing special alloys. Mobarakeh Steel Company
Mobarakeh Steel Company
is the biggest steel producer in Middle East and Northern Africa and the biggest DRI producer in the world[17] and Isfahan
Isfahan
Steel Company is the first and largest manufacturer of constructional steel products in Iran.[18] The city has an international airport and a metro line. Isfahan
Isfahan
contains a major oil refinery and a large airforce base. HESA, Iran's most advanced aircraft manufacturing plant, is located nearby.[19][20] Isfahan
Isfahan
is also becoming an attraction for international investments,[21] like investments in Isfahan
Isfahan
City Center[22] which constitutes the largest shopping mall in Iran
Iran
and the fifth largest in the world.[23] Isfahan
Isfahan
hosted the International Physics Olympiad in 2007. Geography and climate[edit] The city is located in the lush plain of the Zayanderud
Zayanderud
River, at the foothills of the Zagros
Zagros
mountain range. The nearest mountain is Mount Soffeh (Kuh-e Soffeh) which is situated just south of Isfahan. No geological obstacles exist within 90 kilometres (56 miles) north of Isfahan, allowing cool northern winds to blow from this direction. Situated at 1,590 metres (5,217 ft) above sea level on the eastern side of the Zagros
Zagros
Mountains, Isfahan
Isfahan
has an arid climate (Köppen BWk). Despite its altitude, Isfahan
Isfahan
remains hot during the summer with maxima typically around 35 °C (95 °F). However, with low humidity and moderate temperatures at night, the climate can be very pleasant. During the winter, days are mild while nights can be very cold. Snow has occurred at least once every winter except 1986/1987 and 1989/1990.[24]

Climate data for Isfahan
Isfahan
(1961–1990, extremes 1951–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 20.4 (68.7) 23.4 (74.1) 29.0 (84.2) 32.0 (89.6) 37.6 (99.7) 41.0 (105.8) 43.0 (109.4) 42.0 (107.6) 39.0 (102.2) 33.2 (91.8) 26.8 (80.2) 21.2 (70.2) 43.0 (109.4)

Average high °C (°F) 8.8 (47.8) 11.9 (53.4) 16.8 (62.2) 22.0 (71.6) 28.0 (82.4) 34.1 (93.4) 36.4 (97.5) 35.1 (95.2) 31.2 (88.2) 24.4 (75.9) 16.9 (62.4) 10.8 (51.4) 23.0 (73.4)

Daily mean °C (°F) 2.7 (36.9) 5.5 (41.9) 10.4 (50.7) 15.7 (60.3) 21.3 (70.3) 27.1 (80.8) 29.4 (84.9) 27.9 (82.2) 23.5 (74.3) 16.9 (62.4) 9.9 (49.8) 4.4 (39.9) 16.2 (61.2)

Average low °C (°F) −2.4 (27.7) −0.2 (31.6) 4.5 (40.1) 9.4 (48.9) 14.2 (57.6) 19.1 (66.4) 21.5 (70.7) 19.8 (67.6) 15.1 (59.2) 9.3 (48.7) 3.6 (38.5) −0.9 (30.4) 9.4 (48.9)

Record low °C (°F) −19.4 (−2.9) −12.2 (10) −8 (18) −4 (25) 4.5 (40.1) 10.0 (50) 13.0 (55.4) 11.0 (51.8) 5.0 (41) 0.0 (32) −8 (18) −13 (9) −19.4 (−2.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 17.1 (0.673) 14.1 (0.555) 18.2 (0.717) 19.2 (0.756) 8.8 (0.346) 0.6 (0.024) 0.7 (0.028) 0.2 (0.008) 0.0 (0) 4.1 (0.161) 9.9 (0.39) 19.6 (0.772) 112.5 (4.429)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 4.0 2.9 3.8 3.5 2.0 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.8 2.2 3.7 23.5

Average snowy days 3.2 1.7 0.7 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 1.9 7.8

Average relative humidity (%) 60 51 43 39 33 23 23 24 26 36 48 57 39

Mean monthly sunshine hours 205.3 213.3 242.1 244.5 301.3 345.4 347.6 331.2 311.6 276.5 226.1 207.6 3,252.5

Source #1: NOAA[25]

Source #2: Iran
Iran
Meteorological Organization (records)[26][27]

Main places[edit] See also: Tourism in Iran See also: List of historical structures in Isfahan
Isfahan
Province

A handicraft shop

A handicraft from Isfahan

Shah Mosque. Painting by the French architect, Pascal Coste, visiting Persia in 1841

.

