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Peony
and for lower taxa see textThe range of Paeonia.The peony or paeony[2][3] is a flowering plant in the genus Paeonia, the only genus in the family Paeoniaceae. They are native to Asia, Europe
Europe
and Western North America. Scientists differ on the number of species that can be distinguished ranging from 25 to 40,[4][5] although the current consensus is 33 known species.[6] The relationships between the species need to be further clarified.[7] Most are herbaceous perennial plants 0.25–1 metre (0.82–3.28 ft) tall, but some are woody shrubs 0.25–3.5 metres (0.82–11.48 ft) tall
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Stigma (botany)
The stigma (plural: stigmata) is the receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower.Contents1 Description 2 Shape 3 Style3.1 Structure 3.2 Attachment to the ovary 3.3 Pollination4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External linksDescription[edit]Stigma of a Tulipa
Tulipa
species, with pollenThe stigma, together with the style and ovary comprises the pistil, which in turn is part of the gynoecium or female reproductive organ of a plant. The stigma forms the distal portion of the style or stylodia. The stigma is composed of stigmatic papillae, the cells which are receptive to pollen. These may be restricted to the apex of the style or, especially in wind pollinated species, cover a wide surface.[1] The stigma receives pollen and it is on the stigma that the pollen grain germinates
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Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling
Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling
Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling
(December 9, 1798 – November 20, 1875) was a German botanist who was a native of Hanover. He studied natural sciences at the University of Göttingen, and in 1818 took a botanical journey through Hungary
Hungary
and Croatia. In 1822 he became a lecturer at Göttingen, where he later became a professor
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C3 Carbon Fixation
C3 carbon fixation
C3 carbon fixation
is one of three metabolic pathways for carbon fixation in photosynthesis, along with C4 and CAM. This process converts carbon dioxide and ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP, a 5-carbon sugar) into 3-phosphoglycerate
3-phosphoglycerate
through the following reaction:CO2 + H2O + RuBP
RuBP
→ (2) 3-phosphoglycerateThis reaction occurs in all plants as the first step of the Calvin–Benson cycle. In C4 plants, carbon dioxide is drawn out of malate and into this reaction rather than directly from the air.Cross section of a C3 plant, specifically of an Arabidopsis thaliana leaf. Vascular bundles shown
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Ellagic Acid
Ellagic acid
Ellagic acid
is a natural phenol antioxidant found in numerous fruits and vegetables. The antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of ellagic acid have prompted research into its potential health benefits
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Myricetin
Myricetin
Myricetin
is a member of the flavonoid class of polyphenolic compounds, with antioxidant properties.[1] It is commonly derived from vegetables, fruits, nuts, berries, tea,[2] and is also found in red wine.[3] Myricetin
Myricetin
is structural
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Ethereal Oil
An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile (defined as "the tendency of a substance to vaporize") aroma compounds from plants. Essential oils are also known as volatile oils, ethereal oils, aetherolea, or simply as the oil of the plant from which they were extracted, such as oil of clove. An oil is "essential" in the sense that it contains the "essence of" the plant's fragrance—the characteristic fragrance of the plant from which it is derived.[1] The term essential used here does not mean indispensable as with the terms essential amino acid or essential fatty acid which are so called since they are nutritionally required by a given living organism.[2] In contrast to fatty oils, essential oils evaporate completely without leaving a stain (residue) when dabbed onto filter paper. Essential oils are generally extracted by distillation, often by using steam
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Flavone
Flavones
Flavones
(flavus = yellow), are a class of flavonoids based on the backbone of 2-phenylchromen-4-one (2-phenyl-1-benzopyran-4-one) (right image).[1][2] Flavones
Flavones
are common in the food supply, mainly from spices, and red–purp
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Calcium Oxalate
Calcium
Calcium
oxalate (in archaic terminology, oxalate of lime) is a calcium salt of oxalate with the chemical formula CaC2O4(H2O)x, where x can vary. All forms are colorless or white. The monohydrate occurs naturally as the mineral whewellite, forming envelope-shaped crystals, known in plants as raphides. The rarer dihydrate (mineral: weddellite) and trihydrate (mineral: caoxite) are also recognized
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Ketone
