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Panicoideae
12 tribes, see text SYNONYMS * Andropogonoideae Rouy (1913) * Centothecoideae Soderst. (1981) * Andropogineae Burmeist. (1837, unranked) * Paniceae Burmeist. (1837, unranked) * Paniceae Link (1827, unranked) * Rottboëllaceae Burmeist. (1837, unranked)PANICOIDEAE is the second-largest subfamily of the grasses with over 3,500 species, mainly distributed in warm temperate and tropical regions. It comprises some important agricultural crops, including sugarcane , maize (or corn), sorghum , and switchgrass . C4 photosynthesis evolved independently a number of times in the subfamily, which presumably had a C3 ancestor. SYSTEMATICS AND TAXONOMYWithin the PACMAD clade of grasses, the Panicoideae
Panicoideae
are sister to a clade made of the four subfamilies Arundinoideae , Chloridoideae , Danthonioideae , and Micrairoideae
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C3 Carbon Fixation
C3 CARBON FIXATION is one of three metabolic pathways for carbon fixation in photosynthesis , along with C4 and CAM . This process converts carbon dioxide and ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP, a 5-carbon sugar) into 3-phosphoglycerate through the following reaction: CO2 + H2O + RUBP → (2) 3-PHOSPHOGLYCERATE This reaction occurs in all plants as the first step of the Calvin–Benson cycle . In C4 plants, carbon dioxide is drawn out of malate and into this reaction rather than directly from the air . Cross section of a C3 plant, specifically of an Arabidopsis thaliana leaf. Vascular bundles shown. Drawing based on microscopic images courtesy of Cambridge University Plant Sciences Department. Plants that survive solely on C3 fixation (C3 PLANTS) tend to thrive in areas where sunlight intensity is moderate, temperatures are moderate, carbon dioxide concentrations are around 200 ppm or higher, and groundwater is plentiful
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Chloroplast DNA
Chloroplasts have their own DNA
DNA
, often abbreviated as CPDNA. It is also known as the PLASTOME when referring to genomes of other plastids . Its existence was first proved in 1962, and first sequenced in 1986—when two Japanese research teams sequenced the chloroplast DNA of liverwort and tobacco
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C4 Carbon Fixation
C4 CARBON FIXATION or THE HATCH-SLACK PATHWAY is a photosynthetic process in some plants. It is the first step in extracting carbon from carbon dioxide to be able to use it in sugar and other biomolecules. It is one of three known processes for carbon fixation . The C4 in one of the names refers to the 4-carbon molecule that is the first product of this type of carbon fixation. C4 fixation is an elaboration of the more common C3 carbon fixation and is believed to have evolved more recently. C4 overcomes the tendency of the enzyme RuBisCO
RuBisCO
to wastefully fix oxygen rather than carbon dioxide in the process of photorespiration . This is achieved by ensuring that RuBisCo works in an environment where there is a lot of carbon dioxide and very little oxygen. CO2 is shuttled via malate or aspartate from mesophyll cells to bundle-sheath cells
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Switchgrass
PANICUM VIRGATUM, commonly known as SWITCHGRASS, is a perennial warm season bunchgrass native to North America, where it occurs naturally from 55°N latitude in Canada
Canada
southwards into the United States
United States
and Mexico
Mexico
. Switchgrass is one of the dominant species of the central North American tallgrass prairie and can be found in remnant prairies , in native grass pastures , and naturalized along roadsides. It is used primarily for soil conservation , forage production, game cover, as an ornamental grass , in phytoremediation projects, fiber, electricity, heat production, for biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide , and more recently as a biomass crop for ethanol and butanol . Other common names for switchgrass include tall panic grass, Wobsqua grass, blackbent, tall prairiegrass, wild redtop , thatchgrass, and Virginia switchgrass
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Sorghum Bicolor
SORGHUM BICOLOR, commonly called SORGHUM (/ˈsɔːrɡəm/ ) and also known as GREAT MILLET, DURRA, JOWARI, or MILO, is a grass species cultivated for its grain, which is used for food for humans, animal feed, and ethanol production. Sorghum
Sorghum
originated in northern Africa, and is now cultivated widely in tropical and subtropical regions. Sorghum
Sorghum
is the world's fifth-most important cereal crop after rice , wheat , maize , and barley . S. bicolor is typically an annual, but some cultivars are perennial. It grows in clumps that may reach over 4 m high. The grain is small, ranging from 2 to 4 mm in diameter. Sweet sorghums are sorghum cultivars that are primarily grown for foliage, syrup production, and ethanol; they are taller than those grown for grain. Sorghum
Sorghum
bicolor is the cultivated species of sorghum; its wild relatives make up the botanical genus Sorghum
Sorghum

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Open Access
OPEN ACCESS (OA) refers to online research outputs that are free of all restrictions on access (e.g. access tolls) and free of many restrictions on use (e.g. certain copyright and license restrictions). Open access
Open access
can be applied to all forms of published research output, including peer-reviewed and non peer-reviewed academic journal articles, conference papers , theses , book chapters, and monographs . Two degrees of open access can be distinguished: gratis open access, which is online access free of charge, and libre open access, which is online access free of charge plus various additional usage rights. These additional usage rights are often granted through the use of various specific Creative Commons licenses