Si-o-se Pol

Naghsh-e-Jahan Square, Isfahan, Iran

View of Ali Qapu Palace

A carpet shop in Grand Bazaar, Isfahan

Khaju Bridge

Detail of Khaju Bridge

Isfahan
Isfahan
aquarium

Armenian Vank Cathedral

The city core consists of an older section, revolving around the Jameh Mosque, and the Safavid
Safavid
expansion around Naqsh-e Jahan Square, with the surrounding worship places, palaces, and bazaars.[28] Bazaars[edit]

Shahi Bazaar
Bazaar
– 17th century Qeysarie Bazaar
Qeysarie Bazaar
– 17th century

Bridges[edit] The Zayande River
Zayande River
starts in the Zagros
Zagros
Mountains, flows from west to east through the heart of Isfahan, and dries up in the Gavkhooni wetland. The bridges over the river include some of the finest architecture in Isfahan. The oldest bridge is the Shahrestan bridge, whose foundations was built by the Sasanian
Sasanian
Empire (3rd-7th century Sassanid
Sassanid
era) and has been repaired during the Seljuk period. Further upstream is Khaju bridge, which was built by Shah Abbas II in 1650. It is 123 metres (404 feet) long with 24 arches, and also serves as a sluice gate. The next bridge is Choobi (Joui) bridge. It was originally built as an aqueduct to supply the palace gardens on the north bank of the river. Further upstream again is the Si-o-Seh Pol or bridge of 33 arches. Built during the rule of Shah Abbas the Great, it linked Isfahan
Isfahan
with the Armenian suburb of New Julfa. It is by far the longest bridge in Isfahan
Isfahan
at 295 m (967.85 ft). Other bridges include Marnan Bridge. Churches and cathedrals[edit]

Bedkhem Church
Bedkhem Church
– 1627 St. Georg Church
St. Georg Church
– 17th century St. Jakob Church – 1607 St. Mary Church – 17th century Vank Cathedral
Vank Cathedral
– 1664

Emamzadehs[edit]

Emamzadeh Ahmad Emamzadeh Esmaeil, Isfahan Emamzadeh Haroun-e-Velayat
Emamzadeh Haroun-e-Velayat
– 16th century Emamzadeh Jafar Emamzadeh Shah Zeyd

Gardens and parks[edit]

Birds Garden Flower Garden Nazhvan Recreational Complex

Houses[edit]

Alam's House Amin's House Malek Vineyard Qazvinis' House
Qazvinis' House
– 19th century Sheykh ol-Eslam's House

Mausoleums and tombs[edit]

Al-Rashid Mausoleum
Al-Rashid Mausoleum
– 12th century Baba Ghassem Mausoleum
Baba Ghassem Mausoleum
– 14th century Mausoleum of Safavid
Safavid
Princes Nizam al-Mulk Tomb – 11th century Saeb Mausoleum Shahshahan mausoleum
Shahshahan mausoleum
– 15th century Soltan Bakht Agha Mausoleum
Soltan Bakht Agha Mausoleum
– 14th century

Minarets[edit]

Ali minaret
Ali minaret
– 11th century Bagh-e-Ghoushkhane minaret
Bagh-e-Ghoushkhane minaret
– 14th century Chehel Dokhtaran minaret
Chehel Dokhtaran minaret
– 12 century Dardasht minarets
Dardasht minarets
– 14th century Darozziafe minarets
Darozziafe minarets
– 14th century Menar Jonban
Menar Jonban
– 14th century Sarban minaret

Mosques[edit]

Agha Nour mosque
Agha Nour mosque
– 16th century Hakim Mosque Ilchi mosque Jameh Mosque[29] Jarchi mosque
Jarchi mosque
– 1610 Lonban mosque Maghsoudbeyk mosque
Maghsoudbeyk mosque
– 1601 Mohammad Jafar Abadei mosque
Mohammad Jafar Abadei mosque
– 1878 Rahim Khan mosque
Rahim Khan mosque
– 19th century Roknolmolk mosque Seyyed mosque – 19th century Shah Mosque
Shah Mosque
– 1629 Sheikh Lotf Allah Mosque
Sheikh Lotf Allah Mosque
– 1618

Museums[edit]

Contemporary Arts Museum Isfahan Isfahan City Center
Isfahan City Center
Museum Museum of Decorative Arts Natural History Museum of Isfahan
Natural History Museum of Isfahan
– 15th century

Schools (madresse)[edit]

Chahar Bagh School
Chahar Bagh School
– early 17th century Harati Kassegaran school
Kassegaran school
– 1694 Madreseye Khajoo Nimavar school
Nimavar school
– 1691 Sadr school
Sadr school
– 19th century

Palaces and caravanserais[edit]

Ali Qapu (The Royal Palace) – early 17th century Chehel Sotoun
Chehel Sotoun
(The Palace of Forty Columns) – 1647 Hasht-Behesht (The Palace of Eight Paradises) – 1669 Shah Caravanserai Talar
Talar
Ashraf (The Palace of Ashraf) – 1650

Squares and streets[edit]

A view of Meydan Kohne

Chaharbagh Boulevard
Chaharbagh Boulevard
– 1596 Chaharbagh-e-khajou Boulevard Meydan Kohne (Old Square) Naqsh-e Jahan Square
Naqsh-e Jahan Square
also known as "Shah Square" or "Imam Square" – 1602

Synagogues[edit]

Kenisa-ye Bozorg (Mirakhor's kenisa) Kenisa-ye Molla Rabbi Kenisa-ye Sang-bast Mullah Jacob Synagogue Mullah Neissan Synagogue Kenisa-ye Keter David

Tourist attractions[edit] The central historical area in Isfahan
Isfahan
is called Seeosepol (the name of a famous bridge).[30][31] Other sites[edit]

Atashgah – a Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
fire temple The Bathhouse of Bahāʾ al-dīn al-ʿĀmilī Isfahan
Isfahan
City Center Jarchi hammam New Julfa
New Julfa
(The Armenian Quarter) – 1606 Pigeon Towers[32] – 17th century Takht-e Foulad

