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Plantae
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. They form the clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants") that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Plant (other)
A plant is a living organism that generally does not move and absorbs nutrients from its surroundings
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Chaetosphaeridiales
Chaetosphaeridiales is an order of green algae.[1] References[edit]^ Leliaert, Frederik; Verbruggen, Heroen; Zechman, Frederick W. (2011). "Into the deep: New discoveries at the base of the green plant phylogeny". BioEssays. 33 (9): 683–692. doi:10.1002/bies.201100035. ISSN 0265-9247. PMID 21744372. Taxon identifiersWd: Q21344242 EoL: 3998 GBIF: 635 iNaturalist: 152718 ITIS: 846597This Alga-related article is a stub
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Sunlight
Sunlight
Sunlight
is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light. On Earth, sunlight is filtered through Earth's atmosphere, and is obvious as daylight when the Sun
Sun
is above the horizon. When the direct solar radiation is not blocked by clouds, it is experienced as sunshine, a combination of bright light and radiant heat. When it is blocked by clouds or reflects off other objects, it is experienced as diffused light
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Cellulose
Cellulose
Cellulose
is an organic compound with the formula (C 6H 10O 5) n, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.[3][4] Cellulose
Cellulose
is an important structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants, many forms of algae and the oomycetes. Some species of bacteria secrete it to form biofilms.[5] Cellulose
Cellulose
is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth.[6] The cellulose content of cotton fiber is 90%, that of wood is 40–50%, and that of dried hemp is approximately 57%.[7][8][9] Cellulose
Cellulose
is mainly used to produce paperboard and paper. Smaller quantities are converted into a wide variety of derivative products such as cellophane and rayon. Conversion of cellulose from energy crops into biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol is under investigation as an alternative fuel source
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Cell Wall
A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane. It can be tough, flexible, and sometimes rigid. It provides the cell with both structural support and protection, and also acts as a filtering mechanism. Cell walls
Cell walls
are present in most prokaryotes (except mycoplasma bacteria), in algae, plants and fungi but rarely in other eukaryotes including animals. A major function is to act as pressure vessels, preventing over-expansion of the cell when water enters. The composition of cell walls varies between species and may depend on cell type and developmental stage. The primary cell wall of land plants is composed of the polysaccharides cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. Often, other polymers such as lignin, suberin or cutin are anchored to or embedded in plant cell walls
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Prokaryote
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.[1] The word prokaryote comes from the Greek πρό (pro) "before" and κάρυον (karyon) "nut or kernel".[2][3] Prokaryotes are divided into two domains, Archaea
Archaea
and Bacteria. In contrast, species with nuclei and organelles are placed in the third domain, Eukaryota.[4] Prokaryotes reproduce without fusion of gametes. The first living organisms are thought to have been prokaryotes. In the prokaryotes, all the intracellular water-soluble components (proteins, DNA
DNA
and metabolites) are located together in the cytoplasm enclosed by the cell membrane, rather than in separate cellular compartments
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Phaeophyceae
see Classification.SynonymsFucophyceae Warming, 1884 Melanophyceae Rabenhorst, 1863 PhaeophytaThe Phaeophyceae or brown algae (singular: alga), are a large group of mostly marine multicellular algae, including many seaweeds located in colder Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
waters. They play an important role in marine environments, both as food and as habitats. For instance, Macrocystis, a kelp of the order Laminariales, may reach 60 m (200 ft) in length and forms prominent underwater kelp forests. Kelp
Kelp
forests like these contain a high level of biodiversity.[4] Another example is Sargassum, which creates unique floating mats of seaweed in the tropical waters of the Sargasso Sea
Sargasso Sea
that serve as the habitats for many species. Many brown algae, such as members of the order Fucales, commonly grow along rocky seashores
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Clade
A clade (from Ancient Greek: κλάδος, klados, "branch") is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".[1] The common ancestor may be an individual, a population, a species (extinct or extant), and so on right up to a kingdom and further. Clades are nested, one in another, as each branch in turn splits into smaller branches. These splits reflect evolutionary history as populations diverged and evolved independently. Clades are termed monophyletic (Greek: "one clan") groups. Over the last few decades, the cladistic approach has revolutionized biological classification and revealed surprising evolutionary relationships among organisms.[2] Increasingly, taxonomists try to avoid naming taxa that are not clades; that is, taxa that are not monophyletic
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Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation). This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars, which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek φῶς, phōs, "light", and σύνθεσις, synthesis, "putting together".[1][2][3] In most cases, oxygen is also released as a waste product. Most plants, most algae, and cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis; such organisms are called photoautotrophs
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Multicellular Organism
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.[1] All species of animals, land plants and most fungi are multicellular, as are many algae, whereas a few organisms are partially uni- and partially multicellular, like slime molds and social amoebae such as the genus Dictyostelium. Multicellular organisms arise in various ways, for example by cell division or by aggregation of many single cells.[2] Colonial organisms are the result of many identical individuals joining together to form a colony
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,[1] although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.[2] For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature)
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Coleochaetophyceae
Coleochaetophyceae
Coleochaetophyceae
are a class of charophyte algae that includes some of the closest multicellular relatives of land plants. References[edit]Taxon identifiersWd: Q1134312 EoL: 10652223 EPPO: 1KLQC ITIS: 8
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Chloroplast
Chloroplasts /ˈklɔːrəˌplæsts, -plɑːsts/[1][2] are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells. The main role of chloroplasts is to conduct photosynthesis, where the photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll captures the energy from sunlight and converts it and stores it in the energy-storage molecules ATP and NADPH
NADPH
while freeing oxygen from water. They then use the ATP and NADPH
NADPH
to make organic molecules from carbon dioxide in a process known as the Calvin cycle. Chloroplasts carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis, much amino acid synthesis, and the immune response in plants. The number of chloroplasts per cell varies from one, in unicellular algae, up to 100 in plants like Arabidopsis
Arabidopsis
and wheat. A chloroplast is a type of organelle known as a plastid, characterized by its two membranes and a high concentration of chlorophyll
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Proterozoic
The Proterozoic
Proterozoic
( /ˌproʊtərəˈzoʊɪk, prɔː-, -trə-/[1][2]) is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth. The name Proterozoic
Proterozoic
comes from Greek and means "earlier life": the Greek root "protero-" means "former, earlier" and "zoic-" means "animal, living being".[3] The Proterozoic Eon extended from 7016788940000000000♠2500 Ma to 7016170726616000000♠541 Ma (million years ago), and is the most recent part of the Precambrian
Precambrian
Supereon. It can be also described as the time range between the appearance of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere and the appearance of first complex life forms (like trilobites or corals)
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Hadean
The Hadean
Hadean
( /ˈheɪdiən/) is a geologic eon of the Earth
Earth
predating the Archean. It began with the formation of the Earth
Earth
about 4.6 billion years ago and ended, as defined by the ICS, 4 billion years ago.[1] As of 2016[update], the ICS describes its status as informal.[2] The geologist Preston Cloud coined the term in 1972, originally to label the period before the earliest-known rocks on Earth. W. Brian Harland later coined an almost synonymous term: the "Priscoan period"
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