HOME
The Info List - Afghanistan


--- Advertisement ---



Coordinates: 33°N 65°E / 33°N 65°E / 33; 65

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت‬ (Pashto) Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jumhoryat جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان‬ (Dari) Jomhūrīyyeh Eslāmīyyeh Afġānestān

Flag

Coat of arms

Motto: لا إله إلا الله، محمد رسول الله‬ "Lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh, Muhammadun rasūlu llāh" "There is no God but Allah; Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of Allah. (Shahada)

Anthem: Millī Surūd ملي سرود‬ (English: "National Anthem")

Capital and largest city Kabul 34°32′N 69°08′E / 34.533°N 69.133°E / 34.533; 69.133

Official languages

Pashto Dari[1]

Ethnic groups Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, and others[2]

Religion Islam

Demonym Afghan/Afghanistani[Note 1]

Government Unitary presidential Islamic republic

• President

Ashraf Ghani

• Chief Executive Officer

Abdullah Abdullah

Legislature National Assembly

• Upper house

House of Elders

• Lower house

House of the People

Formation

• Hotak Empire

April 1709

• Durrani Empire

October 1747

• Emirate

1823

• Recognized

19 August 1919

• Kingdom

9 June 1926

• Republic

17 July 1973

• Current constitution

26 January 2004

Area

• Total

652,864[5] km2 (252,072 sq mi) (40th)

• Water (%)

negligible

Population

• 2016 estimate

34,656,032[6] (40th)

• Density

49.88/km2 (129.2/sq mi) (150th)

GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate

• Total

$70 billion[7]

• Per capita

$1,888[7]

GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate

• Total

$21 billion[7]

• Per capita

$572[7]

Gini (2008) 29[8] low

HDI (2014)  0.465[9] low · 171st

Currency Afghani (Afs) (AFN)

Time zone D† (UTC+4:30 Solar Calendar)

Drives on the right

Calling code +93

ISO 3166 code AF

Internet TLD .af افغانستان.

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(/æfˈɡænɪstæn, -ɡɑːnɪstɑːn/ ( listen); Pashto/Dari: افغانستان‬, Pashto: Afġānistān [avɣɒnisˈtɒn, ab-],[10] Dari: Afġānestān [avɣɒnesˈtɒn]), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia
South Asia
and Central Asia.[11][12] Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is bordered by Pakistan
Pakistan
in the south and east; Iran
Iran
in the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
in the north; and in the far northeast, China. Its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers (252,000 sq mi) and much of it is covered by the Hindu
Hindu
Kush mountain range, which experience very cold winters. The north consists of fertile plains, whilst the south-west consists of deserts where temperatures can get very hot in summers.[13] Kabul
Kabul
serves as the capital and its largest city. Human habitation in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, and the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia. The land has historically been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by Alexander the Great, Mauryas, Muslim
Muslim
Arabs, Mongols, British, Soviet, and since 2001 by the United States
United States
with NATO-allied countries. It has been called "unconquerable"[14][15] and nicknamed the "graveyard of empires".[16] The land also served as the source from which the Kushans, Hephthalites, Samanids, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Khaljis, Mughals, Hotaks, Durranis, and others have risen to form major empires.[17] The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India
India
and the Russian Empire. Its border with British India, the Durand Line, was formed in 1893 but it is not recognized by the Afghan government and it has led to strained relations with Pakistan since the latter's independence in 1947. Following the Third Anglo- Afghan War in 1919 the country was free of foreign influence, eventually becoming a monarchy under King Amanullah, and later for 40 years under Zahir Shah. In the late 1970s, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in a series of coups first became a socialist state and then a Soviet Union protectorate. This evoked the Soviet-Afghan War
Soviet-Afghan War
in the 1980s against rebels. By 1996 most of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
was captured by the fundamentalist Islamic group the Taliban, who ruled most of the country as a totalitarian regime for almost five years. The Taliban
Taliban
were forcibly removed by the NATO-led coalition, and a new democratically-elected government political structure was formed. Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is a unitary presidential Islamic republic
Islamic republic
with a population of 35 million, mostly composed of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks, Hazaras
Hazaras
and Uzbeks. It is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Group of 77, the Economic Cooperation Organization, and the Non-Aligned Movement. Afghanistan's economy is the world's 108th largest, with a GDP of $64.08 billion; the country fares much worse in terms of per-capita GDP (PPP), ranking 167th out of 186 countries in a 2016 report from the International Monetary Fund.[18]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Pre-Islamic period 2.2 Islamization and Mongol invasion 2.3 Hotak dynasty
Hotak dynasty
and Durrani Empire 2.4 British influence and independent kingdom 2.5 Marxist coup d'état and Soviet war 2.6 Proxy and civil war and Islamic jihad 1989–96 2.7 Taliban
Taliban
Emirate and Northern Alliance 2.8 Recent history (2002–present)

3 Geography 4 Demographics

4.1 Ethnic groups 4.2 Languages 4.3 Religions

5 Governance

5.1 Elections and parties 5.2 Administrative divisions 5.3 Foreign relations and military 5.4 Law enforcement

6 Economy

6.1 Mining

7 Transport

7.1 Air 7.2 Rail 7.3 Roads

8 Health 9 Education 10 Culture

10.1 Media and entertainment 10.2 Communication 10.3 Cuisine 10.4 Poetry 10.5 Sports

11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

Etymology Main article: Name of Afghanistan The name Afghānistān (Pashto: افغانستان‬‎) is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, which is documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul-'alam. The root name "Afghan" was used historically in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, and the suffix "-stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more specifically in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan
Constitution of Afghanistan
states that "[t]he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan."[19] History Main article: History
History
of Afghanistan

Part of a series on the

History
History
of Afghanistan

Timeline

Ancient

Indus Valley Civilisation 2200–1800 BC

Oxus civilization 2100–1800 BC

Aryans 1700–700 BC

Median Empire 728–550 BC

Achaemenid Empire 550–330 BC

Seleucid Empire 330–150 BC

Maurya Empire 305–180 BC

Greco-Bactrian Kingdom 256–125 BC

Parthian Empire 247 BC–224 AD

Indo-Greek Kingdom 180–130 BC

Indo-Scythian Kingdom 155–80? BC

Kushan Empire 135 BC – 248 AD

Indo-Parthian
Indo-Parthian
Kingdom 20 BC – 50? AD

Sasanian Empire 230–651

Kidarite
Kidarite
Kingdom 320–465

Alchon Huns 380–560

Hephthalite Empire 410–557

Nezak Huns 484–711

Medieval

Kabul
Kabul
Shahi 565–879

Principality of Chaghaniyan 7th–8th centuries

Rashidun Caliphate 652–661

Umayyads 661–750

Abbasids 750–821

Tahirids 821–873

Saffarids 863–900

Samanids 875–999

Ghaznavids 963–1187

Ghurids before 879–1215

Seljuks 1037–1194

Khwarezmids 1215–1231

Qarlughids 1224–1266

Ilkhanate 1258–1353

Chagatai Khanate 1225–1370

Khaljis 1290–1320

Karts 1245–1381

Timurids 1370–1507

Arghuns 1479–1522

Modern

Mughals 1501–1738

Safavids 1510–1709

Hotak dynasty 1709–1738

Afsharid dynasty 1738–1747

Durrani Empire 1747–1826

Emirate of Afghanistan 1826–1919

Kingdom of Afghanistan 1919–1973

Republic of Afghanistan 1973–1978

Democratic Republic of Afghanistan 1978–1992

Islamic State of Afghanistan 1992–2001

Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan 1996–2004

Interim/Transitional Administration 2001–2004

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan since 2004

Book Category Portal

v t e

Citadel of Herat

Excavations of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree and others suggest that humans were living in what is now Afghanistan
Afghanistan
at least 50,000 years ago, and that farming communities in the area were among the earliest in the world. An important site of early historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan
Afghanistan
compares to Egypt
Egypt
in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites.[20][21] The country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and often fought. It has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages
Indo-Iranian languages
in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, and the Islamic Empire.[22] Many empires and kingdoms have also risen to power in Afghanistan, such as the Greco-Bactrians, Kushans, Hephthalites, Kabul
Kabul
Shahis, Saffarids, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Khaljis, Kartids, Timurids, Mughals, and finally the Hotak and Durrani dynasties that marked the political origins of the modern state.[23] Pre-Islamic period Main article: Pre-Islamic period of Afghanistan

Bilingual (Greek and Aramaic) edict by Emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
from the 3rd century BCE discovered in the southern city of Kandahar

Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the geographical area of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
has been closely connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east, west, and north. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze, and Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan. Urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, and the early city of Mundigak
Mundigak
(near Kandahar
Kandahar
in the south of the country) may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation
Indus Valley Civilisation
stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and India. In more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan
Pakistan
to northwest India
India
and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River
Oxus River
at Shortugai
Shortugai
in northern Afghanistan.[24][25] There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
as well.

One of the Buddhas of Bamiyan. Buddhism
Buddhism
was widespread before the Islamic conquest of Afghanistan.

After 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic people from Central Asia began moving south into Afghanistan; among them were many Indo-European-speaking Indo-Iranians. These tribes later migrated further into South Asia, Western Asia, and toward Europe via the area north of the Caspian Sea. The region at the time was referred to as Ariana.[20][26][27] The religion Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
is believed by some to have originated in what is now Afghanistan
Afghanistan
between 1800 and 800 BCE, as its founder Zoroaster
Zoroaster
is thought to have lived and died in Balkh. Ancient Eastern Iranian languages
Iranian languages
may have been spoken in the region around the time of the rise of Zoroastrianism. By the middle of the 6th century BCE, the Achaemenids overthrew the Medes
Medes
and incorporated Arachosia, Aria, and Bactria
Bactria
within its eastern boundaries. An inscription on the tombstone of Darius I of Persia
Darius I of Persia
mentions the Kabul
Kabul
Valley in a list of the 29 countries that he had conquered.[28] Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and his Macedonian forces arrived to Afghanistan in 330 BCE after defeating Darius III of Persia
Darius III of Persia
a year earlier in the Battle of Gaugamela. Following Alexander's brief occupation, the successor state of the Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
controlled the region until 305 BCE, when they gave much of it to the Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
as part of an alliance treaty. The Mauryans controlled the area south of the Hindu Kush until they were overthrown in about 185 BCE. Their decline began 60 years after Ashoka's rule ended, leading to the Hellenistic reconquest by the Greco-Bactrians. Much of it soon broke away from them and became part of the Indo-Greek Kingdom. They were defeated and expelled by the Indo-Scythians
Indo-Scythians
in the late 2nd century BCE.[29][30] During the first century BCE, the Parthian Empire
Parthian Empire
subjugated the region, but lost it to their Indo-Parthian
Indo-Parthian
vassals. In the mid-to-late first century CE the vast Kushan Empire, centered in Afghanistan, became great patrons of Buddhist culture, making Buddhism
Buddhism
flourish throughout the region. The Kushans were overthrown by the Sassanids in the 3rd century CE, though the Indo-Sassanids
Indo-Sassanids
continued to rule at least parts of the region. They were followed by the Kidarite
Kidarite
who, in turn, were replaced by the Hephthalites. By the 6th century CE, the successors to the Kushans and Hepthalites established a small dynasty called Kabul
Kabul
Shahi. Much of the northeastern and southern areas of the country remained dominated by Buddhist culture.[31] Islamization and Mongol invasion Main articles: Islamic conquest of Afghanistan
Islamic conquest of Afghanistan
and Mongol invasion of Central Asia

The Friday Mosque of Herat
Friday Mosque of Herat
is one of the oldest mosques in Afghanistan. (March 1962 photo)

Arab
Arab
Muslims brought Islam
Islam
to Herat
Herat
and Zaranj
Zaranj
in 642 CE and began spreading eastward; some of the native inhabitants they encountered accepted it while others revolted. The land was collectively recognized by the Arabs as al-Hind due to its cultural connection with Greater India. Before Islam
Islam
was introduced, people of the region were mostly Buddhists and Zoroastrians, but there were also Surya
Surya
and Nana worshipers, Jews, and others. The Zunbils
Zunbils
and Kabul Shahi were first conquered in 870 CE by the Saffarid Muslims of Zaranj. Later, the Samanids
Samanids
extended their Islamic influence south of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush. It is reported that Muslims and non-Muslims still lived side by side in Kabul
Kabul
before the Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
rose to power in the 10th century.[32][33][34] By the 11th century, Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni
defeated the remaining Hindu rulers and effectively Islamized
Islamized
the wider region, with the exception of Kafiristan. Afghanistan
Afghanistan
became one of the main centers in the Muslim
Muslim
world during this Islamic Golden Age. The Ghaznavid dynasty was overthrown by the Ghurids, who expanded and advanced the already powerful Islamic empire. In 1219 AD, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and his Mongol army overran the region. His troops are said to have annihilated the Khorasanian cities of Herat
Herat
and Balkh
Balkh
as well as Bamyan.[35] The destruction caused by the Mongols forced many locals to return to an agrarian rural society.[36] Mongol rule continued with the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
in the northwest while the Khalji dynasty
Khalji dynasty
administered the Afghan tribal areas south of the Hindu Kush until the invasion of Timur, who established the Timurid Empire in 1370. In the early 16th century, Babur
Babur
arrived from Fergana
Fergana
and captured Kabul
Kabul
from the Arghun dynasty. In 1526, he invaded Delhi in India
India
to replace the Lodi dynasty
Lodi dynasty
with the Mughal Empire. Between the 16th and 18th century, the Khanate of Bukhara, Safavids, and Mughals ruled parts of the territory. Before the 19th century, the northwestern area of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
was referred to by the regional name Khorasan. Two of the four capitals of Khorasan ( Herat
Herat
and Balkh) are now located in Afghanistan, while the regions of Kandahar, Zabulistan, Ghazni, Kabulistan, and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
formed the frontier between Khorasan and Hindustan.[37][38][39] Hotak dynasty
Hotak dynasty
and Durrani Empire Main articles: Hotak dynasty
Hotak dynasty
and Durrani Empire

Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the last Afghan empire and viewed as Father of the Nation