Education[edit]

Central Municipal Library of Esfahan

Front Facade of the Central Municipal Library of Esfahan

Aside from the seminaries and religious schools, the major universities of the Esfahan metropolitan area are:

Universities

Isfahan
Isfahan
University of Art Isfahan
Isfahan
University of Medical Sciences Isfahan
Isfahan
University of Technology Islamic Azad University of Isfahan Islamic Azad University of Najafabad Islamic Azad University of Falavarjan Islamic Azad University of Majlesi University of Isfahan

High schools

Adab High School Farzanegan e Amin High School Harati High School Imam Mohammad Bagher Education Complex Imam Sadegh Education Complex Mahboobeh Danesh (Navaie) Pooya High School Saadi High School Sa'eb Education Complex Salamat High School Saremiyh High School Shahid Ejei High School Saeb High School

There are also more than 50 technical and vocational training centers under the administration of Esfahan TVTO which provide non-formal training programs freely throughout the province.[33] Transportation[edit] See also: Transport in Iran

Old building of Isfahan
Isfahan
city hall

Road transport[edit] Isfahan's internal highway network is currently under heavy expansion which began during the last decade. Its lengthy construction is due to concerns of possible destruction of valuable historical buildings. Outside the city, Isfahan
Isfahan
is connected by modern highways to Tehran which spans a distance of nearly 400 km (248.55 mi) to North and to Shiraz
Shiraz
at about 200 km (124.27 mi) to the south. The highways also service satellite cities surrounding the metropolitan area.[34] Culture[edit]

An old master of hand-printed carpets in Isfahan
Isfahan
bazaar

The Damask rose 'Ispahan', reputedly developed in Ispahan

Notable people[edit]

Persian pottery from the city Isfahan, 17th century

Music

Jalal Taj Eesfahani (1903-1981), musician, singer and vocalist[35] Alireza Eftekhari (1956– ), singer[36] Fard Leila Forouhar, pop singer[37] Hassan Kassai
Hassan Kassai
(1928-2012), musician[38] Nasrollah Moein (1951– ), pop singer[39] Hesameddin Seraj, musician, singer and vocalist[40] Hassan Shamaizadeh, songwriter and singer[41] Jalil Shahnaz (1921-2013), soloist of tar, a traditional Persian instrument[42]

Film

Rasul Sadr Ameli
Rasul Sadr Ameli
(1953–), director Reza Arhamsadr (1924–2008), actor Homayoun Ershadi
Homayoun Ershadi
(1947–), Hollywood actor and architect Soraya Esfandiary-Bakhtiari
Soraya Esfandiary-Bakhtiari
(1956–2001), former princess of Iran
Iran
and actress Asghar Farhadi
Asghar Farhadi
(1972– ), Oscar-winning director[43] Bahman Farmanara
Bahman Farmanara
(1942–), director Jahangir Forouhar (1916–1997), actor and father of Leila Forouhar (Iranian singer) Mohamad Ali Keshvarz
Mohamad Ali Keshvarz
(1930-), actor Nosratollah Vahdat
Nosratollah Vahdat
(1925-), actor Kiumars Poorahmad
Kiumars Poorahmad
(1949–), director Soroush Sehat (1965–), actor and director[44]

Craftsmen and painters

Reza Badrossama (1949–), painter and miniaturist[45] Mahmoud Dehnavi (1927–), craftsman and artist[46] Mahmoud Farshchian
Mahmoud Farshchian
(1930–), painter and miniaturist[47] Freydoon Rassouli
Freydoon Rassouli
(1943–), American painter born and raised in Isfahan[48] Bogdan Saltanov
Bogdan Saltanov
(1630s–1703), Russian icon painter of Isfahanian Armenian origin

Political figures

Ahmad Amir-Ahmadi
Ahmad Amir-Ahmadi
(1906–1965), military leader and cabinet minister Ayatollah Mohammad Beheshti
Ayatollah Mohammad Beheshti
(1928–1981), cleric, Chairman of the Council of Revolution of Iran[49] Nusrat Bhutto, Chairman of Pakistan Peoples Party
Pakistan Peoples Party
from 1979–1983; wife of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto; mother of Benazir Bhutto Hossein Fatemi, PhD (1919–1954), politician; foreign minister in Mohamed Mossadegh's cabinet Mohammad-Ali Foroughi, a politician and Prime Minister of Iran
Iran
in the World War II era Dariush Forouhar (August 1928 – November 1998), a founder and leader of the Hezb-e Mellat-e Iran
Iran
(Nation of Iran
Iran
Party) Hossein Kharrazi, chief of the army in the Iran–Iraq war[50] Mohsen Nourbakhsh (1948–2003), economist, Governor of the Central Bank of Iran Mohammad Javad Zarif
Mohammad Javad Zarif
(1960–), Minister of Foreign Affairs and former Ambassador of Iran
Iran
to the United Nations[51]