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) /ˈkiːtoʊn/ is an organic compound with the structure RC(=O)R', where R and R' can be a variety of carbon-containing substituents. Ketones and aldehydes are simple compounds that contain a carbonyl group (a carbon-oxygen double bond). They are considered "simple" because they do not have reactive groups like −OH or −Cl attached directly to the carbon atom in the carbonyl group, as in carboxylic acids containing −COOH.[1] Many ketones are known and many are of great importance in industry and in biology
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Palmitic Acid
Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is the most common saturated fatty acid found in animals, plants and microorganisms.[9] Its chemical formula is CH3(CH2)14COOH, and its C:D is 16:0. As its name indicates, it is a major component of the oil from the fruit of oil palms (palm oil). Palmitic acid
Palmitic acid
can also be found in meats, cheeses, butter, and dairy products. Palmitate is the salts and esters of palmitic acid. The palmitate anion is the observed form of palmitic acid at physiologic pH (7.4). Aluminium
Aluminium
salts of palmitic acid and naphthenic acid were combined during World War II
World War II
to produce napalm
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Ranunculales
See text Ranunculales
Ranunculales
is an order of flowering plants. Of necessity it contains the family Ranunculaceae, the buttercup family, because the name of the order is based on the name of a genus in that family. Ranunculales belongs to a paraphyletic group known as the basal eudicots. It is the most basal clade in this group; in other words, it is sister to the remaining eudicots. Widely known members include poppies, barberries, and buttercups.Contents1 Taxonomy1.1 Molecular phylogenetics 1.2 Evolution2 References 3 Bibliography 4 External linksTaxonomy[edit] Historically the term Ranales was used to include the Ranunculaceae and related families, as described by Bentham and Hooker
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Carpel
Gynoecium
Gynoecium
(from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
γυνή, gyne, meaning woman, and οἶκος, oikos, meaning house) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower that produce ovules and ultimately develop into the fruit and seeds. The gynoecium is the innermost whorl of (one or more) pistils in a flower and is typically surrounded by the pollen-producing reproductive organs, the stamens, collectively called the androecium. The gynoecium is often referred to as the "female" portion of the flower, although rather than directly producing female gametes (i.e. egg cells), the gynoecium produces megaspores, each of which develops into a female gametophyte which then produces egg cells. The term gynoecium is also used by botanists to refer to a cluster of archegonia and any associated modified leaves or stems present on a gametophyte shoot in mosses, liverworts and hornworts
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Glaucidium (plant)
Glaucidium is a genus of plants in family Ranunculaceae, comprising a single species Glaucidium palmatum
Glaucidium palmatum
(Japanese wood poppy; シラネアオイ Shirane-aoi). It is endemic to northern and eastern Japan
Japan
on Hokkaidō
Hokkaidō
and northeastern Honshū
Honshū
on mountains close to the Sea of Japan.[1][2] It is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant growing to 40 cm tall with a rigid stem with two large (20 cm diameter) palmately lobed leaves at the top and small membraneous leaves lower on the stem. The flower is produced singly at the top of the stem, 8 cm diameter, with four pink to pale purple (rarely white) petaloid sepals, numerous stamens and two carpels
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Molecular Phylogenetic
Molecular phylogenetics (/məˈlɛkjʊlər ˌfaɪloʊdʒəˈnɛtɪks, mɒ-, moʊ-/[1][2]) is the branch of phylogeny that analyses hereditary molecular differences, mainly in DNA
DNA
sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships. The result of a molecular phylogenetic analysis is expressed in a phylogenetic tree. Molecular phylogenetics is one aspect of molecular systematics, a broader term that also includes the use of molecular data in taxonomy and biogeography.Contents1 History 2 Techniques and applications 3 Theoretical background 4 Limitations of molecular systematics 5 See also 6 Notes and references 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] Further information: History of molecular evolution The theoretical frameworks for molecular systematics were laid in the 1960s in the works of Emile Zuckerkandl, Emanuel Margoliash, Linus Pauling, and Walter M
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Order (biology)
In biological classification, the order (Latin: ordo) isa taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, superorder, may be added directly above order, while suborder would be a lower rank. a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines).Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes.What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist, as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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