In 1709, Mirwais Hotak, a local Ghilzai tribal leader, successfully rebelled against the Safavids. He defeated Gurgin Khan and made Afghanistan
Afghanistan
independent.[40] Mirwais died of a natural cause in 1715 and was succeeded by his brother Abdul Aziz, who was soon killed by Mirwais' son Mahmud for treason. Mahmud led the Afghan army in 1722 to the Persian capital of Isfahan, captured the city after the Battle of Gulnabad and proclaimed himself King of Persia.[40] The Afghan dynasty was ousted from Persia by Nader Shah
Nader Shah
after the 1729 Battle of Damghan. In 1738, Nader Shah
Nader Shah
and his forces captured Kandahar, the last Hotak stronghold, from Shah Hussain Hotak, at which point the incarcerated 16-year-old Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani
was freed and made the commander of an Afghan regiment. Soon after the Persian and Afghan forces invaded India. By 1747, the Afghans chose Durrani as their head of state.[41] Durrani and his Afghan army conquered much of present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, the Khorasan and Kohistan provinces of Iran, and Delhi in India.[42] He defeated the Indian Maratha Empire, and one of his biggest victories was the 1761 Battle of Panipat. In October 1772, Durrani died of a natural cause and was buried at a site now adjacent to the Shrine of the Cloak
Shrine of the Cloak
in Kandahar. He was succeeded by his son, Timur
Timur
Shah, who transferred the capital of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
from Kandahar
Kandahar
to Kabul
Kabul
in 1776. After Timur's death in 1793, the Durrani throne passed down to his son Zaman Shah, followed by Mahmud Shah, Shuja Shah and others.[43] The Afghan Empire was under threat in the early 19th century by the Persians in the west and the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
in the east. Fateh Khan, leader of the Barakzai tribe, had installed 21 of his brothers in positions of power throughout the empire. After his death, they rebelled and divided up the provinces of the empire between themselves. During this turbulent period, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
had many temporary rulers until Dost Mohammad Khan
Dost Mohammad Khan
declared himself emir in 1826.[44] The Punjab region
Punjab region
was lost to Ranjit Singh, who invaded Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
and in 1834 captured the city of Peshawar.[45] In 1837, during the Battle of Jamrud
Battle of Jamrud
near the Khyber Pass, Akbar Khan and the Afghan army failed to capture the Jamrud fort from the Sikh Khalsa Army, but killed Sikh Commander Hari Singh Nalwa, thus ending the Afghan-Sikh Wars. By this time the British were advancing from the east and the first major conflict during "The Great Game" was initiated.[46] British influence and independent kingdom Further information: European influence in Afghanistan
European influence in Afghanistan
and Reforms of Amānullāh Khān
Amānullāh Khān
and civil war

British and allied forces at Kandahar
Kandahar
after the 1880 Battle of Kandahar, during the Second Anglo- Afghan War. The large defensive wall around the city was removed in the early 1930s by the order of King Nadir.

In 1838, the British marched into Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and arrested Dost Mohammad, sent him into exile in India
India
and replaced him with the previous ruler, Shah Shuja.[47][48] Following an uprising, the 1842 retreat from Kabul
Kabul
of British-Indian forces and the annihilation of Elphinstone's army, and the Battle of Kabul
Kabul
that led to its recapture, the British placed Dost Mohammad Khan
Dost Mohammad Khan
back into power and withdrew their military forces from Afghanistan. In 1878, the Second Anglo- Afghan War was fought over perceived Russian influence, Abdur Rahman Khan replaced Ayub Khan, and Britain gained control of Afghanistan's foreign relations as part of the Treaty of Gandamak
Treaty of Gandamak
of 1879. In 1893, Mortimer Durand
Mortimer Durand
made Amir Abdur Rahman Khan
Abdur Rahman Khan
sign a controversial agreement in which the ethnic Pashtun and Baloch territories were divided by the Durand Line. This was a standard divide and rule policy of the British and would lead to strained relations, especially with the later new state of Pakistan. Shia-dominated Hazarajat
Hazarajat
and pagan Kafiristan
Kafiristan
remained politically independent until being conquered by Abdur Rahman Khan
Abdur Rahman Khan
in 1891-1896.

Zahir Shah, the last king of Afghanistan, who reigned from 1933 to 1973.

After the Third Anglo-Afghan War
Third Anglo-Afghan War
and the signing of the Treaty of Rawalpindi on 19 August 1919, King Amanullah Khan
Amanullah Khan
declared Afghanistan a sovereign and fully independent state. He moved to end his country's traditional isolation by establishing diplomatic relations with the international community and, following a 1927–28 tour of Europe and Turkey, introduced several reforms intended to modernize his nation. A key force behind these reforms was Mahmud Tarzi, an ardent supporter of the education of women. He fought for Article 68 of Afghanistan's 1923 constitution, which made elementary education compulsory. The institution of slavery was abolished in 1923.[49]

King Amanullah Khan
Amanullah Khan
and Queen Soraya Tarzi
Soraya Tarzi
on a visit to Berlin in 1928

Some of the reforms that were actually put in place, such as the abolition of the traditional burqa for women and the opening of a number of co-educational schools, quickly alienated many tribal and religious leaders. Faced with overwhelming armed opposition, Amanullah Khan was forced to abdicate in January 1929 after Kabul
Kabul
fell to rebel forces led by Habibullah Kalakani. Prince Mohammed Nadir Shah, Amanullah's cousin, in turn defeated and killed Kalakani in November 1929, and was declared King Nadir Shah. He abandoned the reforms of Amanullah Khan
Amanullah Khan
in favor of a more gradual approach to modernisation but was assassinated in 1933 by Abdul Khaliq, a fifteen-year-old Hazara student. Mohammed Zahir Shah, Nadir Shah's 19-year-old son, succeeded to the throne and reigned from 1933 to 1973. Until 1946, Zahir Shah ruled with the assistance of his uncle, who held the post of Prime Minister and continued the policies of Nadir Shah. Another of Zahir Shah's uncles, Shah Mahmud Khan, became Prime Minister in 1946 and began an experiment allowing greater political freedom, but reversed the policy when it went further than he expected. He was replaced in 1953 by Mohammed Daoud Khan, the king's cousin and brother-in-law. Daoud Khan sought a closer relationship with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and a more distant one towards Pakistan. The King build close relationships with the Axis powers
Axis powers
in the 1930s - but Afghanistan
Afghanistan
remained neutral and was neither a participant in World War II
World War II
nor aligned with either power bloc in the Cold War thereafter. However, it was a beneficiary of the latter rivalry as both the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the United States
United States
vied for influence by building Afghanistan's main highways, airports, and other vital infrastructure. On per capita basis, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
received more Soviet development aid than any other country. Afghanistan
Afghanistan
had therefore good relations with both Cold War
Cold War
enemies. In 1973, while King Zahir Shah was on an official overseas visit, Daoud Khan launched a bloodless coup and became the first President of Afghanistan, abolishing the monarchy. In the meantime, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
got neighboring Pakistan
Pakistan
involved in Afghanistan. Some experts suggest that Bhutto paved the way for the April 1978 Saur Revolution.[50] Marxist coup d'état and Soviet war Main articles: Saur Revolution, Soviet– Afghan War, Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, and History of Afghanistan
History of Afghanistan
(1978–92)

Soviet troops in Gardez, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 1987

In April 1978, the communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) seized power in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
via a coup d'état, also called the Saur Revolution. Its first President was Nur Muhammad
Muhammad
Taraki. Opposition against the PDPA's modernization of (traditional Islamic) civil and marriage laws led to unrest which aggravated to rebellion and revolt around October 1978, first in eastern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(see Initiation of the insurgency in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
1978). That uprising quickly expanded into a civil war waged by guerrilla mujahideen against regime forces countrywide. The Pakistani government provided these rebels with covert training centers, while the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
sent thousands of military advisers to support the PDPA regime.[51] As early as mid-1979 (see CIA activities in Afghanistan), the United States were supporting Afghan mujahideen and foreign " Afghan Arab" fighters through Pakistan's ISI.[52] Meanwhile, increasing friction between the competing factions of the PDPA — the dominant Khalq
Khalq
and the more moderate Parcham — resulted (in July–August 1979) in the dismissal of Parchami cabinet members and the arrest of Parchami military officers under the pretext of a Parchami coup.

Hezb-i Islami Khalis
Hezb-i Islami Khalis
fighters in the Sultan Valley of Kunar Province, 1987

In September 1979, President Taraki was assassinated in a coup within the PDPA orchestrated by fellow Khalq
Khalq
member Hafizullah Amin, who assumed the presidency. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was displeased with Amin's government, and decided to intervene and invade the country on 27 December 1979, killing Amin that same day. A Soviet-organized regime, led by Parcham's Babrak Karmal
Babrak Karmal
but inclusive of both factions ( Parcham and Khalq), filled the vacuum. Soviet troops in more substantial numbers were deployed to stabilize Afghanistan
Afghanistan
under Karmal, and as a result the Soviets were now directly involved in what had been a domestic war in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(of mujahideen against PDPA government),[53] which war from December 1979 until 1989 is therefore also known as the Soviet– Afghan War. The United States, supporting the Afghan mujahideen and foreign "Afghan Arab" fighters since mid-1979 through Pakistan's ISI,[52] and Saudi Arabia, from now on delivered for billions in cash and weapons, including two thousand FIM-92 Stinger
FIM-92 Stinger
surface-to-air missiles, to Pakistan
Pakistan
as support for the anti-Soviet mujahideen.[54][55] The PDPA prohibited usury, declared equality of the sexes,[56] and introduced women to political life.[56] During this war from 1979 until 1989, Soviet forces, their Afghan proxies and rebels killed between 562,000[57] and 2 million Afghans,[58][59][60][61][62][63][64] and displaced about 6 million people who subsequently fled Afghanistan, mainly to Pakistan
Pakistan
and Iran.[65] Many countryside villages were bombed and some cities such as Herat
Herat
and Kandahar
Kandahar
were also damaged from air bombardment. Pakistan's North-West Frontier Province functioned as an organisational and networking base for the anti-Soviet Afghan resistance, with the province's influential Deobandi
Deobandi
ulama playing a major supporting role in promoting the 'jihad'.[66] Meanwhile, the central Afghan region of Hazarajat, which in this period was free of Soviet or PDPA government presence, experienced an internal civil war from 1980 to 1984. Faced with mounting international pressure and numerous casualties, the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 1989, but continued to support Afghan President Mohammad Najibullah
Mohammad Najibullah
until 1992.[67] Proxy and civil war and Islamic jihad 1989–96 Main articles: Afghan Civil War (1989–92) and Afghan Civil War (1992–96)

Mohammad Najibullah, President of Afghanistan
President of Afghanistan
from 1987 to 1992

Since 1978 (see above), mujahideen (Islamic resistance) forces claimed to be battling the hostile "puppet regime"[68] in Kabul
Kabul
which since 1987 was led by President Mohammad Najibullah. President Najibullah tried to build support for his government by moving away from socialism to pan- Afghan nationalism, abolishing the one-party state, portraying his government as Islamic,[clarification needed] and in 1990 removing all signs of communism.[citation needed] Nevertheless, Najibullah did not win any significant support. In March 1989, two mujahideen groups launched an attack on Jalalabad, instigated by the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence
Inter-Services Intelligence
(ISI) who wanted to see a mujahideen Islamic government established in Afghanistan, but the attack failed after three months. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in December 1991 and the ending of Russian support, President Najibullah was left without foreign aid. In March 1991, mujahideen forces attacked and conquered the city of Khost. In March 1992, President Najibullah agreed to step aside and make way for a mujahideen coalition government. Mujahideen
Mujahideen
leaders came together in Peshawar, Pakistan, to negotiate such a government, but mujahideen Hezbi Islami's leader Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, presumably supported by ISI, refused to meet other leaders. On 16 April 1992, four Afghani government Generals ousted President Najibullah. Little later, Hezbi Islami
Hezbi Islami
invaded Kabul. This ignited war in Kabul
Kabul
on 25 April with rivalling groups Jamiat and Junbish in which soon two more mujahideen groups mingled; all groups except Jamiat were supported by an Islamic foreign government (Saudi Arabia, Iran, Uzbekistan) or intelligence agency (Pakistan's ISI).[69][70][71] In 1992–95, Kabul was heavily bombarded and considerably destroyed, by Hezbi Islami, Jamiat, Junbish, Hizb-i-Wahdat, and Ittihad; in that period, half a million Kabuli fled to Pakistan.[72] In January–June 1994, 25,000 people died in Kabul
Kabul
due to fighting between an alliance of Dostum's (Junbish) with Hekmatyar's (Hezbi Islami) against Massoud’s (Jamiat) forces.[73] Also other cities turned into battleground.