Religious figures

Lady Amin
Lady Amin
(Banou Amin) (1886–1983), Iran's most outstanding female jurisprudent, theologian and great Muslim mystic (‘arif), a Lady Mujtahideh Amina Begum Bint al-Majlisi was a female Safavid
Safavid
mujtahideh Ayatollah Mohammad Beheshti
Ayatollah Mohammad Beheshti
(1928–1981), cleric, Chairman of the Council of Revolution of Iran[49] Abū Shujāʿ al-Iṣfahānī Allamah al-Majlisi
Allamah al-Majlisi
(1616–1698), Safavid
Safavid
cleric, Sheikh ul-Islam
Sheikh ul-Islam
in Isfahan Salman the Persian Abu Nu'aym Al-Ahbahani Al-Shafi'i (d. 1038 / AH 430), Sunni Shafi'i Scholar

Sportspeople

Abdolali Changiz, football star of Esteghlal FC in the 1970s Mansour Ebrahimzadeh, former player for Sepahan
Sepahan
FC, former head coach of Zobahan Ghasem Haddadifar, captain of Zobahan Ehsan Hajsafi, player for the Sepahan
Sepahan
and Olympiacos F.C. Arsalan Kazemi, forward for the Oregon Ducks men's basketball
Oregon Ducks men's basketball
team and the Iran
Iran
national basketball team Rasoul Korbekandi, goalkeeper of the Iranian National Team Moharram Navidkia, captain of Sepahan Mohsen Sadeghzadeh, former captain of Iran
Iran
national basketball team and Zobahan Mohammad Talaei, world champion wrestler Mahmoud Yavari
Mahmoud Yavari
(1939-), former football player, and later coach for Iranian National Team Sohrab Moradi
Sohrab Moradi
(1988-), Weightlifting Olympic gold medalist, World record holder of 105kg category

Writers and poets

Mohammad-Ali Jamālzādeh Esfahani
Mohammad-Ali Jamālzādeh Esfahani
(1892–1997), author Hatef Esfehani, Persian Moral poet in the Afsharid
Afsharid
Era Kamal ed-Din Esmail (late 12th century - early 13th century) Houshang Golshiri
Houshang Golshiri
(1938–2000), writer and editor Hamid Mosadegh
Hamid Mosadegh
(1939–1998), poet and lawyer Mirza Abbas Khan Sheida (1880–1949), poet and publisher Saib Tabrizi

Others

Abd-ol-Ghaffar Amilakhori, 17th-century noble Adib Boroumand
Adib Boroumand
(1924-), poet, politician, lawyer, and leader of the National Front George Bournoutian, professor, historian and author Jesse of Kakheti, king of Kakheti in eastern Georgia from 1614 to 1615 Simon II of Kartli, king of Kartli in eastern Georgia from 1619 to 1630/1631 David II of Kakheti, king of Kakheti in eastern Georgia from 1709 to 1722 Constantine II of Kakheti, king of Kakheti in eastern Georgia from 1722 to 1732 Nasser David Khalili
Nasser David Khalili
(1945–), property developer, art collector, and philanthropist Arthur Pope
Arthur Pope
(1881–1969), American archaeologist, buried near Khaju Bridge

Sports[edit] Both Zob Ahan and Sepahan
Sepahan
are the only Iranian clubs to reach the final of the new AFC Champions League. Isfahan
Isfahan
has three association football clubs that play professionally. These are:

Sepahan
Sepahan
Isfahan
Isfahan
FC Zob Ahan Isfahan
Isfahan
FC Giti Pasand

Sepahan
Sepahan
has won the most league titles among the Iranian clubs (2002–03, 2009–10, 2010–11, 2011–12 and 2014–15).[52] Giti Pasand also has a futsal team, Giti Pasand FSC, one of the best teams in Asia and Iran. They won the AFC Futsal Club Championship
AFC Futsal Club Championship
in 2012 and were runners-up in 2013. Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Esfahan Street in Kuala Lumpur, and Kualalampur Avenue in Isfahan

Isfahan
Isfahan
is twinned with:

Country City State / province / region / governorate Since

China Xi'an Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Province 1989[53]

Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpur 1997[53]

Germany Freiburg Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
State 2000[53]

Italy Florence Florence
Florence
Province 1998[53]

Romania Iași Iași
Iași
County 1999[53]

Spain Barcelona Barcelona
Barcelona
Province 2000[53]

Armenia Yerevan Yerevan 2000[53]

Kuwait Kuwait
Kuwait
City Al Asimah Governorate 2000[53]

Cuba Havana La Habana Province 2001[53]

Pakistan Lahore Punjab Province 2004[53]

Russia Saint Petersburg Northwestern Federal District 2004[53]

Senegal Dakar Dakar
Dakar
Region 2009[53]

Lebanon Baalbek Baalbek-Hermel Governorate 2010[53]

South Korea Gyeongju North Gyeongsang Province 2017[54]

See also[edit]

Iran
Iran
portal

List of the historical structures in the Isfahan
Isfahan
province Islamic City Council of Isfahan 15861 Ispahan New Julfa Prix d'Ispahan

References[edit]