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Chasmanthium Latifolium
CHASMANTHIUM LATIFOLIUM, known as WOODOATS, INLAND SEA OATS, NORTHERN SEA OATS, and RIVER OATS is a grass native to the central and eastern United States, Manitoba, and northeastern Mexico; it grows as far north as Pennsylvania and Michigan, where it is a threatened species. The species was previously classified as Uniola latifolia (André Michaux ). CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Gardens * 3 References * 4 External links DESCRIPTION Chasmanthium latifolium is a warm season, rhizomatous perennial grass with stems about 1 m tall. The plant typically grows in wooded areas and riparian zones . GARDENS Chasmanthium latifolium, northern sea oats It is used in landscaping in North America, where it is noted as a relatively rare native grass that thrives in partial shade; the plant is recommended for USDA hardiness zones 3-9 in acidic sands, loams, and clays
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Wikispecies
WIKISPECIES is a wiki -based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation . Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species ; the project is directed at scientists, rather than at the general public. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies
Wikispecies
is available under the GNU Free Documentation License
GNU Free Documentation License
and CC BY-SA 3.0 . Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to articles on individual species by April 2005
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PubMed Central
PUBMED CENTRAL (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed Central is much more than just a document repository. Submissions into PMC undergo an indexing and formatting procedure which results in enhanced metadata, medical ontology , and unique identifiers which all enrich the XML structured data for each article on deposit. Content within PMC can easily be interlinked to many other NCBI databases and accessed via Entrez search and retrieval systems, further enhancing the public's ability to freely discover, read and build upon this portfolio of biomedical knowledge. PubMed Central should not be confused with PubMed
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Monophyletic
In cladistics , a MONOPHYLETIC group is a taxon (group of organisms) which forms a clade , meaning that it consists of an ancestral species and all its descendants. Monophyletic groups are typically characterised by shared derived characteristics (synapomorphies ). The arrangement of the members of a monophyletic group is called a MONOPHYLY, synonymous with the uncommon term HOLOPHYLY. Monophyly is contrasted with paraphyly and polyphyly , as shown in the second diagram. A paraphyletic group consists of all of the descendants of a common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups. Thus, a paraphyletic group is 'nearly' monophyletic (hence the prefix 'para', meaning 'near' or 'alongside'.) A polyphyletic group is characterized by convergent features or habits (for example, night-active primates, fruit trees, aquatic insects); the features by which the group is differentiated from others are not inherited from a common ancestor
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Tribe (biology)
In biology , a TRIBE is a taxonomic rank above genus , but below family and subfamily . It is sometimes subdivided into SUBTRIBES. In zoology , examples include the tribes Caprini (goat-antelopes), Hominini (hominins), Bombini
Bombini
(bumblebees), and Thunnini (tunas). The standard ending for the name of a zoological tribe is "-ini". The tribe Hominini is divided into subtribes by some scientists; subtribe Hominina then comprises "humans". The standard ending for the name of a zoological subtribe is "-ina". In botany , examples include the tribes Acalypheae and Hyacintheae . The standard ending for the name of a botanical tribe is "-eae". The tribe Hyacintheae is divided into subtribes, including the subtribe Massoniinae. The standard ending for the name of a botanical subtribe is "-inae"
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health maintains the database as part of the Entrez system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the ISO
ISO
. An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents. The DOI system uses the indecs Content Model for representing metadata
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Sugarcane
SUGARCANE, or SUGAR CANE, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum , tribe Andropogoneae , native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South Asia
South Asia
and Melanesia
Melanesia
, and used for sugar production. It has stout, jointed, fibrous stalks that are rich in the sugar sucrose , which accumulates in the stalk internodes . The plant is two to six meters (six to twenty feet) tall. All sugar cane species interbreed and the major commercial cultivars are complex hybrids . Sugarcane
Sugarcane
belongs to the grass family Poaceae, an economically important seed plant family that includes maize, wheat, rice, and sorghum , and many forage crops. Sucrose, extracted and purified in specialized mill factories, is used as raw material in the food industry or is fermented to produce ethanol
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Monocotyledon
An economically important monocot SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae Clade: Angiosperms
Angiosperms
Clade: MONOCOTS TYPE GENUS Lilium
Lilium
L
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