A section of Kabul
Kabul
during the civil war in 1993, which caused significant damage to the capital

In 1993–95, (sub-)commanders of Jamiat, Junbish, Hezbi Islami
Hezbi Islami
and Hizb-i-Wahdat
Hizb-i-Wahdat
descended to rape, murder and extortion.[70][74][72] The Taliban
Taliban
emerged in September 1994 as a movement and militia of Pashtun students (talib) from Islamic madrassas (schools) in Pakistan,[72][75] pledged to rid Afghanistan
Afghanistan
of 'warlords and criminals',[76] and soon had military support from Pakistan.[77] In November 1994 the Taliban took control of Kandahar
Kandahar
city after forcing local Pashtun leaders who had tolerated complete lawlessness.[72] The Taliban
Taliban
in early 1995 attempted to capture Kabul
Kabul
but were repelled by forces under Massoud. Taliban, having grown stronger, in September 1996 attacked and occupied Kabul
Kabul
after Massoud and Hekmatyar had withdrawn their troops from Kabul.[78][79] Taliban
Taliban
Emirate and Northern Alliance Main articles: Afghan Civil War (1996–2001), Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, Taliban, and Northern Alliance The Taliban
Taliban
late September 1996, in control of Kabul
Kabul
and most of Afghanistan,[80] proclaimed their Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. They imposed a strict form of Sharia, similar to that found in Saudi Arabia. According to Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) in 1998, "no other regime in the world has methodically and violently forced half of its population into virtual house arrest, prohibiting them on pain of physical punishment from showing their faces, seeking medical care without a male escort, or attending school"[81] The Taliban's brutal regime was comparable to those of Stalinist Russia
Russia
or the Khmer Rouge rule of Cambodia.[82] After the fall of Kabul
Kabul
to the Taliban, Massoud and Dostum formed the Northern Alliance. The Taliban
Taliban
defeated Dostum's forces during the Battles of Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
(1997–98). Pakistan's Chief of Army Staff, Pervez Musharraf, began sending thousands of Pakistanis to help the Taliban
Taliban
defeat the Northern Alliance.[83][77][84][85][86][87] From 1996 to 2001, the al-Qaeda network of Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
and Ayman al-Zawahiri was also operating inside Afghanistan.[88] This and the fact that around one million Afghans were internally displaced made the United States
United States
worry.[84][89] From 1990 to September 2001, around 400,000 Afghans died in the internal mini-wars.[90] On 9 September 2001, Massoud was assassinated by two Arab
Arab
suicide attackers in Panjshir province
Panjshir province
of Afghanistan. Two days later, the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
were carried out in the United States. The US government suspected Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
as the perpetrator of the attacks, and demanded that the Taliban
Taliban
hand him over.[91] The Taliban offered to hand over Bin Laden to a third country for trial, but not directly to the US. Washington refused that offer.[92] Instead, the US launched the October 2001 Operation Enduring Freedom. The majority of Afghans supported the American invasion of their country.[93][94] During the initial invasion, US and UK forces bombed al-Qaeda training camps. The United States
United States
began working with the Northern Alliance
Northern Alliance
to remove the Taliban
Taliban
from power.[95] Recent history (2002–present) Further information: War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–present), Taliban insurgency, Civilian casualties in the war in Afghanistan (2001–present), and Corruption in Afghanistan

Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai
dominated Afghan politics after the Taliban's fall

From upper left, clockwise – Canadian troops in Kandahar; American president Barack Obama meets Afghan leader Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai
in March 2010; US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton with female politicians in Kabul in October, 2011; An officer of the RAF explains a C-27 of the Afghan air force to 'Thunder Lab' students in July 2011

In December 2001, after the Taliban
Taliban
government was overthrown, the Afghan Interim Administration under Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai
was formed, in which process the Taliban
Taliban
were typecast as 'the bad guys' and left out. The International Security Assistance Force
International Security Assistance Force
(ISAF) was established by the UN Security Council
UN Security Council
to help assist the Karzai administration and provide basic security.[96][97] Taliban
Taliban
forces meanwhile began regrouping inside Pakistan, while more coalition troops entered Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and began rebuilding the war-torn country.[98][99] Shortly after their fall from power, the Taliban
Taliban
began an insurgency to regain control of Afghanistan. Over the next decade, ISAF and Afghan troops led many offensives against the Taliban, but failed to fully defeat them. Afghanistan
Afghanistan
remains one of the poorest countries in the world due to a lack of foreign investment, government corruption, and the Taliban
Taliban
insurgency.[100][101] Meanwhile, the Afghan government was able to build some democratic structures, and the country changed its name to the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Attempts were made, often with the support of foreign donor countries, to improve the country's economy, healthcare, education, transport, and agriculture. ISAF forces also began to train the Afghan National Security Forces. In the decade following 2002, over five million Afghans were repatriated, including some who were deported from Western countries.[102][103] By 2009, a Taliban-led shadow government began to form in parts of the country.[104] In 2010, President Karzai attempted to hold peace negotiations with the Taliban
Taliban
leaders, but the rebel group refused to attend until mid-2015 when the Taliban
Taliban
supreme leader finally decided to back the peace talks.[105] After the May 2011 death of Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
in Pakistan, many prominent Afghan figures were assassinated.[106] Afghanistan– Pakistan
Pakistan
border skirmishes intensified and many large scale attacks by the Pakistan-based Haqqani Network
Haqqani Network
also took place across Afghanistan. The United States
United States
blamed rogue elements within the Pakistani government for the increased attacks.[107][108] The U.S. government spent tens of billions of dollars on development aid over 15 years and over a trillion dollars on military expenses during the same period.[109][110] Following the 2014 presidential election President Karzai left power and Ashraf Ghani
Ashraf Ghani
became President in September 2014.[111] The United States' war in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
– by then the longest in its history – officially ended on 28 December 2014. However, thousands of US-led NATO
NATO
troops have remained in the country to train and advise Afghan government forces.[112] The 2001–present war has resulted in over 90,000 direct war-related deaths, which includes insurgents, Afghan civilians and government forces. Over 100,000 have been injured.[113] Geography Main article: Geography
Geography
of Afghanistan

Landscapes of Afghanistan, from left to right: 1. Band-e Amir National Park; 2. Salang Pass
Salang Pass
in Parwan Province; 3. Korangal Valley
Korangal Valley
in Kunar Province; and 4. Kajaki Dam
Kajaki Dam
in Helmand Province

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
map of Köppen climate classification.

Topography

A landlocked mountainous country with plains in the north and southwest, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is located within South Asia[12][114] and Central Asia.[115] It is part of the US-coined Greater Middle East Muslim
Muslim
world, which lies between latitudes 29° N and 39° N, and longitudes 60° E and 75° E. The country's highest point is Noshaq, at 7,492 m (24,580 ft) above sea level. It has a continental climate with harsh winters in the central highlands, the glaciated northeast (around Nuristan), and the Wakhan Corridor, where the average temperature in January is below −15 °C (5 °F), and hot summers in the low-lying areas of the Sistan Basin
Sistan Basin
of the southwest, the Jalalabad
Jalalabad
basin in the east, and the Turkestan plains along the Amu River
Amu River
in the north, where temperatures average over 35 °C (95 °F) in July. Despite having numerous rivers and reservoirs, large parts of the country are dry. The endorheic Sistan Basin
Sistan Basin
is one of the driest regions in the world.[116] Aside from the usual rainfall, Afghanistan receives snow during the winter in the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
and Pamir Mountains, and the melting snow in the spring season enters the rivers, lakes, and streams.[117][118] However, two-thirds of the country's water flows into the neighboring countries of Iran, Pakistan, and Turkmenistan. The state needs more than US$2 billion to rehabilitate its irrigation systems so that the water is properly managed.[119] The northeastern Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
mountain range, in and around the Badakhshan Province
Badakhshan Province
of Afghanistan, is in a geologically active area where earthquakes may occur almost every year.[120] They can be deadly and destructive sometimes, causing landslides in some parts or avalanches during the winter.[121] The last strong earthquakes were in 1998, which killed about 6,000 people in Badakhshan near Tajikistan.[122] This was followed by the 2002 Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
earthquakes in which over 150 people were killed and over 1,000 injured. A 2010 earthquake left 11 Afghans dead, over 70 injured, and more than 2,000 houses destroyed. The country's natural resources include: coal, copper, iron ore, lithium, uranium, rare earth elements, chromite, gold, zinc, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, marble, precious and semi-precious stones, natural gas, and petroleum, among other things.[123][124] In 2010, US and Afghan government officials estimated that untapped mineral deposits located in 2007 by the US Geological Survey
US Geological Survey
are worth at least $1 trillion.[125] At 652,230 km2 (251,830 sq mi),[126] Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is the world's 41st largest country,[127] slightly bigger than France and smaller than Burma, about the size of Texas in the United States. It borders Pakistan
Pakistan
in the south and east; Iran
Iran
in the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
in the north; and China
China
in the far east. Demographics Main articles: Demographics of Afghanistan
Demographics of Afghanistan
and Afghan diaspora

Kabul

Herat

Jalalabad

Kandahar

Mazar-i-Sharif

Kunduz

Lashkargah

Taloqan

Pul-e-Khomri

Sheberghan

Maimana

Ghazni

Khost

Zaranj

Map of major cities as identified by governmental organizations[128]

The population of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
was estimated at 29.2 million in 2017.[129] Of this, 15 million are males and 14.2 million females. About 22% of them are urbanite and the remaining 78% live in rural areas.[130] An additional 3 million or so Afghans are temporarily housed in neighboring Pakistan
Pakistan
and Iran, most of whom were born and raised in those two countries. This makes the total Afghan population at around 33,332,025, and its current growth rate is 2.34%.[11] This population is expected to reach 82 million by 2050 if current population trends continue.[131] The only city with over a million residents is its capital, Kabul. Due to a lack of census there is no clear indication of what the largest cities in the country are, with various national and international estimates and without always acknowledging the differentiation of city municipalities and urban areas that go beyond city limits. After Kabul the other five large cities are Kandahar, Herat, Mazar-i-Sharif, Kunduz
Kunduz
and Jalalabad. Other major cities include Lashkar Gah, Taloqan, Khost, Sheberghan, and Ghazni.

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Afghanistan 2012 estimate[132]

Rank Name Province Pop.

Kabul

Kandahar 1 Kabul Kabul
Kabul
Province 3,289,000

Herat

Mazar-i-Sharif

2 Kandahar Kandahar
Kandahar
Province 491,500

3 Herat Herat
Herat
Province 436,300

4 Mazar-i-Sharif Balkh
Balkh
Province 368,100

5 Kunduz Kunduz
Kunduz
Province 304,600

6 Taloqan Takhar Province 219,000

7 Jalalabad Nangarhar Province 206,500

8 Puli Khumri Baghlan Province 203,600

9 Charikar Parwan Province 171,200

10 Sheberghan Jowzjan Province 161,700

Ethnic groups Main article: Ethnic groups
Ethnic groups
in Afghanistan

Ethnolinguistic groups of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
as of 2001

Afghan schoolgirls from various ethnicities

Afghan boys wearing traditional headgear in Kunduz

Afghanistan's population is divided into several ethnolinguistic groups, which are listed in the chart below:

Ethnic groups
Ethnic groups
in Afghanistan

Ethnic group World Factbook c. 2013 estimate[2]

Pashtun 42%

Tajik 33%

Hazara 9%

Uzbek 9%

Aimak 4%

Turkmen 3%

Baloch 2%

Others (Pashayi, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, etc.) 4%

Languages Main article: Languages of Afghanistan

Spoken languages of Afghanistan[11][citation needed]

Dari ( Afghan Persian)

50%

Pashto

35%

Uzbek and Turkmen

11%

30 others including Balochi

4%

Pashto
Pashto
and Dari are the official languages of Afghanistan; bilingualism is very common.[1] Dari, which is a variety of and mutually intelligible with Persian (and very often called 'Farsi' by some Afghans like in Iran) functions as the lingua franca in Kabul
Kabul
as well as in much of the northern and northwestern parts of the country.[1] Pashto
Pashto
is the native tongue of the Pashtuns, although many of them are also fluent in Dari while some non- Pashtuns
Pashtuns
are fluent in Pashto. There are a number of smaller regional languages, they include Uzbek, Turkmen, Balochi, Pashayi, and Nuristani. Uzbek, Turkmen, Pashayi, Nuristani, Balochi and Pamiri declared third official in areas where the majority speaks them. A number of Afghans are also fluent in Urdu, English, and other foreign languages. Religions Main article: Religion in Afghanistan

Religion in Afghanistan[133]

Sunni Islam

84.7–89.7%

Imamiyyah

7–15%

Isma'ilism

4.5%

Other religion

0.5%

Over 99% of the Afghan population is Muslim. According to latest estimates, up to 90% practice Sunni Islam
Islam
and the remaining 7–15% adhere to Shia Islam.[11][134] Thousands of Afghan Sikhs and Hindus are also found in the major cities.[135][136] There was a small Jewish community in Afghanistan who had emigrated to Israel
Israel
and the United States
United States
by the end of the twentieth century; at least one Jew, Zablon Simintov, remained.[137] There is also at least one known Christian, current First Lady of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Rula Ghani,[138] apart from Christian foreigners. Governance Main articles: Politics of Afghanistan
Politics of Afghanistan
and Constitution of Afghanistan

The National Assembly of Afghanistan
National Assembly of Afghanistan
in 2016

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is an Islamic republic
Islamic republic
consisting of three branches, the executive, legislative, and judicial. The nation is led by President Ashraf Ghani
Ashraf Ghani
with Abdul Rashid Dostum
Abdul Rashid Dostum
and Sarwar Danish
Sarwar Danish
as vice presidents. Abdullah Abdullah
Abdullah Abdullah
serves as the chief executive officer (CEO). The National Assembly is the legislature, a bicameral body having two chambers, the House of the People and the House of Elders. The Supreme Court is led by Chief Justice Said Yusuf Halem, the former Deputy Minister of Justice for Legal Affairs.[139][140] According to Transparency International, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
remains in the top most corrupt countries list.[141] A January 2010 report published by the United Nations
United Nations
Office on Drugs and Crime revealed that bribery consumed an amount equal to 23% of the GDP of the nation.[142] A number of government ministries are believed to be rife with corruption, and while then-President Karzai vowed to tackle the problem in 2009 by stating that "individuals who are involved in corruption will have no place in the government",[143] top government officials were stealing and misusing hundreds of millions of dollars through the Kabul
Kabul
Bank. Elections and parties Main articles: Elections in Afghanistan
Elections in Afghanistan
and List of political parties in Afghanistan

From left to right: Abdullah Abdullah, John Kerry
John Kerry
and Ashraf Ghani during the 2014 presidential election

The Arg (Presidential Palace)

The 2004 Afghan presidential election was relatively peaceful, in which Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai
won in the first round with 55.4% of the votes. However, the 2009 presidential election was characterized by lack of security, low voter turnout, and widespread electoral fraud.[144] The vote, along with elections for 420 provincial council seats, took place in August 2009, but remained unresolved during a lengthy period of vote counting and fraud investigation. Two months later, under international pressure, a second round run-off vote between Karzai and remaining challenger Abdullah was announced, but a few days later Abdullah announced that he would not participate in 7 November run-off because his demands for changes in the electoral commission had not been met. The next day, officials of the election commission cancelled the run-off and declared Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai
as President for another five-year term.[144] In the 2005 parliamentary election, among the elected officials were former mujahideen, Islamic fundamentalists, warlords, communists, reformists, and several Taliban
Taliban
associates.[145] In the same period, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
reached to the 30th highest nation in terms of female representation in the National Assembly.[146] The last parliamentary election was held in September 2010, but due to disputes and investigation of fraud, the swearing-in ceremony took place in late January 2011. The 2014 presidential election ended with Ashraf Ghani winning by 56.44% votes. Administrative divisions Main articles: Provinces of Afghanistan
Provinces of Afghanistan
and Districts of Afghanistan Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is administratively divided into 34 provinces (wilayats). Each province is the size of a U.S. county, having a governor and a capital. The country is further divided into nearly 400 provincial districts, each of which normally covers a city or a number of villages. Each district is represented by a district governor. The provincial governors are appointed by the President of Afghanistan and the district governors are selected by the provincial governors.[147] The provincial governors are representatives of the central government in Kabul
Kabul
and are responsible for all administrative and formal issues within their provinces. There are also provincial councils that are elected through direct and general elections for a period of four years.[148] The functions of provincial councils are to take part in provincial development planning and to participate in the monitoring and appraisal of other provincial governance institutions. According to article 140 of the constitution and the presidential decree on electoral law, mayors of cities should be elected through free and direct elections for a four-year term. However, due to huge election costs, mayoral and municipal elections have never been held. Instead, mayors have been appointed by the government. In the capital city of Kabul, the mayor is appointed by the President of Afghanistan. The following is a list of all the 34 provinces in alphabetical order:

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is divided into 34 provinces, and every province is further divided into a number of districts

Badakhshan Badghis Baghlan Balkh Bamyan Daykundi Farah Faryab Ghazni Ghor Helmand Herat Jowzjan Kabul Kandahar Kapisa Khost Kunar Kunduz Laghman Logar Nangarhar Nimruz Nuristan Oruzgan Paktia Paktika Panjshir Parwan Samangan Sar-e Pol Takhar Wardak Zabul

Foreign relations and military Main articles: Foreign relations of Afghanistan
Foreign relations of Afghanistan
and Afghan Armed Forces

Black Hawks of the Afghan Air Force at Kandahar
Kandahar
Airfield. As a major non- NATO
NATO
ally, the Afghan Armed Forces receive most of their equipment and training from the United States.