Notes

^ http://www.daftlogic.com/downloads/kml/10102015-9mzrdauu.kml[permanent dead link] ^ "تعداد جمعیت و خانوار به تفکیک تقسیمات کشوری براساس سرشماری عمومی نفوس و مسکن سال ۱۳۹۵". Statistical Center of Iran.  ^ "Maziar Dehghan".  ^ " Isfahan
Isfahan
Is Half The World", Saudi Aramco World, Volume 13, Nr. 1, January 1962 ^ "Isfahan, Pre-Islamic-Period". Encyclopædia Iranica. 15 December 2006. Retrieved 31 December 2015.  ^ Strazny, P. (2005). Encyclopedia of linguistics (p. 325). New York: Fitzroy Dearborn. ^ Historical Geography, Isfahan, http://www.iranicaonline.org// ^ Sacred Precincts: The Religious Architecture of Non-Muslim Communities Across the Islamic World, Gharipour Mohammad, BRILL, Nov 14, 2014 page 179. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013.  ^ Salma, K. Jayyusi; Holod, Renata; Petruccioli, Attilio; André, Raymond (2008). The City in the Islamic World. Leiden: Brill. p. 174. ISBN 9789004162402.  ^ "Britannica.com".  ^ a b c d e f g electricpulp.com. "ISFAHAN vii. SAFAVID PERIOD – Encyclopaedia Iranica".  ^ Matthee 2012, p. 67. ^ a b Aslanian, Sebouh (2011). From the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean: The Global Trade Networks of Armenian Merchants from New Julfa. California: University of California Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0520947573.  ^ a b c Bournoutian, George (2002). A Concise History of the Armenian People: (from Ancient Times to the Present) (2 ed.). Mazda Publishers. p. 208. ISBN 978-1568591414.  ^ Iran
Iran
Almanac and Book of Facts. 8. Echo Institute. 1969. p. 71. OCLC 760026638.  ^ "MSC at a Glance". Retrieved 19 July 2017.  ^ " Esfahan Steel Company A Pioneer in The Steel Industry of Iran". Retrieved 19 July 2017.  ^ Hesaco.com (from the HESA official company website) ^ Pike, John. "HESA Iran
Iran
Aircraft Manufacturing Industrial Company".  ^ "International conference held on investment opportunities in Iran tourism industry".  ^ DEPARTMENT-it@isfahancitycenter.com, IT. "صفحه اصلی بزرگترین مرکز خرید ایران".  ^ "About Isfahan
Isfahan
City Center". Retrieved 16 August 2017.  ^ "Snowy days for Esfahan". Irimo.ir. Retrieved 2012-04-23.  ^ "Esfahan Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 8 April 2015.  ^ "Highest record temperature in Esfahan by Month 1951–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 8 April 2015.  ^ "Lowest record temperature in Esfahan by Month 1951–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 8 April 2015.  ^ Assari, A., Mahesh, T., Emtehani, M., & Assari, E. (2011). Comparative sustainability of bazaar in Iranian traditional cities: Case studies in Isfahan
Isfahan
and Tabriz. International Journal on Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering (IJTPE)(9), 18-24. ^ " Isfahan
Isfahan
Jame(Congregative) mosque – BackPack". Fz-az.fotopages.com. Retrieved 2009-07-26.  ^ "Seifolddini-Faranak; M. S. Fard; Hosseini Ali" (PDF). thescipub.com.  ^ Assari, Ali; T.M. Mahesh (January 2012). "Conservation of historic urban core in traditional Islamic culture: case study of Isfahan
Isfahan
city" (PDF). Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 5 (1): 1970–1976. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 October 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2013.  ^ "Castles of the Fields". Saudi Aramco World. Retrieved 2012-09-11.  ^ " Isfahan
Isfahan
Technical and Vocational Training Organization". Web.archive.org. 8 October 2007. Archived from the original on 8 October 2007. Retrieved 2012-04-23.  ^ Assari, Ali; Erfan Assari (2012). "Urban spirit and heritage conservation problems: case study Isfahan
Isfahan
city in Iran" (PDF). Journal of American Science. 8 (1): 203–209. Retrieved 7 January 2013.  ^ "نگاهی به زندگی و کارنامه هنری استاد جلال تاج". Retrieved 14 July 2017.  ^ "بیوگرافی علیرضا افتخاری". Retrieved 14 July 2017.  ^ "بیوگرافی لیلا فروهر / عکس · جدید 96 -گهر". Retrieved 14 July 2017.  ^ "Hassan Kassai". Retrieved 14 July 2017.  ^ "بیوگرافی و شرح زندگی معین". Retrieved 13 August 2017.  ^ "بیوگرافی حسام الدین سراج". Retrieved 14 July 2017.  ^ "بیوگرافی حسن شماعی زاده". Retrieved 31 August 2017.  ^ "شهسوار تار". Retrieved 15 July 2017.  ^ "بیوگرافی اصغر فرهادی - زومجی". Retrieved 15 July 2017.  ^ "بیوگرافی کامل سروش صحت + عکس". Retrieved 15 July 2017.  ^ "Reza Badrossama Biography". Retrieved 17 July 2017.  ^ "استاد محمود دهنوی". Retrieved 17 July 2017.  ^ "مروري كوتاه بر زندگي‌نامه استاد محمود فرشچيان". Retrieved 15 July 2017.  ^ "Abstract paintings and conceptual spiritual art by Freydoon Rassouli". Retrieved 15 July 2017.  ^ a b "زندگی نامه شهید بهشتی". Retrieved 31 August 2017.  ^ "حسین خرازی که بود و چگونه به شهادت رسید؟". Retrieved 31 August 2017.  ^ "ناشنیده‌هایی از زندگی «ظریف» در روز تولدش". Retrieved 17 August 2017.  ^ "گزارشی از تاریخ قهرمانان ایران؛ پرسپولیس بهترین تیم تاریخ، سپاهان برترین تیم لیگ/ یک آبی‌ در صدر". Retrieved 3 September 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "خواهر خوانده های اصفهان". Retrieved 10 July 2017.  ^ "گوانجو کره جنوبی پانزدهمین خواهرخوانده اصفهان". 11 March 2017. 

