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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

12 tribes, see text

SYNONYMS

* Andropogonoideae Rouy (1913) * Centothecoideae Soderst. (1981) * Andropogineae Burmeist. (1837, unranked) * Paniceae Burmeist. (1837, unranked) * Paniceae Link (1827, unranked) * Rottboëllaceae Burmeist. (1837, unranked)

PANICOIDEAE is the second-largest subfamily of the grasses with over 3,500 species, mainly distributed in warm temperate and tropical regions. It comprises some important agricultural crops, including sugarcane , maize (or corn), sorghum , and switchgrass .

C4 photosynthesis evolved independently a number of times in the subfamily, which presumably had a C3 ancestor.

SYSTEMATICS AND TAXONOMY

Within the PACMAD clade of grasses, the Panicoideae
Panicoideae
are sister to a clade made of the four subfamilies Arundinoideae , Chloridoideae , Danthonioideae , and Micrairoideae . A modern phylogenetic classification divides the Panicoideae
Panicoideae
in twelve tribes corresponding to monophyletic clades; two genera, Chandrasekharania and Jansenella , are unplaced (incertae sedis ) but probably belong to tribe Tristachyideae . The three largest tribes, Paniceae , Paspaleae
Paspaleae
, and Andropogoneae , together with the small Arundinelleae , form the core of the subfamily. The Gynerieae were formerly placed in Arundinoideae, and the basal lineage, the "centothecoid clade" with seven tribes, was formerly seen as separate subfamily, Centothecoideae.

Phylogeny based on chloroplast DNA analyses, showing relationships of tribes within the subfamily (dashed lines indicate uncertain positions; C4 clades flagged):

PANICOIDEAE

"centothecoid clade"

Chasmanthieae
Chasmanthieae

Zeugiteae

Steyermarkochloeae

Tristachyideae C4

Centotheceae

Cyperochloeae

Thysanolaeneae

Gynerieae

Paniceae C3 border-left:1px solid;vertical-align:top;text-align:center;">

Lecomtelleae

Paspaleae
Paspaleae
C3 border-left:1px solid;vertical-align:top;text-align:center;">

Andropogonodae

Andropogoneae C4

Arundinelleae C4

GALLERY

* Diversity of Panicoideae

*

Woodoats ( Chasmanthium latifolium , Chasmanthieae
Chasmanthieae
) *

Spikelets of Loudetiopsis chrysothrix ( Tristachyideae ) *

Gynerium sagittatum *

Feathertop grass ( Pennisetum villosum , Paniceae ) *

Cultivated maize or corn ( Zea mays
Zea mays
, Andropogoneae )

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D E Soreng, Robert J.; Peterson, Paul M.; Romschenko, Konstantin; Davidse, Gerrit; Zuloaga, Fernando O.; Judziewicz, Emmet J.; Filgueiras, Tarciso S.; Davis, Jerrold I.; Morrone, Osvaldo (2015). "A worldwide phylogenetic classification of the Poaceae (Gramineae)". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 53 (2): 117–137. ISSN 1674-4918 . doi :10.1111/jse.12150 . * ^ A B C Grass Phylogeny Working Group II (2012). "New grass phylogeny resolves deep evolutionary relationships and discovers C4 origins". New Phytologist. 193 (2): 304–312. ISSN 0028-646X . PMID 22115274 . doi :10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03972.x . * ^ Morrone, Osvaldo; Aagesen, Lone; Scataglini, Maria A.; Salariato, Diego L.; Denham, Silvia S.; Chemisquy, Maria A.; Sede, Silvana M.; Giussani, Liliana M.; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.; Zuloaga, Fernando O. (2012). "Phylogeny of the Paniceae (Poaceae: Panicoideae): integrating plastid DNA sequences and morphology into a new classification". Cladistics. 28 (4): 333–356. ISSN 0748-3007 . doi :10.1111/j.1096-0031.2011.00384.x . * ^ Besnard, G.; Christin, P.-A.; Male, P.-J. G.; Coissac, E.; Ralimanana, H.; Vorontsova, M. S. (2013). "Phylogenomics and taxonomy of Lecomtelleae (Poaceae), an isolated panicoid lineage from Madagascar" . Annals of Botany. 112 (6): 1057–1066. ISSN 0305-7364 . PMC 3783238  . PMID 23985988 . doi :10.1093/aob/mct174 .

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* v * t * e

Subfamilies and tribes of the grasses ( Poaceae )

EARLY CLADES

Anomochlooideae Pharoideae Puelioideae

* Anomochloeae * Streptochaeteae

* Phareae

* Atractocarpeae * Guaduellieae

BOP CLADE

Bamboos (Bambusoideae) Oryzoideae Pooideae
Pooideae

* Arundinarieae * Bambuseae * Olyreae

* Ehrharteae * Oryzeae * Phyllorachideae * Streptogyneae

* Ampelodesmeae * Brachyelytreae * Brachypodieae * Bromeae * Brylkinieae * Diarrheneae * Littledaleae * Lygeeae * Meliceae * Phaenospermateae * Poeae * Nardeae * Stipeae * Triticeae

PACMAD CLADE

Aristidoideae Arundinoideae Chloridoideae Danthonioideae Micrairoideae Panicoideae

* Aristideae

* Arundineae * Molinieae
Molinieae

* Centropodieae * Cynodonteae * Eragrostideae * Triraphideae * Zoysieae

* Danthonieae

* Eriachneae
Eriachneae
* Hubbardieae * Isachneae * Micraireae

* Andropogoneae * Arundinelleae * Centotheceae * Chasmanthieae
Chasmanthieae
* Cyperochloeae * Gynerieae *