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
became a member of the United Nations
United Nations
in 1946. It enjoys cordial relations with a number of NATO
NATO
and allied nations, particularly the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, Australia, and Turkey. In 2012, the United States
United States
and Afghanistan signed their Strategic Partnership Agreement in which Afghanistan became a major non- NATO
NATO
ally. Afghanistan
Afghanistan
also has friendly diplomatic relations with neighboring China, Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, including with regional states such as Bangladesh, India, Japan, Kazakhstan, Nepal, Russia, South Korea, the UAE, and so forth. The Afghan Ministry of Foreign Affairs continues to develop diplomatic relations with other countries around the world. The United Nations
United Nations
Assistance Mission in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(UNAMA) was established in 2002 in order to help the country recover from the decades of war and neglect. Today, a number of NATO
NATO
member states deploy about 20,000 troops in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
as part of the Resolute Support Mission. Its main purpose is to train the Afghan National Security Forces. The Afghan Armed Forces are under the Ministry of Defense, which includes the Afghan Air Force (AAF) and the Afghan National Army (ANA). The Afghan Defense University houses various educational establishments for the Afghan Armed Forces, including the National Military Academy of Afghanistan.[149] Law enforcement Main article: Law enforcement in Afghanistan

Afghan National Police (ANP) in Kunar Province

The National Directorate of Security
National Directorate of Security
(NDS) is Afghanistan's domestic intelligence agency, which operates similar to that of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security or UK's Scotland Yard. The Afghan National Police (ANP) is under the Ministry of Interior Affairs and serves as a single law enforcement agency all across the country. The Afghan National Civil Order Police is the main branch of the ANP, which is divided into five Brigades, each commanded by a Brigadier General. These brigades are stationed in Kabul, Gardez, Kandahar, Herat, and Mazar-i-Sharif. There is one Chief of Police
Chief of Police
in every province. All parts of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
are considered dangerous due to militant activities and terrorism-related incidents. Kidnapping for ransom and robberies are common in major cities. Every year hundreds of Afghan police are killed in the line of duty. The Afghan Border Police (ABP) is responsible for protecting the nation's airports and borders, especially the disputed Durand Line
Durand Line
border, which is often used by terrorists and criminals for their illegal activities. Drugs from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
are smuggled to neighboring countries by various nationals but mostly by Afghans, Iranians, Pakistanis, Tajikistanis, Turkmenistanis and Uzbekistanis. The Afghan Ministry of Counter Narcotics is responsible for the monitoring and eradication of the illegal drug business.

Economy Main article: Economy of Afghanistan

Seller of Afghan carpets

Workers processing pomegranates (anaar), which Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is famous for in Asia

Afghan women at a textile factory in Kabul

Afghanistan's GDP is around $64 billion with an exchange rate of $18.4 billion, and its GDP per capita is $2,000. Despite having $1 trillion or more in mineral deposits,[150] it remains as one of the least developed countries. The country imports over $6 billion worth of goods but exports only $658 million, mainly fruits and nuts. It has less than $1.5 billion in external debt.[11] Agricultural production is the backbone of Afghanistan's economy.[151] The country is known for producing some of the finest pomegranates, grapes, apricots, melons, and several other fresh and dry fruits. It is also known as the world's largest producer of opium. Sources indicate that as much as 11% or more of the nation's economy is derived from the cultivation and sale of opium. While the nation's current account deficit is largely financed with donor money, only a small portion is provided directly to the government budget. The rest is provided to non-budgetary expenditure and donor-designated projects through the United Nations
United Nations
system and non-governmental organizations.[152] The Afghan Ministry of Finance is focusing on improved revenue collection and public sector expenditure discipline. For example, government revenues increased 31% to $1.7 billion from March 2010 to March 2011.

Afghanistan, Trends in the Human Development Index, 1970–2010

A bustling market street in central Kabul, 2009

Da Afghanistan Bank
Da Afghanistan Bank
serves as the central bank of the nation and the "Afghani" (AFN) is the national currency, with an exchange rate of about 60 Afghanis to 1 US dollar. A number of local and foreign banks operate in the country, including the Afghanistan
Afghanistan
International Bank, New Kabul
Kabul
Bank, Azizi Bank, Pashtany Bank, Standard Chartered Bank, and the First Micro Finance Bank. One of the main drivers for the current economic recovery is the return of over 5 million expatriates, who brought with them fresh energy, entrepreneurship and wealth-creating skills as well as much needed funds to start up businesses. Many Afghans are now involved in construction, which is one of the largest industries in the country.[153] Some of the major national construction projects include the $35 billion New Kabul
Kabul
City next to the capital, the Aino Mena project in Kandahar, and the Ghazi Amanullah Khan
Amanullah Khan
Town near Jalalabad.[154][155][156] Similar development projects have also begun in Herat, Mazar-e-Sharif, and other cities.[157] An estimated 400,000 people enter the labor market each year.[158] A number of small companies and factories began operating in different parts of the country, which not only provide revenues to the government but also create new jobs. Improvements to the business environment have resulted in more than $1.5 billion in telecom investment and created more than 100,000 jobs since 2003.[159] Afghan rugs are becoming popular again, allowing many carpet dealers around the country to hire more workers. Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is a member of WTO, SAARC, ECO, and OIC. It holds an observer status in SCO. Foreign Minister Zalmai Rassoul
Zalmai Rassoul
told the media in 2011 that his nation's "goal is to achieve an Afghan economy whose growth is based on trade, private enterprise and investment".[160] Experts believe that this will revolutionize the economy of the region. In June 2012, India
India
advocated for private investments in the resource rich country and the creation of a suitable environment therefor.[161] Telecommunications company Roshan is the largest private employer in the country as of 2014.[162] Mining Main article: Mining in Afghanistan

Lapis lazuli
Lapis lazuli
stones

Michael E. O'Hanlon
Michael E. O'Hanlon
of the Brookings Institution
Brookings Institution
estimated that if Afghanistan
Afghanistan
generates about $10 billion per year from its mineral deposits, its gross national product would double and provide long-term funding for Afghan security forces and other critical needs.[163] The United States
United States
Geological Survey (USGS) estimated in 2006 that northern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
has an average 2.9 billion (bn) barrels (bbl) of crude oil, 15.7 trillion cubic feet (440 bn m3) of natural gas, and 562 million bbl of natural gas liquids.[164] In 2011, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
signed an oil exploration contract with China
China
National Petroleum
Petroleum
Corporation (CNPC) for the development of three oil fields along the Amu Darya river in the north.[165] The country has significant amounts of lithium, copper, gold, coal, iron ore, and other minerals.[123][124][166] The Khanashin
Khanashin
carbonatite in Helmand Province
Helmand Province
contains 1,000,000 metric tons (1,100,000 short tons) of rare earth elements.[167] In 2007, a 30-year lease was granted for the Aynak copper mine to the China
China
Metallurgical Group for $3 billion,[168] making it the biggest foreign investment and private business venture in Afghanistan's history.[169] The state-run Steel Authority of India
India
won the mining rights to develop the huge Hajigak iron ore deposit in central Afghanistan.[170] Government officials estimate that 30% of the country's untapped mineral deposits are worth at least $1 trillion.[125] One official asserted that "this will become the backbone of the Afghan economy" and a Pentagon memo stated that Afghanistan
Afghanistan
could become the " Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
of lithium".[171] In a 2011 news story, the CSM reported, "The United States
United States
and other Western nations that have borne the brunt of the cost of the Afghan war have been conspicuously absent from the bidding process on Afghanistan's mineral deposits, leaving it mostly to regional powers."[172] Transport Main article: Transport in Afghanistan Air Main article: List of airports in Afghanistan

An Ariana
Ariana
Afghan Airlines (AAA) Airbus A310
Airbus A310
in 2006

Air transport in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is provided by the national carrier, Ariana
Ariana
Afghan Airlines (AAA), and by private companies such as Afghan Jet International, East Horizon Airlines, Kam Air, Pamir Airways, and Safi Airways. Airlines from a number of countries also provide flights in and out of the country. These include Air India, Emirates, Gulf Air, Iran
Iran
Aseman Airlines, Pakistan
Pakistan
International Airlines, and Turkish Airlines. The country has four international airports: Hamid Karzai International Airport (formerly Kabul
Kabul
International Airport), Kandahar International Airport, Herat
Herat
International Airport, and Mazar-e Sharif International Airport. There are also around a dozen domestic airports with flights to Kabul
Kabul
and other major cities. Rail Main article: Rail transport in Afghanistan

Rail crossing in northern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
on the line towards Uzbekistan

As of 2017[update], the country has three rail links, one a 75 km line from Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
to the Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
border;[173] a 10 km long line from Toraghundi
Toraghundi
to the Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
border (where it continues as part of Turkmen Railways); and a short link from Aqina across the Turkmen border to Kerki, which is planned to be extended further across Afghanistan.[174] These lines are used for freight only and there is no passenger service as of yet. A rail line between Khaf, Iran
Iran
and Herat, western Afghanistan, intended for both freight and passengers, is under construction and due to open by 2018. About 125 km of the line will lie on the Afghan side.[175][176] There are various proposals for the construction of additional rail lines in the country.[177] Roads Further information: Highway 1 (Afghanistan) Traveling by bus in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
remains dangerous due to militant activities.[178] The buses are usually older model Mercedes-Benz and owned by private companies. Serious traffic accidents are common on Afghan roads and highways, particularly on the Kabul– Kandahar
Kandahar
and the Kabul– Jalalabad
Jalalabad
Road.[179] Newer automobiles have recently become more widely available after the rebuilding of roads and highways. They are imported from the United Arab
Arab
Emirates through Pakistan
Pakistan
and Iran. As of 2012[update], vehicles more than 10 years old are banned from being imported into the country. The development of the nation's road network is a major boost for the economy due to trade with neighboring countries. Postal services in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
are provided by the publicly owned Afghan Post and private companies such as FedEx, DHL, and others. Health Main article: Health in Afghanistan

A hospital in Kabul

According to the Human Development Index, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is the 15th least developed country in the world. The average life expectancy is estimated to be around 60 years.[180][181] The country's maternal mortality rate is 396 deaths/100,000 live births and its infant mortality rate is 66[181] to 112.8 deaths in every 1,000 live births.[11] The Ministry of Public Health plans to cut the infant mortality rate to 400 for every 100,000 live births before 2020. The country has more than 3,000 midwives, with an additional 300 to 400 being trained each year.[182] There are over 100 hospitals in Afghanistan, with the most advanced treatments being available in Kabul. The French Medical Institute for Children and Indira Gandhi Children's Hospital in Kabul
Kabul
are the leading children's hospitals in the country. Some of the other main hospitals in Kabul
Kabul
include the Jamhuriat Hospital
Jamhuriat Hospital
and the under-construction Jinnah Hospital. In spite of all this, many Afghans travel to Pakistan
Pakistan
and India
India
for advanced treatment. It was reported in 2006 that nearly 60% of the Afghan population lives within a two-hour walk of the nearest health facility.[183] Disability rate is also high in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
due to the decades of war.[184] It was reported recently that about 80,000 people are missing limbs.[185][186] Non-governmental charities such as Save the Children and Mahboba's Promise
Mahboba's Promise
assist orphans in association with governmental structures.[187] Demographic and Health Surveys is working with the Indian Institute of Health Management Research and others to conduct a survey in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
focusing on maternal death, among other things.[188] Education Main article: Education in Afghanistan

UNESCO Institute of Statistics Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Literacy Rate population plus15 1980–2015

Education in Afghanistan
Education in Afghanistan
includes K–12 and higher education, which is overseen by the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Higher Education. There are over 16,000 schools in the country and roughly 9 million students. Of this, about 60% are males and 40% females. Over 174,000 students are enrolled in different universities around the country. About 21% of these are females.[189] Former Education Minister Ghulam Farooq Wardak
Ghulam Farooq Wardak
had stated that construction of 8,000 schools is required for the remaining children who are deprived of formal learning.[190] The top universities in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
are the American University of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(AUAF) followed by Kabul
Kabul
University (KU), both of which are located in Kabul. The National Military Academy of Afghanistan, modeled after the United States
United States
Military Academy at West Point, is a four-year military development institution dedicated to graduating officers for the Afghan Armed Forces. The Afghan Defense University was constructed near Qargha in Kabul. Major universities outside of Kabul
Kabul
include Kandahar
Kandahar
University in the south, Herat
Herat
University in the northwest, Balkh
Balkh
University and Kunduz
Kunduz
University in the north, Nangarhar University and Khost
Khost
University in the east. The United States is building six faculties of education and five provincial teacher training colleges around the country, two large secondary schools in Kabul, and one school in Jalalabad.[189] The literacy rate of the entire population is 38.2% (males 52% and females 24.2%).[11] In 2010, the United States
United States
began establishing a number of Lincoln learning centers in Afghanistan. They are set up to serve as programming platforms offering English language classes, library facilities, programming venues, internet connectivity, and educational and other counseling services. A goal of the program is to reach at least 4,000 Afghan citizens per month per location.[191][192] The Afghan National Security Forces are provided with mandatory literacy courses.[193] In addition to this, Baghch-e-Simsim (based on the American Sesame Street) serves as a means to attract Afghan children into learning. Culture

Part of a series on the

Culture of Afghanistan

History

People

Languages

Mythology and folklore

Mythology

Cuisine

Festivals

Religion

Art

Architecture Sculpture Painting

Literature Afghan poetry

Music and performing arts

Music Performing arts

Media

Television Cinema

Sport

Monuments

World Heritage Sites

Symbols

Flag Coat of arms

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
portal

v t e

Main article: Culture of Afghanistan Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is mostly a tribal society with different regions of the country having its own subculture. Their history is traced back to at least the time of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
in 500 BCE.[194] In the southern and eastern region, the people live according to the Pashtun culture by following Pashtunwali
Pashtunwali
(Pashtun way).[195] The Pashtuns
Pashtuns
(and Baloch) are largely connected to the culture of South Asia. The remaining Afghans are culturally Persian and Turkic. Some non-Pashtuns who live in proximity with Pashtuns
Pashtuns
have adopted Pashtunwali
Pashtunwali
in a process called Pashtunization, while some Pashtuns
Pashtuns
have been Persianized. Those who have lived in Pakistan
Pakistan
and Iran
Iran
over the last 30 years have been further influenced by the cultures of those neighboring nations.