Dehghan, Maziar (2014). Management in IRAN. ISBN 978-600-04-1573-0. 

Sources[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Isfahan

Yves Bomati and Houchang Nahavandi,Shah Abbas, Emperor of Persia,1587-1629, 2017, ed. Ketab Corporation, Los Angeles, ISBN 978-1595845672, English translation by Azizeh Azodi. Matthee, Rudi (2012). Persia in Crisis: Safavid
Safavid
Decline and the Fall of Isfahan. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1845117450. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Isfahan.

Isfahan
Isfahan
travel guide from Wikivoyage

Isfahan
Isfahan
official website Isfahan
Isfahan
Metro 360-degree panorama gallery of Isfahan Isfahan
Isfahan
Geometry on a Human Scale - a documentary film directed by Manouchehr Tayyab (30 min) Well illustrated guide to Isfahan

Preceded by Rey Capital of Seljuq Empire
Seljuq Empire
(Persia) 1051–1118 Succeeded by Hamadan
Hamadan
(Western capital) Merv
Merv
(Eastern capital)

Preceded by Qazvin Capital of Iran
Iran
(Persia) 1598–1736 Succeeded by Mashhad

Preceded by Qazvin Capital of Safavid
Safavid
dynasty 1598–1722 Succeeded by -

v t e

Isfahan
Isfahan
Province

Capital

Isfahan

Counties and cities

Aran va Bidgol
Aran va Bidgol
County

Aran va Bidgol Abuzeydabad Nushabad Sefidshahr

Ardestan
Ardestan
County

Ardestan Mahabad Zavareh

Borkhar County

Dowlatabad Dastgerd Habibabad Khvorzuq Komeshcheh Shadpurabad

Buin va Miandasht
Buin va Miandasht
County

Buin va Miandasht Afus

Chadegan
Chadegan
County

Chadegan Rozveh

Dehaqan
Dehaqan
County

Dehaqan

Falavarjan
Falavarjan
County

Falavarjan Abrisham Baharan Shahr Imanshahr Kelishad va Sudarjan Pir Bakran Qahderijan Zazeran

Fereydan County

Daran Damaneh

Fereydunshahr
Fereydunshahr
County

Fereydunshahr Barf Anbar

Golpayegan
Golpayegan
County

Golpayegan Golshahr Guged

Isfahan
Isfahan
County

Isfahan Baharestan Ezhiyeh Harand Hasanabad Kuhpayeh Mohammadabad Nasrabad Nikabad Sagzi Tudeshk Varzaneh

Kashan
Kashan
County

Kashan Barzok Jowsheqan va Kamu Meshkat Neyasar Qamsar

Khomeyni Shahr
Khomeyni Shahr
County

Khomeyni Shahr Dorcheh Piaz Kushk

Khur and Biabanak County

Khur Jandaq Farrokhi

Khvansar
Khvansar
County

Khvansar

Lenjan County

Zarrin Shahr Bagh-e Bahadoran Chamgardan Chermahin Fuladshahr Sedeh Lenjan Varnamkhast Zayandeh Rud

Mobarakeh
Mobarakeh
County

Mobarakeh Dizicheh Karkevand Talkhvoncheh Zibashahr

Nain County

Nain Anarak Bafran

Najafabad
Najafabad
County

Najafabad Alavicheh Dehaq Goldasht Jowzdan Kahriz Sang

Natanz
Natanz
County

Natanz Badrud Khaledabad

Semirom
Semirom
County

Semirom Hana Komeh Noqol Vanak

Shahreza
Shahreza
County

Shahreza Manzariyeh

Shahin Shahr
Shahin Shahr
and Meymeh
Meymeh
County

Shahin Shahr Gaz Meymeh Vazvan

Tiran and Karvan County

Tiran Asgaran Rezvanshahr

Landmarks and sights

Āmeri House Semirom
Semirom
waterfall Abyaneh Neyasar
Neyasar
fire temple Atashgah of Isfahan Babapir Gogad citadel Yazdgerd's palace Grand Bazaar, Isfahan Bazaar
Bazaar
of Kashan Fin Garden Khaju Bridge Tepe Sialk Si-o-se-pol Ali Qapu Shahghandab cave Mashhad_Ardehal ceremony Maranjab caravansary Hasht Behesht Vank Cathedral Chaharbagh School Qamsar
Qamsar
rose water ceremony Jameh Mosque
Mosque
of Ashtarjan Jameh Mosque
Mosque
of Isfahan Shah Mosque Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque Monar Jonban Naqsh-e Jahan Square Narin ghaleh Sultan Amir Ahmad Bathhouse Agha Bozorg Mosque Boroujerdi ha Residence Tabātabāei House Āmeri House Abbāsi House Chahar Bagh New Julfa

