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Pea
The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum
Pisum
sativum. Each pod contains several peas, which can be green or yellow. Pea
Pea
pods are botanically fruit,[2] since they contain seeds and develop from the ovary of a (pea) flower. The name is also used to describe other edible seeds from the Fabaceae
Fabaceae
such as the pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), and the seeds from several species of Lathyrus. P. sativum is an annual plant, with a life cycle of one year. It is a cool-season crop grown in many parts of the world; planting can take place from winter to early summer depending on location
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Riboflavin
Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.[1] As a supplement it is used to prevent and treat riboflavin deficiency and prevent migraines.[1] It may be given by mouth or injection.[1] It is nearly always well tolerated.[1] Normal doses are safe during pregnancy.[1] Riboflavin
Riboflavin
is in the vitamin B group.[1] It is required by the body for cellular respiration.[1] Food sources include eggs, green vegetables, milk, and meat.[3] Riboflavin
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,[1] although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.[2] For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature)
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Beta-Carotene
β- Carotene
Carotene
is an organic, strongly colored red-orange pigment abundant in plants and fruits. It is a member of the carotenes, which are terpenoids (isoprenoids), synthesized biochemically from eight isoprene units and thus having 40 carbons. Among the carotenes, β-carotene is distinguished by having beta-rings at both ends of the molecule. β- Carotene
Carotene
is biosynthesized from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate.[5] β- Carotene
Carotene
is the most common form of carotene in plants. When used as a food coloring, it has the E number
E number
E160a.[6]:119 The structure was deduced by Karrer et al. in 1930.[7] In nature, β-carotene is a precursor (inactive form) to vitamin A via the action of beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase.[5] Isolation of β-carotene from fruits abundant in carotenoids is commonly done using column chromatography
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Niacin
Niacin
Niacin
also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and is, depending on the definition used, one of the 20 to 80 essential human nutrients. Together with nicotinamide it makes up the group known as vitamin B3 complex.[2] It has the formula C 6H 5NO 2 and belongs to the group of the pyridinecarboxylic acids. Medication and supplemental niacin are primarily used to treat high blood cholesterol and pellagra (niacin deficiency). Insufficient niacin in the diet can cause nausea, skin and mouth lesions, anemia, headaches, and tiredness. The lack of niacin may also be observed in pandemic deficiency disease, which is caused by a lack of five crucial vitamins (niacin, vitamin C, thiamin, vitamin D, and vitamin A) and is usually found in areas of widespread poverty and malnutrition. Niacin is provided in the diet from a variety of whole and processed foods, with highest contents in fortified packaged foods, tuna, some vegetable and other animal sources
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Biological Life Cycle
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state. "The concept is closely related to those of the life history, development and ontogeny, but differs from them in stressing renewal."[1] Transitions of form may involve growth, asexual reproduction, or sexual reproduction. In some organisms, different "generations" of the species succeed each other during the life cycle. For plants and many algae, there are two multicellular stages, and the life cycle is referred to as alternation of generations. The term life history is often used, particularly for organisms such as the red algae which have three multicellular stages (or more), rather than two.[2] Life cycles that include sexual reproduction involve alternating haploid (n) and diploid (2n) stages, i.e., a change of ploidy is involved
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Nile Delta
Coordinates: 30°54′N 31°7′E / 30.900°N 31.117°E / 30.900; 31.117 NASA
NASA
satellite photograph of the Nile
Nile
Delta (shown in false color)The Nile
Nile
Delta at night as seen from the ISS in October 2010.The Nile
Nile
Delta (Arabic: دلتا النيل‎ Delta n-Nīl or simply الدلتا ed-Delta) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt
Egypt
(Lower Egypt) where the Nile
Nile
River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea. It is one of the world's largest river deltas—from Alexandria
Alexandria
in the west to Port Said
Port Said
in the east, it covers 240 km (150 mi) of Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coastline—and is a rich agricultural region
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Zeaxanthin
Zeaxanthin
Zeaxanthin
is one of the most common carotenoid alcohols found in nature. It is important in the xanthophyll cycle
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Vitamin B6
Vitamin
Vitamin
B6 refers to a group of chemically similar compounds which can be interconverted in biological systems. Vitamin
Vitamin
B6 is part of the vitamin B group of essential nutrients
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Thiamine
Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.[2] As a supplement it is used to treat and prevent thiamine deficiency and disorders that result from it, including beriberi, Korsakoff's syndrome, and Korsakoff's psychosis.[1] Other uses include treatment of maple syrup urine disease and Leigh's disease.[1] It is taken by mouth or by injection.[1] Side effects are generally few.[1] Allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, may occur.[1] Thiamine
Thiamine
is in the B complex family.[1] It is needed for the metabolism of carbohydrates.[1] As people are unable to make it, thiamine is an essential nutrient.