Men wearing traditional Afghan (Pashtun) dress in Faryab Province

Ethnic Tajik girls in traditional clothing in Mazar-i-Sharif

Afghans are regarded with mingled apprehension and condescension, for their high regard for personal honor, for their tribe loyalty and for their readiness to use force to settle disputes. As tribal warfare and internecine feuding has been one of their chief occupations since time immemorial, this individualistic trait has made it difficult for foreigners to conquer them. One writer considers the tribal system to be the best way of organizing large groups of people in a country that is geographically difficult, and in a society that, from a materialistic point of view, has an uncomplicated lifestyle.[196] There are various Afghan tribes, and an estimated 2–3 million nomads.[197] The nation has a complex history that has survived either in its current cultures or in the form of various languages and monuments. However, many of its historic monuments have been damaged in modern times.[198] The two famous Buddhas of Bamiyan
Buddhas of Bamiyan
were destroyed by the Taliban, who regarded them as idolatrous. Despite that, archaeologists are still finding Buddhist relics in different parts of the country, some of them dating back to the 2nd century.[199][200][201] This indicates that Buddhism
Buddhism
was widespread in Afghanistan. Other historical places include the cities of Herat, Kandahar, Ghazni, Mazar-i-Sharif, and Zaranj. The Minaret of Jam
Minaret of Jam
in the Hari River valley is a UNESCO World Heritage site. A cloak reputedly worn by Islam's prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
is kept inside the Shrine of the Cloak
Shrine of the Cloak
in Kandahar, a city founded by Alexander and the first capital of Afghanistan. The citadel of Alexander in the western city of Herat
Herat
has been renovated in recent years and is a popular attraction for tourists. In the north of the country is the Shrine of Ali, believed by many to be the location where Ali
Ali
was buried. The National Museum of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is located in Kabul. Media and entertainment Main article: Media of Afghanistan

Studio of TOLOnews in Kabul

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
has around 150 radio stations and over 50 television stations, which includes the state-owned RTA TV
RTA TV
and various private channels such as TOLO and Shamshad TV. The first Afghan newspaper was published in 1906 and there are hundreds of print outlets today. By the 1920s, Radio Kabul
Kabul
was broadcasting local radio services. Television programs began airing in the early 1970s. Voice of America, BBC, and Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
(RFE/RL) broadcast in both of Afghanistan's official languages. Since 2002, press restrictions have been gradually relaxed and private media diversified. Freedom of expression
Freedom of expression
and the press is promoted in the 2004 constitution and censorship is banned, although defaming individuals or producing material contrary to the principles of Islam is prohibited. The Afghan government cited the growth in the media sector as one of its achievements.[202] In 2017, Reporters Without Borders ranked Afghanistan
Afghanistan
120th in the Press Freedom Index
Press Freedom Index
out of 180 countries, a better rating than all its neighbors.[203] According to Freedom of the Press as of 2015, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is "partly free", whereas most countries in Asia are "not free". The city of Kabul
Kabul
has been home to many musicians who were masters of both traditional and modern Afghan music. Traditional music is especially popular during the Nowruz
Nowruz
(New Year) and National Independence
Independence
Day celebrations. Ahmad Zahir, Nashenas, Ustad Sarahang, Sarban, Ubaidullah Jan, Farhad Darya, and Naghma
Naghma
are some of the notable Afghan musicians, but there are many others.[204] Afghans have long been accustomed to watching Indian Bollywood
Bollywood
films and listening to its filmi songs. Many Bollywood
Bollywood
film stars have roots in Afghanistan, including Salman Khan, Saif Ali
Ali
Khan, Shah Rukh Khan (SRK), Aamir Khan, Feroz Khan, Kader Khan, Naseeruddin Shah, Zarine Khan, Celina Jaitly, and a number of others. Several Bollywood
Bollywood
films have been shot inside Afghanistan, including Dharmatma, Khuda Gawah, Escape from Taliban, and Kabul
Kabul
Express. Communication Main article: Communications in Afghanistan Telecommunication
Telecommunication
services in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
are provided by Afghan Telecom, Afghan Wireless, Etisalat, MTN Group, and Roshan. The country uses its own space satellite called Afghansat 1, which provides services to millions of phone, internet and television subscribers. By 2001 following years of civil war, telecommunications was virtually a non-existant sector, but by 2016 it had grown to a $2 billion industry, with 22 million mobile phone subscribers and 5 million internet users. The sector employs at least 120,000 people nationwide.[205] Cuisine Main article: Afghan cuisine

Some of the popular Afghan dishes

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
has a wide varying landscape allowing for many different crops. Afghan food is largely based upon cereals like wheat, maize, barley and rice, which are the nation's chief crops. Fresh and dried fruits is the most important part of Afghan diet. Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is well known for its fine fruits, especially pomegranates, grapes, and its extra-sweet jumbo-size melons. Poetry Main article: Poetry
Poetry
of Afghanistan

Abdul Hadi Dawai, famous Afghan poet of the early 20th century

Classic Persian and Pashto
Pashto
poetry are a cherished part of Afghan culture. Thursdays are traditionally "poetry night" in the city of Herat
Herat
when men, women and children gather and recite both ancient and modern poems.[206] Poetry
Poetry
has always been one of the major educational pillars in the region, to the level that it has integrated itself into culture. Some notable poets include Rumi, Rabi'a Balkhi, Sanai, Jami, Khushal Khan Khattak, Rahman Baba, Khalilullah Khalili, and Parween Pazhwak.[207] Sports

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Main article: Sport in Afghanistan

The Afghanistan national football team
Afghanistan national football team
(in red uniforms) before its first win over India
India
(in blue) during the 2011 SAFF Championship.

The traditional national sport of Afghanistan, Buzkashi

Afghanistan's sports teams are increasingly celebrating titles at international events. Its basketball team won the first team sports title at the 2010 South Asian Games. Later that year, the country's cricket team followed as it won the 2009–10 ICC Intercontinental Cup. In 2012, the country's 3x3 basketball team won the gold medal at the 2012 Asian Beach Games. In 2013, Afghanistan's football team followed as it won the SAFF Championship. Cricket and association football are the most popular sports in the country. The Afghan national cricket team, which was formed in the last decade, participated in the 2009 ICC World Cup Qualifier, 2010 ICC World Cricket League Division One and the 2010 ICC World Twenty20. It won the ACC Twenty20 Cup in 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2013. The team eventually made it to play in the 2015 Cricket World Cup. The Afghanistan Cricket Board
Afghanistan Cricket Board
(ACB) is the official governing body of the sport and is headquartered in Kabul. The Alokozay Kabul
Kabul
International Cricket Ground serves as the nation's main cricket stadium. There are a number of other stadiums throughout the country, including the Ghazi Amanullah Khan
Amanullah Khan
International Cricket Stadium near Jalalabad. Domestically, cricket is played between teams from different provinces. The Afghanistan national football team
Afghanistan national football team
has been competing in international football since 1941. The national team plays its home games at the Ghazi Stadium
Ghazi Stadium
in Kabul, while football in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is governed by the Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Football Federation. The national team has never competed or qualified for the FIFA World Cup, but has recently won an international football trophy in 2013. The country also has a national team in the sport of futsal, a 5-a-side variation of football. Other popular sports in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
include basketball, volleyball, taekwondo, and bodybuilding.[208] Buzkashi
Buzkashi
is a traditional sport, mainly among the northern Afghans. It is similar to polo, played by horsemen in two teams, each trying to grab and hold a goat carcass. The Afghan Hound (a type of running dog) originated in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and was originally used in hunting. See also

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
portal Asia portal

Book: Afghanistan

Bibliography of Afghanistan Index of Afghanistan-related articles Outline of Afghanistan

Notes

^ Incorrect names that have been used as demonyms are Afghani[3] and Afghanistani.[4]

References

^ a b c "Article Sixteen of the 2004 Constitution of Afghanistan". 2004. Archived from the original on 28 October 2013. Retrieved 13 June 2012. Pashto
Pashto
and Dari are the official languages of the state. Uzbek, Turkmen, Baluchi, Pashai, Nuristani and Pamiri are – in addition to Pashto
Pashto
and Dari – the third official language in areas where the majority speaks them  ^ a b "Ethnic groups". The World Factbook. CIA. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2010. Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, other (includes smaller numbers of Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, Pashai, and Kyrghyz) note: current statistical data on the sensitive subject of ethnicity in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is not available, and ethnicity data from small samples of respondents to opinion polls are not a reliable alternative; Afghanistan's 2004 constitution recognizes 14 ethnic groups: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, and Pashai (2015)  ^ Dictionary.com. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Reference.com (Retrieved 13 November 2007). ^ Dictionary.com. WordNet
WordNet
3.0. Princeton University. Reference.com (Retrieved 13 November 2007). Archived 28 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Central Statistics Organization of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Archived 17 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine.: Statistical Yearbook 2012–2013 Archived 17 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine.: Area and administrative Population ^ "World Population
Population
Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations
United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population
Population
Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ a b c d "Afghanistan". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 1 October 2017.  ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Archived from the original on 11 May 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2011.  ^ "2015 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations
United Nations
Development Programme. 14 December 2015. p. 18. Retrieved 14 December 2015.  ^ The phoneme /f/ ف occurs only in loanwords in Pashto, it tends to be replaced with /p/ پ. [b] is also an allophone of /p/ before voiced consonants; [v] is an allophone of /f/ before voiced consonants in loanwords. ^ a b c d e f g "Afghanistan". The World Factbook. www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2017-05-19.  ^ a b * "U.S. maps". Pubs.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on 25 December 2013. Retrieved 19 May 2012. 

"South Asia: Data, Projects, and Research". Retrieved 2 March 2015.  "MAPS SHOWING GEOLOGY, OIL AND GAS FIELDS AND GEOLOGICAL PROVINCES OF SOUTH ASIA (Includes Afghanistan)". Retrieved 2 March 2015.  "University of Washington Jackson School of International Studies: The South Asia
South Asia
Center". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2015.  "Syracruse University: The South Asia
South Asia
Center". Retrieved 2 March 2015.  "Center for South Asian studies". Retrieved 2 March 2015. 