Populated places

List of cities, towns and villages in Isfahan
Isfahan
Province

v t e

Isfahan
Isfahan
County

Capital

Isfahan

Districts

Central

Cities

Baharestan Isfahan

Rural Districts and villages

Baraan-e Jonubi (South Baraan)

Abbasabad Andalan Azvarcheh Borkan Cham Dehkaram Eziran Hajjiabad Hermedan Hormozabad Karveh Kolartan Koludan Lian Mazraeh-ye Lajan Abeh Ozvar Pileh Varan Rahimabad Ruran Shidan Zaghmar Ziar

Baraan-e Shomali (North Baraan)

Abad-e Eram Posht Abad-e Soleyman Bacheh Bersian Dastgerd-e Mar Dastja Dideran Dulab Esfina Espart Fasaran Hajjiabad Hoseynabad-e Ashkashan Jaja Javar Jowzdan Kaj Karevanchi Kondelan Konjevan Kuhan Mehdiabad Monshian Namzad Timyart Vajjareh Yahyaabad

Jey

Atasharan Fenart Histan Isfahan
Isfahan
Tree Research Centre Jey Shir Jowharan Kalamkhvaran Kuy-e Golestan Kuy-e Rowshan Shahr Manuchehrabad Molana Safi Qaleh Sarab Qaleh-ye Bertianchi Qaleh-ye Zeynabiyeh Raran Rowshan Dasht Sahra Enqolab Shomareh-ye Do Salimi Sanjavan Marreh Seresh Badaran Shahid Beheshti Training Camp Shahrak-e Zayandeh Rud Zardanjan Zavan

Keraj

Bastanabad Cheryan Dashti Denarat Esfehanak Eshkavand Fizadan Golestaneh Heydarabad Ichi Isfahan
Isfahan
Railway Workers Housing Jar Kabjavan Kabutarabad Kabutarabad
Kabutarabad
Agricultural Education Centre Karchegan Keychi Kuy-e Rah-e Haq Lashtar Integrated Quarry Margh-e Gachi Mazraeh-ye Yezdani Qaleh-ye Chum Qaleh-ye Shur Raddan Rashenan Sadeqabad Yafran

Mahmudabad

Adelabad Aminabad Azadegan Industrial Works Complex Hoseynabad va Mahmudabad Industrial Estate of Isfahan Mahmudabad Shahrak-e Bakhtiar Dasht Shahrak-e Shahid Montazeri Shahrak-e Vali-ye Asr

Qahab-e Jonubi (South Qahab)

Aliabad Aminabad Chengan Firuzabad Gavart Hasanabad Isfahan
Isfahan
Refrigerated Produce Company Jey Industrial Estate Jaladeran Jilanabad Kalmanjan Khatunabad Kheyrabad Mazraeh-ye Gavart Mohammadabad Mohammadabad Qaleh-ye Baghal Qaleh-ye Torkan Sepahan
Sepahan
Factory Town Complex Shahabad Susart

Qahab-e Shomali (North Qahab)

Amorzidehabad Andevan Baharan Dinan Haftshuiyeh Hasanabad-e Kachali Hasseh Hatmabad Hoseynabad-e Kachali Isfahan
Isfahan
Airport Isfahan Airport
Isfahan Airport
Industries Jelvan Jolmarz Kian Laftun Mulenjan Murnan Pimar Qahjavarestan Veshgun Zamanabad

Bon Rud

Cities

Varzaneh

Rural Districts and villages

Gavkhuni

Balan Baqerabad Bazm Hashemabad Kebrit Oshkohran Qaleh Emam Qurtan Sharifabad Sohran

Rudasht-e Sharqi (East Rudasht)

Abu ol Kheyr Farfan Jondan Kafran Kafrud Rangi Deh Tahmuresat

Jarqavieh Olya (Upper Jarqavieh)

Cities

Hasanabad

Rural Districts and villages

Jarqavieh Olya (Upper Jaraqavieh)

Allahabad Dastjerd Kamalabad Khara Malvajerd

Ramsheh

Ahmadabad Allahabad Asadabad Esfandaran Feyzabad Haresabad Mobarakeh Ramsheh

Jarqavieh Sofla (Lower Jarqavieh)

Cities

Mohammadabad Nasrabad Nikabad

Rural Districts and villages

Jarqavieh Sofla (Lower Jarqavieh)

Abbas Esmailzadeh Abbas Yazdani Abbasabad Chah-e Ali Rezapur Mokhtar Chah-e Arabha Chah-e Artash Chah-e Dakhaniyat Ganjabad Hajj Asghar Esmailzadeh Hajj Hoseyn Nikabady Hasan Aqa Khani Mazraeh-ye Emam Reza Mazraeh-ye Latfollah Jahangerd Mohammad Hoseyn Jafari Mohammad Nik Bakht Shomareh-ye Yek Qarneh Reza Sadeqian Seyyed Mostafa Sajadi Sian

Jarqavieh Vosta (Middle Jarqavieh)

Azar Khvaran Heydarabad Hoseynabad Mazraeh Arab Peykan Saadatabad

Jolgeh

Cities

Ezhiyeh Harand

Rural Districts and villages

Emamzadeh Abdol Aziz

Emamzadeh Abdol Aziz Feyzabad Gishi Halarteh Hashemabad Jombozeh Kamandan Kelil Kelishad Khorram Khvorchan Madargan Marchi Pajikabad Qaleh Abdollah Qaleh Sareban Qaleh-ye Bala-ye Sian Qehi Qomshan Sereyan Seyyedan Sharifabad Sichi Sokkan Sonuchi