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Mhnt
The Muséum de Toulouse, sometimes known as MHNT or Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de la ville de Toulouse, is a museum of natural history in Toulouse, France. It is located in the Busca-Montplaisir, and houses a collection of more than 2.5 million items.Contents1 History 2 Permanent exhibitions 3 Collections3.1 Prehistory 3.2 Botany 3.3 Entomology3.3.1 Coleoptera 3.3.2 Lepidoptera 3.3.3 Orthoptera3.4 Mineralogy 3.5 Ornithology 3.6 Osteology 3.7 Paleontology3.7.1 Invertebrates 3.7.2 Vertebrates4 Henri Gaussen
Henri Gaussen
Botanical Garden 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (November 2011)The museum was founded in 1796 by the naturalist Philippe-Isidore Picot de Lapeyrouse. It was at that time housed in the old buildings of the monastery of the carmelite friars. It was opened to the public in 1865 in its present location and under the directorship of Édouard Filhol
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Binomial Nomenclature
Binomial nomenclature
Binomial nomenclature
("two-term naming system") also called binominal nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin
Latin
grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomial name (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; more informally it is also called a Latin
Latin
name. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus Homo
Homo
and within this genus to the species Homo
Homo
sapiens
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Climate
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry
Atmospheric chemistry
(category)Meteorology Weather
Weather
(category) · (portal)
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Food Energy
Food
Food
energy is chemical energy that animals (including humans) derive from food through the process of cellular respiration. Cellular respiration may either involve the chemical reaction of food molecules with molecular oxygen[1] (aerobic respiration) or the process of reorganizing the food molecules without additional oxygen (anaerobic respiration).Contents1 Overview 2 Nutrition
Nutrition
labels 3 Recommended daily intake 4 Energy usage in the human body 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksOverview[edit] Humans and other animals need a minimum intake of food energy to sustain their metabolism and to drive their muscles. Foods are composed chiefly of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, water, vitamins, and minerals. Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water represent virtually all the weight of food, with vitamins and minerals making up only a small percentage of the weight
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Fabales
The Fabales
Fabales
are an order of flowering plants included in the rosid group of the eudicots in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II classification system. In the APG II circumscription, this order includes the families Fabaceae
Fabaceae
or legumes (including the subfamilies Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae, and Faboideae), Quillajaceae, Polygalaceae
Polygalaceae
or milkworts (including the families Diclidantheraceae, Moutabeaceae, and Xanthophyllaceae), and Surianaceae. Under the Cronquist system
Cronquist system
and some other plant classification systems, the order Fabales
Fabales
contains only the family Fabaceae. In the classification system of Dahlgren the Fabales
Fabales
were in the superorder Fabiflorae (also called Fabanae) with three familiese corresponding to the subfamilies of Fabaceae
Fabaceae
in APG II
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Rosids
The rosids are members of a large clade (monophyletic group) of flowering plants, containing about 70,000 species,[2] more than a quarter of all angiosperms.[3] The clade is divided into 16 to 20 orders, depending upon circumscription and classification. These orders, in turn, together comprise about 140 families.[4] Fossil rosids are known from the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period. Molecular clock estimates indicate that the rosids originated in the Aptian
Aptian
or Albian stages of the Cretaceous, between 125 and 99.6 million years ago.[5][6]Contents1 Name 2 Relationships 3 Classification3.1 Orders4 Phylogeny 5 References 6 External linksName[edit] The name is based upon the name "Rosidae", which had usually been understood to be a subclass
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