^ The History
History
of Afghanistan, 2nd Edition by Meredith L. Runion ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-26483320 ^ https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/south-asia/Afghanistan-Most-invaded-yet-unconquerable/articleshow/5542209.cms ^ https://thediplomat.com/2017/06/why-is-afghanistan-the-graveyard-of-empires/ ^ Griffin, Luke (14 January 2002). "The Pre-Islamic Period". Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Country Study. Illinois Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on 3 November 2001. Retrieved 14 October 2010.  ^ http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2017/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=43&pr.y=5&sy=2016&ey=2016&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=512%2C672%2C914%2C946%2C612%2C137%2C614%2C546%2C311%2C962%2C213%2C674%2C911%2C676%2C193%2C548%2C122%2C556%2C912%2C678%2C313%2C181%2C419%2C867%2C513%2C682%2C316%2C684%2C913%2C273%2C124%2C868%2C339%2C921%2C638%2C948%2C514%2C943%2C218%2C686%2C963%2C688%2C616%2C518%2C223%2C728%2C516%2C836%2C918%2C558%2C748%2C138%2C618%2C196%2C624%2C278%2C522%2C692%2C622%2C694%2C156%2C142%2C626%2C449%2C628%2C564%2C228%2C565%2C924%2C283%2C233%2C853%2C632%2C288%2C636%2C293%2C634%2C566%2C238%2C964%2C662%2C182%2C960%2C359%2C423%2C453%2C935%2C968%2C128%2C922%2C611%2C714%2C321%2C862%2C243%2C135%2C248%2C716%2C469%2C456%2C253%2C722%2C642%2C942%2C643%2C718%2C939%2C724%2C644%2C576%2C819%2C936%2C172%2C961%2C132%2C813%2C646%2C199%2C648%2C733%2C915%2C184%2C134%2C524%2C652%2C361%2C174%2C362%2C328%2C364%2C258%2C732%2C656%2C366%2C654%2C734%2C336%2C144%2C263%2C146%2C268%2C463%2C532%2C528%2C944%2C923%2C176%2C738%2C534%2C578%2C536%2C537%2C429%2C742%2C433%2C866%2C178%2C369%2C436%2C744%2C136%2C186%2C343%2C925%2C158%2C869%2C439%2C746%2C916%2C926%2C664%2C466%2C826%2C112%2C542%2C111%2C967%2C298%2C443%2C927%2C917%2C846%2C544%2C299%2C941%2C582%2C446%2C474%2C666%2C754%2C668%2C698&s=PPPPC&grp=0&a= ^ "Constitution of Afghanistan". 2004. Retrieved 16 February 2013.  ^ a b "Afghanistan – John Ford Shroder, University of Nebraska". Webcitation.org. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 19 May 2012.  ^ "Afghanistan: A Treasure Trove for Archaeologists". Time Magazine. 26 February 2009. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2011.  ^ The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity by George Erdosy, p.321 ^ The History of Afghanistan
History of Afghanistan
by Meredith L. Runion, p.44-49 ^ The Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy, and Society. pp.1 ^ Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark (1998). Ancient cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation. pp.96 ^ Bryant, Edwin F. (2001) The quest for the origins of Vedic culture: the Indo-Aryan migration debate Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-513777-4. ^ Afghanistan: ancient Ariana
Ariana
(1950), Information Bureau, p3. ^ "Chronological History
History
of Afghanistan – the cradle of Gandharan civilisation". Gandhara.com.au. 15 February 1989. Archived from the original on 9 September 2012. Retrieved 19 May 2012.  ^ "Country Profile: Afghanistan" (PDF). Library of Congress Country Studies on Afghanistan. August 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2010.  ^ The History of Afghanistan
History of Afghanistan
by Meredith L. Runion, p.44 ^ " Afghan and Afghanistan". Abdul Hai Habibi. alamahabibi.com. 1969. Retrieved 17 November 2015.  ^ "A.—The Hindu
Hindu
Kings of Kábul". Sir H. M. Elliot. London: Packard Humanities Institute. 1867–1877. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2010.  ^ ?amd-Allah Mustawfi of Qazwin (1340). "The Geographical Part of the NUZHAT-AL-QULUB". Translated by Guy Le Strange. Packard Humanities Institute. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2011.  ^ "A.—The Hindu
Hindu
Kings of Kábul (p.3)". Sir H. M. Elliot. London: Packard Humanities Institute. 1867–1877. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2010.  ^ "Central Asian world cities". Faculty.washington.edu. 29 September 2007. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ Page, Susan (18 February 2009). "Obama's war: Deploying 17,000 raises stakes in Afghanistan". Usatoday.com. Retrieved 19 May 2012.  ^ "Khurasan". The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill. 2009. p. 55. In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, the term "Khurassan" frequently had a much wider denotation, covering also parts of what are now Soviet Central Asia
Central Asia
and Afghanistan  ^ Ibn Battuta (2004). Travels in Asia and Africa, 1325–1354 (reprint, illustrated ed.). Routledge. p. 416. ISBN 978-0-415-34473-9.  ^ Muhammad
Muhammad
Qasim Hindu
Hindu
Shah (1560). "Chapter 200: Translation of the Introduction to Firishta's History". The History
History
of India. 6. Sir H. M. Elliot. London: Packard Humanities Institute. p. 8. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ a b Edward G. Browne. "A Literary History
History
of Persia, Volume 4: Modern Times (1500–1924), Chapter IV. An Outline Of The History
History
Of Persia During The Last Two Centuries (A.D. 1722–1922)". Packard Humanities Institute. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2010.  ^ "Ahmad Shah Durrani". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Archived from the original on 4 April 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2010.  ^ Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
(1857). "Afghanistan". Andy Blunden. The New American Cyclopaedia, Vol. I. Archived from the original on 27 April 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2010.  ^ The Oxford Dictionary of Islam
Islam
by John L. Esposito, p.71 ^ Tanner, Stephen (2009). Afghanistan: A Military History
History
from Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
to the War against the Taliban. Da Capo Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-306-81826-4.  ^ Nalwa, Vanit (2009). Hari Singh Nalwa, "champion of the Khalsaji" (1791–1837). p. 198. ISBN 978-81-7304-785-5.  ^ Chahryar, Adle (2003). History
History
of Civilizations of Central Asia: Development in contrast: from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. UNESCO. p. 296. ISBN 978-92-3-103876-1.  ^ Edward Ingram. The International History
History
Review, Vol. 2, No. 2 (Apr. 1980), pp. 160–171. Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/40105749 Great Britain's Great Game: An Introduction ^ In Defence of British India: Great Britain in the Middle East, 1775–1842 By Edward Ingram. Frank Cass & Co, London, 1984. ISBN 0714632465. p7-19 ^ Encyclopedia Americana. Volume 25. Americana Corporation. 1976. p. 24.  ^ Bowersox, Gary W. (2004). The Gem Hunter: The Adventures of an American in Afghanistan. United States: GeoVision, Inc.,. p. 100. ISBN 0-9747323-1-1. To launch this plan, Bhutto recruited and trained a group of Afghans in the Bala-Hesar of Peshawar, in Pakistan's North-west Frontier
Frontier
Province. Among these young men were Massoud, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, and other members of Jawanan-e Musulman. Massoud's mission to Bhutto was to create unrest in northern Afghanistan. It served Massoud's interests, which were apparently opposition to the Soviets and independence for Afghanistan. Later, after Massoud and Hekmatyar had a terrible falling-out over Massoud's opposition to terrorist tactics and methods, Massoud overthrew from Jawanan-e Musulman. He joined Rabani's newly created Afghan political party, Jamiat-i-Islami, in exile in Pakistan.  ^ Hussain, Rizwan (2005). Pakistan
Pakistan
And The Emergence Of Islamic Militancy In Afghanistan. Ashgate Publishing. pp. 108–109. ISBN 978-0-7546-4434-7.  ^ a b Meher, Jagmohan (2004). America's Afghanistan
Afghanistan
War: The Success that Failed. Gyan Books. pp. 68–69, 94. ISBN 978-81-7835-262-6.  ^ Kalinovsky, Artemy M. (2011). A Long Goodbye: The Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan. Harvard University Press. pp. 25–28. ISBN 978-0-674-05866-8.  ^ "Story of US, CIA and Taliban". The Brunei Times. 2009. Archived from the original on 5 December 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2013.  ^ "The Cost of an Afghan 'Victory'". The Nation. 1999. Archived from the original on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2013.  ^ a b "Afghanistan". Library of Congress Country Studies. Retrieved 14 November 2010.  ^ Lacina, Bethany; Gleditsch, Nils Petter (2005). "Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths" (PDF). European Journal of Population. 21: 154.  ^ Kakar, Mohammed. The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979–1982. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520208933. The Afghans are among the latest victims of genocide by a superpower. Large numbers of Afghans were killed to suppress resistance to the army of the Soviet Union, which wished to vindicate its client regime and realize its goal in Afghanistan.  ^ Klass, Rosanne (1994). The Widening Circle of Genocide. Transaction Publishers. p. 129. ISBN 978-1-4128-3965-5. During the intervening fourteen years of Communist rule, an estimated 1.5 to 2 million Afghan civilians were killed by Soviet forces and their proxies- the four Communist regimes in Kabul, and the East Germans, Bulgarians, Czechs, Cubans, Palestinians, Indians and others who assisted them. These were not battle casualties or the unavoidable civilian victims of warfare. Soviet and local Communist forces seldom attacked the scattered guerilla bands of the Afghan Resistance except, in a few strategic locales like the Panjsher valley. Instead they deliberately targeted the civilian population, primarily in the rural areas.  ^ Reisman, W. Michael; Norchi, Charles H. "Genocide and the Soviet Occupation of Afghanistan" (PDF). Retrieved 7 January 2017. According to widely reported accounts, substantial programmes of depopulation have been conducted in these Afghan provinces: Ghazni, Nagarhar, Lagham, Qandahar, Zabul, Badakhshan, Lowgar, Paktia, Paktika and Kunar...There is considerable evidence that genocide has been committed against the Afghan people by the combined forces of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
Republic of Afghanistan
and the Soviet Union.  ^ Goodson, Larry P. (2001). Afghanistan's Endless War: State Failure, Regional Politics, and the Rise of the Taliban. University of Washington Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-295-98050-8.  ^ "Soldiers of God: Cold War
Cold War
(Part 1/5)". CNN. 1998. Archived from the original on 29 July 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2011.  ^ UNICEF, Land-mines: A deadly inheritance Archived 5 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Landmines in Afghanistan: A Decades Old Danger". Defenseindustrydaily.com. 1 February 2010. Archived from the original on 11 January 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ "Refugee Admissions Program for Near East and South Asia". Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2013.  ^ Haroon, Sana (2008). "The Rise of Deobandi
Deobandi
Islam
Islam
in the North-West Frontier
Frontier
Province and Its Implications in Colonial India
India
and Pakistan 1914–1996". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 18: 66–67. JSTOR 27755911.  ^ "Afghanistan: History – Columbia Encyclopedia". Infoplease.com. 11 September 2001. Archived from the original on 10 August 2012. Retrieved 19 May 2012.  ^ 'Mujahidin vs. Communists: Revisiting the battles of Jalalabad
Jalalabad
and Khost. By Anne Stenersen: a Paper presented at the conference COIN in Afghanistan: From Mughals to the Americans, Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO), 12–13 February 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2018. ^ Amin Saikal. Modern Afghanistan: A History
History
of Struggle and Survival (2006 1st ed.). I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd., London New York. p. 352. ISBN 978-1-85043-437-5.  ^ a b "Blood-Stained Hands, Past Atrocities in Kabul
Kabul
and Afghanistan's Legacy of Impunity". Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 12 December 2009.  ^ GUTMAN, Roy (2008): How We Missed the Story: Osama Bin Laden, the Taliban
Taliban
and the Hijacking of Afghanistan, Endowment of the United States Institute of Peace, 1st ed., Washington D.C. ^ a b c d "Afghanistan: The massacre in Mazar-i Sharif. (Chapter II: Background)". Human Rights Watch. November 1998. Archived from the original on 2 November 2008. Retrieved 16 December 2013.  ^ "Casting Shadows: War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity: 1978–2001" (PDF). Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Justice Project. 2005. p. 63. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2013.  ^ "Casting Shadows: War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity: 1978–2001" (PDF). Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Justice Project. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2013.  ^ Matinuddin, Kamal, The Taliban
Taliban
Phenomenon, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
1994–1997, Oxford University Press, (1999), pp. 25–26 ^ 'The Taliban'. Mapping Militant Organizations. Stanford University. Updated 15 July 2016. Retrieved 24 September 2017. ^ a b "Documents Detail Years of Pakistani Support for Taliban, Extremists". George Washington University. 2007. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2013.  ^ Afghanistan: Chronology of Events January 1995 - February 1997 (PDF) (Report). Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. February 1997.  ^ Coll, Ghost Wars (New York: Penguin, 2005), 14. ^ Country profile: Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(published August 2008) (page 3). Library of Congress. Retrieved 13 February 2018. ^ "The Taliban's War on Women. A Health and Human Rights Crisis in Afghanistan" (PDF). Physicians for Human Rights. 1998. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2007.  ^ Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues by Gus Martin ^ Marcela Grad. Massoud: An Intimate Portrait of the Legendary Afghan Leader (1 March 2009 ed.). Webster University Press. p. 310.  ^ a b "Inside the Taliban". National Geographic. 2007. Archived from the original on 29 July 2013.  ^ "Ahmed Shah Massoud". History
History
Commons. 2010. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2013.  ^ Maley, William (2009). The Afghanistan
Afghanistan
wars. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-230-21313-5.  ^ Rashid, Ahmed (11 September 2001). " Afghanistan
Afghanistan
resistance leader feared dead in blast". The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 8 November 2013.  ^ "Brigade 055". CNN. Archived from the original on 29 July 2013.  ^ "Inside the Taliban". National Geographic. 2007. Archived from the original on 29 September 2008.  ^ "Life under Taliban
Taliban
cuts two ways". CSM. 20 September 2001 Archived 30 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Rory McCarthy in Islamabad (17 October 2001). "New offer on Bin Laden". London: Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 June 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2012.  ^ 'Trump calls out Pakistan, India
India
as he pledges to 'fight to win' in Afghanistan. cnn.com, 24 August 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2017. ^ "WPO Poll: Afghan Public Overwhelmingly Rejects al-Qaeda, Taliban". 30 January 2006. Retrieved 2 January 2017. Equally large percentages endorse the US military presence in Afghanistan. Eighty-three percent said they have a favorable view of “the US military forces in our country” (39% very favorable). Just 17% have an unfavorable view.  ^ " Afghan Futures: A National Public Opinion Survey" (PDF). 29 January 2015. p. 4. Retrieved 2 January 2017. Seventy-seven percent support the presence of U.S. forces; 67 percent say the same of NATO/ISAF forces more generally. Despite the country’s travails, eight in 10 say it was a good thing for the United States
United States
to oust the Taliban
Taliban
in 2001. And many more blame either the Taliban
Taliban
or al Qaeda for the country’s violence, 53 percent, than blame the United States, 12 percent. The latter is about half what it was in 2012, coinciding with a sharp reduction in the U.S. deployment.  ^ Tyler, Patrick (8 October 2001). "A Nation challenged: The attack; U.S. and Britain strike Afghanistan, aiming at bases and terrorist camps; Bush warns ' Taliban
Taliban
will pay a price'". New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 April 2014. Retrieved 28 February 2010.  ^ United Nations
United Nations
Security Council Resolution 1386. S/RES/1386(2001) 31 May 2001. Retrieved 21 September 2007. – (UNSCR 1386) ^ " United States
United States
Mission to Afghanistan". Nato.usmission.gov. Archived from the original on 21 October 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2010.  ^ Fossler, Julie. "USAID Afghanistan". Afghanistan.usaid.gov. Archived from the original on 17 October 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2010.  ^ "Canada's Engagement in Afghanistan: Backgrounder". Afghanistan.gc.ca. 9 July 2010. Archived from the original on 19 November 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2010.  ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
Accused of Helping Taliban". ABC News. 31 July 2008. Archived from the original on 21 December 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2010.  ^ Crilly, Rob; Spillius, Alex (26 July 2010). "Wikileaks: Pakistan accused of helping Taliban
Taliban
in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
attacks". The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 29 January 2014. Retrieved 28 September 2010.  ^ "Germany begins deportations of Afghan refugees". wsws.org. 25 June 2005. Archived from the original on 2 October 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2011.  ^ "Living in Fear of Deportation". DW-World.De. 22 January 2006. Archived from the original on 29 January 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2011.  ^ Witte, Griff (8 December 2009). " Taliban
Taliban
shadow officials offer concrete alternative". The Washington Post. Retrieved 30 March 2010.  ^ Mirwais Khan (15 July 2015). " Afghan Taliban
Taliban
leader backs peace talks with Kabul
Kabul
officials". Associated Press. Retrieved 11 June 2016. 

See also: Mullah Omar: Taliban
Taliban
leader 'died in Pakistan
Pakistan
in 2013' See also: Afghanistan
Afghanistan
says Taliban
Taliban
leader Mullah Omar died 2 years ago So the question remains: If Omar died in 2013, who from the Taliban sanctioned peace talks in 2015 in Omar's name?

