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Plantae
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. The term is today generally limited to the GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade VIRIDIPLANTAE (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Nephroselmidophyceae
In taxonomy , NEPHROSELMIS is a genus of green algae . It has been placed in the Pycnococcaceae , although a 2009 study suggests that it should be separated into its own class, Nephroselmidophyceae. One species can be an endosymbiont of Hatena arenicola . CONTENTS * 1 References * 2 External links * 2.1 Scientific references * 2.2 Scientific databases REFERENCES * ^ See the NCBI webpage on Nephroselmis. Data extracted from the "NCBI taxonomy resources" . National Center for Biotechnology Information . Retrieved 2007-03-19. * ^ Becker, B. & Marin, B
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies
Picea abies
. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature )
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Mesostigmatophyceae
The MESOSTIGMATOPHYCEAE are a monotypic class of green algae found within the division charophyta that contains two species. Earlier studies were unable to resolve the position of the species, and it was often placed as a sister to all other green algae, as one of the basal members of the Streptophyta, or as close to Chaetosphaeridium . More recent studies agree that Mesostigma and Chlorokybus form a clade , being the earliest diverging charophytes. CONTENTS * 1 References * 2 External links * 2.1 Scientific references * 2.2 Scientific databases REFERENCES * ^ Leliaert, Frederik; Verbruggen, Heroen; Zechman, Frederick W. (2011). "Into the deep: New discoveries at the base of the green plant phylogeny". BioEssays. 33 (9): 683–692. doi :10.1002/bies.201100035 . ISSN 0265-9247 . PMID 21744372 . * ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2007). "Class: Mesostigmatophyceae taxonomy browser"
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Phaeophyceae
see Classification . SYNONYMS * Fucophyceae Warming, 1884 * Melanophyceae Rabenhorst, 1863 * PhaeophytaThe PHAEOPHYCEAE or BROWN ALGAE (singular: alga), are a large group of mostly marine multicellular algae , including many seaweeds located in colder Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
waters. They play an important role in marine environments, both as food and as habitats. For instance, Macrocystis , a kelp of the order Laminariales , may reach 60 m (200 ft) in length and forms prominent underwater kelp forests . Kelp forests like these contain a high level of biodiversity. Another example is Sargassum
Sargassum
, which creates unique floating mats of seaweed in the tropical waters of the Sargasso Sea
Sargasso Sea
that serve as the habitats for many species. Many brown algae, such as members of the order Fucales , commonly grow along rocky seashores
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Coleochaetophyceae
COLEOCHAETOPHYCEAE are a class of charophyte algae that includes some of the closest multicellular relatives of land plants
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Plant (other)
A PLANT is a living organism that generally does not move and absorbs nutrients from its surroundings. Typically it has been placed deliberately rather than naturally
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Chaetosphaeridiales
CHAETOSPHAERIDIALES is an order of green algae. REFERENCES * ^ Leliaert, Frederik; Verbruggen, Heroen; Zechman, Frederick W. (2011). "Into the deep: New discoveries at the base of the green plant phylogeny". BioEssays. 33 (9): 683–692. ISSN 0265-9247 . PMID 21744372 . doi :10.1002/bies.201100035 . TAXON IDENTIFIERS * Wd : Q21344242 * EoL : 3998 * GBIF : 635 * iNaturalist : 152718 * ITIS : 846597 This Alga -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Extinction
In biology and ecology , EXTINCTION is the end of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon ), normally a species . The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively. This difficulty leads to phenomena such as Lazarus taxa , where a species presumed extinct abruptly "reappears" (typically in the fossil record ) after a period of apparent absence. More than 99 percent of all species, amounting to over five billion species, that ever lived on Earth are estimated to be extinct. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described
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Multicellular Organism
MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS are organisms that consist of more than one cell , in contrast to unicellular organisms . All species of animals , land plants and most fungi are multicellular, as are many algae , whereas a few organisms are partially uni- and partially multicellular, like slime molds and social amoebae such as the genus Dictyostelium . Multicellular organisms arise in various different ways, for example by cell division or by aggregation of many single cells. Colonial organisms are the result of many identical individuals joining together to form a colony . However, it can often be hard to separate colonial protists from true multicellular organisms, because the two concepts are not distinct; colonial protists have been dubbed "pluricellular" rather than "multicellular"
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Phanerozoic
The PHANEROZOIC Eon ( British English PHANæROZOIC) is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale , and the one during which abundant animal and plant life has existed. It covers 541 million years to the present, and began with the Cambrian
Cambrian
Period when diverse hard-shelled animals first appeared. Its name was derived from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words φανερός (phanerós) and ζωή (zōḗ), meaning visible life, since it was once believed that life began in the Cambrian
Cambrian
, the first period of this eon. The time before the Phanerozoic, called the Precambrian
Precambrian
supereon, is now divided into the Hadean
Hadean
, Archaean and Proterozoic
Proterozoic
eons
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Photosynthesis
PHOTOSYNTHESIS is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation ). This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules , such as sugars , which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek φῶς, phōs, "light", and σύνθεσις, synthesis, "putting together". In most cases, oxygen is also released as a waste product. Most plants , most algae , and cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis; such organisms are called photoautotrophs . Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
is largely responsible for producing and maintaining the oxygen content of the Earth's atmosphere, and supplies all of the organic compounds and most of the energy necessary for life on Earth
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Clade
A CLADE (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: κλάδος, klados, "branch") is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants , and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life ". The common ancestor may be an individual, a population , a species (extinct or extant ), and so on right up to a kingdom . Clades are nested, one in another, as each branch in turn splits into smaller branches. These splits reflect evolutionary history as populations diverged and evolved independently. Clades are termed monophyletic (Greek: "one clan") groups. Over the last few decades, the cladistic approach has revolutionized biological classification and revealed surprising evolutionary relationships among organisms. Increasingly, taxonomists try to avoid naming taxa that are not clades; that is, taxa that are not monophyletic
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Archean
The ARCHEAN Eon ( /ɑːrˈkiːən/ , also spelled ARCHAEAN) is a geologic eon , 4,000 to 2,500 million years ago (4 to 2.5 billion years), that followed the Hadean
Hadean
Eon and preceded the Proterozoic
Proterozoic
Eon. During the Archean, the Earth's crust had cooled enough to allow the formation of continents. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology and changes in classification * 2 Earth
Earth
at the beginning of the Archean
Archean
* 2.1 Palaeoenvironment * 3 Geology
Geology
* 4 Early life in the Archean
Archean
* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ETYMOLOGY AND CHANGES IN CLASSIFICATION Archean
Archean
(or Archaean) comes from the ancient Greek Αρχή (Arkhē), meaning "beginning, origin"
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Prokaryote
A PROKARYOTE is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane -bound nucleus (karyon), mitochondria , or any other membrane-bound organelle . The word prokaryote comes from the Greek πρό (pro) "before" and κάρυον (karyon) "nut or kernel ". Prokaryotes can be divided into two domains , archaea and bacteria . In contrast, species with nuclei and organelles are placed in the domain Eukaryota . In the prokaryotes, all the intracellular water-soluble components (proteins ,