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Panicoideae
12 tribes, see textSynonyms[1]Andropogonoideae Rouy (1913) Centothecoideae Soderst. (1981) Andropogineae Burmeist. (1837, unranked) Paniceae
Paniceae
Burmeist. (1837, unranked) Paniceae
Paniceae
Link (1827, unranked) Rottboëllaceae Burmeist
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Wikispecies
Wikispecies
Wikispecies
is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species; the project is directed at scientists, rather than at the general public
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Switchgrass
Panicum virgatum, commonly known as switchgrass, is a perennial warm season bunchgrass native to North America, where it occurs naturally from 55°N latitude in Canada southwards into the United States and Mexico. Switchgrass is one of the dominant species of the central North American tallgrass prairie and can be found in remnant prairies, in native grass pastures, and naturalized along roadsides
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Chasmanthium Latifolium
Chasmanthium latifolium, known as woodoats, inland sea oats, northern sea oats, and river oats is a grass native to the central and eastern United States, Manitoba, and northeastern Mexico; it grows as far north as Pennsylvania and Michigan,[1] where it is a threatened species.[2] The species was previously classified as Uniola latifolia (André Michaux).Contents1 Description 2 Gardens 3 References 4 External linksDescription[edit] Chasmanthium latifolium is a warm season, rhizomatous perennial grass with stems about 1 m [3 feet] tall
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Zea Mays
Maize (/meɪz/ MAYZ; Zea mays subsp. mays, from Spanish: maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico[1][2] about 10,000 years ago. The leafy stalk of the plant produces separate pollen and ovuliferous inflorescences or ears, which are fruits, yielding kernels or seeds. Maize has become a staple food in many parts of the world, with total production surpassing that of wheat or rice. However, not all of this maize is consumed directly by humans. Some of the maize production is used for corn ethanol, animal feed and other maize products, such as corn starch and corn syrup
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number
International Standard Serial Number
(ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication.[1] The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature.[2] The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975.[3] ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media
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Incertae Sedis
Incertae sedis (Latin for "of uncertain placement")[1] is a term used for a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined.[2] Alternatively, such groups are frequently referred to as "enigmatic taxa".[3] In the system of open nomenclature, uncertainty at specific taxonomic levels is indicated by incertae familiae (of uncertain family), incerti subordinis (of uncertain suborder), incerti ordinis (of uncertain order) and similar terms.[4]Contents1 Examples 2 In formal nomenclature 3 Reason for use3.1 Poor description 3.2 Not included in an analysis 3.3 Controversy4 In zoological nomenclature 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksExamples[edit]The fossil plant Paradinandra suecica could not be assigned to any family, but was placed incertae sedis within the order Ericales when described in 2001.[5] The fossil Gluteus minimus, described in 1975, could not be assigned to any known animal phylum.[6] The genus is therefore
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Open Access
Open access
Open access
(OA) refers to online research outputs that are free of all restrictions on access (e.g. access tolls) and free of many restrictions on use (e.g
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Monophyletic
In cladistics, a monophyletic group is a group of organisms that forms a clade, which consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor. Monophyletic groups are typically characterised by shared derived characteristics (synapomorphies), which distinguish organisms in the clade from other organisms. The arrangement of the members of a monophyletic group is called a monophyly. Monophyly
Monophyly
is contrasted with paraphyly and polyphyly as shown in the second diagram. A paraphyletic group consists of all of the descendants of a common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups. A polyphyletic group is characterized by convergent features or habits of scientific interest (for example, night-active primates, fruit trees, aquatic insects). The features by which a polyphyletic group is differentiated from others are not inherited from a common ancestor. These definitions have taken some time to be accepted
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Tribe (biology)
In biology, a tribe is a taxonomic rank above genus, but below family and subfamily.[1][2] It is sometimes subdivided into subtribes. In zoology, examples include the tribes Caprini (goat-antelopes), Hominini
Hominini
(hominins), Bombini
Bombini
(bumblebees), and Thunnini
Thunnini
(tunas). The standard ending for the name of a zoological tribe is "-ini". The tribe Hominini
Hominini
is divided into subtribes by some scientists; subtribe Hominina
Hominina
then comprises "humans". The standard ending for the name of a zoological subtribe is "-ina". In botany, examples include the tribes Acalypheae
Acalypheae
and Hyacintheae. The standard ending for the name of a botanical tribe is "-eae". The tribe Hyacintheae is divided into subtribes, including the subtribe Massoniinae
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C3 Carbon Fixation
C3 carbon fixation is one of three metabolic pathways for carbon fixation in photosynthesis, along with C4 and CAM. This process converts carbon dioxide and ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP, a 5-carbon sugar) into 3-phosphoglycerate through the following reaction:CO2 + H2O + RuBP → (2) 3-phosphoglycerateThis reaction occurs in all plants as the first step of the Calvin–Benson cycle. In C4 plants, carbon dioxide is drawn out of malate and into this reaction rather than directly from the air.Cross section of a C3 plant, specifically of an Arabidopsis thaliana leaf. Vascular bundles shown. Drawing based on microscopic images courtesy of Cambridge University Plant Sciences Department.Plants that survive solely on C3 fixation (C3 plants) tend to thrive in areas where sunlight intensity is moderate, temperatures are moderate, carbon dioxide concentrations are around 200 ppm or higher,[1] and groundwater is plentiful
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Chloroplast DNA
Chloroplasts have their own DNA,[1] often abbreviated as cpDNA.[2] It is also known as the plastome when referring to genomes of other plastids
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C4 Carbon Fixation
C4 carbon fixation or the Hatch-Slack pathway is a photosynthetic process in some plants. It is the first step in extracting carbon from carbon dioxide to be able to use it in sugar and other biomolecules. It is one of three known processes for carbon fixation. The C4 in one of the names refers to the 4-carbon molecule that is the first product of this type of carbon fixation. C4 fixation is an elaboration of the more common C3 carbon fixation and is believed to have evolved more recently. C4 overcomes the tendency of the enzyme RuBisCO to wastefully fix oxygen rather than carbon dioxide in the process of photorespiration. This is achieved by ensuring that RuBisCO works in an environment where there is a lot of carbon dioxide and very little oxygen. CO2 is shuttled via malate or aspartate from mesophyll cells to bundle-sheath cells. In these bundle-sheath cells CO2 is released by decarboxylation of the malate. C4 plants use PEP carboxylase to capture more CO2 in the mesophyll cells
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Sorghum Bicolor
Sorghum bicolor, commonly called sorghum[2] (/ˈsɔːrɡəm/) and also known as great millet,[3] durra, jowari, or milo, is a grass species cultivated for its grain, which is used for food for humans, animal feed, and ethanol production. Sorghum originated in northern Africa, and is now cultivated widely in tropical and subtropical regions.[4] Sorghum is the world's fifth-most important cereal crop after rice, wheat, maize, and barley. S. bicolor is typically an annual, but some cultivars are perennial. It grows in clumps that may reach over 4 m high
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