Rudasht

Sian

Kuhpayeh

Cities

Kuhpayeh Sagzi Tudeshk

Rural Districts and villages

Jabal

Ab Kharak Abbasabad Ali Ebrahim Aliabad Dakhrabad Garabad Hajjiabad Harizeh Heydarabad Homageran Hoseynabad Jezeh Kamal Beyk Karimabad Khvajeh Kichi Kohran Kordabad Lulachi Luteri Mandabad Mazraeh-ye Bala Mazraeh-ye Gowdi Mazraeh-ye Hajj Abd ol Karim Mazraeh-ye Mohammad Mazraeh-ye Now Bahar Mazraeh-ye Tavakkoli Mir Homayun Mir Jafar Musaabad Olunabad Portin Jan Sahr Sajadiyeh Sesnabad Tin Jan

Sistan

Brick Factory Gypsum Factory, Isfahan Hojjatabad Brick Factory Majidabad Mazraeh-ye Aliabad Mazraeh-ye Badar Mazraeh-ye Khodabandehlu Mazraeh-ye Now Mazraeh-ye Soleymani Mehdiabad Mehdiyeh Sejzi Industiral Zone Sepid Poultry Company Vartun Yek Langi

Tudeshk

Abchuiyeh Aliabad Aliabad-e Kuhan Angurud Anjilan Arvajeh Ashtarabad Atr Afshan Bad Afshan Barzabad Bidabad Chirman-e Olya Chirman-e Sofla Darreh Shah Nazar Dastgerd Dastgerdu Dastkan Delgosha Dowlatabad Emamzadeh Qasem Eshqabad Eyshabad Gilabad Haft Yaran Hashemabad Air Force Base Hekmatestan Jeshuqan Jondabeh Jowkaran Key Khalti Khanabad Khaneh-ye Senjed Kharzanan Kheyrabad Kimaran Mazraeh-ye Malek Mazraeh-ye Molla Ahmad Mazraeh-ye Now Mazraeh-ye Nurollah Mazraeh-ye Qandi Mazraeh-ye Yazdi Mehdiabad Mehrabad Mir Lotfollah Moshkenan Now Gabad Pardez Pehengan Sang-e Zebreh Seyyedabad Shah Morad Shamsabad Shirabad Shiran Sohraneh Sorkhi Tutchi Vaj Yazdabad Zederk Zinatabad

Zefreh

Ab Garm Bagh-e Gol Fasharak Fasharak-e Kohneh Kazemabad Kichi Mazraeh-ye Abdollah Mazraeh-ye Barzangeh Mazraeh-ye Doktar Rezvan Mazraeh-ye Hajj Ali Mazraeh Mashhadi Mazraeh Rajabali Pas Ab-e Bala Randavan Sarsari Shast Pa Surcheh-ye Pain Zefreh

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Iran 2016 census

Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.

Tehran

Mashhad 1 Tehran Tehran 8,693,706 11 Rasht Gilan 679,995

Isfahan

Karaj

2 Mashhad Razavi Khorasan 3,001,184 12 Zahedan Sistan and Baluchestan 587,730

3 Isfahan Isfahan 1,961,260 13 Hamadan Hamadan 554,406

4 Karaj Alborz 1,592,492 14 Kerman Kerman 537,718

5 Shiraz Fars 1,565,572 15 Yazd Yazd 529,673

6 Tabriz East Azarbaijan 1,558,693 16 Ardabil Ardabil 529,374

7 Qom Qom 1,201,158 17 Bandar Abbas Hormozgan 526,648

8 Ahwaz Khuzestan 1,184,788 18 Arak Markazi 520,944

9 Kermanshah Kermanshah 946,651 19 Eslamshahr Tehran 448,129

10 Urmia West Azarbaijan 736,224 20 Zanjan Zanjan 430,871

v t e

Iranian architecture

Styles

Parsian

Achaemenid pre-Parsian

Parthian

Khorasani Sasanian

Other

Azeri Isfahani Razi

Types

Bazaars Caravanserais Khaneqah Mosques Tekyeh

Elements

Ab anbar Andaruni Biruni Burj Chahartaq Dalan e Vorudi Gonbad Hashti Howz Imamzadeh Iwan Kariz Kucheh Panjdari Persian Garden (hayāt) Qanat Robats Sahn Shabestan Talar Windcatchers Yakhchal

Traditional cities

Amol Andijan Baku Bam Bukhara Ctesiphon Derbent Ganja Gur-e-Amir Hatra Herat Isfahan Kashan Khiva Khorramabad Mashhad Merv Nakhchivan Nishapur Persepolis Qazvin Qom Samarkand Shahrisabz Shiraz Susa Tabriz Takht-e Soleymān Tehran Yazd

Theory and analysis

Islamic architecture Traditional Persian residential architecture Traditional water sources of Persian antiquity

Lists

Architects of Iran Args, castles, and ghal'ehs List of ab anbars of Qazvin List of mosques List of ziyarat-gahs

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 236810055 GND: 40729

.