^ "President Karzai Address to the Nation on Afghanistan's Peace Efforts". The Embassy of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in Washington, DC. Archived from the original on 12 October 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011.  ^ "U.S. blames Pakistan
Pakistan
agency in Kabul
Kabul
attack". Reuters. 22 September 2011. Archived from the original on 25 September 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2011.  ^ "Panetta: U.S. will pursue Pakistan-based militants". USA Today. September 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  ^ "Pentagon can't account for $1 billion in Afghan reconstruction aid". mcclatchydc.com. 23 April 2015. Retrieved 8 September 2015.  ^ Patrick Radden Keefe, "Corruption and Revolt", The New Yorker, January 19, 2015, pp. 30–36. ^ " Afghan president Ashraf Ghani
Ashraf Ghani
inaugurated after bitter campaign". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 April 2015.  ^ "U.S. formally ends the war in Afghanistan". CBS News. Retrieved 12 April 2015.  ^ " Afghan Civilians". Brown University. 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2015.  ^ "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". UNdata. 26 April 2011. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011.  ^ "Afghanistan". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 25 February 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2010.  ^ " History
History
of Environmental Change in the Sistan Basin
Sistan Basin
1976–2005" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 August 2007. Retrieved 20 July 2007.  ^ "Snow in Afghanistan: Natural Hazards". NASA. 3 February 2006. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ "Snow may end Afghan drought, but bitter winter looms". Reuters. 18 January 2012. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013.  ^ "Afghanistan's woeful water management delights neighbors". Csmonitor.com. 15 June 2010. Archived from the original on 14 November 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2010.  ^ Crone, Anthony J. (April 2007). Earthquakes Pose a Serious Hazard in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(PDF) (Technical report). US Geological Survey. Fact Sheet FS 2007–3027. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2011.  ^ "Earthquake Hazards". USGS Projects in Afghanistan. US Geological Survey. 1 August 2011. Archived from the original on 4 October 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2011.  ^ "'Seven dead' as earthquake rocks Afghanistan". BBC News. 19 April 2010. Archived from the original on 31 December 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2011.  ^ a b Peters, Steven G. (October 2007). Preliminary Assessment of Non-Fuel Mineral Resources of Afghanistan, 2007 (PDF) (Technical report). USGS Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Project/US Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey. Fact Sheet 2007–3063. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2011.  ^ a b " Minerals
Minerals
in Afghanistan" (PDF). British Geological Survey. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2010.  ^ a b " Afghans say US team found huge potential mineral wealth". BBC News. 14 June 2010. Archived from the original on 9 August 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2011.  ^ "Land area (sq. km)". World Development Indicators. World Bank. 2011. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2011.  ^ "CIA Factbook – Area: 41". CIA. 26 November 1991. Archived from the original on 31 January 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2012.  ^ http://samuelhall.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/State-of-Afghan-Cities-2015-Volume_1.pdf ^ http://www.pajhwok.com/en/node/483787 ^ Mohammad Jawad Sharifzada, ed. (November 20, 2011). "Afghanistan's population reaches 26m". Pajhwok Afghan News. Retrieved December 5, 2011.  ^ "Afghanistan – Population
Population
Reference Bureau". Population Reference Bureau. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2009.  ^ "Estimated population of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
2012-13". Central Statistics Office. Retrieved September 30, 2015.  ^ http://gulf2000.columbia.edu/images/maps/Afghanistan_Religion_lg.png ^ "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". The World’s Muslims: Unity and Diversity. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2013.  ^ Lavina Melwani. "Hindus Abandon Afghanistan". Hinduism Today. Archived from the original on 11 January 2007. Retrieved 19 May 2012.  ^ Majumder, Sanjoy (25 September 2003). "Sikhs struggle in Afghanistan". BBC News. Archived from the original on 22 February 2009. Retrieved 19 May 2012.  ^ N.C. Aizenman (27 January 2005). " Afghan Jew Becomes Country's One and Only". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 19 May 2012.  ^ https://aleteia.org/2016/01/13/meet-rula-ghani-afghanistans-christian-first-lady/ ^ "The Supreme Court Chief Justice Biography". supremecourt.gov.af. Archived from the original on 3 October 2015.  ^ "Database". afghan-bios.info.  ^ "Corruption Perceptions Index 2016 Results". Transparency International. Retrieved 30 November 2017.  ^ "Corruption widespread in Afghanistan, UNODC survey says". UNODC.org. 19 January 2010. Archived from the original on 16 April 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2010.  ^ "Karzai vows to tackle corruption". CBC.ca. 9 November 2009. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2010.  ^ a b Cooper, Helene (2 November 2009). "Karzai Gets New Term as Afghan Runoff is Scrapped". Nytimes.com. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2012.  ^ "RAWA Photo Gallery: They are Responsible for Afghanistan's Tragedy". RAWA. Archived from the original on 19 October 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ "Women in Parliaments: World Classification". Ipu.org. 30 November 2009. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2009.  ^ Ahmed, Azam (2012-12-08). "For Afghan Officials, Prospect of Death Comes With Territory". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-04-07.  ^ "Explaining Elections, Independent Election Commission of Afghanistan". Iec.org.af. 9 October 2004. Archived from the original on 27 August 2010. Retrieved 4 February 2012.  ^ Glasch, Mike. "USACE TAA employee named top engineer". Army.mil. US Army. Retrieved November 22, 2016.  ^ Mehrotra, Kartikay. "Karzai Woos India
India
Inc. as Delay on U.S. Pact Deters Billions".  ^ "Agriculture". USAID. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2017.  ^ "The Taliban
Taliban
Is Capturing Afghanistan's $1 Trillion in Mining Wealth". www.bloomberg.com. 20 October 2015. Retrieved 2017-05-23.  ^ Gall, Carlotta (7 July 2010). " Afghan Companies Say U.S. Did Not Pay Them". New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 April 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2011.  ^ "the Kabul
Kabul
New City Official Website". DCDA. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2012.  ^ "Ghazi Amanullah Khan
Amanullah Khan
City". najeebzarab.af. 2009. Archived from the original on 29 April 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2011.  ^ "Case study: Aino Mina". Designmena.com. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2012.  ^ A Humane Afghan City? by Ann Marlowe in Forbes
Forbes
2 September 2009. Archived 31 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1871/01%20Country%20Profile%20FINAL%20July%202016.pdf ^ "Economic Growth". USAID. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2011.  ^ "Afghanistan, neighbors unveil 'Silk Road' plan". Reuters. 22 September 2011. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.  ^ "CEOs should replace generals in Afghanistan: India". 28 June 2012.  ^ https://www.fastcompany.com/3028270/the-largest-private-employer-in-afghanistan-is-a-b-corporation-and-its-growing-fast ^ O'Hanlon, Michael E. "Deposits Could Aid Ailing Afghanistan" Archived 23 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine., The Brookings Institution, 16 June 2010. ^ Klett, T.R. (March 2006). Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of Northern Afghanistan, 2006 (PDF) (Technical report). USGS- Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Ministry of Mines & Industry Joint Oil & Gas Resource Assessment Team. Fact Sheet 2006–3031. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2011.  ^ " Afghanistan
Afghanistan
signs '$7 bn' oil deal with China". 28 December 2011. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2013.  ^ "Afghanistan's Mineral Fortune". Institute for Environmental Diplomacy and Security Report. 2011. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2013.  ^ Tucker, Ronald D. (2011). Rare Earth Element Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Preliminary Resource Assessment of the Khanneshin Carbonatite
Carbonatite
Complex, Helmand Province, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(PDF) (Technical report). USGS. Open- File
File
Report 2011–1207. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2011.  ^ "China, Not U.S., Likely to Benefit from Afghanistan's Mineral Riches". Daily Finance. 14 June 2010 Archived 31 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " China
China
Willing to Spend Big on Afghan Commerce". The New York Times. 29 December 2009. Archived from the original on 31 July 2011.  ^ "Indian Group Wins Rights to Mine in Afghanistan's Hajigak Archived 10 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine.". Businessweek. 6 December 2011 ^ Risen, James (17 June 2010). "U.S. Identifies Vast Riches of Minerals
Minerals
in Afghanistan". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 June 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2010.  ^ " China
China
wins $700 million Afghan oil and gas deal. Why didn't the US bid?". CSMonitor.com. 28 December 2011 Archived 31 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ http://www.andrewgrantham.co.uk/afghanistan/railways/hairatan-to-mazar-i-sharif/ ^ https://www.pajhwok.com/en/2016/11/28/afghan-turkmenistan-railroad-inaugurated ^ https://financialtribune.com/articles/economy-domestic-economy/60378/rail-linkup-with-afghanistan-by-march-2018 ^ Khaf- Herat
Herat
railway, http://www.raillynews.com/2013/khaf-herat-railway/ ^ Maps, Railways of Afghanistan, http://www.andrewgrantham.co.uk/afghanistan/tag/map/ ^ "Driving in Afghanistan". Caravanistan. Caravanistan. Retrieved November 22, 2016.  ^ " Afghan bus crash kills 45". theguardian.com. 26 April 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2014.  ^ "Afghanistan" (PDF). World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO). Retrieved 2017-05-17.  ^ a b UNESCO, Country profile, http://uis.unesco.org/en/country/af ^ Peter, Tom A. (17 December 2011). "Childbirth and maternal health improve in Afghanistan". Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 31 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2012.  ^ "Health". United States
United States
Agency for International Development (USAID). Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2010.  ^ Anne-Marie DiNardo, LPA/PIPOS (31 March 2006). "Empowering Afghanistan's Disabled Population – 31 March 2006". Usaid.gov. Archived from the original on 8 May 2004. Retrieved 19 May 2012.  ^ Richard Norton-Taylor (13 February 2008). "Afghanistan's refugee crisis 'ignored'". Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 15 December 2010. Retrieved 19 May 2012.  ^ "Afghanistan: People living with disabilities call for integration Archived 20 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Virginia Haussegger Mahooba's Promise ABC TV 7.30 Report. 2009. ABC.net.au. Retrieved 15 July 2009. Archived 26 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Afghanistan". Measuredhs.com. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2010.  ^ a b "Education". USAID. Retrieved 2017-05-26.  ^ "Wardak seeks $3b in aid for school buildings". Pajhwok Afghan News. 18 May 2013. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 13 August 2013.  ^ "Management and Establishment of Lincoln Learning Centers in Afghanistan" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 19 May 2012.  ^ " Ghazni
Ghazni
governor signs memorandum for Lincoln Learning Center – War On Terror News". Waronterrornews.typepad.com. 22 September 2010. Archived from the original on 31 December 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2012.  ^ "Rising literacy in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
ensures transition". Army.mil. Archived from the original on 9 December 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2012.  ^ "Country Profile: Afghanistan" (PDF). Library of Congress Country Studies on Afghanistan. August 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2010.  ^ US Library of Congress: Afghanistan – Ethnic Groups (Pashtun) ^ Heathcote, Tony (1980, 2003) "The Afghan Wars 1839–1919", Sellmount Staplehurst. ^ "Afghanistan: Kuchi nomads seek a better deal". IRIN Asia. 18 February 2008. Archived 10 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ G.V. Brandolini. Afghanistan
Afghanistan
cultural heritage. Orizzonte terra, Bergamo. 2007. p. 64. ^ "42 Buddhist relics discovered in Logar". Maqsood Azizi. Pajhwok Afghan News. 18 August 2010. Archived from the original on 1 February 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2010. [not in citation given] (bad URL - does not match page title) ^ " Afghan archaeologists find Buddhist site as war rages". Sayed Salahuddin. News Daily. 17 August 2010. Archived from the original on 18 August 2010. Retrieved 16 August 2010.  ^ "Buddhist remains found in Afghanistan". Press TV. 17 August 2010. Archived from the original on 20 August 2010. Retrieved 16 August 2010.  ^ https://www.voanews.com/a/report-21-journalists-killed-in-afghanistan-2017/4191693.html ^ https://rsf.org/en/ranking ^ "Artist Biographies". Afghanland.com. Archived from the original on 9 August 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2011.  ^ http://afghanistanembassy.org.uk/english/3155/ ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-13931608 ^ "Classical Dari and Pashto
Pashto
Poets". Afghan-web.com. Archived from the original on 6 October 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2012.  ^ "Sports". Pajhwok Afghan News. pajhwok.com. Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 14 September 2011. 

Further reading Books

Banting, Erinn. (2003). Afghanistan
Afghanistan
the People. Crabtree Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-7787-9336-6. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014.  Bleaney, C. H; Gallego, María Ángeles (2006). Afghanistan: a bibliography. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-14532-0. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014.  Clements, Frank (2003). Conflict in Afghanistan: a Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-402-8. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014.  Fowler, Corinne (2007). Chasing Tales: Travel Writing, Journalism and the History
History
of British Ideas About Afghanistan. Rodopi. ISBN 978-90-420-2262-1. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014.  Griffiths, John C (2001). Afghanistan: a History
History
of Conflict. Carlton Books. ISBN 978-1-84222-597-4. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014.  Habibi, Abdul Hai (2003). Afghanistan: an Abridged History. Fenestra Books. ISBN 978-1-58736-169-2.  Hopkins, B.D. (2008). The Making of Modern Afghanistan. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-55421-4. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014.  Johnson, Robert (2011). The Afghan Way of War: How and Why They Fight. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-979856-8. 

Levi, Peter (1972). The Light Garden of the Angel King: Journeys in Afghanistan. Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-211042-6. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014.  Malleson, George Bruce (2005). History
History
of Afghanistan, from the Earliest Period to the Outbreak of the War of 1878 (Elibron Classic Replica ed.). Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 978-1-4021-7278-6. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014.  Olson, Gillia M (2005). Afghanistan. Capstone Press. ISBN 978-0-7368-2685-3. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014.  Omrani, Bijan; Leeming, Matthew (2011). Afghanistan: A Companion and Guide (2nd ed.). Odyssey Publications. ISBN 978-962-217-816-8.  Reddy, L.R. (2002). Inside Afghanistan: End of the Taliban
Taliban
Era?. APH Publishing. ISBN 978-81-7648-319-3.  Romano, Amy (2003). A Historical Atlas of Afghanistan. The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8239-3863-6.  Runion, Meredith L. (2007). The History
History
of Afghanistan. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-33798-7. 

Articles

Meek, James. Worse than a Defeat. London Review of Books, Vol. 36, No. 24, December 2014, pages 3–10

External links

Find more aboutAfghanistanat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
article Afghanistan.

Office of the President "Afghanistan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.  Afghanistan
Afghanistan
web resources provided by GovPubs at the University of Colorado–Boulder Libraries Afghanistan
Afghanistan
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Wikimedia Atlas of Afghanistan Research Guide to Afghanistan

Links to related articles

v t e

Afghanistan articles

History

Timeline Pre-Islamic period Indus Valley Civilisation Maurya Empire Greater Khorasan Islamic conquest Arabs in Afghanistan Mongol invasion Hotak dynasty Durrani Empire Third Battle of Panipat Battle of Jamrud Afghan–Sikh wars First Anglo- Afghan War Second Anglo- Afghan War Third Anglo- Afghan War European influence Reforms of Amānullāh Khān
Amānullāh Khān
and civil war European influence in Afghanistan
European influence in Afghanistan
(Nadir Shah  · Zahir Shah) Daoud's Republic Democratic Republic Soviet war since 1992 2001 invasion War (2001–2014)

Geography

Administrative divisions

provinces districts cities

Earthquakes Volcanoes

Demographics

Languages

Persian (Dari)

Pashtuns Tajiks Farsiwan Qizilbash Kho Hazaras Gurjar Uzbeks Turkmens Baloch people Nuristanis Hindki Arabs

Politics

Constitution Loya jirga President

current

Vice President Chief Executive Officer Cabinet of Ministers National Assembly

House of Elders House of the People

Political parties Elections Current provincial governors Supreme Court

Chief Justice

Human rights

LGBT

Foreign relations Afghan National Security Forces

Economy

Afghani (currency) Energy Mining Taxation Tourism Heroin International rankings

Infrastructure

Airports Ariana
Ariana
Afghan Airlines Communications Rail transport and history Trans- Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Pipeline Transport

Kabul– Kandahar
Kandahar
Highway Kandahar– Herat
Herat
Highway

Culture

Cuisine Education Flag Music Olympics Pashtunwali
Pashtunwali
(Pashtun life) Poetry Postage stamps and postal history Religion

Sunni Islam Shia Islam Muslim
Muslim
holidays

War rugs

Outline Index Bibliography

Book Category Portal

v t e

Provinces of Afghanistan

Badakhshan Badghis Baghlan Balkh Bamyan Daykundi Farah Faryab Ghazni Ghor Helmand Herat Jowzjan Kabul Kandahar Kapisa Khost Kunar Kunduz Laghman Logar Maidan Wardak Nangarhar Nimruz Nuristan Paktia Paktika Panjshir Parwan Samangan Sar-e Pol Takhar Urozgan Zabul

v t e

Economic Cooperation Organization
Economic Cooperation Organization
(ECO)

Politics

ECOTA Secretariat Secretaries-General Treaty of Izmir Islamabad Declaration

Symbols

Emblem Flag

Summits

Tehran 1992 Istanbul 1993 Islamabad 1995 Ashgabat 1996 Almaty 1998 Tehran 2000 Istanbul 2002 Dushanbe 2004 Baku 2006 Tehran 2009 Istanbul 2010 Baku 2012 Islamabad 2017

Member

  Afghanistan   Azerbaijan   Iran   Kazakhstan   Kyrgyzstan   Pakistan   Tajikistan   Turkey   Turkmenistan   Uzbekistan

Observers

Countries

  Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
(as Turkish Cypriot State)

International organizations

Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Turkic Council

v t e

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
(SAARC)

Agreements

South Asian Free Trade Area

Summits

Dhaka 1985 Bengaluru 1986 Kathmandu 1987 Islamabad 1988 Malé 1990 Colombo 1991 Dhaka 1993 New Delhi 1995 Malé 1997 Colombo 1998 Kathmandu 2002 Islamabad 2004 Dhaka 2005 New Delhi 2007 Colombo 2008 Thimphu 2010 Addu 2011 Kathmandu 2014 Islamabad 2016 (Cancelled) Next

Members

 Afghanistan  Bangladesh  Bhutan  India  Maldives    Nepal  Pakistan  Sri Lanka

Observers

 Australia  China  European Union  Iran  Japan  Mauritius  Myanmar  South Korea  United States

Guests

 South Africa  Russia

Specialized agencies

SAARC Consortium on Open and Distance Learning SAARC Documentation Centre South Asia
South Asia
Co-operative Environment Programme Foundation of SAARC Writers and Literature SAARC Chamber of Commerce and Industry South Asian Federation of Accountants

Related Articles

SAARC Secretary General SAARC Secretariat SAARC satellite South Asian University South Asian Games SAARC Literary Award SAARC Road SAARC Fountain

v t e

Cold War

USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact Cold War
Cold War
II

1940s

Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Dekemvriana Percentages Agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states

Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran
Iran
crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito–Stalin Split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion

1950s

Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Dirty War
Dirty War
(Mexico) Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Vietnam War First Taiwan Strait Crisis Geneva Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Operation Gladio Arab
Arab
Cold War

Syrian Crisis of 1957 1958 Lebanon crisis Iraqi 14 July Revolution

Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino-Soviet split

1960s

Congo Crisis 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Berlin Crisis of 1961 Berlin Wall Portuguese Colonial War

Angolan War of Independence Guinea-Bissau War of Independence Mozambican War of Independence

Cuban Missile Crisis Sino-Indian War Communist insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan Revolution Eritrean War of Independence Sand War North Yemen Civil War Aden Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Vietnam War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict Nicaraguan Revolution 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ conflict Greek military junta of 1967–74 Years of Lead
Lead
(Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution Goulash Communism Sino-Soviet border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move

1970s

Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Cambodian Civil War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Ugandan-Tanzanian War 1971 Turkish military memorandum Corrective Revolution (Egypt) Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 NDF Rebellion Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Rhodesian Bush War Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Korean Air Lines Flight 902 Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat
Herat
uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980s

Soviet– Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts 1980 Turkish coup d'état Peruvian conflict Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident 1988 Black Sea bumping incident South Yemen Civil War Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity

Soviet reaction

Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende

1990s

Mongolian Revolution of 1990 German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts

Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute

Foreign policy

Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

Ideologies

Capitalism

Chicago school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism

Communism

Marxism–Leninism Castroism Eurocommunism Guevarism Hoxhaism Juche Maoism Trotskyism Naxalism Stalinism Titoism

Other

Fascism Islamism Liberal democracy Social democracy Third-Worldism White supremacy Apartheid

Organizations

ASEAN CIA Comecon EEC KGB MI6 Non-Aligned Movement SAARC Safari Club Stasi

Propaganda

Active measures Crusade for Freedom Izvestia Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare TASS Voice of America Voice of Russia

Races

Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race

See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Soviet espionage in the United States Soviet Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II

Category Commons Portal Timeline List of conflicts

v t e

War on Terror

War in Afghanistan Iraq
Iraq
War War in North-West Pakistan Symbolism of terrorism

Participants

Operational

ISAF Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
participants Afghanistan Northern Alliance Iraq
Iraq
(Iraqi Armed Forces) NATO Pakistan United Kingdom United States European Union Philippines Ethiopia

Targets

al-Qaeda Osama bin Laden al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula Abu Sayyaf Anwar al-Awlaki Al-Shabaab Boko Haram Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami Hizbul Mujahideen Islamic Courts Union Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant Jaish-e-Mohammed Jemaah Islamiyah Lashkar-e-Taiba Taliban Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan

Conflicts

Operation Enduring Freedom

War in Afghanistan OEF – Philippines Georgia Train and Equip Program Georgia Sustainment and Stability OEF – Horn of Africa OEF – Trans Sahara Drone strikes in Pakistan

Other

Operation Active Endeavour Insurgency in the Maghreb (2002–present) Insurgency in the North Caucasus Moro conflict
Moro conflict
in the Philippines Iraq
Iraq
War Iraqi insurgency Operation Linda Nchi Terrorism in Saudi Arabia War in North-West Pakistan War in Somalia (2006–09) 2007 Lebanon conflict al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen Korean conflict

See also

Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse Axis of evil Black sites Bush Doctrine Clash of Civilizations Cold War Combatant Status Review Tribunal Criticism of the War on Terror Death of Osama bin Laden Enhanced interrogation techniques Torture Memos Extrajudicial prisoners Extraordinary rendition Guantanamo Bay detention camp Iranian Revolution Islamic terrorism Islamism Military Commissions Act of 2006 North Korea and weapons of mass destruction Terrorist Surveillance Program Operation Noble Eagle Operation Eagle Assist Pakistan's role Patriot Act President's Surveillance Program Protect America Act of 2007 September 11 attacks State Sponsors of Terrorism Targeted killing Targeted Killing in International Law Targeted Killings: Law and Morality in an Asymmetrical World Unitary executive theory Unlawful combatant Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Afghanistan CAGE

Terrorism portal War portal

v t e

War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–present)

Invasion and occupation

Order of battle Operations Logistics International Security Assistance Force Taliban
Taliban
insurgency Drone strikes in Pakistan Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Afghanistan Resolute Support Mission

Casualties and losses

Afghan forces Civilian

Lists 2001–06 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Coalition

U.S. United Kingdom Canadian German Norwegian

Aviation incidents

Events and controversies

2001 –2006

2001

Dasht-i-Leili massacre Battle of Tarinkot Fall of Mazar-i-Sharif Siege of Kunduz Uprising in Herat Fall of Kabul Battle of Shawali Kowt Battle of Sayyd Alma Kalay Battle of Qala-i-Jangi Fall of Kandahar Battle of Tora Bora

2002

Guantanamo Bay 2002 Kabul
Kabul
bombing

2003 2004 2005

Bagram torture and prisoner abuse Salt Pit

2006

2007

Shinwar shooting Hyderabad airstrike Nangar Khel incident Helmand Province
Helmand Province
airstrikes 2007 Baghlan sugar factory bombing 2007 Bagram Airfield bombing 2007 South Korean hostage crisis in Afghanistan

2008

Haska Meyna wedding party airstrike Azizabad airstrike Wech Baghtu wedding party airstrike 2008 Indian embassy bombing in Kabul 2008 Kabul
Kabul
Serena Hotel attack Kidnapping of David Rohde Sarposa prison attack of 2008 2008 Kandahar
Kandahar
bombing Spin Boldak bombing

2009

Granai airstrike Kunduz
Kunduz
airstrike Narang night raid February 2009 Kabul
Kabul
raids 2009 Kabul
Kabul
Indian embassy attack 2009 Kandahar
Kandahar
bombing 2009 NATO
NATO
Afghanistan
Afghanistan
headquarters bombing Camp Chapman attack

2010

Khataba raid February 2010 Kabul
Kabul
attack Uruzgan helicopter attack Sangin airstrike Maywand District murders Tarok Kolache Nadahan wedding bombing May 2010 Kabul
Kabul
bombing 2010 Badakhshan massacre

2011

Mano Gai airstrike Pakistani border attack Bin Laden raid Sarposa Prison tunneling escape Helmand Province
Helmand Province
incident 2011 Logar province bombing 2011 Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Ashura bombings 2011 Nimruz province bombing 2011 Zabul province bombing 2011 Chinook shootdown in Afghanistan

2012

Urination video Kapisa airstrike Quran burning protests April 2012 Afghanistan
Afghanistan
attacks Forward Operating Base Delhi massacre Kandahar
Kandahar
massacre September 2012 Camp Bastion raid Body pictures

2013

June 2013 Kabul
Kabul
bombings 2013 Afghan presidential palace attack 2013 attack on U.S. consulate in Herat 2013 Indian embassy attack

2014

Herat
Herat
Indian Consulate Attack 2014 Paktika car bombing 2014 Yahyakhel suicide bombing 2014 Kabul
Kabul
Serena Hotel attack Atiqullah Raufi assassination December 2014 Kabul
Kabul
bombings

2015

2015 Park Palace guesthouse attack 2015 Kabul
Kabul
Parliament attack Khost
Khost
suicide bombing Jalalabad
Jalalabad
suicide bombing August 2015 Kabul
Kabul
attacks 10 August 2015 Kabul
Kabul
suicide attack 22 August 2015 Kabul
Kabul
suicide attack Ghazni
Ghazni
prison escape Battle of Kunduz

Kunduz
Kunduz
hospital airstrike

Kandahar
Kandahar
Airport attack 2015 Spanish Embassy attack in Kabul

2016

February 2016 Kabul
Kabul
bombing Nangarhar Offensive (2016) 2016 Jalalabad
Jalalabad
suicide bombing Operation Omari Kabul
Kabul
NDS building Kunduz-Takhar highway hostage crisis Kabul
Kabul
Canadian Embassy convoy bombing Wardak Province
Wardak Province
bombing Kabul
Kabul
Hazara protest bombing Kabul
Kabul
Northgate Hotel bombing Jani Khel offensive Kabul
Kabul
American University siege Kabul
Kabul
Defense Ministry bombing Battle of Tarinkot (2016) Battle of Kunduz
Kunduz
(2016) Battle of Boz Qandahari Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
German consulate attack Bagram Airfield bombing Kabul
Kabul
Shia mosque bombing

2017

10 January 2017 Afghanistan
Afghanistan
bombings February 2017 Afghanistan's Supreme Court in Kabul
Kabul
attack 2017 Sangin airstrike March 2017 Kabul
Kabul
attack 2017 Nangarhar airstrike 2017 Camp Shaheen attack May 2017 Kabul
Kabul
attack June 2017 Kabul
Kabul
attack 2017 Herat
Herat
bombing June 2017 Kabul
Kabul
mosque attack 2017 Lashkargah
Lashkargah
bombing 2017 attack on the Iraqi embassy in Kabul 2017 Herat
Herat
mosque attack December 2017 Kabul
Kabul
suicide bombing

2018

2018 Inter-Continental Hotel Kabul
Kabul
attack 2018 Save The Children Jalalabad
Jalalabad
attack 2018 Kabul
Kabul
ambulance bombing March 2018 Kabul
Kabul
suicide bombing

Reactions

Afghan War documents leak International public opinion Opposition Protests

Memorials

London

Category Multimedia Wikinews

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 138292433 LCCN: n79063030 ISNI: 0000 0001 2167 7801 GND: 4000687-6 SUDOC: 027944069 BNF: cb11987818g (data) HDS: 3402 NLA: 3500

.